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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the

Wayne Orchiston; A. Boischot; J. Delannoy; M. Kundu; J. Lequeux; M. Pick; J. Steinberg

2011-01-01

2

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

2011-01-01

3

The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

2004-12-01

4

Radio Astronomy Software Defined Reciever Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz...

B. Vacaliuc D. Fields M. Leech P. Oxley R. Flagg

2013-01-01

5

The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

2012-09-01

6

Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

2011-11-01

7

The Radio JOVE Project: An Interactive, Hands-on, Radio Astronomy Experience for Students or the General Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE Project is an effort to provide low cost hands-on radio astronomy experience for students or anyone interested in amateur astronomy. This can be done either by building a kit or using remote radio telescopes through the internet. The kit costs \\\\$125 and includes the parts and instructions for building a radio telescope capable of receiving emissions from

J. Thieman

2002-01-01

8

Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and com...

K. I. Kellermann D. Heeschen D. C. Backer M. H. Cohen M. Davis

1991-01-01

9

Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general description of the nature of radio astronomy, its differences from optical astronomy, a review of the earliest beginnings of galactic and solar radio astronomy, and a listing of other important observational discoveries is given. A nearly complete bibliography of these early publications and of the principal review books and papers on Radio Astronomy is given. Some practical aspects

F. T. Haddock

1958-01-01

10

Radio Astronomy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio astronomy research has been carried out in the fields of high resolution interferometry, radio polarimetry, solar activity, and galactic and extragalactic radio sources, details of which are given in a bibliography of references to scientific journa...

R. N. Bracewell

1968-01-01

11

What is Radio Astronomy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains information on radio astronomy, the NRAO, how telescopes work, the history and discovery of radio astronomy, and the radio communication process. This website has activites like "Make your own Radio Image", and visual aids on topics such as: free-free emission, spectral lines, synchrotron emission, masers, and how radio communication works. The site is also a resource for blackbody radiation, the Cosmic Microwave Backround, and the mechanisms of radio wave emission.

2004-07-14

12

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

13

Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session, problems of linking positions from one observing session to another can be avoided, the astronomers say. The result will be a much stronger, more precise, reference grid. Telescopes in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and in the Pacific will participate. Improving the celestial positional grid will allow astronomers better to pinpoint the locations and measure the motions of objects in the sky. As astronomers increasingly study objects using multiple telescopes observing at different wavelengths, such as visible light, radio, infrared, etc., the improved positional grid will allow more accurate overlaying of the different images. The improved celestial reference frame also strengthens a terrestrial reference frame used for radio-telescope measurements that contribute to geophysical research. The precise geodetic measurements help geophysicists understand phenomena such as plate tectonics, earth tides, and processes that affect our planet's orientation in space. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio telescope system with 10, 240-ton dish antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. Operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, the VLBA offers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in astronomy. The multi-telescope observation will be accompanied by public-outreach activities in celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. A public web page devoted to the observation will be hosted at Bordeaux Observatory, and some of the participating telescopes will have webcams available.

2009-11-01

14

Orbiting Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection below 10 MHz. OL- FAR is Orbiting Low Frequency ARray, a project whose aim is to develop

Raj Thilak Rajan; Steven Engelen; Mark Bentum; Chris Verhoeven

2011-01-01

15

Basics of Radio Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workbook is used for training teachers and volunteers who wish to operate the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope. The students in this district operate the telescope from the Apple Valley location. Also, students and teachers across the country can register to operate the telescope from their own classrooms. This workbook can also be used as a resource for information on how radio telescopes work, the fundamentals of the electromagnetic spectrum, thermal and non-thermal radiation, 21-cm hydrogen line, Kirchhoff's laws of spectral analysis, the Doppler effect, coordinate systems, and the SETI project.

Fisher, Diane

2004-07-16

16

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays.

Perley, Richard A.; Schwab, Frederic R.; Bridle, Alan H.

17

Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) is a research organization within the University of Massachusetts which aims to conduct astronomical research, to develop state of the art microwave instrumentation, and to train both graduate and undergraduate students with support from the National Science Foundation and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

18

Tools of radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental physics of radio emission from astronomical objects and the principles of radio-telescope operation are reviewed in a textbook intended for graduate physics students. Topics examined include EM-wave propagation, wave polarization, antenna theory, filled-aperture antennas, interferometers and aperture synthesis, and receivers. Consideration is given to emission mechanisms of continuous radiation, thermal and nonthermal sources, the physics of line radiation,

Kristen Rohlfs

1986-01-01

19

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

20

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2010-10-01

21

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2009-10-01

22

Radio Frequency Interference: Radio Astronomy's Biggest Enemy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology progresses, the demand for the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum increases with it. The development is so fast and prolific that clean band space for passive users such as Radio Astronomy is becoming ever so scarce. Even though, several spectral bands have been protected for Radio Astronomy by Federal Communication Commission (in the USA) under the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pressure for making more spectral space commercially usable is extreme. Although these commercial usages make our modern living at all possible, often the extreme vulnerability of passive users are are not fully appreciated, resulting in unwanted emissions (RFI) in the Radio Astronomy Bands. Another source of RFI is the fact that many of the electronic devices used in the observatories themselves generate radio waves. If proper precautions are not taken, these can be received back through the Radio Telescope itself. This problem is referred to as internal RFI. The focus of this paper is the search and diminution of internal RFI in the Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Using a simple setup of a log-periodic antenna and a Spectrum Analyzer, spectra spanning a frequency range of 100 - 1800 MHZ were recorded in some areas of the Observatory and the new Visitor Center (AOVEF). The measurements disclosed sources of radio emission among some of the digital electronic equipment in the Equipment room and a few displays in the AOVEF. Most prominent of these was a 2.5 MHz comb spanning the entire range of the measurements emitted from the SRENDIP and AOFTM machines. The respective groups were informed and corrective shielding & isolations were implemented immediately. In AOVEF, three displays, some audio-visual equipment, and video/digital cameras used by the visitors were found to be "leaky". In future, the use of such cameras will be prohibited and the exhibits will be screened appropriately.

Acevedo, F.; Ghosh, Tapasi

1997-12-01

23

Broadcasting Astronomy: The Stars Meet on the Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe our project Tutti Dentro — Le Stelle si incontrano in Radio (Come in everybody! — The Stars meet on the Radio), an Italian radio show about astronomy and space. The format involved celebrities, young astronomers and a network of 95 FM and web radio stations during the period July 2007 - January 2009. We will explore its structure, the language and the strategies adopted, along with the technical equipment and the software for recording sessions and editing. Finally we will describe the response from celebrities, radio stations and listeners. Our results could be a useful reference for those wishing to create similar radio programmes to deliver astronomy to a wider audience.

Nobili, L.; Masiero, S.

2010-06-01

24

RadioNet: Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RadioNet, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3), has brought together 20 of "Europe's leading astronomy facilities to produce a focused, coherent and integrated project that will significantly enhance the quality and quantity of science performed by European astronomers." After learning about the Initiative's many objectives, users can find brief summaries of the program's integration of astronomy pursuits in the areas of transnational access, joint research activities, and networking activities. The website presents press releases, upcoming and past events, and information on engineering, software, and Atacama Large (sub)-Millimeter Array (ALMA) forums. Users can also find out about the individual collaborators research activities through the external links.

25

Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of radio astronomy plays a key role in increasing our understanding of the environment and the universe in which we live. By its nature it is a passive service, so it never causes interference to other users of radio. On the other hand, it is becoming increasingly difficult to protect radio astronomy operations from radio interference as use of the spectrum increases for both terrestrial and space-borne communications.

Monstein, Chr.

2013-06-01

26

Radio Astronomy in the Undergraduate Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the results of a three year program to incorporate radio astronomy into undergraduate research and coursework at South Carolina State University (SCSU). A series of small and inexpensive radio telescopes have been constructed by faculty members with undergraduate student assistance. The telescopes range from a Radio Jove dipole antenna, to a dual frequency alt-az mount solar antenna to a 4.6 meter commercially-built radio telescope operated at 1.42 GHz. SCSU students and faculty have access to larger radio telescopes through a partnership with the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) near Rosman, North Carolina. Projects to date include three years of monitoring solar activity, participation in coordinated observing sessions of Jovian radio bursts and mapping the distribution of galactic neutral hydrogen. Future work will include combined optical and radio observations of stellar radio sources such as RS CVn stars and Algol-type binaries. Support for this work has been provided to SCSU through NASA's PAIR program under NCC 5-454.

Payne, J. E.; Brown, J. L.; Walter, D. K.

2003-12-01

27

RFI Mitigation Researches and Implements in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a serious problem for researches in modern radio astronomy. Various techniques to excise RFI from signals data are being tried out. In this paper, various methods of RFI excision at radio astronomy are described. RFI mitigation researches and implements in radio astronomy society are also presented. Especially, RFI mitigation researches in China radio astronomy

Shi-Yuan Li; Esamdin Ali; Zheng-Wen Sun

2008-01-01

28

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2010-10-01

29

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2009-10-01

30

Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

1993-12-01

31

Submillimeter receivers for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of development of receivers for submillimeter-wave radio astronomy is reviewed. Bolometers for continuum observation, hot-electron mixer receivers for narrow-band spectral line observation, and heterodyne receivers, both Schottky diode and superconducting tunnel junction, are presented. At the lower frequency end of the submillimeter band, standard waveguide techniques, scaled from millimeter wavelengths, prevail. At wavelengths shorter than about 0.5 mm quasioptical designs are preferred: in the case of Schottky diode receivers, corner cube designs are used almost exclusively, whereas integrated mixer designs are the focal point of research for SIS receivers at these wavelengths. Although such designs are extensively reviewed, it is nevertheless the Schottky diode mixer remains the element of choice at the shortest submillimeter wavelengths.

Blundell, Raymond; Tong, Cheuk-Yu E.

1992-11-01

32

Communications techniques in radio physics and astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Techniques used at the Arecibo Observatory's giant radio telescope in the areas of planetary radar astronomy, passive radio astronomy, and radar studies of the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere are described. Pulse compression, range-Doppler processing, and digital decoding in planetary studies are examined. Spectral line observations and the use of computerized Fourier analysis in passive radio astronomy are reviewed. The investigation of scatter in ionospheric studies, including the determination of the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal, is described, as is the use of the code pulse technique for measuring electron density profiles.

Hagen, J.B.

1986-10-01

33

The Timbuktu Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient city of Timbuktu was the main centre for commerce and scholarship in West Africa from the 13th century until the 17th century. Books were bought from North Africa and other centres of Islamic learning, and local scholars also wrote many books on astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature, law and islam. Scholarship peaked during the 16th and 17th century but declined gradually until the 19th century. Our project aims to study the ancient manuscripts from Timbuktu in order to search for astronomy in them. The main aim of the project is to document our research and use it to attract African youth into science and technology by appealing to their heritage. This paper outlines progress made since the inception of the project in 2006.

Medupe, Rodney Thebe; Warner, Brian; Jeppie, Shamil; Sanogo, Salikou; Maiga, Mohammed; Maiga, Ahmed; Dembele, Mamadou; Diakite, Drissa; Tembely, Laya; Kanoute, Mamadou; Traore, Sibiri; Sodio, Bernard; Hawkes, Sharron

34

Radio Astronomy Research at Leningrad State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main directions of radio-astronomical studies at Leningrad State University are described. These studies began in 1947, and have included research on solar active regions, as well as methods for measuring the absolute radio flux of the Sun and the statistical properties of the solar radio emission. Studies of solar-terrestrial connections using radio-astronomy methods are considered in some detail.

Molchanov, A. P.

35

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2011-07-01

36

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

37

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

38

"Radio Astronomy, Whatever That May Be." The Marginalization of Early Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today we see radio astronomy as a fully-integrated part of astronomy; it is now just one of several available wavelength regimes and many astrophysicists who use radio data are not radio astronomers themselves. At the beginning, it was very different. Between 1946 and 1960, radio astronomy emerged as an important speciality but it was an area little understood by mainstream astronomers. Radio astronomers rarely published in astronomical journals, gave papers at astronomical conferences or were accorded much notice. The pioneers in the field were not astronomers themselves and had little in common with astronomers. In this paper I note the various ways in which radio astronomy was alienated from the mainstream in its first decade and some of the reasons this alienation occurred. I will also speculate on when and how the integration began to occur.

Jarrell, Richard

2005-01-01

39

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

40

Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.

2007-12-01

41

Genesis of Radio Astronomy at BYU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are beginning a new program in state-of-the-art radio astronomy at BYU. Our first effort consists of a 4-meter radio antenna designed to image hydrogen spin-flip and maser lines within our galaxy where frequencies of interest include 1.4GHz -- 1.6GHz. We employ a unique spectrometer/correllator that may be used both independently as well as in conjunction with a 5-antenna array for imaging. Our correlator/spectrometer is based upon CASPER hardware/firmware, as used at leading edge radio astronomy sites at JPL, Harvard, Deep Space Network, et al. This instrument system, to be followed by others, establishes a foundation for physics and astronomy research and teaching using state-of-the-art methods.

Blakley, Daniel

2010-10-01

42

Radio quiet, please! - protecting radio astronomy from interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio spectrum is a finite and increasingly precious resource for astronomical research, as well as for other spectrum users. Keeping the frequency bands used for radio astronomy as free as possible of unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is crucial. The aim of spectrum management, one of the tools used towards achieving this goal, includes setting regulatory limits on RFI levels emitted by other spectrum users into the radio astronomy frequency bands. This involves discussions with regulatory bodies and other spectrum users at several levels - national, regional and worldwide. The global framework for spectrum management is set by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union, which has defined that interference is detrimental to radio astronomy if it increases the uncertainty of a measurement by 10%. The Radio Regulations are revised every three to four years, a process in which four organisations representing the interests of the radio astronomical community in matters of spectrum management (IUCAF, CORF, CRAF and RAFCAP) participate actively. The current interests and activities of these four organisations range from preserving what has been achieved through regulatory measures, to looking far into the future of high frequency use and giant radio telescope use.

van Driel, W.

2011-06-01

43

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105 radio astronomical remote observations have been performed with users. Until now, more than 2,000 students have been involved in radio astronomical observations.

Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

2010-10-01

44

PetaOp\\/Second FPGA Signal Processing for SETI and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group, the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), seeks to speed the development of radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scalable, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of realtime radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on a small number of modular, connectible hardware components

Aaron Parsons; Donald Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Patrick Crescini; Christina de Jesus; C. Dick; P. Droz; D. MacMahon; K. Meder; J. Mock; V. Nagpal; B. Nikolic; A. Parsa; B. Richards; A. Siemion; J. Wawrzynek; D. Werthimer; M. Wright

2006-01-01

45

PetaOp\\/Second FPGA Signal Processing for SETI and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group, the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), seeks to speed the development of radio astronomy signal process- ing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scal- able, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of real- time radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on a small number of modular,

Aaron Parsons; Donald Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Patrick Crescini; Christina de Jesus; Chris Dick; Pierre Droz; David MacMahon; Kirsten Meder; Jeff Mock; Vinayak Nagpal; Borivoje Nikolic; Arash Parsa; Brian Richards; Andrew Siemion; John Wawrzynek; Dan Werthimer; Melvyn Wright

2009-01-01

46

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)|

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

47

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

48

The big ears of radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special value of radio astronomy lies in the probing of extreme conditions in the universe, including the highest energies and the lowest temperatures. Radio waves can penetrate clouds of gas and dust to reveal objects in the universe and, in particular, in our Galaxy that cannot be seen by visible light. To achieve the highest resolution, radio telescopes in widely separate parts of our globe combine their reception to produce a synthesized image. This is a splendid example of international collaboration. Among the images visualized are pulsars, derived from the remnants of supernovae explosions, and quasar sources powered by black holes.

Graham-Smith, Francis

2002-05-01

49

Radio astronomy research in Malaysia: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will report on the progress in the research field of radio astronomy in Malaysia and also in South-East Asia. Radio astronomy research can be said to have only started being done actively in Malaysia in 2005. Fundamental setup and some basic research were done in the early parts. Jupiter radio bursts as well as radio meteor counting were

Z. Z. Abidin; Z. A. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

50

Tools for teaching radio-astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the worldwide radiotelescope ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) has started preliminary operations. Radio-astronomy is thus entering a new golden age, a fantastic opportunity for widening formal and informal educational training and public involvement, for making a science impact on young people. The EU-HOU consortium has developed a small radiotelescope network (6 antenna) spread over Europe and directly accessible from the web via a remote control interface. These antenna are mostly dedicated to high school teachers in the context of the COMENIUS European commission Lifelong Learning Program: ``Connecting classrooms to the Milky-Way''. However, such small antenna can also be used to teach at University and introduce students to radio-astronomy principles.

Salomé, P.; Radiguet, A.; Albert, B.; Batrung, M.; Caillat, M.; Gheudin, M.; Libert, Y.; Ferlet, R.; Maestrini, A.; Melchior, A.-L.; Munier, J.-M.; Rudolph, A.

2012-12-01

51

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what radio astronomy is all about. This ever-present radiation provides astronomers with an alternate, non-optical window to the universe, revealing exotic and unfamiliar phenomena previously undetected by even the most powerful optical telescopes. For physics teachers, a classroom discussion of these radio discoveries, however brief, offers an opportunity for igniting interest (and possibly a career option) in even the most apathetic of students. This paper describes, first, the background of some of these events, and second (in the appendixes), a selection of numerical problems so that students can derive for themselves the truly mind-stretching features of these celestial objects.

Derman, Samuel

2010-04-01

52

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

53

The Timbuktu Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient city of Timbuktu was the main centre for commerce and scholarship in West Africa from the 13th century until the\\u000a 17th century. Books were bought from North Africa and other centres of Islamic learning, and local scholars also wrote many\\u000a books on astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature, law and islam. Scholarship peaked during the 16th and 17th century\\u000a but

Rodney Thebe Medupe; Brian Warner; Shamil Jeppie; Salikou Sanogo; Mohammed Maiga; Ahmed Maiga; Mamadou Dembele; Drissa Diakite; Laya Tembely; Mamadou Kanoute; Sibiri Traore; Bernard Sodio; Sharron Hawkes

2008-01-01

54

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2010-10-01

55

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2009-10-01

56

The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion

Benjamin Kevin Malphrus

1990-01-01

57

Early years of Radio Astronomy in the U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).

Burke, B. F.

58

Cubesat Missions for Low Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many concepts and several mission proposals for low frequency radio interferometers in space during the past two decades. Most of these idea are based on multiple small spacecraft, each acting as one antenna element in a three-dimensional array. The science goals for single cubesats or arrays operating at frequencies near and below Earth's ionosphere cutoff span a wide range research areas from solar and planetary observations to galactic and extragalactic astronomy to cosmological observations of large-scale structure evolution before the epoch of reionization. Recently several groups have realized that the rapid progress in the capabilities of cubesats make them a logical basis for such mission concepts. A workshop on cubesat-based low frequency radio astronomy missions was held at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at Caltech during July 2012. This paper will summarize the discussions and conclusions from that workshop. These include a number of future mission ideas based on cubesat technologies, as well as recommendations for near-term technology demonstrations that would reduce risk for many of the potential missions. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from the JPL Center for Academic Partnerships and KISS is gratefully acknowledged.

Jones, Dayton L.

2013-01-01

59

Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

2011-12-01

60

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http:\\/\\/www.lewiscenter.org\\/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both

C. A. Higgins; J. R. Thieman; K. Bunnell; G. Soholt

2009-01-01

61

Radio astronomy with very large arrray.  

PubMed

The construction of the Very Large Array of radio telescopes has been completed, and this new research instrument is now being used to make radio images of astronomical objects with a resolution comparable to or better than that of ground-based optical telescopes. The role of the Very Large Array in current and future research is discussed both in principle and in terms of a sample of observing projects. PMID:17750599

Hjellming, R M; Bignell, R C

1982-06-18

62

The Harvard Radio Astronomy Station at Fort Davis, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Harvard Radio Astronomy Station at Fort Davis, Texas, came into operation in 1956 as a radio extension of the U.S. Air Force Sacramento Peak Observatory. The location near Fort Davis was chosen for the low level of man-made radio signals. Initially the receiving equipment at the site included a 28-ft diameter antenna and covered the range 100-580 MHz. The receivers swept through this band approximately three times per second, recording the spectrum of solar radio activity. In subsequent years the frequency range was extended to cover all or parts of 10 MHz to 4 GHz. All recorded solar bursts were identified according to five principal spectral types, and lists including times, durations, and frequency ranges of all solar activity were published. Studies of the bursts included analyses of their relationships to flares and other optical solar phenomena, and also their relationships to geophysical phenomena, including magnetic storms and polar blackouts. An 85-ft diameter antenna was installed in 1963, which during 1970-1974 was used for solar observations in the range 580 MHz to 4 GHz. Otherwise this antenna was used for non-solar radio astronomy, including lunar occultations of radio sources, measurements of flux densities at 5 GHz, investigations of the Galactic Center, and similar projects. The solar program was closed in late 1982 after 26 years of continuous operation. After 1974 the 85-ft antenna was used mainly in a program of VLBI network observations conducted by astronomers from Caltech and NRAO. In 1991 it was replaced by an antenna of the VLBA program of the NRAO. This paper describes some details of the antennas and receivers, and results of the solar studies. It also includes a brief discussion of the non-solar observations other than the VLBI program.

Thompson, A. Richard

2010-03-01

63

Radio Astronomy Studies at the Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of radio astronomy studies at FIAN is described, beginning with the first theoretical (1946) and experimental (1947) studies of the solar radio emission. Information about the development of the Crimean station of FIAN, then the establishment and development of the Radio Astronomy Station in Pushchino is presented. Work on the construction of large radio telescopes, including the FIAN 22-m, DKR-1000 and BSA telescopes, is described, together with important results obtained during observations of the Sun (including the discovery of its "supercorona"), planets, line radio emission and studies of pulsars and other discrete sources.

Dogel', B. A.; Ilyasov, Y. P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.; Kokurin, Y. L.; Kuz'min, A. D.; Salomonovich, A. E.; Sorochenko, R. L.; Udal'tsov, V. A.

64

Grote Reber (1911-2003): A Radio Astronomy Pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forceful personality and self-confidence led Grote Reber to a series of remarkable discoveries in radio astronomy, and later to a wide variety of research in many other fields of science and technology. Although he worked primarily as an amateur, independently of the scientific establishment, Reber was ultimately recognized with many of the major prizes in astronomy.

Kellermann, K. I.

2005-01-01

65

Division X Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Rio General Assembly we held the following meetings of the Working Group: a Business Meeting, a Science Meeting on “The Development of Aperture Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy”, and a Science Meeting on “Recent Research”.

Orchiston, Wayne; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Davies, Rodney D.; Débarbat, Suzanne V.; Morimoto, Masaki; Slysh, Slava; Swarup, Govind; van Woerden, Hugo; Wall, Jasper V.; Wielebinski, Richard

2010-05-01

66

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program entitled 'Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program' with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the...

W. A. Traub

2000-01-01

67

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

2009-12-01

68

Radio Astronomy Imagery for Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has initiated an Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program to improve its capability to process radio-wavelength astronomical data into compelling visual imagery and to make such imagery readily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, the media, and EPO professionals. This imagery initiative is exploring radio data visualization techniques and developing recipes to assist NRAO users and scientific staff with the creation of composite imagery that incorporates astronomical data acquired at multiple wavelengths. Through this effort, the NRAO Image Gallery is being populated with high-quality images, and its information content, organization, and accessibility are being substantially improved. The Observatory is accelerating these Image Gallery improvements and fostering the widest possible dissemination of new results and images by inviting the astronomical user community to participate in a radio astronomy image contest. This contest is planned to be an annual event and should result in the generation and submission of numerous high-quality radio images to the NRAO that will supplement those already produced by the Observatory's scientific staff and the astronomical community. Our EPO image program's long-term goal is to establish the NRAO Image Gallery as the international location of choice for persons seeking radio astronomy imagery and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and objects. The revitalized NRAO Image Gallery and in-house radio astronomy image production capability that we are creating promotes a clear understanding of the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, astronomers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

Adams, M. T.; Finley, D. G.; Gianopoulos, A.; Smiley, P.; Saxton, W.; Uson, J. M.

2005-05-01

69

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2010-10-01

70

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2009-10-01

71

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not limit themselves solely to visual light as a means of investigating the universe, most introductory astronomy laboratories do. This short coming can be remedied easily through the use of radio astronomy. With a bit of modification to equipment designed for television or FM radio purposes, the existing university laboratories can be modified in an economical way to have ``hands-on" access for the students into the field of radio astronomy. In that many of the exotic discoveries about the universe have been made through radio astronomy in the last thirty years, it can be used as a tool in furthering the student's understanding of our universe,

Scott, J. B.; Imholt, Timothy; Benge, Raymond; Roberts, James

2001-10-01

72

Using Group Research Projects to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar planet project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting exoplanets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kupier Telescope in near-UV and optical filters in order to detect any asymmetries between filters. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12m telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. The projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. As of January 2012 the extrasolar planet project became an official independent study class. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects creating a learner-centered environment.

McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C. W.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Austin, C. L.; Schlingman, W. M.

2012-05-01

73

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

2001-12-01

74

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

75

Methods and problems in radio astronomy data analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of interferometry in radio astronomy had a dramatic impact on the whole astronomical research. The difficulty in imaging the radio-sky from interferometric data remains an important issue in the radio data processing. An interferometric array is equivalent to a diffraction grating for the electromagnetic waves coming from a radio source. After a short introduction on the fundamentals of interferometry (geometry of earth rotation, field of view, image formation) some methods for the image analysis are reviewed with particular emphasis on the CLEAN and RESTORE procedure. The new techniques for large field mapping (MOSAIC) and the extreme case of VLBI (Very long Baseline Interferometry) are also discussed.

Padrielli, L.

76

Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important

V. Minier

1998-01-01

77

User Friendly Database for Neptune Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to ...

D. R. Evans

1993-01-01

78

Deep Space Network: An Instrument for Radio Astronomy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communication link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy research. Three perce...

N. A. Renzetti G. S. Levy T. B. H. Kuiper P. R. Wolken R. C. Chandlee

1988-01-01

79

A history of radio astronomy polarisation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While intensity of electromagnetic radiation (radio, infrared, light, or X-ray) gives us primary information about the distribution of the baryonic matter in the Universe, polarisation is a parameter that enables us to investigate many additional details. Polarisation at radio frequencies gives us details of emission processes since the non-thermal synchrotron process dominates at low radio frequencies in emission regions. In addition, polarised radio sources can be used as probes of the intervening interstellar medium through which the radio waves are propagated. Faraday rotation effects are observed and in conjunction with known thermal emission can be used to determine magnetic fields. The Zeeman effect, a direct method of determining magnetic fields, depends on the observation of the circularpolarisation components of a spectral line. In this paper I describe the early polarisation observations of radio sources, but in addition I follow the developments through to the present day.

Wielebinski, Richard

2012-07-01

80

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

81

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

82

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

83

Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques  

SciTech Connect

The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references.

Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

1988-06-01

84

The genesis of solar radio astronomy in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 1945, O.B. Slee at RAAF Radar Station 59 near Darwin and staff from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney were involved in Australia's first investigation of radio emission from the Sun. After WWII, the Sydney radio astronomers were joined by small independent groups based at the Commonwealth Observatory, Mt Stromlo, and in the Physics Department at the University of Western Australia, in Perth. Between 1946 and 1948, these young scientists made an important contribution to international astronomy, heightening our understanding of solar physics and the relationship between sunspots and solar radio emission.

Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Burman, Ron

2006-06-01

85

Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

2013-01-01

86

An outside view of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is in a golden age of discovery of the new, with a growing appreciation from astrophysics that physics has studied so far an almost insignificant fraction of reality. This golden age is enabled by technology, with next generation technologies approaching the Giga-euro/dollar investment level. This forces a strategic view of relative strengths in the past, and strategies for future developments. Some of these may transcend traditional wavelength classifications.

Gilmore, G.

87

A Collaborative Astronomy Project Between Multimedia and Physics Undergraduate Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2004, faculty and undergraduate multimedia and physics interns from the University of North Carolina at Asheville and nearby Furman University joined together at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop a new education and public outreach program of radio astronomy by utilizing the StarLab portable planetarium system. The program consists of three components: the StarLab cylinder for projection of the radio sky; display of a pulsar on the radio sky; and teaching and learning materials accessible through the Internet and CD-ROM. The multimedia and physics interns worked together to articulate and communicate aspects of their disciplines as they related to the development of the cylinder, the depiction of the pulsars and pulsar projector, and classroom activities for teachers and students. As a result, the cylinder shows both the radio sky and illustrates five distinct types of radio sources. The cylinder is augmented further through the use of an audio-visual pulsar projector, which emits pulses with sound for the audio-visually challenged. The activities present teachers with lesson plans related to radio astronomy topics. We discuss the unique development by this team needed to accomplish the program's first year goals. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Castelaz, M. W.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.; Moffett, D. A.

2004-12-01

88

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope: Construction and Forty Years of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Effelsberg 100-m dish represents a major breakthrough in the technology of radio telescope construction. Using new methods of computation a big step in the direction of improved surface accuracy for large structures was achieved. In conjunction with the decision to build the 100-m radio telescope the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) founded the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn. The MPIfR grew out of the Bonn University Astronomy Department to become one of the leading institutes for radio astronomy in the world. This new institute received strong support from the MPG in the form of new positions and operating funds. As a result, the 100-m radio telescope could be quickly opened up for astronomical observations. The technical divisions provided state-of-the-art receivers and astronomical software. Teams of astronomical researchers made inroads in several important directions of astronomical research. Over the years virtually all the observing methods of radio astronomy were implemented at Effelsberg. In later years the MPIfR became involved in mm, sub-mm and infrared astronomy research. However, the 100-m radio telescope remained the `work horse' of the Institute. The Effelsberg Radio Telescope will celebrate its 40th anniversary of operations in May 2011 and is still going strong. The observations with the 100-m radio telescope have resulted in thousands of publications. It has served several generations of radio astronomers and has given hundreds of students the opportunity to complete doctoral degrees. The 100-m radio telescope has been upgraded continuously, is in excellent condition and can look to a further period as an important research instrument.

Wielebinski, Richard; Junkes, Norbert; Grahl, Berndt H.

2011-03-01

89

The impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission power density and cause an increasing level of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), which may impact other services and particularly

M. J. Bentum; A. J. Boonstra; W. A. Baan

2010-01-01

90

Problems and Projects from Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities to stimulate school astronomy programs. Topics include: counting stars; the Earth's centripetal force; defining astronomical time; three types of sundials; perceptions of star brightness; sunspots and solar radiation; stellar spectroscopy; number-crunching and the molecular structure of the atmosphere; the Earth-Moon common…

Mills, H. R.

1991-01-01

91

TH4E: Special Session: Submillimeter Wave Radio Astronomy and Mauna Kea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic role that Mauna Kea has played in the development of Radio Astronomy as well as the historic role that radio astronomy has played in the MTT society will be highlighted in this very special focus session on submillimeter wave instrumentation, techniques, and astronomy. A wide range of talks will cover both current topics in millimeter and submillimeter wave

P. Goldsmith; P. H. Siegel

2007-01-01

92

Astronomy: Small Group and Individual Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These ideas for and examples of student projects can be done in connection with a module on astronomy. Projects described in detail here include modeling the Doppler effect that causes the red shift in the light from distant galaxies, modeling impact craters on the moon, and viewing sunspots. A list of required materials is included with each activity.

93

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

94

Gigabit digital filter for radio astronomy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gigabit digital filter prototype has been developed with the FPGA (FIeld Programmable Gate Array) for the radio astronomical observation. The digital filtering techniques enables a variety of observing modes defined on the data acquisition system, even with a fixed sampling frequency A/D converter. In this study, the principle of gigabit digital filter design is described in detail, parallel processing design of a FIR (Finite Inpulse Response) filter is presented, and the results of the test manufacturing are shown.

Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Ozeki, Kensuke; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Hashimoto, Tamio

2000-07-01

95

Curriculum Projects and their Effects on Astronomy Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

National curriculum projects can have a long-lasting and widespread effect on the teaching of astronomy in schools and thus on the supply of astronomers and on knowledge of astronomy among the general public. For example, the omission of astronomy as a requirement in 1893 by the Committee of Ten (J.L. Bishop in Pasachoff and Percy, The Teaching of Astronomy, Proc.

Jay M. Pasachoff

1993-01-01

96

Introduction to astronomy - an Outreach Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the plan for an Outreach Project, to teach school children the joys of astronomy and the importance of space. It also includes my reasons as to why this is necessary, and the ways in which I believe the issue should be tackled.

Douglas P. G. Smith

2002-01-01

97

Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

Maddalena, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

98

New ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' Gives Support to Protection Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex international structure exists for the administration of the radio spectrum, now widely viewed as an increasingly valuable natural resource. Radio astronomy was first officially recognized as a radio communications service at the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1959. At that time the IAU, URSI and COSPAR set up under ICSU the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies for Radio Astronomy and Space Science (IUCAF) to represent scientific usage of the spectrum. Radio astronomers work through their national agencies or IUCAF to get their concerns considered by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), or included on the agenda of a World Radio Conference. In addition to IUCAF, National and Regional committees such as the US Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) and the European Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF) facilitate a united participation by radio astronomers. It is essential that the unique requirements of the passive services be clearly documented and readily accessible to professional spectrum managers more attuned to the requirements of government and commercial transmitting services. The ITU Radio-communications Sector is supporting this effort by the publication of ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy''. This document, prepared by an international team of radio astronomers experienced in frequency management, describes the characteristics of the radio astronomy service, the preferred frequency bands for radio astronomy use, and the extreme sensitivity and resulting vulnerability of radio astronomy observations to interference. It defines sharing criteria, harmful interference limits, and the threat of unwanted emissions from broad band (spread spectrum) modulation. Copies of the ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' should be in every engineering and astronomy library, and the material it provides can usefully be included in college and graduate level courses. The Handbook is available in both English and Spanish from the ITU in Geneva.

Davis, Michael M.

1994-12-01

99

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

100

The Radio JOVE Project: A Worldwide, Ground-based Amateur Decameter-Wavelength Radio Observatory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) began over four years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 500 of these kits have been distributed to students

J. Thieman; C. Higgins; G. Lauffer; R. Ulivastro; R. Flagg; J. Sky

2003-01-01

101

The Radio JOVE Project: A Worldwide, Ground-Based, Amateur, Decameter-Wavelength Radio Observatory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE project began over four years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 500 of these kits have been distributed to students and

J. Thieman; C. Higgins; R. Flagg; J. Sky

2003-01-01

102

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

103

New ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' Gives Support to Protection Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex international structure exists for the administration of the radio spectrum, now widely viewed as an increasingly valuable natural resource. Radio astronomy was first officially recognized as a radio communications service at the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1959. At that time the IAU, URSI and COSPAR set up under ICSU the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies

Michael M. Davis

1994-01-01

104

The beginnings of radio astronomy in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The birth of Dutch radio astronomy can be rather precisely dated to 15 April 1944, when H.C. van de Hulst presented the results of his theoretical research into the origin of radio waves from space. We have investigated the events leading up to the momentous suggestion that hydrogen emission at 21 cm ought to be detectable. Both published material and letters from the Oort Archive have been consulted. Not having direct access to either radar technology or trained engineers, as was the case in countries like England and Australia, Jan Oort had to turn to a diversity of organizations: Philips Electronics Company, the Post Office, and academic colleagues in other disciplines. It was the Post Office's head of radio, A.H. de Voogt, who provided a 7.5 m Würzburg radar reflector and technical support at the Kootwijk station, starting in 1948. We trace the events leading up to the 21 cm line's detection in 1951, and discuss the early results. After a year spent rebuilding and thereby improving the receiver, C.A. Muller, together with Oort, Van de Hulst and others, was able to initiate an extensive HI survey of the Galaxy. The results fully justified the year's wait: a map of the Galaxy, spiral arms, the first rotation curve, and a much improved system of Galactic coordinates. We also present a discussion of Würzburg antennas used for research in the Netherlands, and a brief biography of A.H. de Voogt.

van Woerden, Hugo; Strom, Richard G.

2006-06-01

105

Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

2006-08-01

106

Centimeter-wave Research with the Morehead State University 21 M Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduate Students in Radio Astronomy Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Science Center at Morehead State University has developed a medium aperture cm-wave radio telescope, the 21 M Space Tracking Antenna and Radio Telescope. Located in the radio-frequency quiet, mountainous region of eastern Kentucky, the telescope serves as an Earth Station for satellite mission support and provides telemetry, tracking, and control services with an emphasis on university cubesat missions. In addition, the telescope is engaged in research programs in radio astronomy and features receivers operating in the Ku-band (11.2 to 12.7 GHz, including a well-known methanol line) and the L-band (1.4 to 1.7 GHz, including lines of atomic hydrogen and molecular hydroxyl). At these bands, the telescope is capable of supporting a wide variety of niche astronomical research programs, including longitudinal studies (e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGN) monitoring), observations of transient phenomena (e.g., gamma-ray bursts and supernovae), and surveys (e.g., kinematic studies of Galactic HI). A description of the space tracking antenna system and radio telescope, its capabilities and research projects planned for or currently underway with the telescope (namely monitoring AGNs and surveying the Galactic supernova remnant population) will be presented and discussed. Funding for the 21m telescope has been provided by NASA, the SBA, the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation and Kentucky NSF EPSCoR.

Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Pannuti, T. G.; Atwood, J. W.; Ennis, M. E.

2007-12-01

107

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

108

Interstellar scintillations and nanoarcsecond resolution in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstellar turbulent plasma can be considered to be a radio astronomy antenna—an interstellar diffraction grating, with\\u000a an aperture size roughly equal to the scattering-disk radius, R\\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a = z\\u000a \\u000a eff\\u000a ?\\u000a sc\\u000a ? 1 AU (where z\\u000a \\u000a eff\\u000a is the effective distance and ?\\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a the scattering angle). The angular resolution of this interstellar diffraction grating is of the order

V. I. Shishov

2010-01-01

109

User friendly database for Neptune planetary radio astronomy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to understand esoteric characteristics of the PRA instrument or the Voyager spacecraft. Several data sets were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and have either appeared already on peer reviewed CDROM's or are in the process of being reviewed for inclusion in forthcoming CD-ROM's. Many of the data sets are also available online electronically through computer networks; it is anticipated that as time permits, the PDS will make all the data sets that were a part of this contract available both online and on CD-ROM's.

Evans, David R.

1993-07-01

110

A history of the Potts Hill radio astronomy field station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of the research activities at the Potts Hill field station of the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics in the period 1946 to 1958. The approach is set in the context of the group structure of the radio astronomy research of the Division and of the links between the groups, particularly those links which involved Potts Hill. Significant research on the structure of the Sun and the Galaxy as well as the discovery of 21-cm H-line and its mapping in the southern sky was achieved in the 12-year lifetime of the field station. Personal recollections are given of research activity during its most active phase in 1951-1953.

Davies, R. D.

2005-12-01

111

A New Approach to Radio Astronomy Signal Processing: Packet Switched, FPGA-based, Upgradeable, Modular Hardware and Reusable, Platform-Independent Signal Processing Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group seeks to revolutionize the development of radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scalable, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of real-time radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on the development of a small number of modular, connectible, upgradeable hardware components and platform- independent signal processing algorithms

Aaron Parsons; Don Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Pierre Droz; Christina de Jesus; David MacMahon; Andrew Siemion; John Wawrzynek; Dan Werthimer; Mel Wright

112

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

113

PARTNeR, a Radio Astronomy experience for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR is the acronym for Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo. The 34-m antenna in Robledo de Chavela is used by high schools, universities and amateur astronomers to learn about radioastronomy, physics and to get interested in science. The main project we develop is the observations of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries. The high-school teachers joining our program take a training course to learn the basis of radioastronomy. Some practical lessons to teach the children the physical fundamentals of radioastronomy are also given to them. The operational phase of the project started in 2004, and 25 high schools, 5 universities and 4 societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project.

Suárez, O.; Blasco, C.; Gómez, J. F.; Herranz, M.; Montesinos, B.; García, J.

114

GALAXY: Real-Time VLBI for Radio Astronomy Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALAXY is a research project on advanced VLBI technology, jointly conducted by CRL, NAO, and NTT. The testbed of the project is a 2.5-Gb/s ultra-high speed network using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). One of the aims of this project is to achieve high-sensitivity VLBI observation with this gigabit class network. GALAXY network consists of KSP and OLIVE networks provided by NTT and spans 200km range. The sensitivity achieved in our current observation system is comparable to the world-highest class (approx. 10mJy) using conventional VLBI samplers. This short baseline and high sensitivity make GALAXY a unique VLBI network for astronomy in the world. Here we describe the properties of GALAXY network and observations focusing on some unique results that can be achieved with the capability of GALAXY. Developments of new networking technology such as Internet Protocol UP) with GALAXY network are also presented,

Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Miyaji, Takeshi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kondo, Tetsuro; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Junichi

2001-03-01

115

GALAXY: Real-Time VLBI for Radio Astronomy Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALAXY is a research project on advanced VLBI technology, jointly conducted by CRL, NAO, and NTT. The testbed of the project is a 2.5-Gb/s ultra-high speed network using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). One of the aims of this project is to achieve high-sensitivity VLBI observation with this gigabit class network. GALAXY network consists of KSP and OLIVE networks provided by NTT and spans 200 km range. The sensitivity achieved in our current observation system is comparable to the world-highest class (approx. 10mJy) using conventional VLBI samplers. This short baseline and high-sensitivity make GALAXY a unique VLBI network for astronomy in the world. Here we describe the properties of GALAXY network and observations focusing on some unique results that can be achieved with the capability of GALAXY. Developments of new networking technology such as Internet Protocol (IP) with GALAXY network are also presented.

Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Miyaji, Takeshi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kondo, Tetsuro; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Junichi; Sekido, Mamoru

2001-03-01

116

Astronomy Remote Observing Research Projects of US High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the challenging climate for promoting astronomy education in the high schools we have used astronomy projects to give students authentic research experiences in order to encourage their pursuit of science and technology careers. Initially, we conducted teacher workshops to develop a cadre of teachers who have been instrumental in recruiting students to work on projects. Once

M. Kadooka; K. J. Meech

2006-01-01

117

The CASPER collaboration for high-performance open source digital radio astronomy instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) has revolutionized the cost and time scale for development of high performance radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation. We present open source designs (hardware, gateware, libraries, and software tools) for a variety of flexible high bandwidth instruments, including correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, VLBI, pulsar timing and transient search machines. The collaboration relies

Dan Werthimer

2011-01-01

118

Network Development of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of ASC Lpi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All main changes in the network of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory has been related to introduction of the buffer data center in the recent years, upgrading internal and external communication channels and the exploitation of ip-telephony.

Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.

119

Gordon James Stanley and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy in Australia and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the end of the Second World War, the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory applied the expertise and surplus radar equipment acquired during the war to problems of astronomy. Gordon Stanley was among the first group of scientists and engineers to work in the exciting new field of radio astronomy. Like many of his contemporaries, he had a strong background in radio and electronics but none in astronomy. At the Radiophysics Laboratory, and later at Caltech, Stanley developed innovative new radio telescopes and sophisticated instrumentation which resulted in important new discoveries that changed, in a fundamental way, our understanding of the Universe. He was one of those who played a key role in the early development of radio astronomy both in Australia and the United States.

Kellermann, Ken I.; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

120

Report of Survey for McDonald Observatory, Harvard Radio Astronomy Station, and Vicinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A special purpose three-dimensional geodetic survey was conducted in the vicinity of the McDonald Observatory and Harvard Radio Astronomy Station (HRAS) near Ft. Davis, Texas. The observing program included astronomic positions and azimuths, zenith distan...

W. E. Carter J. E. Pettey

1981-01-01

121

Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

Miller Goss, W.

2012-05-01

122

Development of the Radio Astronomy Data Centre (radc) at Prao ASC Lpi RAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) have been developed at PRAO ASC LPI during the recent years. It consists of: a) the database of the most important astronomical catalogues for radio astronomers; b) the database of the observational data of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. The database of astronomical catalogues http://astro.prao.ru/db/ contains few tens of the most important catalogues for the planning of the radio astronomy observations. Since 2011, the database of astronomical catalogues has been actively equipped with graphical tools for data visualization and cross-analysis of catalogues between each other. The observation database http://observations.prao.ru/ has collected observational data from the base observatory instruments and radio telescopes. That database provides access to the observation instruments and telescopes descriptions, techniques of making data samples per instruments, information about types of observations, observers and dates of observations, etc.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Ladeyshchikov, D. A.; Dumskiy, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Zaytsev, A. Y.; Logvinenko, S. V.

123

A Calibrated Digital Sideband Separating Spectrometer for Radio Astronomy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual sideband (2SB) receivers are well suited for the spectral observation of complex astronomical signals over a wide frequency range. They are extensively used in radio astronomy, their main advantages being to avoid spectral confusion and to diminish effective system temperature by a factor 2 with respect to double sideband (DSB) receivers. Using available millimeter-wave analog technology, wideband 2SB receivers generally obtain sideband rejection ratios (SRR) of 10--15 dB, insufficient for a number of astronomical applications. We report here the design and implementation of an FPGA-based sideband separating FFT spectrometer. A 4 GHz analog front end was built to test the design and measure sideband rejection. The setup uses a 2SB front end architecture, except that the mixer outputs are directly digitized before the IF hybrid, using two 8 bit ADCs sampling at 1 GSPS. The IF hybrid is implemented on the FPGA together with a set of calibration vectors that, properly chosen, compensate for the analog front end amplitude and phase imbalances. The calibrated receiver exhibits a sideband rejection ratio in excess of 40 dB for the entire 2 GHz RF bandwidth.

Finger, Ricardo; Mena, Patricio; Reyes, Nicolás; Rodriguez, Rafael; Bronfman, Leonardo

2013-03-01

124

Moon-based Very Long-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Facility: science drives and technological challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific laboratories at manned and un-manned Moon bases are top priorities for the next wave of exploratory missions. Environmental conditions on the Moon are beneficial for various types of experimental research. Very Long Wavelength radio Astronomy (VLWA) is among the most attractive scientific disciplines for the suit of Moon-based laboratories. Space science has revolutionised astronomy by opening up several hitherto inaccessible windows in the spectrum. The opening of each new spectral window has resulted in unexpected discoveries and made it possible to obtain a comprehensive picture of physical processes in celestial sources. One of the last remaining unexplored regions of the spectrum is at the lowest radio frequencies. Radio emission below 15 MHz (wavelengths longer than 20 m) is inaccessible from the Earth surface due to absorption and scattering in the ionosphere. Unique new science areas for VLWA studies include: (i)Investigation of radio sky at so far inaccessible regime of electromagnetic radiation; (ii) Cosmological "experiments" with "fossil" relativistic electrons; (iii) Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays via VLWA emission from particle interactions with the Moon; (iv) Solar system "weather", including coronal mass ejections, (v) Searches for Jupiter-like exoplanets. In addition to the astrophysical tasks mentioned above, the VLWA facility on the Moon can be implemented as a Wide Area Network, as pioneered by the Earth-based Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). This allows the inclusion of other sensors, such as seismic detectors to conduct selenological studies. The LOFAR is being constructed in the Netherlands. It will operate in the frequency range 20 - 220 MHz. Several other projects will aim at addressing cosmological problems by studying the Universe at the range of frequencies below 100 MHz. These and other new radio astronomy facilities will lay the scientific and technological ground for VLWA in space. We will present a multi-step approach toward creating a permanent VLWA observatory on the Moon. Its first phase would include a demonstrator to be deployed as a small-scale scientific payload onboard one of the lunar missions of the next decade. A concept of an affordable fullscale observatory will be presented in the context of a long-term Moon exploration programme.

Gurvits, Leonid

125

An application of high-performance reconfigurable computing in radio astronomy signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable Computing has been making inroads in the front-end digital signal processing systems deployed at radio telescopes around the world. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) at Green Bank has developed a signal processing system expressly for pulsar search and timing observations. These observations are among the most demanding experiments in terms of real-time computational and data rate requirements. In

John Ford; Jason Ray

2010-01-01

126

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of 18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-06-01

127

Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

2012-01-01

128

Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization. Results are given for simulated and experimental data, demonstrating deeper beampattern nulls by 6 to 30dB. To increase the system bandwidth toward the hundreds of MHz bandwidth required by astronomers for a fully science-ready instrument, an FPGA digital backend is introduced using a 64-input analog-to-digital converter running at 50 Msamp/sec and the ROACH processing board developed at the University of California, Berkeley. International efforts to develop digital back ends for large antenna arrays are considered, and a road map is proposed for development of a hardware correlator/beamformer at BYU using three ROACH boards communicating over 10 gigabit Ethernet.

Landon, Jonathan C.

129

Latent Dirichlet allocation for image segmentation and source finding in radio astronomy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present exploratory work into the application of the topic modelling algorithm latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to image segmentation in greyscale images, and in particular, source detection in radio astronomy images. LDA performed similarly to the standard source-detection software on a representative sample of radio astronomy images. Our use of LDA underperforms on fainter and diffuse sources, but yields superior results on a representative image polluted with artefacts --- the type of image in which the standard source-detection software requires manual intervention by an astronomer for adequate results.

Friedlander, A.; Frean, M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Hollitt, C.

2013-01-01

130

The wideband backend for host country radio astronomy in the Spanish DSN Robledo complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Deep Space Network hosts three complexes worldwide for spacecrafts tracking. The Spanish complex, the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC), operates a set of highly sensitive antennas, which are used for Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) during a percentage of their operational time. We have designed, developed and built a wideband backend for HCRA in MDSCC, which greatly improves its available facilities, and opens new scientic cases to be tackled. The backend is able to sample up to 6 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth, in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz, using two dierent antennas. An intermediate-frequency (IF) processor downconverts the two-polarization signals to four base-band channels of 1.5 GHz width. Digitalisation is done through a set of FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which can provide spectral resolutions from 7 to 200 kHz, and spectral coverages from 100MHz to 1.5 GHz each. This new facility enables HCRA to aord new scientic projects, such as extragalactic radio astronomy and spectral surveys; at the same time, the available time for HC is greatly optimized. It was necessary the development of dedicated software for spectra acquisition and control of the equipment, and also the upgrading of the existing observing programs. Once end-to-end assembled, the whole backend was tested through a set of commissioning observations. In this contribution the main features of the new backend are described, including the IF processor, the FFT spectrometer and the developed software. Some astronomical results are also included.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; García Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.

2012-09-01

131

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the concepts and products of the Tenpla project, a unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy and educators in Japan. The goal of the project is to show the true, latest and exciting results of astronomy, and to let more people be familiar with and find pleasure in astronomy, as they enjoy sports

M. Hiramatsu; N. Takanashi; K. Kamegai; K. Tsukada

2006-01-01

132

The Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Online Labs for Introductory Level Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project site provides high quality applets simulating important astrophysical phenomena such as eclipsing binaries, stellar evolution on the H-R diagram, lunar phases, planetary orbits, planetary motion, and planetary obliquity. Instructions, simulations, and explorations are provided for both the student and instructor including assessment.

Lee, Kevin M.

2004-12-23

133

Low frequency solar radio astronomy at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IIA is presently involved in the expansion of its existing radioheliograph operating in the frequency 120-40 MHz at the Gauribidanur radio observatory located about 80 km north of Bangalore. Once completed, the expanded array will have an angular resolution of ? 1' at a typical frequency of 100 MHz. This paper describes the development of solar radio astronomy activities at IIA since 1952 when the first observations were carried out.

Ramesh, R.

134

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to one pagers on historical instruments of astronomy with photos of the following : Astronomy Slides, Celestial Globe, Cometarium, Globe, Gregorian Telescope, Kepler's Laws Demonstration, Orrery, Planetarium, Planisphere, Stereoscopic Pictures of the Moon, Tellurian, and Transit.

2000-01-01

135

Genome Radio Project: Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The process of conducting background research for the programs of the Genome Radio Project is continuing. The most developed of the program ``backgrounders`` have been reviewed by series and program advisors from various fields. Preliminary and background interviews have been conducted with dozens of potential program participants and advisors. Structurally, efforts are being directed toward developing and formalizing the project and series advisor relationships so that the best use can be made of those experts who have offered to assist the project in its presentation of program content. The library of research materials has been expanded considerably, creating a useful resource library for the producers.

NONE

1997-08-01

136

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not

J. B. Scott; Timothy Imholt; Raymond Benge; James Roberts

2001-01-01

137

Intel® many integrated core (MIC) architecture: portability and performance efficiency study of radio astronomy algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Astronomy demands for HPC power have been rising and are expected to reach exaflop scale by 2020. To address such huge demands for compute, users are testing newer CPU architectures and accelerator architectures such as GPUs and FPGAs. Intel, with the help of HPC Ecosystem partners, has stated a goal to deliver exascale computing capability by 2018. This goal

Rama Malladi; Richard Dodson; Vyacheslav Kitaeff

2012-01-01

138

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began

E. N. Bouton

2005-01-01

139

The Beginnings of Decametric Radio Astronomy: Pioneering Work of S. Braude and his Followers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brief history of the first stages for decametric radio astronomy studies is described. The role of pioneering works of Prof. Braude is outlined. For this paper we used new information explored from Braude's diary. At present, Ukraine is one of recognised country having powerful decametric infrastructure and scientific achievements thanks to the Braude' followers. The author will present a

I. B. Vavilova

2006-01-01

140

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest.

Albert-Jan Boonstra; Noah Saks; Heino Falcke; Marc Klein-Wolt; Ark Bentum; Raj Thilak Rajan; Ir. Stefan J. Wijnholds; Michel Arts; Kees van-T Klooster; Frederik Belien

2010-01-01

141

Cosmic rays in the Galaxy and their implications for VLF radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

New observations of the local galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and of the distribution of GCR nuclei in the Galaxy are described together with the results of modeling of the GCR radial profiles and the application of these results. Special attention is given to the studies of energetic cosmic rays observable with VLF radio astronomy, emphasizing the importance of higer

W. R. Webber

1990-01-01

142

Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurements provide unique information on turbulence in the ISM as well as the mean plasma properties such as density and magnetic field strength. Radio propagation observations can provide input to the major contemporary questions on the nature of ISM turbulence, such as its dissipation mechanisms and the processes responsible for generating the turbulence on large spatial scales. Measurements of the large scale Galactic magnetic field via Faraday rotation provide unique observational input to theories of the generation of the Galactic field.

Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

2013-09-01

143

Adventures in Radio Astronomy Instrumentation and Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the design and implementation of several instruments for digitizing and processing analogue astronomical signals collected using radio telescopes. Modern radio telescopes have significant digital signal processing demands that are typically best met using custom processing engines implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. These demands essentially stem from the ever-larger analogue bandwidths that astronomers wish to observe, resulting

Peter L. McMahon

2011-01-01

144

Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy. 2: Koichi Shimoda and the 1948 Solar Eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just two years after Dicke carried out the first radio observations of a solar eclipse, a young Japanese physics graduate, Koichi Shimoda, attempted to observe 3,000 MHz emission during the 9 May 1948 partial solar eclipse. In so doing he unwittingly became the 'founding father' of Japanese radio astronomy. In this paper as our mark of respect for him, we list Shimoda as the lead author of the paper so that his observations can finally be placed on record for the international radio astronomical community.

Shimoda, Koichi; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Ishiguro, Masato

2013-07-01

145

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

146

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Planetary Orbit Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates the physics of planetary orbits. The user can control the size and orbital path of the orbit. Each of Kepler's three laws and aspects of Newton's Law are each demonstrated. Velocity and acceleration vectors can be displayed, as well as the axes of the orbit. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This resource is part of a larger collection of online labs for introductory astronomy.See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

Lee, Kevin M.

2007-12-20

147

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) ?V on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) ?V on average).

Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

2010-07-01

148

Cyclostationary approaches for spatial RFI mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interferences (RFIs), and real time filtering algorithms are becoming essential. In this article, it is shown how spatial processing techniques can limit the impact of the incoming RFIs for phased array radio telescopes. The proposed approaches are based on estimation of the RFI spatial signature. It requires the diagonalization of either the classic correlation matrix or the cyclic correlation matrix of the array. Different diagonalization techniques are compared. Then, RFI detection and RFI filtering techniques are illustrated through simulations on data acquired with the Low Frequency Array Radio telescope, LOFAR. The originality of the study is the use of the cyclostationarity property, in order to improve the spatial separation between cosmic sources and RFIs.

Hellbourg, Grégory; Weber, Rodolphe; Capdessus, Cécile; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2012-01-01

149

Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The first group exhibits a linear velocity gradient and forms a line in our VLBI map which is consistent with a rotating disc of masers seen edge-on around a massive star. The second group of masers are blueshifted with respect to the first group and lie in a conical region south of the inferred disc. We argue that these masers probably arise in an outflow emerging approximately perpendicularly to the disc. We find that the maser positions at 6.7 and 12.2 GHz are coincident and those of the second group correspond approximately to the absolute positions of NH3, H2CO and OH masers associated with the radio-continuum and infrared source NGC7538-IRS1. In addition we find similar evidence for circumstellar discs of masers in W75N and S252. For these three sources associated with ultra compact HII regions, from the linear velocity gradients and assuming that the central protostars are massive, we derive that the radii of the circumstellar discs are in the range 300-1200 AU which is typical of protoplanetary discs. In the second part, we present the design and realization of 4 GHz cryogenic low noise amplifiers used as IF amplifiers in a radio-camera receiver (SISYFOS project) which will be installed in the Onsala 20m millimeter wave telescope. The requirements of the SISYFOS project at cryogenic temperature are a minimum gain of 25 dB and noise equivalent temperature less than 10 K over the frequency range 3.4-4.6 GHz. Because of its low noise and high gain properties, the MGF4310E series super low noise HEMT from Mitsubishi have been selected to satisfy these requirements. We show that a very simple input design using a high impedance series line viewed as a series inductor provides good matching over a broad bandwidth while ensuring the stability of the amplifier. The minimum noise equivalent temperature and gain of the amplifier measured at cryogenic ambient temperature over the specified bandwidth are 7 K and 28 dB respectively.

Minier, V.

1998-10-01

150

Astronomy Project DUE DATE: 11/28/07  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project the students will be researching one celestial object with a partner. Astronomy is Out of this World! Picture of Solar System DIRECTIONS: You will be researching and presenting to the class, information on one celestial object. You can use any format including: ***VIDEO - You ...

Willis, Mrs.

2007-11-03

151

DUMAND and other high energy neutrino astronomy projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy neutrino astronomy at last seems to be nearing reality, after decades of speculation and preliminary experimental work. This review summarizes the anticipated types of sources, energy regime for first attempts, scale size needed, and techniques. A summary of 12 relevant current proposals and projects for >10000 m2 muon collecting area instruments is presented, with emphasis on the first

J. G. Learned

1993-01-01

152

The Inwood Astronomy Project: Ready for IYA 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inwood Astronomy Project begins its mission of "100 Nights of Astronomy", an outreach program for the IYA 2009 in New York City. While the city lights may at first glance be a major deterrent to amateur and educational night-sky viewing, the author describes numerous community-based initiatives designed to fit into a racially and ethnically diverse neighborhood of Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, which all give a deeper understanding and appreciation of and for the night sky. The author presents ways for professional astronomers to use their light-polluted cities and towns for the same purpose.

Shilling Kendall, Jason

2009-01-01

153

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began part time work as NRAO's first archivist. With the completion of an addition to the headquarters building in Charlottesville in spring 2005, the fledgling NRAO Archives moved into a new 1400 sq ft space. In addition to NRAO materials, the Archives also collects papers of individuals. Grote Reber, who built the first radio telescope in his backyard in Wheaton IL in 1937, had in 1995, donated many of his personal papers to NRAO, and these papers have been indexed and are available to researchers. We continue to receive additional materials from his estate in Tasmania. The complete papers of John Kraus, author, researcher, and professor in radio astronomy and engineering at Ohio State University for many years, were donated to the NRAO Archives by his son and estate executor in spring 2005. The NRAO Archives has also mounted Web resources with texts written by Nan Dieter Conklin and by Doc Ewen describing their work in the developing years of US radio astronomy. This talk will present the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history.

Bouton, E. N.

2005-12-01

154

Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

155

Fast pulsars, strange stars: an opportunity in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit have been discovered suggesting that there may be even shorter ones. If pulsars with periods below 1\\/2 ms were

Norman K. Glendenning

1990-01-01

156

Methods in computational physics. Volume 14 - Radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented which deal with the special computational problems in radioastronomical studies, studying the chief problems of data acquisition, reduction, and interpretation for selected types of observations. The specific topics studied are the principles of radioheliography with emphasis on the Culgoora radioheliograph, pulsar signal processing, aperture synthesis (in particular, earth rotation aperture synthesis), and computations in radio-frequency spectroscopy. Individual

B. Alder; S. Fernbach; M. Rotenberg

1975-01-01

157

Fast pulsars, strange stars: An opportunity in radio astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit hav...

N. K. Glendenning

1990-01-01

158

The Radio JOVE Project: A Worldwide, Ground-based Amateur Decameter-Wavelength Radio Observatory Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) began over four years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 500 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in 24 countries. Many students and teachers do not have the time or feel comfortable building a kit of their own. The Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor data and streaming audio from professional radio telescopes in Florida (16 element 10-40 MHz log spiral array - http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii (17-30 MHz log periodic antenna - http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html) using standard web browsers and/or freely downloadable software. Radio-Skypipe software (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder for ones own radio telescope. It will also display the signals being received by other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet using the same software package. A built-in chat feature allows the users to discuss their observations and results in real time. New software is being developed to allow network users to interactively view a multi-frequency spectroscopic display of the Hawaii radio telescope. This software may also be useful for research applications. Observers in the U.S. and Europe have been contributing data to a central archive of Jupiter and Solar observations (http://jovearchive.gsfc.nasa.gov/). We believe these data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. We welcome ideas for expanding the application of these data.

Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.; Lauffer, G.; Ulivastro, R.; Flagg, R.; Sky, J.

2003-04-01

159

Feature Detection in Radio Astronomy using the Circle Hough Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While automatic detection of point sources in astronomical images has experienced a great degree of success, less effort has been directed towards the detection of extended and low-surface-brightness features. At present, existing telescopes still rely on human expertise to reduce the raw data to usable images and then to analyse the images for non-pointlike objects. However, the next generation of radio telescopes will generate unprecedented volumes of data making manual data reduction and object extraction infeasible. Without developing new methods of automatic detection for extended and diffuse objects such as supernova remnants, bent-tailed galaxies, radio relics and halos, a wealth of scientifically important results will not be uncovered. In this paper we explore the response of the Circle Hough Transform to a representative sample of different extended circular or arc-like astronomical objects. We also examine the response of the Circle Hough Transform to input images containing noise alone and inputs including point sources.

Hollitt, C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

2012-03-01

160

Radio Astronomy Group: More evidence of increasing solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lengthening days of summer and the increase in activity as Solar Cycle 24 gets under way have produced some welcome results for observers of Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs). SIDs are caused by dramatic increases in solar radiation hitting the upper regions of the atmosphere, which change the way radio waves are reflected, and hence the strength of the received signal at ground level monitored by SID observers.

Hyde, P.

2010-08-01

161

Broadband beamforming of dense aperture array (DAA) and focal plane array (FPA) signals using 3D spatio-temporal filters for applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that 3D spatio-temporal filters have potential applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy for the broadband-beamforming\\u000a of the array of signals that is received from dense aperture arrays (DAAs) and also from focal plane arrays (FPAs). In particular,\\u000a we consider possible applications for the planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project where broadband beamforming is required\\u000a at the front-end

Thushara K. Gunaratne; Len T. Bruton

2011-01-01

162

HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

Kadooka, M. M.; Armstrong, J. D.

2010-04-01

163

HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

M. M. Kadooka; J. D. Armstrong

2010-01-01

164

A 110 GHz SIS receiver for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 110 GHz superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction receiver has been developed and used in regular astronomical observations on the 4m radio telescope at the Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University. The SIS junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2 K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. The receiver exhibits a best double side band noise temperature of 23 + or - 2 K at 110 GHz. Additional measurements at 98-115 GHz indicate that the receiver has a good response over this input frequency range.

Ogawa, H.; Mizuno, A.; Ishikawa, H.; Fukui, Y.; Hoko, H.

1990-06-01

165

An Image Revolution: The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) represents a groundbreaking new resource for sharing and utilizing outreach imagery. Publication-quality imagery can be tagged following the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard for encapsulating all of the key contextual information about each image (title, caption, image colors/composition, observatories, WCS projection, etc.). AVM-tagged imagery can be registered with the VAMP Archive, now in developoment at the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) at IPAC. The VAMP Archive, will allow imagery to be found in fundamentally more useful manners than is currently possible. It will also enable a new generation of innovative applications (e.g. desktop planetarium software) to dynamically draw upon the lastest graphics as soon as they become available. The tools now exist to tag existing image libraries in preparation for inclusion in the VAMP Archive.

Hurt, Robert L.; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Wyatt, R.

2007-12-01

166

Characterising the Venezuelan Troposphere for Radio-Astronomy Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venezuela possesses a very useful geographical location for doing Radioastronomy. Recently, the Venezuelan Government (via FIDETEL-Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología) has aproved to the Laboratorio de Astronomía y Física Teórica (LAFT) of La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela) the adquisition of four 3 meter diameter parabolic dishes that will be set as a radio-interferometer receiver and that can be used for certain Radioastronomy purposes. The specifications of the instrument will be treated elsewhere (Muñoz and Hernández 2007). To this aim, as ussually, the first step is to characterize the losses due to the atmosphere, and their evolution over time. In previous works (Muñoz et al. 2004, Memoires of V RIAO/VIII OPTILAS, M10-5 Modelling Tropospheric Radio-Attenuation Parameters for Venezuela, 359; Muñoz et al. 2006, CIENCIA, Vol. 14, 4, 428) we have studied some relevant electromagnetic (e-m) attenuation parameters dueto hydrometeors and absortion gases in the lower atmosphere, focused in local telecommunication applications (surface e-m trajectories). In this work we extend our results to include the cenital and quasi-cenital e-m trajectories, characterizing thus the medium losses in the 0.4-4.0 GHz spectral window for several Venezuelan locations. We report refractivity values and their gradients, tropospheric indexes, extinction coefficients and the total rain attenuation for the whole territory under study.

Pacheco, R.; Muñoz, A. G.; Brito, A.; Cubillán, N.

2009-05-01

167

The Contribution of an Experimental WWII Radar Antenna to Australian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division's short-lived Georges Heights field station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill field station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, Galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, H.

2011-01-01

168

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

2011-03-01

169

Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in astronomy and other sciences and are now faculty members, a current Hubble Fellow, the PI of a facility class instrument on an 11-meter telescope (SALT), etc.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2013-01-01

170

Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, radio astronomy receivers have been limited to bandwidths less than an octave, and as a result multiple feeds and receivers are necessary to observe over a wide bandwidth. Next generation of instruments for radio astronomy will benefit greatly from reflector antenna feeds that demonstrate very wide instantaneous bandwidth, and exhibit low noise behavior. There is an increasing interest in wideband systems from both the cost and science point of view. A wideband feed will allow simultaneous observations or sweeps over a decade or more bandwidth. Instantaneous wide bandwidth is necessary for detection of short duration pulses. Future telescopes like square kilometer array (SKA), consisting of 2000 to 3000 coherently connected antennas and covering a frequency range of 70 MHz to 30 GHz, will need decade bandwidth single pixel feeds (SPFs) along with integrated LNAs to achieve the scientific objectives in a cost effective way. This dissertation focuses on the design and measurement of a novel decade bandwidth sinuous-type, dual linear polarized, fixed phase center, low loss feed with an integrated LNA. A decade bandwidth, low noise amplifier is specially designed for noise match to the higher terminal impedance encountered by this antenna yielding an improved sensitivity over what is possible with conventional 50 O amplifiers. The self-complementary, frequency independent nature of the planar sinuous geometry results in a nearly constant beam pattern and fixed phase center over more than a 10:1 operating frequency range. In order to eliminate the back-lobe response over such a wide frequency range, we have projected the sinuous pattern onto a cone, and a ground plane is placed directly behind the cone's apex. This inverted, conical geometry assures wide bandwidth operation by locating each sinuous resonator a quarter wavelength above the ground plane. The presence of a ground plane near a self complementary antenna destroys the self complementary nature of the composite structure resulting in frequency dependent impedance variations. We demonstrate, using simulations and measurements, how the return loss can be improved by modifying the sinuous geometry. The feed-LNA combination is characterized for important properties such as return loss, system noise, far field beam patterns including cross-polarization over a wide frequency range. The system is developed as a feed for a parabolic reflector. The overall system performance is calculated in terms of the A/Tsys ratio. A cryogenic version would have a direct impact on specialized observing applications requiring large instantaneous bandwidths with high sensitivity. A novel cryogenic implementation of this system is demonstrated using a Stirling cycle, one-stage refrigerator. The cryocooler offers advantages like low cost, light weight, small size, low power consumption, and does not require routine maintenance. The higher antenna input impedance and a balanced feeding method for the sinuous antenna offers a unique set of challenges when developing a cryogenic system.

Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

171

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

172

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces students to some general concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-10-07

173

Progress on Chinese VLBI network project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main components of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) project, including the Sheshan Radio Astronomy Station, the Urumqi Radio Astronomy Station, and the CVN Data Analysis Center, are briefly described. The sites and equipment of the CVN stations are listed.

Ye, Shuhua; Wan, Tongshan; Qian, Zhihan

174

Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

2012-06-01

175

Ingenuity and initiative in Australian radio astronomy: the Dover Heights "hole-in-the-ground" antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1950s staff from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics based at the Dover Heights field station employed ingenuity and initiative in response to a lack of funding and support for a new radio telescope. In order to obtain the requisite aperture for the resolution sought they spent their own time excavating a 21.9-m parabolic depression in the sand at the field station, and when the viability of this prototype transit instrument was established its diameter was increased to 24.4 m, making this the largest radio telescope in Australia at the time. Operating at 400 MHz, this instrument was employed to map the galactic centre region and in a search for new discrete sources. It also was used to investigate polarization in the plane of the Galaxy, and in an unsuccessful search for the newly-proposed deuterium line. Today the Dover Heights "hole-in-the-ground" antenna lies buried beneath Rodney Reserve, and there is little at this public playing field to remind visitors of the important contributions made by this radio telescope, and others at this site, during the formative years of Australian radio astronomy.

Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

2002-06-01

176

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements

Jack Welch; Don Backer; Leo Blitz; Douglas C.-J. Bock; Geoffrey C. Bower; Calvin Cheng; Steve Croft; Matt Dexter; Greg Engargiola; E. Fields; James Forster; Colby Gutierrez-Kraybill; Carl Heiles; Tamara Helfer; Susanne Jorgensen; Garrett Keating; John Lugten; Dave MacMahon; Oren Milgrome; Douglas Thornton; Lynn Urry; Joeri van Leeuwen; Dan Werthimer; Peter H. Williams; Melvin Wright; Jill Tarter; Robert Ackermann; Shannon Atkinson; Peter Backus; William Barott; Tucker Bradford; Michael Davis; Dave DeBoer; John Dreher; Gerry Harp; J. Jordan; T. Kilsdonk; T. Pierson; K. Randall; J. Ross; S. Shostak; M. Fleming; C. Cork; A. Vitouchkine; N. Wadefalk; Sander Weinreb

2009-01-01

177

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tenpla project is a Japanese unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy, young astronomers, and social education facilities such as science museums (see also poster by M. Hiramatsu). In this paper, we report our individual activities for public in detail. Our aim is to provide bridges between astronomy and public, especially people who are unfamiliar with astronomy, directly by students and young astronomers at many scene of life such as in schools, cafés, or hospitals. Examples of our activities are as follows (1) Learning astronomy with local people, by local people, for local people. (2) Science cafés about astronomy at book stores, small restaurants and local airport. (3) Traveling lecture of astronomy for hospitalized children.

Kamegai, K.; Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Tsukada, K.

2006-08-01

178

Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found

C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

179

Language Arts Project: Radio Program Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project in which student groups create a 10-minute radio broadcast consisting of a song, commercials, a news report, and a commentary is presented. The purpose of the project is to teach students to be selective media users while also teaching reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. The teacher introduction offers suggestions for…

Staskal, Doreen

180

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided\\u000a into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is\\u000a described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We

Bo Peng; Wenjun Han

2009-01-01

181

100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

Simmons, M.

2008-11-01

182

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

2009-12-01

183

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were initially sited at Marcoussis, near Paris, before being transferred to the Nançay field station in 1957. The third Würzburg antenna was used by staff from the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, and was installed at Meudon Observatory on the outskirts of Paris. This paper describes the three antennas, lists the personnel involved, discusses the observations made, evaluates the significance of this research in a national and international context, and comments on their current whereabouts.

Orchiston, Wayne; Lequeux, James; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Delannoy, Jean

2007-11-01

184

Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

2006-05-01

185

Parameters of a forward scatter radio meteor set-up: Preliminary calculations for the MSR radio meteor project in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MSR set-up was developed considering several parameters related to radio astronomy calculations for the observing system, neighborhood environmental characteristics, and many conditions related to the placement of the instrument. In the present work a forward scatter radio meteor link is analyzed to obtain the required parameters for a meteor radio astronomy dedicated set-up. The analysis is illustrated by calculating the parameters for the MSRV2 system employed at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronoma (IAR).

Semegone, Juan Martin; Sanz, Juan A.

2006-08-01

186

The Development of Radio Astronomy at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides information about the emergence and development of radio astronomy at the Sternberg Astronmical Institute of Moscow State University (GAISH), and further at the Space Research Institute (IKI). The main results of theoretical studies of mechanisms for the Sun, Galactic and extragalactic radio emission and their relationship to physical processes in space are laid out in detail. The results of observations carried out at the initiative of and with the participation of radio astronomers from GAISH and IKI using many radio telescope in the Soviet Union and abroad are also considered, including methods for space radio astronomy.

Gindilis, L. M.

187

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research

Zamri Zainal Abidin; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zulfazli Rosli; Siti Fatin Fathinah Malim; Norsuzian Mohd Anim

2010-01-01

188

Radio frequency overview of the high explosive radio telemetry project  

SciTech Connect

High explosive radio telemetry (HERT) is a project that is being developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies. The ultimate goal is to develop a small, modular telemetry system capable of high-speed detection of explosive events, with an accuracy on the order of 10 nanoseconds. The reliable telemetry of this data, from a high-speed missile trajectory, is a very challenging opportunity. All captured data must be transmitted in less than 20 microseconds of time duration. This requires a high bits/Hertz microwave telemetry modulation code to insure transmission of the data with the limited time interval available.

Bracht, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dimsdle, J.; Rich, D.; Smith, F. [AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1998-12-31

189

Seeing the Sky: 100 Projects, Activities, and Explorations in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen astronomy activities are presented including classroom procedures and questions. Topics include different investigations of the moon, planets, stars, sunsets, light pollution, and rainbows and halos. Additional information on measurements used for observations in astronomy, and rainbow characteristics is included. (CW)

Schaaf, Fred

1990-01-01

190

Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

2012-01-01

191

Seeing the Sky: 100 Projects, Activities, and Explorations in Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourteen astronomy activities are presented including classroom procedures and questions. Topics include different investigations of the moon, planets, stars, sunsets, light pollution, and rainbows and halos. Additional information on measurements used for observations in astronomy, and rainbow characteristics is included. (CW)|

Schaaf, Fred

1990-01-01

192

Panoramic Radio Astronomy: Wide-field 1-2 GHz research on galaxy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a burst of renewed vigor enabled by recent technological advancements, radio astronomers around the world are now developing a number of new telescopes and instruments. Within the coming few years, a major improvement will be achieved over current facilities. Interferometers such as ASKAP, MeerKAT and WSRT+APERTIF will provide a combination of larger field of view and increased simultaneous bandwidth, while maintaining good collecting area and angular resolution. They will achieve a survey speed 10-50 times larger at 1-2 GHz than what is currently possible, allowing for the first time optical-like all-sky extragalactic surveys at these frequencies. The way that radio astronomical research is carried out will change profoundly, marking a major step towards the capabilities sought after for the coming decades. Significant progress will be made in many fields of radio astronomy. One of the areas that will benefit most is research into the evolution of galaxies over the past few Gyr. In particular, wide-field observations at 1-2 GHz will provide an unprecedented panoramic view of the gas properties and star formation in galaxies, embedded in their environment, from z~0.2-0.5 to the present. We aim to bring together researchers in this field to discuss the optimal exploitation of the new radio observatories for future science programs. Within the framework of our current knowledge of the galaxy population at z<0.5, we will address: the key science questions that the new telescopes will permit us to answer in combination with complimentary work at other wavelengths; the observing/analysis modes/strategies which will allow us to most efficiently exploit the data; and the techniques for most effectively coping with the huge volume of survey products, so far unusual for the radio community. In keeping with the forward-looking spirit of this conference, we encourage potential speakers to present and discuss their plans for the instruments of the near future. The key points that the conference will address are: * Scope, depth and design of HI wide area surveys * Evolution of the HI mass function and its dependence on morphological type and environment * Evolution of galaxy scaling relations out to z~0.2 * The evolution of star formation and its relation to gas content in galaxies * Wide field-of-view deep HI observations of individual fields - nearby clusters, groups and galaxies * Continuum surveys: star-forming-galaxies and the role of AGN activity * Polarisation and magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

193

Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

2012-05-01

194

The five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese "mega-science" project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in an effective way. Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and international astronomy communities. The National Development and Reform Commission approved the funding proposal of FAST in 2007 with a capital budget close to 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected in 2016.

Nan, Rendong; Li, Di

2013-04-01

195

News and Views: Bite the bullet; Radio astronomy lurking in your laptop; Want to find planets? Track the lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John O'Sullivan, a radio astronomer, has received the 2009 Australian Prime Minister's Prize for Science for technology that was devised to improve radio astronomy, but now allows fast and reliable wireless computing for all of us - genuine knowledge transfer in action. A spectrographic survey has found that stars with planets - like our Sun - tend to have a lot less lithium in their make-up than comparable stars without planetary systems. It is not yet clear how this comes about, but it points the way to a shortcut to finding new exoplanetary systems.

2009-12-01

196

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concepts and products of the Tenpla project, a unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy and educators in Japan. The goal of the project is to show the true, latest and exciting results of astronomy, and to let more people be familiar with and find pleasure in astronomy, as they enjoy sports and fine arts. Our mailing list has about 200 participants, including 80 university students. The members share information and exchange views on various educational activities. Derived from the discussions, we have proposed some innovative materials for popularization of astronomy. Our "Astronomical Toilet Paper (ATP)" is a novel tool which enables public people to get close to astronomy. We have also developed a typing game "Sora-Uchi" and a Japanese card game "Astro-Karuta". These products have won a lot of coverage in the mass media and this helps to awake people's interest in astronomy. In this paper, we show the details of our projects and responses of the public.

Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Kamegai, K.; Tsukada, K.

2006-08-01

197

A Collision of Interests - Protecting Radio Astronomy from Interference in a Free-Market Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection of radio astronomy (RA) from radio frequency interference (RFI) is becoming increasingly difficult. Established mechanisms for the management of spectrum in the United States and throughout the world have provided a degree of protection from RFI by assigning certain bands to RA on an exclusive or shared use basis. Explosive growth in commercial spectrum use has created spectrum crowding outside the RA bands, especially at lower frequencies below 3 GHz. Constellations of low-earth-orbit satellites are a particular problem to RA in that they always have transmitters above the horizon and these transmitters can spill unwanted emissions into the RA bands from their adjacent operating bands. The desire to study the early Universe presents a new challenge for RA with respect to RFI. The RA protected bands were selected for frequencies of important spectral lines. For objects in the distant, redshifted Universe, these lines can appear at all frequencies below the rest frequency and observations may be needed where the RA bands offer no protection. The growing needs of RA occur at the same time that commercial demand for spectrum is driving the Federal Communications Commission and the International Telecommuncations Union to consider entirely new approaches to spectrum management. These approaches would favor intensive commercial use of spectrum over scientific use in that decisions would be largely based on economic and efficient use considerations. It has even been proposed by some proponents of change in spectrum management policy that the entire spectrum be sold to the highest bidders in one global auction. While this is unlikely to happen, it is indicative of the climate in which RA spectrum managers currently work.

Vanden Bout, P. A.

2004-05-01

198

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-07-01

199

Constraints on Saturn's G Ring from the Voyager 2 Radio Astronomy Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reanalyzed the data acquired by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment during the passage of Voyager 2 through the outer part of Saturn's G ring, originally published by Aubier et al.(1983. Geophys. Res. Lett.10, 5-8). This study closely parallels the reanalysis of the Voyager 1 PRA data during the E-ring passage (Meyer-Vernet et al.1996. Icarus123, 113-128). The instrument detected dust grain impacts on the spacecraft in a region of ?1000 km vertical extent around the ring plane with a maximum at ring plane crossing. The signal is mainly produced by grains of radius of a few micrometers. We find a size distribution less steep than the r-6law inferred for submicrometer grains by Showalter and Cuzzi (1993. Icarus103, 124-143) from photometric data. These results can be reconciled if the slope of the size distribution flattens above 0.5 ?. Assuming a rough continuity between the distributions deduced from the two data sets and an r- qlaw for the grains detected by PRA, we infer that the differential power law index q< 3.5 for grain radii between about a half micrometer and a few micrometers. From the observed vertical profile, we deduce an effective ring vertical thickness H? 1200/( q- 1) km. When qvaries in the range 3.5-2, Hvaries in the range 500-1200 km and the geometric cross section per unit area is a few times 10 -6.

Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Lecacheux, Alain; Pedersen, Bent M.

1998-04-01

200

Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

Harvey-Carter, Liz

2009-01-01

201

Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Dark Energy was discovered in 1998 with the observation that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. It constitutes 70 percent of the matter and energy in the Universe, but its nature remains unknown. Determining its nature is one of the most important problems in astrophysics. "Measuring precise distances is one of the oldest problems in astronomy, and applying a relatively new radio-astronomy technique to this old problem is vital to solving one of the greatest challenges of 21st Century astrophysics," said team member Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The work on UGC 3789 follows a landmark measurement done with the VLBA in 1999, in which the distance to the galaxy NGC 4258 -- 23 million light-years -- was directly measured by observing water masers in a disk of material orbiting its central black hole. That measurement allowed refinement of other, indirect distance-measuring techniques using variable stars as "standard candles." The measurement to UGC 3789 adds a new milepost seven times more distant than NGC 4258, which itself is too close to measure the Hubble Constant directly. The speed at which NGC 4258 is receding from the Milky Way can be influenced by local effects. "UGC 3789 is far enough that the speed at which it is moving away from the Milky Way is more indicative of the expansion of the Universe," said team member Elizabeth Humphreys of the CfA. Following the achievement with NGC 4258, astronomers used the highly-sensitive GBT to search for other galaxies with similar water-molecule masers in disks orbiting their central black holes. Once candidates were found, astronomers then used the VLBA and the GBT together with the Effelsberg telescope to make images of the disks and measure their detailed rotational structure, needed for the distance measurements. This effort requires multi-year observations of each galaxy. UGC 3789 is the first galaxy in the program to yield such a precise distance. Team member Cheng-Yu Kuo of the University of V

2009-06-01

202

Finding the Forest Amid the Trees: Tools for Evaluating Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effective evaluation of educational projects is becoming increasingly important to funding agencies and to the individuals and organizations involved in the projects. This brief "how-to" guide provides an introductory description of the purpose and basic ideas of project evaluation, and uses authentic examples from four different astronomy and…

Bailey, Janelle M.; Slater, Timothy F.

2004-01-01

203

Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Predicting Good Observing Periods for High Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency observations with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope are affected by atmospheric conditions. Water vapor and the atmospheric stability influence radio waves by increasing the opacity of the atmosphere and degrading the quality of the "seeing." Although Green Bank is located in a temperate climate, preliminary studies using data from an 86 GHz tipping radiometer and a 12 GHz phase monitoring interferometer suggest that about 30% of the time ( 100 days/year) conditions will be excellent for observations at 100 GHz. This project attempts to determine in detail what atmospheric conditions produce simultaneously optimal seeing and opacity. We examined fifty-one periods of good observing that occurred over a period of 100 days. The analysis looks for patterns between twenty-five different weather parameters, drawn from a combination of surface, satellite, and vertical atmospheric measurements. Our preliminary results indicate that conditions of good opacity and good seeing do occur simultaneously and we can frequently predict good observing conditions from a combination of temperature, wind direction, pressure, and water vapor. >From this research, two high school projects were developed for students taking an introductory one semester astronomy course. In the first, students use data from the Observatory and four surrounding weather stations, as well as geographical and climatic information of the area, to create and test an interpolated vertical profile of the atmosphere over Green Bank. In the second, students analyze weather parameters on a set of poor observing days and compare their results with those of the good-weather study described above.

Maciolek, A. A.; Maddalena, R. J.

2000-12-01

204

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. There was also an abiding interest in the terrestrial effects of this solar radio emission. Among these solar pioneers were French radio astronomers from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In this paper we review the early solar observations made by them from Paris, Marcoussis and Nançay prior to the construction of a number of innovative multi-element solar interferometers at the Nançay field station in the mid-1950s.

Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Kundu, Mukul; Arsac, Jacques; Blum, Émile-Jacques; Boischot, André

2009-11-01

205

The Spectrum of Citizen Science Projects in Astronomy and Space Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen science projects are gaining in popularity and are seen by some as a paradigm shift that will benefit participants, extend scientific research, and improve public understanding of how science is done. All projects engage nonspecialists in observations, measurements, or classifications that further some aspect of scientific activity. In astronomy and space science, there is a range of involvement from

B. J. H. Méndez; B. Day; P. L. Gay; S. H. Jacoby; M. J. Raddick; C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

206

Simulations in the Introductory Astronomy Laboratory: Six Years of Project CLEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992, Project CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) has been developing introductory computer-based exercises aimed at the introductory astronomy laboratory. These exercises simulate important techniques of astronomical research using digital data and Windows- based software. Each of the 9 exercises developed to date consists of software, technical guides for teachers, and student manuals for the exercises. CLEA software is used widely at many institutions, and at a variety of setting from middle school to upperclass astronomy classes. The current design philosophy and goals of Project CLEA will be discussed, along with the results of both formal and informal assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of is approach. Plans for future development will be presented. Project CLEA is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation

Marschall, L. A.

1998-12-01

207

Center for Astronomy Education  

NASA Website

[Educators Higher Education] [Available: Nationally] The Center for Astronomy Education is a professional development project for instructors of the introductory astronomy course, with emphasis on community colleges.

208

Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

2002-12-01

209

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Motions of the Sun Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation reviews some of the material from Basic Coordinates and Seasons Module and The Rotating Sky Module and adds information to put all the pieces together for a more complete description of the motions of the sun culminating in the the Paths of the Sun Simulator. Computation of meridional altitude and stellar visibility are also introduced. The user can change the date, latitude and speed of the orbit. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

210

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Basic Coordinates and Seasons Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based teaching module illustrates three different, but related concepts. Terrestrial coordinates and the celestial equatorial coordinate system are covered and are used to explore the motion of the sun and how it relates to seasons. There are interactive maps that display terrestrial and celestial equatorial coordinates. Users can change the point location on the map and view coordinates from different reference points. The third component of this package explores Earth's seasons and the ecliptic as the earth orbits the sun. This module is part of a larger collection of simulation-based labs for introductory astronomy.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-09-19

211

Teaching of Astronomy and Astrophysics in University of Delhi and the under-graduate projects in IRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have two courses in General Relativity and Cosmology, two in Astronomy and Astrophysics and one in observational Astronomy. In addition to this, B Sc. and M Sc. students do projects both formal and informal basis. The IUCAA Resource Centre, is a place where students from different colleges come to use the library, discuss with people working in Astronomy & Astrophysics as well as to do projects in Astronomy & Astrophysics. The recent addition on the telescope facility as well as the upgradation of the IRC as a data centre has enhanced the interest among students in this area.

Seshadri, T. R.

212

Learning Approaches, Course Experience, and Astronomy Understanding in The Oklahoma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details a project designed to bolster the quality of astronomy education through teacher workshops. Workshop topics include the solar system, stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, and cosmology. The Learning Approach Questionnaire (LAQ) is used to determine the effects of the workshops. (DDR)|

Mann, Jennifer; Williams, Karen; Rutledge, Carl

1998-01-01

213

Applying of interactive methods for astronomy education in a school project "International space colony TANHGRA"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several interactive methods, applied in the astronomy education during creation of the project about a colony in the Space, are presented. The methods Pyramid, Brainstorm, Snow-slip (Snowball) and Aquarium give the opportunity for schooler to understand and learn well a large packet of astronomical knowledge.

Radeva, Veselka S.

214

New Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elsevier Science began a fully electronic and refereed journal in astronomy and astrophysics in 1996. "New Astronomy" is available via the Web as well as in print. Elsevier states the journal will publish "articles in all fields of astronomy and astrophysics: theoretical, observational and instrumental. 'New Astronomy' includes full length research articles and letter articles. The journal covers solar, stellar, galactic and extragalactic astronomy and astrophysics. It reports on original research in all wavelength bands, ranging from radio to gamma-ray." The journal's Web site provides a listing of receiving editors, as well as a call for papers. It will be a scholarly journal of "rigorously refereed" papers and aims to provide a short publication time, with accepted articles being made immediately available electronically. Detailed instructions on submittal are at the site.

1996-01-01

215

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted four successful eclipse expeditions to Africa and northern Europe. This short paper lists the personnel involved, discusses their instrumentation, describes the observations made, and evaluates the significance of these observations in an international context.

Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis

2007-03-01

216

Development of educational CD-ROMs in astronomy: Information on a collaborative project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observatory of Paris and the institute of teacher training (IUFM) in Toulouse have collaborated to develop multimedia support for astronomy lessons. The goal of this project is to provide additional didactical material such as CD-ROMs to elementary and high school teachers which will be used by children in the classroom. In this paper, we present the aims of the project and describe briefly the contents that have been developed so far. The project is a part of “Astrophysique sur Mesure”, a broader project led by the observatory of Paris which encourages the involvement of astronomers in the development of pedagogical tools.

Frede, Valerie

217

System integration and radiation pattern measurements of a phased array antenna employing an integrated photonic beamformer for radio astronomy applications.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the system integration and the experimental demonstration of a photonically beamformed four-element receiving array antenna for radio astronomy applications. To our knowledge, the work described here is the first demonstration of the squint-free, continuously tunable beamsteering capability offered by an integrated photonic beamformer based on optical ring resonator true-time-delay units, with measured radiation patterns. The integrated beamformer is realized in a low loss, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible optical waveguide technology. The measurements show a wideband, continuous beamsteering operation over a steering angle of 23.5 degrees and an instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz limited only by the measurement setup. PMID:22410879

Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Marpaung, David; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Maat, Peter; Dijkstra, Klaas; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René

2012-03-01

218

Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

Jones, Richard C.

1994-01-01

219

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...at Green, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, a licensee proposing to operate...P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia 24944....

2011-10-01

220

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...at Green, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, a licensee proposing to operate...P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia 24944....

2012-10-01

221

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, any applicant for a station...P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of...

2012-10-01

222

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 1: Nordmann's attempt to observe solar radio emission in 1901  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon after the discovery of radio waves by Hertz in 1886 the idea that the Sun must emit this radiation was suggested. A number of scientists from different nations then attempted to detect this emission, and one of these was the French astronomer, Charles Nordmann. This paper provides biographical Information an Nordmann before discussing his attempt to detect solar emisson in 1901 and the reasons he was unsuccessful.

Débarbat, Suzanne; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2007-03-01

223

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) provides the Infrared Astronomy Website as one of its outreach programs. Infrared Astronomy, or "the detection and study of the infrared radiation (heat energy) emitted from objects in the Universe," is described and placed in context in the sections Discovery of Infrared, What is Infrared, Infrared Astronomy, Background, and the Infrared Universe. For current information, see the News & Discoveries, Active/ Future Projects, and Activities sections; past and current projects supported by IPAC are featured in the Infrared Gallery. The site targets a broad audience and is geared towards many learning levels.

224

National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center: Arecibo Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 305m radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory "is the largest single-dish radio telescope on our planet and is available to the global scientific community for astronomical observation at wavelengths between 6 m and 3 m." Researchers can search WAPP data and information about past, present, and future projects at the Observatory. The extensive website provides numerous data reduction packages and file formats. Users can find extensive materials on the planetary studies, space and atmospheric science, and astronomy occurring at the observatory. Students and educators can learn about Arecibo's summer program. The News link is filled with fascinating new accomplishments, employment opportunities, and upcoming astronomy talks and seminars.

225

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

226

Calendars, Crescents and Calculation: The ROG's Islamic Astronomy project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Royal Observatory Greenwich (ROG) has acted as a resource centre for mosques in the UK, providing data on the visibility of the new crescent Moon that is essential for determining the beginning of each Islamic month. A series of projects have sought to take advantage of this link, strengthening the connection between the ROG and the British Islamic community and seeking to engage a traditionally 'hard to reach' audience with modern astrophysics. I will describe these activities and offer a brief analysis of their impact.

Massey, R.

2005-12-01

227

Scaling radio astronomy signal correlation on heterogeneous supercomputers using variousdata distribution methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation radio telescopes will require orders of magnitude more computing power to provide a view of the universe with greater sensitivity. In the initial stages of the signal processing flow of a radio telescope, signal correlation is one of the largest challenges in terms of handling huge data throughput and intensive computations. We implemented a GPU cluster based software correlator with various data distribution models and give a systematic comparison based on testing results obtained using the Fornax supercomputer. By analyzing the scalability and throughput of each model, optimal approaches are identified across a wide range of problem sizes, covering the scale of next generation telescopes.

Wang, Ruonan; Harris, Christopher

2013-06-01

228

eCUIP Project: Cultural Astronomy -- Bringing the Heavens to Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching module, part of the University of Chicago Internet Project, explores astronomy from the cultural context of past societies and their observations of the heavens. What sorts of phenomena did they observe and how did these observations impact their everyday lives? The module provides a unique way to study the moon, sun, solar system, and stars within a cross-curricular framework that includes history, cultural anthropology, physical science, and mathematics. Teachers will find lesson plans, image sets of physical phenomena, a multimedia gallery, and extension activities. eCUIP is a digital library project developed as a collaboration between Chicago Public Schools and the University of Chicago.

2011-11-14

229

Radio Astronomy and Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations - Development of Investigations in U.S.S.R  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of CETI investigations carried out in the USSR during a 20-year period from the beginning of the 60's to the beginning of the 80's. Experiments of the search for signals of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI) in the radio range and principal conferences dedicated to this problem are described. Some theoretical questions connected to the search for signals from ETI

L. M. Gindilis

1986-01-01

230

Science Sampler: Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project involved thousands of student scientists across the nation in the collection and analysis of astronomical data using a 34-meter radio telescope. These students contributed to the work of the world's foremost authorities on space science when they forwarded their information to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists. The JPL scientists used the information to expand their studies of Jupiter, Uranus, and variable quasars.

Maclaren, Dave; Ibe, Mary

2003-05-01

231

Clustering-based Filtering to Detect Isolated and Intermittent Pulses in Radio Astronomy Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-emitting neutron stars (pulsars) produce a series of periodic pulses at radio frequencies. Dispersion, caused by propagation through the interstellar medium, delays signals at lower frequencies more than higher frequencies. This well understood effect can be reversed though de-dispersion at the appropriate dispersion measure (DM). The periodic nature of a pulsar provides multiple samples of signals at the same DM, increasing the reliability of any candidate detection. However, existing methods for pulsar detection are ineffective for many pulse-emitting phenomena now being discovered. Sources exhibit a wide range of pulse repetition rates, from highly regular canonical pulsars to intermittent and nulling pulsars to rotating radio transients (RRATs) that may emit only a few pulses per hour. Other source types may emit only a few pulses, or even only a single pulse. We seek to broaden the scope of radio signal analysis to enable the detection of isolated and intermittent pulses. Without a requirement that detected sources be periodic, we find that a typical de-dispersion search yields results that are often dominated by spurious detections from radio frequency interference (RFI). These occur across the DM range, so filtering out DM-0 signals is insufficient. We employ DBSCAN data clustering to identify groups within the de-dispersion results, using information for each candidate about time, DM, SNR, and pulse width. DBSCAN is a density-based clustering algorithm that offers two advantages over other clustering methods: 1) the number of clusters need not to be specified, and 2) there is no model of expected cluster shape (such as the Gaussian assumption behind EM clustering). Each data cluster can be selectively masked or investigated to facilitate the process of sifting through hundreds of thousands of detections to focus on those of true interest. Using data obtained by the Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we show how this approach can help separate RFI from difficult to find single and intermittent pulses.

Wagstaff, Kiri; Tang, B.; Lazio, T. J.; Spolaor, S.

2013-01-01

232

Conveying astronomy to the public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy offers us a unique chance to carry out outreach projects in great scale and, to think about new ways to improve our efforts. In this paper I present a few considerations on my activity as a popularisation person. I address its importance and I will emphasize on radio, television and public lectures. I also stress certain ingredients I believe popularisation must include; it must be interesting, diverse, simple, pertinent, and be peer reviewed.

Fierro, Julieta

2011-06-01

233

Investigation of radiation hardness of SIS junctions for space borne radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submillimeter astronomy with SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) mixers in space offer access to new wavelength windows and unsurpassed sensitivity. However little is known about the behavior of these devices in space. The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) aboard ESA's cornerstone Herschel Space Observatory (formely FIRST) satellite, scheduled for launch in 2007, will be among the first instrument using SIS technology in space. Within this context it is important to study possible radiation damage effects in SIS tunnel junctions. The particular devices used for HERSCHEL-HIFI-Band 1 (480-640 GHz) were fabricated with a new process based on negative resist E-beam lithography and very high current densities (15 kA/cm^2). In this paper, we report on radiation hardness tests with 10 MeV protons on the described high current density Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions.

Péron, I.; Faury, G.; Delorme, Y.; Dauplay, F.; Lecomte, B.; Salez, M.; Schuster, K.-F.

2002-05-01

234

Radio Astronomy and Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations - Development of Investigations in U.S.S.R.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of CETI investigations carried out in the USSR during a 20-year period from the beginning of the 60's to the beginning of the 80's. Experiments of the search for signals of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI) in the radio range and principal conferences dedicated to this problem are described. Some theoretical questions connected to the search for signals from ETI are discussed.

Gindilis, L. M.

235

Radio Astronomy Signal Processing for Pulsar Searching using High Performance Reconfigurable Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster will describe our preliminary work to use high performance reconfigurable computers to accelerate the signal processing required for performing a pulsar search on data from a radio telescope. Specifically, we are using the Berkeley Emulation Engine (BEE2) reconfigurable computer and Internet BreakOut Board (IBOB) hardware developed by the CASPER group at Berkeley, and the MATLAB\\/Simulink design flow. In

Joeri van Leeuwen; Peter McMahon; Dan Werthimer

236

The energy of electron beams near the Io footprint derived from radio-astronomy observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of Jupiter-Io auroral electrons can be inferred through the analysis of decametric radio emissions, especially that of millisecond bursts. Jovian millisecond (or S-)bursts are intense impulsive decametric radio bursts drifting in frequency in tens of milliseconds. Previous analyses suggest that S-bursts are cyclotron-maser emission in the flux tubes connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. Electrons are thought to be accelerated from Io to Jupiter. Near Jupiter, a loss cone appears in the magnetically mirrored electron population, which is able to amplify extraordinary (X) mode radio waves. Most of the theories about their origin include an interpretation of their frequency drift. We have analysed two sets of data collected at the DAM Nançay and Karkhov radio-telescopes; they are consistent with the above scenario. In addition, we confirm that the frequency drift df/dt(f) is negative on average and decreases in absolute value at high frequencies, consistent with the adiabatic theory of particles motion. We find a typical energy of 4 keV for the emitting electrons. In many cases, we find evidence of localized ~ 1 kV electric potential jumps at high latitudes along magnetic field lines connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. These potential jumps are stable over tens of minutes and propagate upward with a velocity of the order of the sound velocity. We will discuss the consistency of such ~ 4 keV electron populations with other energy estimates derived from observations of the UV Jupiter-Io auroras.

Mottez, F.; Hess, S.; Zarka, P.; Prangé, R.

2008-12-01

237

Dust distribution around Neptune: Grain impacts near the ring plane measured by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Voyager 2 flyby of Neptune the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment recorded an intense noise near the equatorial plane around 3.4 and 4.2 RN, as already observed during previous Voyager ring plane crossings at Saturn and Uranus. This noise is interpreted as being due to impact ionization of dust grains striking the spacecraft. We deduce a power law index of the grain mass distribution of about 2. The PRA system is sensitive to particles with radii larger than ˜1.6 ?m, and the largest particles, detected near the ring plane, are evaluated to have a radius of ˜10 ?m. The spatial dust distribution along the spacecraft trajectory around the two equatorial crossings is found not to be symmetrical with respect to the ring plane and spread over wide regions: over ˜2 RN perpendicularly to the equatorial plane with the densest part concentrated within ˜700 km. The vertical optical depth ? of this dense region is found to be 10-6 - 10-8.

Pedersen, B. M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Aubier, M. G.; Zarka, P.

238

Dust distribution around Neptune - Grain impacts near the ring plane measured by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Voyager 2 flyby of Neptune, the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment recorded an intense noise near the equatorial plane around 3.4 and 4.2 R(N), as already observed during previous Voyager ring plane crossings at Saturn and Uranus. This noise is interpreted as being due to impact ionization of dust grains striking the spacecraft. A power law index of the grain mass distribution of about 2 is deduced. The PRA system is sensitive to particles with radii larger than about 1.6 micron, and the largest particles, detected near the ring plane, are evaluated to have a radius of about 10 microns. The spatial dust distribution along the spacecraft trajectory around the two equatorial crossings is found not to be symmetrical with respect to the ring plane and spread over wide regions: over about 2 R(N) perpendicularly to the equatorial plane with the densest part concentrated within about 700 km. The vertical optical depth of this dense region is found to be 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -8.

Pedersen, B. M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Aubier, M. G.; Zarka, P.

1991-10-01

239

MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND CLUMPS IN THE BOSTON UNIVERSITY-FIVE COLLEGE RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GALACTIC RING SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18{sup 0} < l < 55.{sup 0}7 and Galactic latitudes |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the {sup 13}CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s{sup -1}. Because the GRS uses {sup 13}CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than {sup 12}CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of {sup 13}CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Simon, R. [I.Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: rathborn@bu.edu, E-mail: alexj@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: ronak@bu.edu, E-mail: simonr@ph1.uni-koeln.de

2009-05-15

240

The Charles Sturt University remote telescope project: Astronomy for primary school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Charles Sturt University Remote Telescope Project aims to make available to primary school students and their teachers a simple-to-use telescope and CCD camera set up over the Internet. Access to the telescope is supported by a 10 week curriculum unit of Astronomy activities. The telescope is not a robotic device. It is controllable in real time with images being transmitted to the user also in real time. Visitors to the site are able to view what is happening at the telescope without being able to take control of it. This paper describes the project, the software control system and the related curriculum activities. Discussion centres around how to ignite student and teacher interest in science and how projects such as this one may lead to more exciting coverage of important topics in the primary and lower secondary schools.

McKinnon, D. H.; Mainwaring, A.

2000-08-01

241

The MARIACHI Project: Mixed Apparatus for Radio Investigation of Atmospheric Cosmic Rays of High Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays are nuclei that have been accelerated to kinetic energies in excess of 1020 eV. Where do they come from? How are they produced? Are they survivors of the early universe? Are they remnants of supernovas? MARIACHI, a unique collaboration between scientists, physics teachers and students, is an innovative technique that allows us to detect and study them. The Experiment MARIACHI is a unique research experiment that seeks the detection of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), with E >1020 eV. It is an exciting project with many aspects: Research: It investigates an unconventional way of detecting EECRs based upon a method successfully used to detect meteors entering the upper atmosphere. The method was developed by planetary astronomers listening to radio signals reflected off the ionization trail. MARIACHI seeks to listen to TV signals reflected off the ionization trail of an EECR. The unique experiment topology will also permit the study of meteors, exotic forms of lightning, and atmospheric science. Computing and Technology: It uses radio detection stations, along with mini shower arrays hooked up to GPS clocks. Teachers and students build the arrays. It implements the Internet and the GRID as means of communication, data transfer, data processing, and for hosting a public educational outreach web site. Outreach and Education: It is an open research project with the active participation of a wide audience of astronomers, physicists, college professors, high school teachers and students. Groups representing high schools, community colleges and universities all collaborate in the project. The excitement of a real experiment motivates the science and technology classroom, and incorporates several high school physical science topics along with material from other disciplines such as astronomy, electronics, radio, optics.

Inglis, M. D.; Takai, H.; Warasia, R.; Sundermier, J.

2005-12-01

242

Breaking the I\\/O Bottleneck at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper discusses our approach and the current NRAO environmentin more detail and then presents the details of phase one of the project, including a brief discussion of thefile structure chosen, a sketch of the implementation and performance results and observations. The finalsection presents our future plans for the remainder of the project and beyond.4

John F. Karpovich; Andrew S. Grimshaw; James C. French

243

Monitoring and Control of EMBRACE: A 4608 Element Phased Array for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMBRACE is a technology demonstrator for the decimetre wavelength range of the Square Kilometre Array. As a demonstrator instrument, the primary goal is to test and verify its merits as an SKA candidate design. For this purpose, we have developed the control software for EMBRACE including the real-time control software, the data acquisition and the observation setup systems. We have reused and adapted the LOFAR C++ control software and implemented a similar architecture on the LCU (Local Control Unit) computer. Station Control Unit (SCU) software provides a Python interface to LCU for users to easily setup observation scripts for various types of observation and to capture integrated data. Tests with satellites and strong radio sources are in progress to validate the system and characterize the demonstrator.

Taffoureau, C.; Renaud, P.; Picard, P.; Borsenberger, J.; Torchinsky, S.; Olofsson, H.; Viallefond, F.

2012-09-01

244

Light Pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia: An Observational Project for Introductory Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term study of light pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia has been initiated as a collaborative project among students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses at Valdosta State University. A single honors student began the project in Spring 2000; during the Fall 2000 semester all students enrolled in ASTR 1020K (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students were provided with charts showing the appearance of the constellations Cygnus, Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Orion (as appropriate) at limiting magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 in 0.5-magnitude steps. On clear, moonless nights students compared the visual appearance of these constellations to the charts, allowing them to determine a limiting magnitude for their location. Preliminary results suggest that, even on the clearest nights, stars fainter than magnitude 5.0 are not visible from any location within Lowndes County. This limitation results largely from ambient light from Valdosta, the only urban area within the county, and also from atmospheric extinction in a region of high humidity. By participating in this exercise, students in a class traditionally populated by non-science majors gain an appreciation for the collaborative nature of modern science. They also become familiar more familiar with the night sky than they might were their exposure limited to the traditional two-hour weekly laboratory session. Most importantly, as young adults they experience first-hand the deleterious effects of light intrusion upon their enjoyment of the night sky!

Rumstay, K. S.; VSU Astronomy Students Team

2000-12-01

245

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

246

The far sidelobes and noise temperature of a small paraboloidal antenna used for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made of the radiation pattern of a symmetrical, prime-focus paraboloidal antenna which is used as a radio telescope at 1420 MHz. A transmitter was placed on a nearby hilltop, and the test antenna, used as a receiver, was driven through the range of directions permitted by its mounting; about 55 percent of the radiation pattern was accessible to measurement. The main beam, near sidelobes, and spillover lobes have been measured, and the conical sidelobes generated by scattering from the feed support struts are clearly seen. The effective temperature of the ground at 1420 MHz has been determined by radiometry. Of a measured total antenna temperature of 26.8 K with the antenna pointing at the zenith, the following contributions can be accounted for: cosmic microwave background (2.7 K), galactic emission (1.0 K), atmospheric emission (2.0 K), direct spillover from the ground into the feed (8.0 K), leakage through the reflector mesh (5.9 K), and diffraction around the reflector rim (0.6 K). It is concluded that ground radiation scattered from the feed support struts into the aperture is a significant contributor to antenna noise; 5.8 + or - 2.5 K has been attributed to this cause. Of the total noise from the ground, 1.1 K is contributed by hills surrounding the site; most of this enters the antenna through the sidelobes generated by the feed support struts.

Anderson, M. D.; Routledge, D.; Vaneldik, J. F.; Landecker, T. L.

1991-03-01

247

Scientific prospects in soft gamma-ray astronomy enabled by the LAUE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the development of a successful project, LAUE, supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and devoted to the development of long foca length (up to 100—m) Laue lenses for hard X-/soft gamma- ray astronomy (80-600 keV). The apparatus is ready and the assembling of a prototype lens petal is ongoing. The great achievement of this project is the use of bent crystals. From measurements obtained on single crystals and from simulations, we have estimated the expected Point Spread Function and thus the sensitivity of a lens made of petals. The expected sensitivity is a few ×10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 keV-1). We discuss a number of open astrophysical questions that can settled with such an instrument aboard a free-flying satellite.

Frontera, F.; Virgilli, E.; Valsan, V.; Liccardo, V.; Carassiti, V.; Caroli, E.; Cassese, F.; Ferrari, C.; Guidi, V.; Mottini, S.; Pecora, M.; Negri, B.; Recanatesi, L.; Amati, L.; Auricchio, N.; Bassani, L.; Campana, R.; Farinelli, R.; Guidorzi, C.; Labanti, C.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Orlandini, M.; Rosati, P.; Sguera, V.; Stephen, J.; Titarchuk, L.

2013-09-01

248

Surveying Aesthetics & Astronomy: A Project Exploring the Public's Perception of Astronomical Images and the Science Within  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year hundreds of astronomical images are released to the general public from the many telescopes both on the ground and in space that observe the Universe. These images cover both data gathered at visible wavelengths and other phenomena at wavelengths that cannot be detected by the human eye, so that the entire electromagnetic spectrum is represented. The release of astronomical images raises major questions about the dissemination and communication of that knowledge, including: how do non-experts (i.e., the public) perceive these images? In 2008, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory began a unique research study -- dubbed the Aesthetics & Astronomy (A&A) project -- to examine the perception of multi-wavelength astronomical imagery and the effects of the various scientific and artistic choices in processing astronomical data. This article provides a brief synopsis of the results of the initial A&A study and its possible implications for astronomy outreach professionals. This article concludes with an overview of the latest study (in progress, 2010).

Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; Smith L. F.; Smith, J. K.

2010-12-01

249

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the teaching and learning of astronomy, in elementary and secondary school, colleges and universities, and for the public through astronomy outreach and communication. I describe International Year of Astronomy 2009, and some of the national and personal projects in which I am involved.

Percy, John R.

2010-10-01

250

Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found that to influence cultural change effectively — to make people literally look up and see the light — we must make children a main focus, use approaches that offer involvement on many levels, from cursory to committed, and offer involvement via many venues. We must make the programs and resources as turn-key as possible, especially for educators — and provide ways to visualize the problem with simple, easily grasped demonstrations. The programs spanned a wide range; from new media technology for the younger generation, to an event in the arts, to various types of educational materials, to the promotion of dark skies communities, to national and international events and to global citizen science programs. The DSA Cornerstone Project is continuing most all of these programs beyond IYA2009. The International Dark-Sky Association as well as the Starlight Initiative is endorsing and helping to continue with some of the most successful programs from the DSA. The GLOBE at Night campaign is adding a research component that examines light pollution’s affects on wildlife. Dark Skies Rangers activities are being implemented in Europe through the Galileo Teacher Training Program. The new “One Star at a Time” will engage people to protect the night sky through personal pledges and registration of public stargazing areas or StarParks, like the newest one in Italy. The Starlight Initiative’s World Night in Defence of the Starlight will take place on the Vernal Equinox. DSA will again oversee the Dark Skies portion of Global Astronomy Month, in which the International Dark Sky Week will be celebrated. DSA will be collaborating with Belgium’s “Night of Darkness” to endeavor to make that lights out event a more global event. DSA will endeavor to support dark skies education worldwide, as in Northern Ireland. DSA will seek to expand light pollution prevention campaigns like Austria’s. People whose homes meet the criteria of good lighting are invited to put a sticker from Austria’s biggest newspaper in their front window to show their support. DSA also seeks to collaborate with the IAU Office for Astronomy Development. The presentation will focus on the DSA programs during IYA and the sustainability of the DSA programs after IYA, as well as the expansion to other programs worldwide, with particular emphasis in communicating dark skies awareness with the public and its educational value in attracting young people to study science and technology. See www.darkskiesawareness.org for more information on the programs.

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Iya Dark Skies Awareness Working Group

2010-12-01

251

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2013-01-01

252

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2008-07-01

253

Astronomy LITE Demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences

Kenneth Brecher

2006-01-01

254

The Five-Hundred Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (fast) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization and a wide band without involving complex feed systems; and the light-weight feed cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in July of 2007 with a capital budget ~ 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected to be in 2016. This review intends to introduce the project of FAST with emphasis on the recent progress since 2006. In this paper, the subsystems of FAST are described in modest details followed by discussions of the fundamental science goals and examples of early science projects.

Nan, Rendong; Li, Di; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

255

Multiwavelength Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA\\'s Infrared Astrophysics Data Center explains how the universe can be observed using the entire electromagnetic spectrum. There is an introduction to using light in astronomy; information on and images taken from different areas of the electromagnetic spectrum of objects in the solar system, the Milky Way galaxy and beyond; and a table of radiation types, their characteristic temperatures, and objects emitting this type of radiation. The tutorial explains how observations are made using X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared wavelengths, and radio wavelengths. There is a section on why telescopes are sent to space and a multiwavelength gallery.

2007-02-25

256

Radio Astronomy group report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 12 months, solar cycle 24 has at last started to show some real flare activity as active areas on the Sun begin to develop in complexity and size. The activity chart (Figure 1) shows our recorded Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs) over the past 5 years

Cook, J. A.

2010-06-01

257

Managing a big ground-based astronomy project: the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TMT is a big science project and its scale is greater than previous ground-based optical/infrared telescope projects. This paper will describe the ideal "linear" project and how the TMT project departs from that ideal. The paper will describe the needed adaptations to successfully manage real world complexities. The progression from science requirements to a reference design, the development of a product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and an organization that parallels the WBS, the implementation of system engineering, requirements definition and the progression through Conceptual Design to Preliminary Design will be summarized. The development of a detailed cost estimate structured by the WBS, and the methodology of risk analysis to estimate contingency fund requirements will be summarized. Designing the project schedule defines the construction plan and, together with the cost model, provides the basis for executing the project guided by an earned value performance measurement system.

Sanders, Gary H.

2008-07-01

258

The Life Story of a Star, Book 5. Guidebook. The University of Illinois Astronomy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is book five in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This guidebook discusses the interior of stars, their source of energy, and their evolution. Topics presented include: the physical properties of the sun; model of the…

Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

259

The Radio Sky in the STARLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STARLAB is a portable planetarium created, produced, and distributed by Learning Technologies, Ltd. Upon entering the STARLAB, images are projected onto the ceiling of the planetarium's dome using custom, interchangeable projection cylinders mounted on top of an ultrabright point light source. The STARLAB is ideal for teaching students about astronomy since it may be easily transported to schools across the nation. In order to take advantage of this powerful teaching tool, one of the foremost priorities of the Sensing the Radio Sky project was the development a projection cylinder that would visually interpret the quantitative data taken with radio telescopes and present that information in a form that students could understand and appreciate. The final version of the cylinder demonstrates a variety of topics relevant to an understanding of radio astronomy. When using the Radio Sky cylinder in the STARLAB, teachers may discuss the differences between optical and radio astronomy such as the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy, different sources of electromagnetic radiation, and important radio sources within and outside of the Galaxy. In addition, the flexibility of the cylinder's design allows for a variety of educational activities to be conducted within the STARLAB, all complemented by the Radio Sky cylinder's unique presentation of the Galaxy in radio wavelengths. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Buck, S.; Harris, R.; Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.; Castelaz, M. W.

2005-12-01

260

The birth of high-energy neutrino astronomy: A personal history of the DUMAND project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DUMAND is a project to build a Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector offshore near the island of Hawaii. At present under construction, it hopes to inaugurate the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. Potential sources of high-energy neutrinos are listed, and estimates of neutrino intensity given. The paper is concerned with the physics, technology, and history of the project, which started informally in 1973. It survived through a series of summer conferences until it was funded as a feasibility study in 1979 and established in the Hawaii DUMAND Center, at the University of Hawaii. Over a dozen collaborating groups have contributed to the successful construction and operation of DUMAND I, the SPS or Short Prototype String, which established the benign character of the ocean environment and demonstrated its suitability for DUMAND II, a 216-phototube array now under construction. DUMAND II, recently funded, will have more than 20 times the area of any existing detector and a mass of almost 2 million tons; this size is minimal for the intensities and cross sections anticipated. The project became feasible-both technically and financially-through important technical advances in data transmission via fiber optics, high-speed computer technology, special photomultiplier tubes made by Hamamatsu and Philips, remotely controlled undersea vehicles with manipulative abilities, and many deep-sea electronic and oceanographic components. It is supported by an international collaboration with 15 collaborating institutions in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. It is scheduled to install a three-string test array (TRIAD) by late 1992, and the complete nine-string array is scheduled for operation in late 1993.

Roberts, Arthur

1992-01-01

261

The Quiet Skies Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and radio frequency interference (RFI), an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project--the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space…

Rapp, Steve

2008-01-01

262

Astronomy in Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of astronomical research in Finland. There are three institutes devoted to Astronomy in general, at the Universities of Helsinki, Oulu, and Turku, and a Radio Astronomy Observatory at the Helsinki University of Technology. In addition, Solar system research with space-borne instrumentation is being carried out by the Physics Departments at the Universities of Helsinki and Turku, and by the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

Mattila, K.; Tornikoski, Merja; Tuominen, Ilkka; Valtaoja, Esko

2004-09-01

263

Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

2006-08-01

264

TOPS and Beyond: Training Master Teachers to Mentor Student Astronomy Projects Using the Faulkes Telescope-North  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2003 was the fifth and final year of the NSF-funded ``Towards Other Planetary Systems'' (TOPS) secondary school teacher training program conducted by the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai'i. While previous years concentrated on basic astronomy skills, cultural astronomy and astrobiology, TOPS 2003 focused on training master teachers and prior TOPS participants in the requisite skills to mentor student projects using the Faulkes Telescope-North (FTN), a 2-meter telescope under construction at the Haleakala High Altitude Observatory. The FTN and a twin in Australia will be the world's largest telescopes dedicated solely to education. This poster presentation describes the teacher's experiences with several prototype astrobiology projects suitable for a 2-meter-class telescope, including monitoring variable stars in star-forming regions, detecting extrasolar planet transits, and observing objects in the Kuiper Belt. Plans for partnering teachers with amateur astronomers proficient in observational techniques are also discussed; the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) is a likely reservoir of such individuals. The recent selection of a University of Hawai'i group led by the TOPS Director as a NASA Astrobiology Institute Lead Team will provide a framework for development of teacher-student-amateur astronomer teams advised by professional astronomers and conducting astrobiology research. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, ESI-9731083, and through University of Maryland and University of Hawaii subcontract Z667702, which was awarded under prime contract NASW-00004 from NASA.

Bedient, J.; Meech, K. J.; Kadooka, M. A.; Mattei, J. A.; Hamai, J.; Hemphill, R.; Hu, S.

2003-05-01

265

The WINNER (wireless world initiative new radio) project-development of a radio interface for systems beyond 3G  

Microsoft Academic Search

WINNER is an international research project under framework program 6 (FP6) of the European Commission. The main objective is the development of the new radio interface for systems beyond 3G. WINNER is part of the wireless world initiative (WWI), which is a series of cooperating projects in FP6 to develop future systems including all entities from a system perspective. The

Werner Mohr

2005-01-01

266

Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) - Working with national communication administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Astronomy detects extremely faint radio signals from space, and hence is very susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from other radio communication services. Although radio astronomy has been allocated some radio bands by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), cosmic radio emissions occur over the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, there is a need for radio telescopes to operate

Anastasios Tzioumis

2008-01-01

267

INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

2007-01-01

268

INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

2007-01-01

269

Learning Astronomy by Doing Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modern science curriculum, students should learn science knowledge or "facts"; they should develop science skills, strategies, and habits of mind; they should understand the applications of science to technology, society, and the environment; and they should cultivate appropriate attitudes toward science. While science knowledge may be taught through traditional lecture-and-textbook methods, theories of learning (and extensive experience) show that other aspects of the curriculum are best taught by doing science -- not just hands-on activities, but "minds-on" engagement. That means more than the usual "cookbook" activities in which students use a predetermined procedure to achieve a predetermined result. The activities should be "authentic"; they should mirror the actual scientific process. In this presentation, I will describe several ways to include science processes within astronomy courses at the middle school, high school, and introductory university level. Among other things, I will discuss: topics that reflect cultural diversity and "the nature of science"; strategies for developing science process skills through projects and other practical work; activities based on those developed and carried out by amateur astronomers; topics and activities suitable for technical-level courses (we refer to them as "applied" in my province); projects for astronomy clubs and science fairs; and topics that expose students to astronomy research within lecture courses.

Percy, J. R.

2006-08-01

270

Elementary astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

Fierro, J.

2006-08-01

271

The Beginning of Modern Infrared Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I came to the attention of astronomers through inventing the low temperature bolometer at Texas Instruments. I was quickly drawn into pioneering infrared (IR) astronomy. I soon transferred to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and then to the University of Arizona to make astronomy my focus. Parallel programs were getting under way at the California Institute of Technology, Cornell, the

Frank J. Low; G. H. Rieke; R. D. Gehrz

2007-01-01

272

Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

Menietti, J. Douglas

1994-07-01

273

GAVRT and Radio Jove: Partners in K-12 Science Teacher Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http:\\/\\/www.lewiscenter.org\\/gavrt) and The Radio Jove Project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) have a recent partnership to train K-14 teachers to use radio astronomy telescopes as vehicles for science education. The partnership is part of the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) education and outreach program. Teachers attend training workshops to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and\\/or

C. A. Higgins; J. R. Thieman; B. Nakamura; R. Dorcey

2010-01-01

274

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

275

The WINNER (Wireless World Initiative New Radio) Project - Development of a Radio Interface for Systems Beyond 3G  

Microsoft Academic Search

   WINNER is an international research project under Framework Program 6 (FP6) of the European Commission. The main objective\\u000a is the development of the new radio interface for systems beyond 3G. WINNER is part of the Wireless World Initiative (WWI),\\u000a which is a series of cooperating projects in FP6 to develop future systems including all entities from a system perspective.\\u000a The

Werner Mohr

2007-01-01

276

Remote Access Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)|

O'Connor, Erin

1994-01-01

277

The beginnings of decameter radio astronomy: pioneering works of Semen Ya. Braude and his followers in Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

S.Ya. Braude (1911-2003) was the well-known radio astronomer, one of the founders of low-frequency astronomical research in the world, in particular in the former Soviet Union. He began to work in this field of science in 1957, in Kharkiv city (Ukraine), from the design and manufacturing small decameter interferometer ID-1 and ID-2. Since that time Braude and his team have

I. B. Vavilova; A. A. Konovalenko; A. V. Megn

2007-01-01

278

Air Shower Measurements with Radio Antennas: The LOPES Project  

SciTech Connect

LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and calibrate radio pulses from Extensive Air Showers. LOPES is designed as a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. First results of the LOPES experiment are very promising for a future large scale application of the technique to detect cosmic rays of highest energies.

Haungs, Andreas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2008-01-24

279

The role of the atmosphere in satellite geodesy, radio astronomy and other applications of trans-atmospheric propagation of radio waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the atmosphere on radio waves relevant to technological applications is investigated theoretically, and the associated errors are classified and defined. Range errors are defined as the length of the phase path minus the geometric distance, and range errors are divided into those related to the troposphere and those related to the ionosphere. Ground-path error and group delay are also mentioned as important errors which can influence the angle of arrival and direct ranging. Ionospheric range errors are defined in terms of first-order and higher-order errors including the second-order refraction error, and the pulse-travel-time delay is mentioned. The parameters required to estimate ionospheric errors include slant electron content, and mean ionospheric height, and the second-order errors require knowledge of the vertical electron content, the equivalent slant thickness, the height of the F-layer peak, and the shape factor.

Leitinger, R.

280

Early Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and

Hugh Thurston

1996-01-01

281

Developing Astronomy in Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

2006-08-01

282

MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

2006-12-01

283

Early Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

Thurston, Hugh

284

Astronomy Education and Popularization Facilities at Guanajuato University in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Astronomy Department of Universidad de Guanajuato, 400 km NW of Mexico City, nine professional astronomers do research and teaching at both graduate and undergraduate level. In addition, in the last few years, this group has carried out astronomy popularization activities at three different sites. First, a rudimentary observatory named "La Azotea" (the roof) on the top of the main building of the University (at Guanajuato centre), which includes a 16-cm refractor in a dome, a couple of XIXth century astronomical instruments, and a classroom with capacity for 50 people. The refractor was out of use for about twelve years but will be fully operational before summer 2006. Second, the "Observatorio de La Luz", 20 kms away from Guanajuato centre, includes a professional 0.6m Cassegrain and a 2m radio telescope, with a 21cm receiver. Finally, on the roof of the Astronomy Department headquarters, an optical 0.4m Dobsonian is available. We also dispose of internet connection everywhere and 6 portable 8-inch telescopes (two at each site), devoted to regular astronomical observations for the general public, specially for scholars. Numerous repair works are currently carried out on the building of "La Azotea", and recently a project to establish there a Centre for Popularization of Astronomy has been approved by the Regional Science Council. The main activities, some of them currently developed at these sites are: (1) A permanent program of astronomical observations for a wide audience. (2) Training in Observational Astronomy for physics undergraduate students. (3) Regular talks on astronomy and other science domains. (4) Summer schools in Astronomy for elementary and high-school teachers. (5) In the near future, the foundation of an amateur society of astronomy.

Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Schroeder, K.-P.; Ramirez, L.

2006-08-01

285

Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

Orchiston, Wayne

2005-01-01

286

EAAE and Astronomy for European schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) is to promote astronomy education in schools and to stimulate the interest of pupils and students for astronomy. European projects for students and teachers such as Catch a Star, Sea and Space Life in the Universe, Physics on Stage and EAAE-Summer Schools show the different EAAE activities. Science on Stage 2005 and the European Astronomy Day 2007, two joint European projects with EAAE involvement are presented.

Wagner, F.

2005-11-01

287

Astronomy: Research in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activities at this site include modeling pixels with graph paper, investigating parallax, and calculating the distance modulus of Cepheid variables. Background material includes a discussion about various telescopes and other remote sensing, and the difference between brightness and magnitude of stars. Students are instructed to add the words radio telescope, black hole, Milky Way Galaxy, light year, parallax, magnitude, Cepheid variables, and North Star to their vocabulary lists. This site is the fourth of six lessons in astronomy.

288

Advanced Amateur Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Telescope optics; 2. Atmosphere, seeing, magnification and eyepieces; 3. Telescope hardware and adjustments; 4. Astrophotography with the camera; 5. Astrophotography through the telescope; 6. Electronic imaging; 7. The Moon; 8. The terrestrial planets; 9. The gas-giant planets; 10. Comets, asteroids, meteors and aurorae; 11. The Sun; 12. Variable stars and novae; 13. Methods of photometry; 14. Double stars, star clusters, nebulae, galaxies and supernovae; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Radio astronomy; 17. Further information; Appendix: useful formulae.

North, Gerald

1997-08-01

289

Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE we are very well informed about Greek and Babylonian astronomy, almost nothing was known of an Egyptian calculating astronomy until very recently. This situation, however, has been completely altered by the discovery and investigation of a number of Demotic texts. In the beautiful collection of Egyptian papyri belonging to the Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen, A. Volten found an astronomical

O. Neugebauer

1939-01-01

290

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

291

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Ricky Leon Murphy of Astronomy Online, is a collection of references, images, and information for general astronomy. This work covers topics from the basics of science and observation through the solar system, stars, cosmology, and astrobiology. The material is clearly organized by topic using links to reference materials on the web.

Murphy, Ricky L.

2010-01-19

292

Binocular Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often supposed that anyone who means to take a serious interest in astronomy must acquire a large and expensive telescope. Nothing could be further from the truth. A great deal can be done with the naked eye alone, as is described in NAKED-EYE ASTRONOMY. It is true that a telescope costs a considerable amount of money, and the

P. Moore

2000-01-01

293

Intermediate Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

294

Primary Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

295

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book offers a unique collection -- the first of its kind -- of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, publication studies, research indicators, space science planning, research communication, public outreach, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable by readers not necessarily hyper-specialized in astronomy, while still providing specific detailed information. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, science sociologists, research planners and strategists, project managers, and public relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6671-9

Heck, André

2000-11-01

296

The New Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There's more to the Universe than meets the eye. In a marvelous review of multi-wavelength astronomy, The New Astronomy compares traditional optical images to infrared, ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray astronomical observations of a staggering variety of cosmic objects. With over 300 photographs and images obtained by telescopes and detectors operating at different wavelengths, the authors present startlingly different views of the solar system, stars, galaxies and, in this new edition, Halley's Comet and Supernova 1987A. Specially processed by astronomers worldwide, these images reveal in spectacular detail otherwise invisible events such as starbirth, stardeath, and distant quasar eruptions. Emphasizing the physical processes that produce astronomical radiation, they explain how the observations have expanded our existing knowledge and provided new discoveries. They also describe the new techniques in nontechnical language. By giving equal weight to observations at all wavelengths, this book corrects the bias toward optical astronomy and objectively presents all views of the Universe. It will appeal to everyone interested in the mysteries of astronomy. Nigel Henbest and Michael Marten previously collaborated (along with Heather Couper) on The Guide to the Galaxy (CUP, 1994).

Henbest, Nigel; Marten, Michael

1996-08-01

297

Astronomy in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching and research. Joint supervision for postgraduate level research was organized between local and Iraqi expatriate astronomers. The IAU was among the first international organizations to offer assistance. Many observatories worldwide have also given support. Plans will be proposed for re-building the Observatory, supporting teaching and research, and establishing an institute for astronomy in Erbil, together with further suggestions on how the international astronomical community can assist Iraqi astronomers.

Alsabti, A. W.

2006-08-01

298

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather fine website is a must-visit for anyone involved in teaching college-level astronomy. The Astronomy Center is sponsored by the American Astronomical Society, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the National Science Foundation, among other distinguished organizations. Visitors can get started by looking over the Recent Additions area, which in the past has included features on the phases of the moon, interactive activities related to fossil stars, and a telescope primer for educators. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse By Topic area to find specific materials on 13 subjects, including galaxies, the solar system, and the Milky Way. Also, visitors can browse by document type, where the headings include Simulations, Projects, and Labs. The Cosmic Time and Distance area is a real delight, as it includes activities that will challenge students to explore the concepts of parallax and aberration of light as they apply to astronomy.

2012-06-08

299

Project 8: A Neutrino Mass Experiment at Radio Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the neutrino mass affects the spectral shape of tritium beta decay electrons, experiments have yet to observe this distortion and provide only an upper limit on the neutrino mass. The Project 8 Experiment proposes to measure this spectral distortion in a novel way: through coherent cyclotron emission of the beta electrons confined in a magnetic field. The relativistic frequency shift of emitted radiation depends on the total energy of the electron and may provide greater resolution than other techniques. This presentation covers the status of a prototype to demonstrate single-electron detection and energy measurement at energies near the tritium endpoint, 18.6 keV, through cyclotron emission. Results from the prototype experiment are expected to be of value in estimating the scale and sensitivity of a neutrino mass experiment based on this technique.

Leber, Michelle

2011-04-01

300

Project Cyclops: The Greatest Radio Telescope Never Built  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each summer NASA sponsors a number of research and development projects at their various research centers across the country, often in cooperation with a nearby university. Selected groups of university faculty and professionals are brought together to study some research problem of interest to NASA, and to provide continuing education for the participants. The great advantage of these summer research programs is that NASA gains the experience of talented people who can look at problems with fresh eyes and no preconceived solutions. The participants are freed from their normal day-to-day responsibilities, and can let their imaginations run wild and be totally dedicated to the problem at hand. These programs are exhilarating, wonderful and can even be career-changing experiences.

Dixon, Robert

301

Long-Wavelength Astronomy on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a variety of proposals for a long-wavelength radio astronomical telescope on the Moon since soon after the first human landings. We highlight two aspects of the Moon that make it particularly appealing for long-wavelength radio astronomy. 1. There are locations on the Moon that can be shielded completely from terrestrial emissions and at least partially from solar

J. Lazio; R. J. MacDowall; D. L. Jones; J. C. Kasper; K. Weiler; S. D. Bale; S. Neff

2006-01-01

302

Development of Astronomy in the USSR (Fifty Years of Soviet Science and Technology) Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Radio astronomy; Stellar cosmogony; Development of planetary cosmogony; Latest problems in planetary cosmogony; Cosmology; The study of outer space using artificial earth satellites and robot space stations; Studies in the history of astronomy; ...

A. A. Mikhailov M. S. Zverev G. A. Chebotarev B. A. Bronshten O. B. Dobrovolskii

1969-01-01

303

The Role of the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy among Middle and High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to…

Ibe, Mary; Deutscher, Rebecca

304

The Role of the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy among Middle and High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to…

Ibe, Mary; Deutscher, Rebecca

305

The Role of Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy Among Middle and High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to determine his or her ability to understand and

Mary Ibe; Rebecca Deutscher

2004-01-01

306

Ancient Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lecture and study guide presents evidence of the interest of ancient civilizations in astronomy. It first summarizes the apparent motions of the planets on the sky. Next, the ways early societies made and recorded observations of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars are described. The Mayans are used as an example of how great accomplishments in astronomy helped shape a society's behavior. The material also includes information about the difficulties in interpreting ancient astronomical observatories do to the precession of the polar axis and a discussion of cyclic phenomena associated with the motion of the Moon.

O'Connell, Robert

2008-02-26

307

Early Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest investigations that we can relate to what is now science are observations of the sky: Astronomy. The earliest written records of every civilization we know of - from China, Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates and Indus valleys, Central America, the Andes, and so forth - all contain at least some astronomical texts. There are in addition monuments and artifacts that show a clear interest in astronomy, such as Stonehenge and rock paintings, from cultures that left no written records. The interest in celestial phenomena contributed to the development of Babylonian arithmetic and Greek geometry.

Thurston, Hugh

308

"Astronomy from the Chair" - A New Way of Doing Astronomy over Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how the emergence of the Internet enabled astronomy to become more prevalent as a hobby and contribute to the further development of the new concept of amateur astronomy, "Astronomy from the Chair" (example: Astronomy Live and Virtual Astronomy Telescope Project Group). In this paper we also present the observatories that make it possible to take direct control over their equipment and to conduct observation and photography (example: MyTelescope and Virtual Telescope Project Group), and virtual observatories which can be accessed huge databases and carry out its processing directly through the Internet (example: Galaxy Zoo, Planet Hunters and citizensky).

Tomic, Z.; Aleksic, J.

2012-12-01

309

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

Simmons, Mike

2009-01-01

310

ESO's Astronomy Education Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, has operated a programme of astronomy education for some years, with a dedicated Educational Office established in 2001. We organise a range of activities, which we will highlight and discuss in this presentation. Many are run in collaboration with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), such as the "Catch a Star!" competition for schools, now in its fourth year. A new endeavour is the ALMA Interdisciplinary Teaching Project (ITP). In conjunction with the EAAE, we are creating a set of interdisciplinary teaching materials based around the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project. The unprecedented astronomical observations planned with ALMA, as well as the uniqueness of its site high in the Atacama Desert, offer excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching that also encompass physics, engineering, earth sciences, life sciences, and culture. Another ongoing project in which ESO takes part is the "Science on Stage" European science education festival, organised by the EIROforum - the group of seven major European Intergovernmental Research Organisations, of which ESO is a member. This is part of the European Science Teaching Initiative, along with Science in School, a newly-launched European journal for science educators. Overviews of these projects will be given, including results and lessons learnt. We will also discuss possibilities for a future European Astronomy Day project, as a new initiative for European-wide public education.

Pierce-Price, D. P. I.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

2006-08-01

311

Astronomy: Project Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents classroom activities and reading materials. The activities use a hands-on approach and address the standards. Each features both a student section and a teacher guide. Eleven activities include: (1) "It's Only a Paper Moon"; (2) "Time Traveler"; (3) "Solar System Scale"; (4) "Hello Out There!"; (5) "How Far to the Star?"; (6)…

Smith, P. Sean

312

Egyptian astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, stars and planets were seen as goods and astronomy was practiced by priests in the temples. The most important time cycle of the Egyptian calendar was that of the heliac rising of Sirius during all the history of Ancient Egypt. Thus Egyptian astronomers built a calendar of 365 days, which was never corrected and in which the heliacal

H. Andrillat

1997-01-01

313

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

314

Early Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest investigations that we can relate to what is now science are observations of the sky: Astronomy. The earliest written records of every civilization we know of - from China, Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates and Indus valleys, Central America, the Andes, and so forth - all contain at least some astronomical texts. There are in addition monuments and artifacts that

Hugh Thurston

1994-01-01

315

Astronomy Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

Greenstone, Sid

316

Astronomy Adventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections:…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1986-01-01

317

Astronomy Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has 11 kid-friendly books on a wide range of astronomy topics. For each title, the publisher and publication date are included along with author name. The list includes engaging stories, field guides and other reference books.

318

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

319

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

320

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

321

Astronomy in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

Rosenzweig, Patricia

322

100 Hours of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years

Mike Simmons

2009-01-01

323

Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

2010-12-01

324

Grassroots Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congress has a large impact on the amount and quality of astronomical research that takes place in the United States. By funding NASA and NSF, as well as other agencies such as the Department of Education and the Department of Defense, the Federal Government enables U.S. astronomers to perform cutting edge research. However, Congress makes decisions based on input from citizens. It the citizens are silent on an issue, Congress does not know it exists. Last summer the U.S.amatuer community rallied in support of professional research, resulting in a healthy budget for both NASA and NSF astronomy research. I will present a summary of how the funding process works and how and why amateurs can and should help ensure continued research funding for U.S. astronomy.

Marvel, Kevin B.

325

Popular Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. The System of the World Historically Developed: Introduction; 1. The ancient astronomy, or the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies; 2. The Copernican system, or the true motions of the heavenly bodies; 3. Universal gravitation; Part II. Practical Astronomy: Introductory remarks; 1. The telescope; 2. Application of the telescope to celestial measurements; 3. Measuring distances in the heavens; 4. The motion of light; 5. The spectroscope; Part III. The Solar System: 1. General structure of the solar system; 2. The sun; 3. The inner group of planets; 4. The outer group of planets; 5. Comets and meteors; Part IV. The Stellar Universe: 1. The stars as they are seen; 2. The structure of the universe; 3. The cosmogony; Addendum to Part III chapter 2; Appendix; Index; Addendum II, the satellites of Mars; Explanation of the star maps.

Newcomb, Simon

2011-10-01

326

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ricky Leon Murphy decided to create this website when he was working towards a masterÂs degree in astronomy, and he still keeps it updated regularly, along with the assistance of his wife, Chanthirar. The site has been the recipient of several awards over the past few years, and visitors looking for basic and accessible information about the world of astronomy will not be disappointed. Near the top of the homepage, visitors will see a number of thematic areas, including ÂOur GalaxyÂ, CosmologyÂ, ÂExoplanetsÂ, and ÂAstrophotographyÂ. In the ÂOur Galaxy section, visitors will find a number of short and informative essays on our own galaxy, along with pieces about the evolution of formation of other galaxies. Visitors will also appreciate the wide range of images available in the ÂAstrophotography section, which happens to include both professional and amateur images.

Murphy, Ricky L.

327

US Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the 19th century ended, astronomy underwent a period of rapid growth in the United States, a growth that was fueled by both the expansion of the university system and private philanthropy and which also paralleled the growth in astrophysical research. For the first half of the 20th century, the US government took little interest in the funding of astronomical research, concentrating on those a...

Marvel, K.; Milkey, R.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

328

Communicating Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

2007-08-01

329

Humanising Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

Levin, S.

2008-06-01

330

The design of a radio frequency quadrupole LINAC for the RIB project at VECC Kolkata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio frequency quadrupole LINAC has been designed for the VECC-RIB project for an input beam energy of 1.0 keV/u and q/A? 1/16. The output energy will be about 90 keV/u for a 3.4 m long, 35 MHz structure. A half-scale cold model of the RFQ has been fabricated and tested for rf structure design study. The beam dynamics and rf-structure design along with the results of the cold model tests will be presented.

Banerjee, V.; Chakrabarti, Alok; Bandyopadhyay, Arup; Bhaumik, T. K.; Mondal, M.; Chakraborty, T. K.; Pande, H.; Kamigaito, O.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

2002-12-01

331

Undergraduate Astronomy Imaging Labortatory: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Iowa has set up a CCD-based astronomy laboratory for undergraduate astronomy courses, with emphasis on use in a freshman-level introductory course. The equipment consists of a computer-controlled mount with several Cassegrain optical systems (10-35cm aperture) and medium format CCD cameras. The system is completely automated, including dome control, filter selection, focus, and pointing corrections. This allows the student to concentrate on planning, executing, and analyzing interesting scientific projects without extensive technical training. The images are analyzed on a network of ten 486 PC's which are connected to the CCD-control computer for easy image file access. We will present sample results from a large number of solar system, stellar, and extragalactic observations. We have also developed a number of `cloudy-sky' laboratory exercises using CD-ROM images from the NASA planetary spacecraft (e.g. Voyager, Magellan, Viking) as well as maps from radio, infrared, and x-ray surveys. We plan to upgrade this system to allow remote operation of a dark-site telescope within one year. A video of the equipment and a demonstration of the telescope control software will be shown. Also, samples of a laboratory manual will be available illustrating the types of observations and cloudy-sky exercises which have been done.

Mutel, R. L.; Sauerbrei, P. J.; Ottenheimer, A.

1992-12-01

332

Practical Semantic Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

2010-01-01

333

National Radio Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) "operates powerful, advanced radio telescopes spanning the western hemisphere." The website is nicely divided into information for the general public, astronomers, and teachers and students. Users can learn all about NRAO's many telescopes located throughout the United States. Researchers can find out about meetings, conferences, software resources, and surveys. Amateur radio astronomers can find links describing how to build antennas and interferometers. Everyone will enjoy the numerous images of astronomical phenomena and NRAO's telescopes and facilities.

334

Some radio meteor news  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio meteor observing for astronomy purposes is still alive, despite the fact that traditional TV transmitters used for decades tend to disappear. Radio observers are now starting to develop their own dedicated transmitters, and are using new kinds of transmitters, such as military and radio-navigation systems to continue their studies. Encouraging results are also obtained in the aeronomy/geophysics domain when searching for evidence of modifications of the Earth/ionosphere waveguide by discrete ionized meteor trails.

Rault, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

335

Reports on Astronomy 2010-2012 (IAU XXVIIIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Fundamental astronomy; 2. Sun and heliosphere; 3. Planetary systems science; 4. Stars; 5. Variable stars; 6. Interstellar matter; 7. Galactic system; 8. Galaxies and the Universe; 9. Optical and infrared techniques; 10. Radio astronomy; 11. Space and high energy astrophysics; 12. Union-wide activities; 13. Executive committee; Index.

Corbett, Ian F.

2012-04-01

336

Egyptian astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Egypt, stars and planets were seen as goods and astronomy was practiced by priests in the temples. The most important time cycle of the Egyptian calendar was that of the heliac rising of Sirius during all the history of Ancient Egypt. Thus Egyptian astronomers built a calendar of 365 days, which was never corrected and in which the heliacal raising was evidently shifting at the rate of one day every four years. The year had twelve months of thirty days and a holy period of five days.

Andrillat, H.

337

Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of participants; Preface; 1. Star formation Francesco Palla; 2. Last stages of stellar evolution Stuart R. Pottasch; 3. The Milky Way galaxy and the galactic centre Gerard Gilmore; 4. Galaxies in the infrared Charles M. Telesco; 5. Cosmology Robert D. Joseph; 6. G25.2+0.2, a new ring nebula around a luminous blue star: case study for the importance of IR observations Eric E. Becklin; 7. Two colloquia on cosmic dust N. Chandra Wickramasingle; 8. Infrared instrumentation Ian S. McLean; 9. Infrared astronomy with satellites Thijs de Graauw.

Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

2004-01-01

338

Astronomie und Astrophysik (Astronomy and Astrophysics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An historic review of astronomy and astrophysics is presented. Astronomy is principally the observation of stars and the estimation of their position and moving. Fixed stars are distinguishable from the Sun, the Moon and the planets. Before the seventeent...

1989-01-01

339

Popularising science through astronomy, an Algerian experience in grassroot activism and its academic spin-off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate the success story of an amateur astronomy association based at Constantine, which has spearheaded the efforts of spreading astronomy and scientific culture in Algeria. This association has organised throughout the past decade many activities from large national yearly gatherings to a weekly radio program, through public sighting campaigns. It has been instrumental in the establishment of a pluri-university graduate study program in astrophysics, the so called Ecole Doctorale d'Astrophysique (EDA), the first of its kind in Algeria. We describe in particular how astronomers from various parts of Algeria involved in amateur astronomy have known each other, and banded together to the point of constituting a critical size group able to set up such a national graduate program with plans for the establishment of the first observatory in our country, the Aurès Observatory in Eastern Algeria Aurès mountain range. A strong interest for the project has been shown by the astronomical community, some site testing undertaken, and international collaboration sought. With some dedicated support, its foundation could take place within the year 2009. Could IAY2009 be turned into an annus mirabilis for Algeria and a showcase for the astronomy community worldwide with behind it a textbook case of synergy between amateur astronomy and academic endeavor in the astronomical sciences?

Mimouni, Jamal

2011-06-01

340

Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a discussion of scientific opportunities for astronomy (galaxies and the universe, stars, and planets/life/intelligence), four programs recommended by the National Academy of Sciences' Astronomy Survey Committee are described, indicating areas that must be strengthened before undertaking the programs. Ongoing projects are also…

Field, George B.

1982-01-01

341

Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following a discussion of scientific opportunities for astronomy (galaxies and the universe, stars, and planets/life/intelligence), four programs recommended by the National Academy of Sciences' Astronomy Survey Committee are described, indicating areas that must be strengthened before undertaking the programs. Ongoing projects are also…

Field, George B.

1982-01-01

342

Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Department of Education and its partners at Columbus State and Georgia Southern Universities are engaged in creating a comprehensive program to institutionalize high quality astronomy in its high schools. The goal of the Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools (GEARS) project is to transform the way high-school Astronomy is taught in 100% of GA's public schools by 2012. GEARS

Zodiac T. Webster; J. C. Aguilar; S. J. U. Higdon

2010-01-01

343

The Political Uses of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its first twelve years of rule the African National Congress (ANC) Government spent more on astronomy than all governments combined between 1910-1993. Three factors drove this unexpected development: (a) national prestige; (b) dignity of the continent of Africa; and (c) Black dignity. Both astronomy and astronautics project an image of modernity - the cutting edge of high technology. When the Government supports initiatives such as SALT, SKA, the proposed national space agency, and microsats, it does so because it perceives these as having a political importance far beyond their intrinsic importance to astronomy. These project "soft power" - an image of modernity to foreign powers and foreign investors - which contribute to their intangible perceptions of South Africa. Astronomers need to encourage this trend by both greatly increasing public outreach programmes and by making representations to the media, Parliament, and other public authorities, on issues such as light pollution.

Gottschalk, K.

2007-07-01

344

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

345

INSA Scientific Activities in the Space Astronomy Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to astronomy operations is an important and long-lived activity within INSA. Probably the best known (and traditional) INSA activities are those related with real-time spacecraft operations: ground station maintenance and operation (ground station engineers and operators); spacecraft and payload real-time operation (spacecraft and instruments controllers); computing infrastructure maintenance (operators, analysts), and general site services. In this paper, we’ll show a different perspective, probably not so well-known, presenting some INSA recent activities at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) and NASA Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) directly related to scientific operations. Basic lines of activity involved include: operations support for science operations; system and software support for real time systems; technical administration and IT support; R&D activities, radioastronomy (at MDSCC and ESAC), and scientific research projects. This paper is structured as follows: first, INSA activities in two ESA cornerstone astrophysics missions, XMM-Newton and Herschel, will be outlined. Then, our activities related to scientific infrastructure services, represented by the Virtual Observatory (VO) framework and the Science Archives development facilities, are briefly shown. Radio astronomy activities will be described afterwards, and, finally, a few research topics in which INSA scientists are involved will also be described.

Pérez Martínez, Ricardo; Sánchez Portal, Miguel

346

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

347

Center for Astronomy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is dedicated to the professional development of introductory astronomy instructors. The Center for Astronomy Education is designed to connect practicing astronomy instructors in order to share ideas, pose questions, and suggest successful practices. In addition to useful links and resources, the principal partner in this site is the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona.

Brissenden, Gina

2005-06-17

348

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

349

CASA: Common Astronomy Software Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASA is a suite of tools for radio data calibration and imaging with an iPython interface. It is freely available to the general community, and is being developed with the primary goal of supporting the data post-processing needs of the next generation of radio astronomical telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the Expanded Very Large Array. The 3.0 release (December 2009) is the first non-beta one, and has several new features which will be highlighted. The consortium of developers is led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and includes the European Southern Observatory, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, ASTRON, and the Australia Telescope National Facility.

Reid, Robert I.; CASA Team

2010-01-01

350

Observations of high-latitude clouds of neutral hydrogen in the 18-centimeter OH radio lines  

SciTech Connect

Searches for absorption in the 1667 and 1665 MHz lines of the OH molecule were made in high-latitude clouds of neutral hydrogen with large velocities, projected against the extragalactic radio sources 3C 123, 3C 254, 3C 266, and 3C 294. The observations were made on the Large Radio Telescope of the Nancay Radio Astronomy Station (France). The upper limits of the optical depth in the OH lines were estimated. A ratio N/sub OH//N/sub H/ /sub I/ <8.5x10/sup -6/ was obtained for the -73 km/sec HI cloud in the direction of 3C 123.

Pashchenko, M.I.; Rudnitskii, G.M.

1979-09-01

351

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the claims of certain science fiction novels and films, humans cannot see in infrared. As many people know, the primary source of infrared radiation is heat, and the study of infrared astronomy allows scientists to detect radiation emitted from objects throughout the universe. This delightful website (created by NASA and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology) provides a wide range of material on this fascinating area of scientific study. Visitors can lean about the discovery of infrared, learn about the technology that is used in such endeavors, and of course, look over dozens of infrared images and video clips. Educators will be glad to learn that there are a number of activities offered here for use in the classroom, including one that will help students learn how to build a photocell detector.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

352

News Demonstrations: Lecture showcases the best of physics Astronomy: April 2011 celebrates astronomy Award: Physics project wins Guardian innovation award Teaching: Liverpool conference inspires teachers Media: Physics Education finds fame at last Conference: Network stimulates physics at ASE Lectures: University of Oxford hosts a crowd for an update on physics Materials: Goldsmiths course lets teachers get to grips with materials Workshop: Stimulating Physics workshop offers places for teachers and technicians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demonstrations: Lecture showcases the best of physics Astronomy: April 2011 celebrates astronomy Award: Physics project wins Guardian innovation award Teaching: Liverpool conference inspires teachers Media: Physics Education finds fame at last Conference: Network stimulates physics at ASE Lectures: University of Oxford hosts a crowd for an update on physics Materials: Goldsmiths course lets teachers get to grips with materials Workshop: Stimulating Physics workshop offers places for teachers and technicians

2011-03-01

353

The Astronomy Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Workshop (http:\\/\\/janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy

D. P. Hamilton; M. L. Asbury

1999-01-01

354

Astronomy in Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syria has been involved in the field of astronomy since 1997, when Prof. F.R. QUERCI, France, visited Syria and made a presentation on the International NORT project; (NORT: the Network of Oriental Robotic Telescope), which was a selected project of the sixth United Nations/ European Space Agency Workshop on Basic Space Science (document no. A/AC.105/657 dated 13/12/1996). NORT aims to establish a robotic telescope network on high mountain peaks around the Tropic of Cancer, from Morocco in the west to the desert of China in the east. The purposes for establishing this network are technical and educational. The General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS) has carried out a pilot study using remote sensing techniques and has selected four sites in order to determine the best location for the astronomical observatory the within NORT programme. Following this project, GORS decided to establish an office for astronomical studies, one of the earliest works of GORS in astronomy was an initiative to establish a planetarium within the GORS campus, to accommodate approximately 120 observers. A contest to choose the best planetarium design, for the Arab World, took place at GORS.

Al-Mousli, A. T.

2006-11-01

355

Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)

Kruglak, Haym

1973-01-01

356

AstronomyCenter.org - A Digital Library for Astronomy 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS is sponsoring the development of a digital collection of online resources for teaching introductory astronomy: astronomycenter.org. Astronomy Center is part of the ComPADRE project with the AIP and its member organizations (see Deustua et al. at this meeting). The goal of Astronomy Center is to build a portal that will be a broad collection of high-quality digital resources, a useful and inviting interface to search and browse the collection, and an online meeting place for faculty at a variety of institutions to gather and share information. The collection will be launched in early 2005 and will initially contain a few hundred resources, selected primarily by Astronomy Center staff. The collection will grow through user and author submissions. Meanwhile, resources will be peer-reviewed and featured on the site as the collection grows. We will present the astronomycenter.org site, the user interface, some resources in the collection, the peer review process, and how members of the community can get involved with Astronomy Center. This work was made possible by a NSF National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Digital Library (NSDL) grant to the AAPT, AIP, and AAS.

Gagne, M.; Monahan, P.; Deustua, S.; Mason, B.

2004-12-01

357

Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project  

SciTech Connect

This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

P. E. Klingsporn

2005-11-14

358

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

359

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

360

Radioastron (Spectr-R project)—a radio telescope much larger than the earth: Ground segment and key science areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space interferometer Radioastron is working jointly with the largest radio telescopes of the world. Ground tracking stations provide for retrieving the information and determining the orbital parameters for data processing centers. The project is aimed at systematic studies of images of radio emitting regions, their coordinates, and time-dependent variations near super-massive black holes in galactic nuclei, stellarmass black holes, neutron and quark stars, regions of star and planet formation in our and other galaxies, the structure of interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the Earth's gravitational field.

Alexandrov, Yu. A.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Zinoviev, A. N.; Komaev, R. V.; Kanevskiy, B. Z.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Larionov, M. G.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Sakharov, B. A.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Yakimov, V. E.

2012-12-01

361

Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

Simmons, M.

2011-10-01

362

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy activities at these events which were attended by approximately 50,000 people.

Lubowich, D.

2010-08-01

363

CASA: Common Astronomy Software Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, is being developed with the primary goal of supporting the data post-processing needs of the next generation of radio astronomical telescopes such as ALMA and EVLA. The package can process both interferometric and single dish data. The CASA infrastructure consists of a set of C++ tools bundled together under an iPython interface as a set of data reduction tasks. This structure provides flexibility to process the data via task interface or as a python script. In addition to the data reduction tasks, many post-processing tools are available for even more flexibility and special purpose reduction needs.

International Consortium Of Scientists

2011-07-01

364

URSI/IEEE XXIV Convention on Radio Science. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main topics of the convention are: electromagnetics; radio systems and circuits; radio astronomy and space research; applications and algorithms for wireless communication; advanced design techniques for wireless systems and circuits.

Valtaoja, E.; Wiik, K.

365

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

366

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Vol. 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This volume will be most usefully read by researchers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space sciences.

Heck, Andre

2006-12-01

367

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, volume 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the fourth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, society activities, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, environmental constraints, educational policies, public outreach, journal and magazine profiles, publication studies, electronic-media problematics, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national policies and specificities, expertise sharing, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1526-7

Heck, A.

2003-10-01

368

Future space vlbi on lunar orbits and in the radio shadow on the farside of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space VLBI offers the most advanced and most powerful resolution in any kind of Radio Astronomy. There is an ever growing level of human-made radio interference from both the terrestrial and from Earth orbiting powerful radio transmitters. It may render in the already not the very distant future to make ground based Radio Astronomy and VLBI difficult or impossible. It is obvious that the farside of the Moon offers us the very best radio observing site that can be found in the nearby Solar System regions. The first VLBI on the Moon was proposed way back in 1965. It was then suggested to use two radio telescopes on mutually perpendicular lunar orbits and one based on the Moon. Th s idea was stimulated by the Apollo Projecti and the discussions on the Lunar International Laboratory which was to follow the lunar conquest. The Apollo project has ended without any follow up for nearly 3 decades. It seems that now the time is ripe for the most serious preparatory work to be resumed for securing this most valuable natural resource for the future Radio Astronomy. An instrumental and observing programme taking advantage of this quietest observing site using the lunar radio shadow VLBI is discussed. The Lunar far-side environment offers superior radio quiet spectrum from the kHz to the IR. There is no scattering, absorption and refraction permitting communication among the orbiting satelites and the lunar base using IR beams. The about 6 time weakers lunar gravity, allows very light construction practices, with additional benefits of the lack of wind and snow loading. Radio telescopes in lunar orbits benefit even more, because they operate with only micro-gravitational loading due to lunar mas coon "deformations" of the lunar orbits. This permits cobweb like construction practices, inflated in lunar orbit. Additional gain results from the saving of energy needed from absence of the decelerating rocket needed for lunar landing of the radio telescope.

Gorgolewski, S.

369

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

370

T. Arny's Astronomy Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas Arny's collection of online quizzes at the University of Massachusetts span the entire introductory astronomy curriculum. Subjects covered include historical astronomy, astronomical units and scales, telescopes, planetary geology, the sun, stellar evolution, cosmology, and life in the universe.

Arny, Thomas. T.

2004-07-17

371

Radio spectrum measurements at the Gauribidanur observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a campaign in December 2006, radio spectrum measurements over the frequency range 45-870 MHz were carried out at the Gauribidanur observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore. The spectrometer used for the above purpose was subsequently configured for radio spectral observations of the solar corona. This paper describes, (i) radio frequency interference over some of the frequency bands `protected' for radio astronomy; and (ii) `first' solar radio burst observation and the above instrument.

Monstein, C.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.

2007-12-01

372

Young Astronomers and Astronomy teaching in Moldavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curricular Astronomy is taught in Moldavia , except Transnistria and Gagauzia, in the final (11th class) of the secondary schools and gymnasiums, and in the 12th class of the lyceums. The program takes 35 academic hours. The basic book is by Vorontsov-Veliaminov, used in the former USSR, but the Romanian one is also used, in spite of many criticisms addressed to both by our astronomy teachers. In Transinstria (on the left of the Dniester river)astronomy is taught 17 hours. Extracurricular activities develop at the Real Lyceum, where students and amateur astronomers carry out regular observations. Particularly, photographs of the comet Hale-Bopp have been realized using a Cassegrain 450 mm telescope by young astronomers under supervision of S. Luca and D. Gorodetzky (Gorodetchi). Except the telescope from the Real Lyceum other few telescopes are in construction. Unfortunately, no planetarium exists now in Chisinau, since the old one was returned to church. Astronomy courses are taught at the physical and mathematical departments of the Pedagogical University, Transnistrian Moldavian University in Tiraspol and the State University of |Moldavia. Many efforts were made by the State University lecturers and scientists to popularize Astronomy and Astrophysics in the books and in the press, at the radio and TV. No astronomy is taught at the Gagauzian National University in Comrat. No astronomiucal departments exist in Universities of |Moldavia.

Gaina, Alex

1998-09-01

373

Astronomy in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no record so far known of Nigeria's participation in old time astronomy. However, she started a gradual entry into modern day astronomy in 1962. In this report, I present a review of the steps taken so far by Nigeria to realize her dreams in astronomy, and examine the prospects awaiting astronomers from Nigeria.

Sigalo, Friday Barikpe

2004-08-01

374

Astronomy in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the

A. W. Alsabti

2006-01-01

375

Astronomy Education in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

Metaxa, M.

376

Astronomy Outreach in the Remote Mid West Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Square Kilometre Array is a global mega-science project to build the world's largest radio telescope. One of two short-listed locations for the telescope is Western Australia's Mid West region, a geologically stable area with a very low population density making it an ideal location for sensitive radio telescopes. It is vital that the local population, although small, is aware of the project and the impact it will have on the region, so outreach in the local communities is imperative. Over the last few years, many trips have been made to the Mid West with the aim of bringing astronomy to the local population. While outreach in such remote areas brings its own unique challenges, it is every bit as worthwhile as in more traditional locations.

Argo, M.; Hollow, R.

2013-04-01

377

The Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considerable research has been conducted on the topic of entertainment-education (EE), the method of using entertainment platforms such as popular music, radio, and television programming to diffuse information, attitudes, and behaviors via role modeling. A significant portion of the recently published EE literature has used the case of the Radio

Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

2008-01-01

378

GAVRT and Radio Jove: Partners in K-12 Science Teacher Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio Jove Project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) have a recent partnership to train K-14 teachers to use radio astronomy telescopes as vehicles for science education. The partnership is part of the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) education and outreach program. Teachers attend training workshops to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build or operate their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. Corresponding lesson plans and curriculum material are available on the websites. Three teacher training workshops for the GAVRT/Jove program were held in 2010 and the results of the training and usage in the classroom will be reviewed. We plan to expand teacher opportunities in 2011 by offering web-based training programs.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Nakamura, B.; Dorcey, R.

2010-12-01

379

Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) - Working with national communication administrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Astronomy detects extremely faint radio signals from space, and hence is very susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from other radio communication services. Although radio astronomy has been allocated some radio bands by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), cosmic radio emissions occur over the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, there is a need for radio telescopes to operate over very wide radio bands and avoid RFI. Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) in various forms have been implemented around many radio astronomy observatories, to minimise the impact of RFI on radio astronomy observations by coordinating with nearby radiocommunication services. The history and characteristics of such RQZ around the world will be reviewed, with emphasis on recent experience. For the next generation radio astronomy telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), it will be of critical importance to minimise RFI over the whole operating frequency range 200 MHz - 25 GHz. Progress towards establishing strict RQZ for the SKA will be reviewed. The main experience and lesson learned is that it is critical to work closely with national communication administrations. Work on RQZ in international bodies and the implications for radio sciences will also be discussed.

Tzioumis, Anastasios

380

Do-it-yourself astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do-it-yourself astronomy is an educational project conceived and developed by the INAF-Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory at Naples, Italy. Based on the manufacturing of a small astronomical mirror by high school students, it is aimed at stirring up the interest of youngsters for modern science by applying the logic of "doing" as opposed to that of just "listening" and/or "watching".

Fulco, M. T.

2008-06-01

381

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

Lubowich, D.

2008-11-01

382

Using a Satellite Swarm for building a Space-based Radio Telescope for Low Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radio astronomy, as in astronomy in general, a wide range of frequencies is observed as each spectral band offers a unique window to study astrophysical phenomena. In the recent years, new observatories have been designed and built at the extreme limits of the radio spectrum. For the low frequencies several Earth-based radio telescopes are constructed at this moment. In

Mark Bentum; A. J. Boonstra; C. J. M. Verhoeven; A. J. van der Veen; E. K. A. Gill; N. Saks; H. Falcke; M. Klein-Wolt; R. T. Rajan; S. J. Wijnholds; M. Arts; K. van't Klooster; F. Beliün; A. Meijerink; B. Monna; J. Rotteveel; M. A. Boer; E. Bongers; E. Boom; E. van Tuijl; A. van Staveren

2010-01-01

383

The Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (SRBS) is a project designed to 1) provide high quality radio dynamic spectra to the wider solar, heliospheric, and space weather communities; 2) serve as a development platform for ultra-wideband feeds and receivers. Dynamic spectroscopy is a powerful tool for observing radio bursts in the Sun's corona. These bursts are associated with solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections and result from coronal shocks (type II radio bursts), electron beams (type III radio bursts), and other forms of energy release in the corona. The community has been hampered by a lack of readily available dynamic spectra in the 12-24 hr UT time range, a shortcoming that has now been remedied. The instrument is located at the Green Bank Site of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where the effects of radio frequency interference are much reduced compared with unprotected sites. The spectrometer is composed of two swept-frequency systems that together support observations from 18 MHz to 2 GHz with a time resolution of approximately 1 sec. The low frequency system, operating from 18-70 MHz, is a standalone dipole antenna. The high frequency system is fed by an antenna mounted at the vertex of a 13.7 m telescope and operates from 70-300 MHz; a broadband feed at the prime focus of the telescope provides frequency coverage from 300-2500 MHz. The data are available daily through a web-based interface. Both raw and background-subtracted data are available in a variety of formats. Users are encouraged to view and download selected data for research or forecasting purposes.

Bastian, T. S.; Bradley, R.; White, S.; Mastrantonio, E.

2005-05-01

384

Coded-aperture gamma-ray telescope - Principles and application to the SIGMA gamma-ray-astronomy project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a coded aperture and deconvolution/image-reconstruction software for the NaI-crystal/photomultiplier 100-300-keV gamma-ray imaging telescope SIGMA (Satellite d'Imagerie Gamma Montesur Ariane), a satellite observatory being developed by CNES, is presented, and the results of simulations and laboratory tests are summarized. The mathematical principles of coded apertures are reviewed; a technique for designing optimal imaging optics is proposed; the image-reconstruction problem is examined with a focus on the effect of partially coded sources; the SIGMA project is briefly characterized; and the test results are presented in graphs, tables, and an image of a simulated source. Spatial resolution of 1-3 mm and energy resolution compatible with spectroscopic studies are predicted for a 15-mm-thick tungsten coded aperture comprising 29 x 31 elements and situated 2.5 m from the position detector. The software developed permits correction for pointing errors of + or - 30 arcmin on all three axes and real-time deconvolution.

Roques, J.-P.

385

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, Volume 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the fifth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, public outreach, publication studies, research communication, evaluation procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening ‘lessons learned’ sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. The book includes a CD-ROM containing the visionary and fascinating work of L. Pešek as a space artist. "More than anything else, Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy is about change, recording where we've been and how we have evolved, and extrapolating to where we will be in the coming decades." Caty Pilachowski, outgoing President of the AAS

Heck, André

2004-10-01

386

Astronomy in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in Asia has continuously developed. Local wisdom in many Asian countries reflects their interest in astronomy since the historical period. However, the astronomical development in each country is different which depends on their cultures, politics and economics. Astronomy in some Asian developing countries such as China and India are well-developed while some other countries especially in south-east Asia, with some supports such as telescopes, trainings, experts etc. from some developed countries, are trying to promote relevant research in astronomy as well as use astronomy as a tool to promote scientific awareness and understanding for the public. Recently, a new national research institute in astronomy with a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope has been established in Thailand. One of the major objectives of this research-emphasis institute would aim at a collaborative network among south-east Asian countries so as to be able to contribute new knowledge and research to the astronomical community.

Soonthornthum, B.

2006-08-01

387

Learning Exercises in Astronomy for Elementary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers from the Tucson based National Optical Astronomy Observatories and students in grades K-3 at the Satori School are learning from each other about astronomy and science education. This project is partially funded by a NASA IDEA Grant (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy). NOAO astronomers are working with the students and teachers over a series of 12 weeks to present basic concepts in planetary and solar astronomy. Each presentation includes a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on active learning exercise. Topics presented include: The Living Solar System, Impacts and Hazards, Comets, Space Resources, The Natural Sun, The Sun as a Clock, Sunspots and Solar Rotation, and Solar Music - Helioseismology. Lessons learned, by students and astronomers, will be presented and printed lesson modules available for distribution.

Jacoby, Suzanne H.

1995-12-01

388

The Old Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of webpages is part of a course, called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the view of the universe that astronomers held up to 500 years ago, including: the apparent motion of the planets (such as retrograde motion) on the celestial sphere; the universe of Ptolemy and Aristotle, involving epicycles; and medieval Aristotelian astronomy.

2007-01-17

389

CyberSKA Radio Imaging Metadata and VO Compliance Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CyberSKA project has written a specification for the metadata encapsulation of radio astronomy data products pursuant to insertion into the VO-compliant Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM) database hosted by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). This specification accommodates radio FITS Image and UV Visibility data, as well as pure CASA Tables Imaging and Visibility Measurement Sets. To extract and engineer radio metadata, we have authored two software packages: metaData (v0.5.0) and mddb (v1.3). Together, these Python packages can convert all the above stated data format types into concise FITS-like header files, engineer the metadata to conform to the CAOM data model, and then insert these engineered data into the CADC database, which subsequently becomes published through the Canadian Virtual Observatory. The metaData and mddb packages have, for the first time, published ALMA imaging data on VO services. Our ongoing work aims to integrate visibility data from ALMA and the SKA into VO services and to enable user-submitted radio data to move seamlessly into the Virtual Observatory.

Anderson, K. R.; Rosolowsky, E.; Dowler, P.

2013-10-01

390

Conducting radio astronomy in the EMC environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of electromagnetic interference (EMI) at microwave frequencies, examples of the widely varying sources of such EMI, and measures to counteract them are considered. Problems caused by computer equipment, power lines, digital clocks, automotive spark plugs, television antennas, arc welding equipment, phone systems, aircraft transmissions, and satellite equipment are described. Countermeasures include the use of braided mesh around cables, burying of incoming power lines, and replacement of defective equipment. Certain antenna radome structures are particularly helpful in countering EMI.

Waterman, P. J.

1984-02-01

391

Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

2012-12-01

392

Color in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

Brecher, K.

2002-05-01

393

Early Physics and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Science before the Greeks; 2. The new concept of nature; 3. Plato and Greek mathematics; 4. Aristotle and the knowledge of Nature; 5. Practical astronomy; 6. Early Greek cosmology; 7. Mathematical astronomy; 8. The foundation of statics; 9. Dynamics in antiquity; 10. The conception of light and sound; 11. The structure of material substances; 12. Properties of matter and chemical change; 13. The transmission of Greek science; 14. Experimental physics in the Middle Ages; 15. The development of statics; 16. The establishment of kinematics; 17. Force and motion in the Middle Ages; 18. Mediaeval astronomy; 19. The change called Renaissance; 20. The reform of astronomy; Bibliography; Index.

Pedersen, Olaf

1993-03-01

394

The Astronomy Thesaurus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you ever feel overwhelmed by the extensive amount of jargon used in astronomy? This web site may offer visitors with an easy way to compare astronomy material from different authors. The Astronomy Thesaurus, created by Robyn M. Shobbrook of the Anglo-Australian Observatory and Robert R. Shobbrook of Sydney University, provides a way to standardize the terminology in the field of astronomy. Users can search through the web site alphabetically or by keywords. By supplying the thesaurus in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish, this web site may also help individuals communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds.

395

Astronomy in Indian Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradition of astronomy in India goes back to ancient times. Many festivals and rituals are associated with astronomical phenomena. Indian children start learning rudiments of astronomy from primary classes. But primary teachers are not equipped to handle this subject so not much learning actually takes place. The first serious interface with astronomy occurs when children reach class X when they are 15 years old. Till last year astronomy was there in class XII also but it has now been dropped. This is a serious setback for the study of astronomy. In class X astronomy forms part of general science. Since children at this stage are not proficient in physics and mathematics the subject remains descriptive though there are useful activities for children to do. However the teachers are not equipped to handle this subject and there is no help in the form of visual material. So the subject remains neglected. The Indian astronomical community can help by training teachers and providing visual material. It must also urge authorities to reintroduce astronomy in class XII if astronomy is to flourish in India. Moreover India needs to network with developing countries share experiences with them and evolve a strategy that promotes astronomy.

Bhatia, V. B.

396

Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

2009-05-01

397

Neptune's radio emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different radio emissions observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument during the inbound and outbound trajectories are reviewed. Two types of emissions (smooth and bursty) were recorded in the frequency range of 20 to 1300 kHz which differ in spectral, temporal, and polarization characteristics. The source location of the smooth radio emission have been determined through the observations at the closest approach when the radio source was occulted by the planet. Other types of emission detected by the PRA experiment include the fore shock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at ring-crossings and different low frequency waves. It is concluded that there is at least one radio source in the auroral zone of the northern magnetic hemisphere where a good fit to the observations can be obtained when assuming an emission cone model.

Leblanc, Y.; Ladreiter, H. P.

1992-11-01

398

Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes includes the visiting Scientists and Professors from various Research Organizations located in and around Bangalore as well as the in-house Scientific staff. It is gratifying to note that several students, after going through one or more of these courses, have indeed made commitments to pursue Astronomy as their career, some of them even obtaining admissions in to the institutes and universities in India and abroad for further studies in this field.

Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

399

"Conference on communicating astronomy with the public":taking action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 2003, The National Radio Astronomy Observatories (NRAO) and the National Research Council (NRC) held a three-day conference in Washington, D.C., on communicating with the public about astronomy. The goals of this conference, intended to be a working meeting, were 'to develop a program to share outreach and education resources among the astronomical community [and] to find ways of communicating with underdeveloped constituencies.' Scientists, communication specialists and others active in public outreach and education about astronomy and space science deliberated on the current state of astronomy communications, the needs of the mass media and the entertainment media, the conduct of public outreach and education as an element of research astronomy, and best practices in astronomy outreach and education. Two important products of the meeting were: 1) A 'Washington charter for communicating astronomy with the public,' a position paper articulating principles of action for funding agencies, professional astronomical societies, individual researchers and universities, laboratories, research organizations and other institutions interested in communicating with the public about astronomy; 2) The appointment of a task force to to organize an electronic archive of informational resources about astronomy. Two options under consideration by the task force are creation of a Web site providing links, categorized and searchable, to astronomy public outreach and education resources; and creation of a Web site that would be a searchable database of astronomy information and imagery (either representative or comprehensive). This paper will highlight the proceedings of the conference, report outcomes, and provide a status report on post-conference actions.

Billings, L.

400

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)|

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

401

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

402

The Role of Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy Among Middle and High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to determine his or her ability to understand and work within the scientific community. An attitudinal survey was administered to all students nationwide who participated in the GAVRT program during the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 years and had 480 and 562 respondents respectively. The students completed a pre-survey prior to beginning the GAVRT program and then completed a follow-up survey immediately after working on the Jupiter Quest GAVRT program. Between the pre- and post- surveys, students received instruction in the GAVRT curriculum and participated in operation of the radio telescope. During the 2000-2001 school year, increases in students' scientific efficacy occurred in their feelings of efficacy associated with the value they placed on the work they produced in science. During the 2001-2002 school year, the following areas of efficacy increased: students' perceived ability to use scientific equipment, students' feelings about how other people valued their work and students' abilities to think scientifically.

Ibe, M.; Deutscher, R.

2004-12-01

403

Idea Bank: Astronomy for Students With Sensory Impairments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Exploration and Experience (SEE) Project and Yerkes Astrophysics Academy for Young Scientists (YAAYS)--both at the University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin--are designed to promote active learning in astronomy and physical science for all students, including those with vision or hearing impairments. Resources include the Hands-On Universe (HOU) facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Active Astronomy (AA) curriculum kits. This Idea Bank discusses these resources, which allow teachers to help all students--with and without sensory impairments--to participate in the 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA) experience.

Backman, Dana; Hoette, Vivian

2009-03-01

404

Health Education through Interactive Radio: A Child-to-Child Project in Bolivia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because older children in developing countries often assume responsibility for the care of their younger siblings, health education programs are aimed to these older children. An interactive radio health curriculum was developed in Bolivia that includes lessons on personal hygiene, rehydration, home sanitation, and nutrition. (JOW)|

Fryer, Michelle L.

1991-01-01

405

RadioSource.NET: Case-Study of a Collaborative Land-Grant Internet Audio Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a case study of RadioSource.NET, an Internet broadcasting venture developed collaboratively by land-grant university communication departments to share resources, increase online distribution, and promote access to agricultural and natural and life science research. Describes planning, marketing, and implementation processes. (Contains…

Sohar, Kathleen; Wood, Ashley M.; Ramirez, Roberto

2002-01-01

406

Astronomy @ Hale School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth in space is one of the teaching strands of the Western Australia science curriculum. I was able to beg some money from my school to set up an astronomy club and address some of the outcomes of the teaching statement. As a Pom, I thought teaching Astronomy here was going to be great. As a baby boomer mesmerized by

William Cooper

2002-01-01

407

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

408

TeV astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful realization of the current-generation of ground-based detectors, TeV Astronomy has entered into a new era. We review recent advances in VHE astronomy, focusing on the potential of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), and highlight astrophysical implications of the results obtained within recent years.

Rieger, Frank M.; de Oña-Wilhelmi, Emma; Aharonian, Felix A.

2013-06-01

409

Fundamentals of solar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several textbooks available on solar astronomy which deal with advanced astrophysical aspects of solar physics, and books which provide very elementary knowledge about the Sun. This book will help to bridge the gap. It aims to stimulate interest in solar astronomy, presenting at one place the basic methods and techniques used in the field, together with the latest

Arvind Bhatnagar; William Livingston

2005-01-01

410

Colonial American Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early

Donald K. Yeomans

2007-01-01

411

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

412

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Wilhelm Brüggenthies; Wolfgang R. Dick

2005-01-01

413

Astronomy Without a Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section describes: the celestial sphere, coordinate systems, the motion of the stars. There are also sections describing: time, the seasons, time zones, the phases of the moon, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, and the motions of the planets.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

414

A Basic Astronomy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

Fraknoi, Andrew

415

Junior High Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

416

Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

Accomazzi, Alberto

417

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

Green, Paul

418

Compendium of Practical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

Roth, Günter D.; Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.

419

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

420

Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities, and for a stronger involvement of European high-tech industry in the deve

2008-11-01

421

Random time series in astronomy.  

PubMed

Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series. PMID:23277606

Vaughan, Simon

2012-12-31

422

Bridging Laboratory and Astronomy - Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this 3-day Meeting-in-a-Meeting (MiM) are to expand on the series of meetings that was successfully initiated by the Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA) at last year's summer meeting to promote and increase the interaction between the laboratory astrophysics and the astronomy/planetary communities. This Meeting-in-a-Meeting is devoted to the interplay between laboratory astrophysics and IR, FIR and Submm astronomy. The sessions will discuss current and future missions and facilities that operate in this domain and their laboratory astrophysics needs. Astronomy is an observational science detecting photons generated by atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics and chemistry. The astrophysically motivated studies, which consist of both laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations, are collectively known as laboratory astrophysics. This Meeting-in-a-Meeting will consist of six sessions that will discuss the nature and evolution of molecules, dust and ices from stellar and planetary formation regions to circumstellar, planetary nebulae and diffuse ISM environments to comets and planets. The sessions map the sub areas of laboratory astrophysics in the IR, FIR and Submm domains and cover the study of molecules, dust and ices. Each session will include talks focusing on major mission projects and key data needs, related experimental and theoretical work, all illustrating the important role of laboratory astrophysics in support of current and future missions and facilities. An associated poster session on astronomical observations and laboratory astrophysics of molecules, dust and ices runs for 3 days.

Salama, Farid

2009-05-01

423

Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2006-07-01

424

The Future of Space Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

Field, George B.

1984-01-01

425

The Future of Space Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

Field, George B.

1984-01-01

426

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-12-01

427

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-09-01

428

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: ANIMATED ORBITS OF PLANETS AND MOONS: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. SOLAR SYSTEM COLLISIONS: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. ORBITAL SIMULATIONS: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. ASTRONOMY WORKSHOP BULLETIN BOARD: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

2000-05-01

429

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

2001-12-01

430

Remote Sensing: Radio Frequency Detection for High School Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to give high school students experience in real world science applications, we have partnered with Loranger High School in Loranger, LA to mentor 9 senior physics students in radio frequency electromagnetic detection. The effort consists of two projects: Mapping of 60 Hz noise around the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), and the construction of a 20 MHz radio telescope for observations of the Sun and Jupiter (Radio Jove, NASA). The results of the LIGO mapping will aid in strategies to reduce the 60 Hz line noise in the LIGO noise spectrum. The Radio Jove project will introduce students to the field of radio astronomy and give them better insight into the dynamic nature of large solar system objects. Both groups will work together in the early stages as they learn the basics of electromagnetic transmission and detection. The groups will document and report their progress regularly. The students will work under the supervision of three undergraduate mentors. Our program is designed to give them theoretical and practical knowledge in radiation and electronics. The students will learn how to design and test receiver in the lab and field settings.

Huggett, Daniel; Jeandron, Michael; Maddox, Larry; Yoshida, Sanichiro

2011-10-01

431

Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

432

New Voyager Radio Spectrograms of Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New, high-resolution spectrograms of the Voyager-2 radio observations at Uranus were produced from the original, six-second Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data and these show a number of new features which were not obvious in previous versions. Among the...

W. Calvert D. Tsintikidis

1990-01-01

433

Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

Naranjo, O. A.

2008-06-01

434

Astronomy Java Applets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive astronomy java applets were created for astronomy students at the University of British Columbia. They cover topics dealing with the solar system and demonstrate the phases of the inner planets, retrograde motion, Kepler's Laws, cratering and solar eclipses. Applets on stellar astronomy include: fusion in the sun, the Big Bang, extrasolar planets, black holes, the H-R diagram, binary stars, parallax, the Doppler Effect, and black body radiation. The last set of simulations deal with telescopes. They demonstrate Snell's Law, electrostatics, and properties of lenses and mirrors.

Scharein, Robert Glenn, 1959-

2010-05-04

435

Bakersfield College: Astronomy Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nick Strobel, from Bakersfield College, created this website to provide educational materials for the introductory astronomy course he teaches. Users can find a seventeen chapter online textbook, equipped with fantastic astronomy images and numerous review questions. The site offers a description of angular momentum; a mathematics review; tables of astronomy constants, physical constants, planets, and stars; and a glossary. Students can benefit by reading the study guide, which addresses ways to improve study habits and exam scores. Be sure to read Mr. Strobel's Copyright Notice prior to utilizing the resources avaiable here.

436

Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent paper in this journal1 presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses.2-4 Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In this paper we describe the use of Tracker in introductory astronomy to analyze a ``video'' consisting of a series of still images of star fields and sunspots. Because astronomy focuses on concepts unfamiliar to most students, the visualization that video analysis provides can be especially valuable.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2013-03-01

437

The Eratosthenes Project: the reproduction of a historical experiment as a resource for the inclusion of Astronomy concepts in High School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation was about an educational approach based on the History of Science and experimentation involving scientific concepts in the area of Astronomy, highlighting the reproduction of the original experiment performed by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C., designed to measure the Earth radius. It was found that the realized activities contributed significantly to the success of High School students from two public schools of Sergipe - the State College State Secretary Francisco Rosa Santos in Aracaju, Sergipe and the Federal Institute, campus of São Cristov - since these activities had aroused the students' interest for the construction of new scientific knowledge, and they improved their comprehension of some aspects related to Science and Astronomy in particular, as its empirical character and its historical development, therefore immersed in a specific social, economic and cultural context. The approach allowed for a greater involvement of participating students and it improved student-teacher relationship. The evaluations identified that a significant learning of the discussed concepts involving Physics and Astronomy had occurred, such as latitude, longitude, equinox, solstice, midday sun, among other concepts treated in an interdisciplinary manner with other disciplines such as Geography, History and Mathematics.

de Jesus Santos, Antônio José; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Teixeira de Araújo, Mauro Sérgio

2012-12-01

438

Environmental Issues and Astronomy: An Introductory Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the topic of environmental issues in respect to astronomy. A number of related readings and links to web sites are provided. Content includes information on light pollution, observatory sites and their environmental impact, radio interference and preventing the contamination of Earth or other worlds.

Fraknoi, Andrew

2011-03-30

439

To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground-based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1996-01-01

440

Extragalactic Astronomy: The Universe Beyond Our Galaxy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The material is presented in three parts: one section provides the fundamental content of extragalactic astronomy, another section discusses modern discoveries in…

Jacobs, Kenneth Charles