Science.gov

Sample records for radio astronomy project

  1. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  2. The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

  3. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  4. Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Leech, Marcus; Oxley, Paul; Flagg, Richard; Fields, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

  5. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Schaffer, R. D.; Gorenstein, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of Radio Astronomy Operations during April and May 1981 are reported. Work in progres in support of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel, Twin Quasi-Stellar Object VLBI, is reported.

  6. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  7. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio astronomy operations during the first quarter of 1981 are reported. Results of the use of a low noise maser are presented, as well as updates in DSN support of experiments sanctioned by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel.

  8. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Niell, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the DSN in support of Radio and Radar Astronomy Operations during September through December 1980 are described. Emphasis is on a report of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel: that of VLBI observations of the energetic galactic object SS-433.

  9. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Shaffer, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) 26- and 64-meter antenna stations were utilized in support of Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel experiments. Within a time span of 10 days, in May 1983 (267.75 hours total), nine RAES experiments were supported. Most of these experiments involved multifacility interferometry using Mark 3 data recording terminals and as many as six non-DSN observatories. Investigations of black holes, quasars, galaxies, and radio sources are discussed.

  10. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  11. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

  12. Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

  13. Radio astronomy with microspacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic constellation of microspacecraft in lunar orbit can carry out valuable radio astronomy investigations in the frequency range of 30kHz--30MHz, a range that is difficult to explore from Earth. In contrast to the radio astronomy ivestigations that have flown on individual spacecraft, the four microspacecraft together with a carrier spacecraft, which transported them to lunar orbit, form an interferometer with far superior angular resolution. Use of microspacecraft allows the entire constellation to be launched with a Taurus-class vehicle. Also distinguishing this approach is that the Moon is used as needed to shield the constellation from RF interference from the Earth and Sun.

  14. Division x: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russ; Chapman, Jessica; Rendong, Nan; Carilli, Christopher; Giovannini, Gabriele; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prajval

    2012-04-01

    This triennium has seen a phenomenal investment in development of observational radio astronomy facilities in all parts of the globe at a scale that significantly impacts the international community. This includes both major enhancements such as the transition from the VLA to the EVLA in North America, and the development of new facilities such as LOFAR, ALMA, FAST, and Square Kilometre Array precursor telescopes in Australia and South Africa. These developments are driven by advances in radio-frequency, digital and information technologies that tremendously enhance the capabilities in radio astronomy. These new developments foreshadow major scientific advances driven by radio observations in the next triennium. We highlight these facility developments in section 3 of this report. A selection of science highlight from this triennium are summarized in section 2.

  15. Pulsars in a Box: A Radio Astronomy Exercise for Windows from PROJECT CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1996-12-01

    The latest astronomy laboratory exercise from PROJECT CLEA, "Radio Astronomy of Pulsars", is designed for use in introductory astronomy classes, but contains options and features that make it usable by upperclass astronomy students as well. The heart of the exercise is a simulated radio telescope, whose aperture, location, and beamwidth can be set by the instructor. It is steered by pushing buttons, but instead of seeing a star field on the field monitor,students see a projection of the sky showing, with a colored dot,where the beam is pointing. Large LED-like readouts display time and telescope coordinates. The telescope can be operated in either a tracking or transit mode. Using the telescope, students point to several pulsars suggested by the write-up (from an on-line catalog of over 500). Students can then use a multi-channel tunable receiver, with multiple oscilloscope displays, to view the incoming signal vs. time. The signal received is a combination of random receiver and background noise plus the pulsar signal (if it is in the beam) Receivers are tunable from 400 to 1400 MHz, and both the time and frequency behavior of signals can be studied. By measuring the dispersion delay at a number of different frequencies, students can determine the pulsar's distance. Data can be stored, displayed, and printed using a versatile measuring window. Though we provide a manual for a 2-3 hour lab exercise involving dispersion measures, the database and receivers can be used for a wide variety of other exercises, for instance the measurement of pulsar spin-down rates. We welcome suggestions for improvements and applications.

  16. Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S. K.; Brown, J.

    2003-12-01

    Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom. We will describe a RET experience at the MIT Haystack Observatory which involved using an AR3000A communications receiver and a discone antenna as the basis for an Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics classroom unit. The projects and activities in this unit were developed to help foster student learning and understanding of radio astronomy, the electromagnetic spectrum, wave dynamics, signal propagation, meteor detection, and radio frequency interference. Additionally, this RET project utilizes the SEARFE (Students Examining Australia???s Radio Frequency Environment) software developed for use with the AR3000A communications receiver to scan and monitor frequencies across the radio bandwidth to determine areas of low and high usage in the radio spectrum. Classroom activities include Scanning Protected Radio Astronomy Bandwidths, Investigating the Radio Environment, Time Variation of Signal Strength, Signal Strength vs. Location Studies, Detecting Meteors using the AR300A Receiver, Mapping the RFI Environment of Your School, AM Radio Interference, and Signal Propagation Effects. The primary focus of the unit???s activities is to address the Massachusetts State Science Frameworks for electromagnetic radiation, waves, cosmology, and matter and energy in the Earth system and foster an understanding of how everyday communications devices may cause radio frequency interference with sensitive radio astronomy equipment. The projects and activities in the unit will be used in the classroom, amended, and the results of the classroom

  17. Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session

  18. Radio Astronomy in Serbia: A Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, D.

    In this lecture, I presented a short review of: 1. the brief history of development of radio astronomy in Serbia, and 2. the present state of research and university teaching in Serbia on this interesting and modern field of astronomy. Since 1970's, the continuum observations at the lowest radio frequencies (e.g. 38 MHz) and the Galactic radio loops have been represented the topics of main research interest for the first radio astronomer in Serbia, prof. dr Jelena Milogradov-Turin. In 1983, she introduced Radio astronomy as two semester course at 4th year of studies at Department of astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. In this moment we have radio astronomy group with 5 (mainly younger) researchers from Department of Astronomy and Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The main fields of research interest are, as a part of tradition, the Galactic radio loops and additionally, the hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants. Our future projects will be connected with radio evolution of nova remnants and planetary nebulae.

  19. Soviet radio telescopes and solar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Gel'Freikh, Georgii B.; Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Iliasov, Iurii P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.

    Soviet radio telescopes of different type and purpose are described, with particular emphasis on very long baseline interferometry. Soviet radio-astronomy studies of solar radio emission and the interplanetary medium are also discussed, with particular attention given to the investigation of the sun's supercorona and the interplanetary plasma.

  20. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for STARLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Buck, S.; Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.

    2005-12-01

    We present elements of a curriculum that will accompany the STARLAB module "Sensing the Radio Sky" a portable planetarium program and projection of the radio sky. The curriculum will serve to familiarize high school students to a set of topics in radio astronomy. The curriculum includes lessons and activities addressing several topics related to radio astronomy and the Milky Way that consists of two main resources: a manual and a multimedia website. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of possible uses and time constraints. The manufacturer of STARLAB, Learning Technologies, Inc. produces a short manual to accompany each presentation for the STARLAB. The "Sensing the Radio Sky" manual we have created includes the mandatory, minimum background information that students need to understand radio astronomy. It briefly discusses waves and electromagnetic radiation, similarities and differences between optical and radio astronomy, probable misconceptions about radio astronomy, how radio images are produced, synchrotron radiation in the Milky Way, and galactic coordinates. It also includes a script that presenters can choose to follow inside the STARLAB, a lesson plan for teachers, and activities for students to complete before and after the STARLAB experience that mirror the scientific method. The multimedia website includes more detailed information about electromagnetic radiation and a more detailed comparison of optical and radio astronomy. It also discusses the life cycles of stars, radiation from a variety of specific sources, and pulsars, as each relates to radio astronomy. The five highly detailed lessons are pulled together in sixth "overview lesson", intended for use by teachers who want to present more than the basic material in the manual, but do not have the classroom time to teach all five of the in-depth lessons. . We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  1. The future for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

    2013-12-01

    THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

  2. Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T., III

    1993-12-01

    The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

  3. Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sierra

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy have been closely linked since the emergence of radio astronomy as a scientific discipline in the 1930s. Even before the official establishment of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, protection against contemporary and future radio noise levels was seen as crucial to ensure success of any new observatory. My talk will examine the various local, regional, national, and international efforts enacted to protect NRAO and other American radio astronomy sites from RFI.

  4. Planetary radio astronomy from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of radio astronomy makes it possible for a remote observer to detect the presence of magnetic fields and plasmas in planetary environments. Prior to the flights of the Voyager spacecraft, radio astronomical studies of Jupiter from earth and from earth orbit had correctly predicted the strength and orientation of Jupiter's magnetic field and trapped radiation belts. The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy investigations have now provided measurements of the complete spectrum of low frequency radio emissions from both planets. Each Voyager instrument consists of a pair of orthogonal, 10-m, electric monopole antennas which are connected to a step-tuned, superheterodyne receiver operating over the frequency range from 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. The Voyager trajectory provided observations from above both the sunlit and nightside hemispheres of Jupiter. Saturn's nonthermal radio emission has been observed at frequencies as low as 3 kHz and as high as 1.2 MHz.

  5. The Helios radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S.; Stone, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radio bursts traveling between the Sun and the Earth were tracked by radio astronomy experiments on Helios 1 and 2. A relatively short dipole antenna with a well-defined toroidal reception pattern was flown. The antenna spins in the ecliptic at 60.3 rpm and 2 frequencies are measured in each revolution. The signal analysis determines the strength of the signal, the direction of the source in the ecliptic, and the degree of modulation, and estimates source size. The experiments provide three-dimensional direction finding in space. They extend the radio frequency window beyond what is observable on Earth, and offer a long triangulation baseline.

  6. Division B Commission 40: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Jessica M.; Giovaninni, Gabriele; Taylor, Russell; Carilli, Christopher; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin L.; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Rafaella; Nan, Rendong; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prjaval; Kellermann, Ken; Ekers, Ronald; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 40 for Radio Astronomy (hereafter C40) brought together scientists and engineers who carry out observational and theoretical research in radio astronomy and who develop and operate the ground and space-based radio astronomy facilities and instrumentation. As of June 2015, the Commission had approximately 1,100 members from 49 countries, corresponding to nearly 10 per cent of the total IAU membership.

  7. Industrial interference and radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessner, A.

    2013-07-01

    The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

  8. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  9. Python Ephemeris Module for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B.

    2013-05-01

    An extension of the Python pyephem module was developed for Deep Space Network (DSN) radio astronomy. The class DSS( ) provides the geodetic coordinates of the DSN stations as well as other properties such as antenna diameter. The class Quasar( ) provides positional data for the sources in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array (NRAO VLA) Calibrator Handbook and flux estimates based the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) Database or the VLA Calibrator Handbook. Flux calibration data are also available for the bright planets. Class Pulsar( ) provides the data from the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue in Python format.

  10. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  11. The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    The 1960s were the Golden Years of Radio Astronomy. During this decade a new generation of young scientists discovered quasars, pulsars, the cosmic microwave background, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio source variability, superluminal motion, radio recombination lines, the rotation of Mercury and Venus, the Venus Greenhouse effect, Jupiter's radiation belts, and opened up the high redshift Universe. On the technical side, the 1960s saw the completion of the NRAO 140-ft and 300-ft radio telescopes, the Haystack, Arecibo and Parkes antennas, the Owens Valley Interferometer, the first practical demonstrations of aperture synthesis, VLBI, and CLEAN, the Cambridge 1-mile radio telescope, the most precise tests of GR light bending, and the introduction of the 4th test of GR. Following sessions at the recent IAU 29th General Assembly on the "Golden Years of Radio Astronomy," we will discuss the circumstances surrounding these transformational discoveries which changed the course of modern astronomy.

  12. New vistas in planetary radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in planetary radio astronomy is reviewed, where the most significant advances have come from spacecraft observations. The low-frequency radio spectra of the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are compared, and the striking similarity in shapes is noted. New radio data are examined which provide a way to compare the magnetic field strengths of the planets. More detailed information on the radio structures of Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly on Uranus, is expected from the 1977 Mariner Jupiter-Saturn mission.

  13. The Radio JOVE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

    1999-09-01

    Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

  14. A Teaching Lab in Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kirk R.; Cudaback, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a study in which participants in a summer institute for secondary science teachers performed a series of experiments with a radio telescope. Concludes that a radio astronomy teaching facility would encourage students to use their own initiative and strategy in working with the scientific concepts involved. (MLH)

  15. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  16. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  17. Forty Years of Radio Astronomy at Hartebeesthoek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.; Nicolson, G. D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1961 an 85-foot (26-metre) diameter radio antenna was erected at Hartebeesthoek near Johannesburg, as NASA's Deep Space Instrumentation Facility 51. A young South African engineer employed there soon initiated a radio astronomy research programme to use free time between tracking spacecraft. On the closure of the facility by NASA in 1974, it was re-constituted as a radio astronomy observatory operated by the CSIR. In this paper, we highlight various strands of the forty year history of radio astronomy at Hartebeesthoek. We also cover some of the perhaps surprising spinoffs that it has generated, both scientifically and practically. Some of these hark back to measurements taken by the Abbé de la Caille at the Cape in the 1750's, and to the reasons for establishing a Royal Observatory there in the 1820's.

  18. The Timbuktu Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Rodney Thebe; Warner, Brian; Jeppie, Shamil; Sanogo, Salikou; Maiga, Mohammed; Maiga, Ahmed; Dembele, Mamadou; Diakite, Drissa; Tembely, Laya; Kanoute, Mamadou; Traore, Sibiri; Sodio, Bernard; Hawkes, Sharron

    The ancient city of Timbuktu was the main centre for commerce and scholarship in West Africa from the 13th century until the 17th century. Books were bought from North Africa and other centres of Islamic learning, and local scholars also wrote many books on astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature, law and islam. Scholarship peaked during the 16th and 17th century but declined gradually until the 19th century. Our project aims to study the ancient manuscripts from Timbuktu in order to search for astronomy in them. The main aim of the project is to document our research and use it to attract African youth into science and technology by appealing to their heritage. This paper outlines progress made since the inception of the project in 2006.

  19. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  20. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  1. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  2. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  3. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  4. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  5. Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2007-12-01

    As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

  6. National Radio Astronomy International Exchange Program (NINE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Lory Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    NINE aims to create synergistic partnerships between NRAO and its US-Based NINE partner institutions and universities, with astronomy-related institutions in other countries. We seek to create a vibrant exchange of students that are interested in learning about activities associated with the radio astronomy field, and to create enduring partnerships that will help train a global, collaborative Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) knowledgeable workforce.

  7. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  8. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Radio quiet, please! - protecting radio astronomy from interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, W.

    2011-06-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite and increasingly precious resource for astronomical research, as well as for other spectrum users. Keeping the frequency bands used for radio astronomy as free as possible of unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is crucial. The aim of spectrum management, one of the tools used towards achieving this goal, includes setting regulatory limits on RFI levels emitted by other spectrum users into the radio astronomy frequency bands. This involves discussions with regulatory bodies and other spectrum users at several levels - national, regional and worldwide. The global framework for spectrum management is set by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union, which has defined that interference is detrimental to radio astronomy if it increases the uncertainty of a measurement by 10%. The Radio Regulations are revised every three to four years, a process in which four organisations representing the interests of the radio astronomical community in matters of spectrum management (IUCAF, CORF, CRAF and RAFCAP) participate actively. The current interests and activities of these four organisations range from preserving what has been achieved through regulatory measures, to looking far into the future of high frequency use and giant radio telescope use.

  10. The Astronomy Genealogy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

  11. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  12. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period.

  13. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105

  14. Astronomy Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Kadooka, M.-A.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    ``Extrasolar Planet Transit", ``Lightcurve of a Variable Star", and ``Retrograde Motion of Mars" are some of the titles of high school students' projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teachers who participated in the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy summer outreach program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech mentored their students. After attending the 3-week National Science Foundation Institute for several summers since 1999, these teachers in the summer of 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain images from telescopes, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software ``Astrometrica" to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year. These students made observing plans for images from the 31inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and/or from the 2.2m University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. Learning about filters, exposure time, magnitude, frequency of taking CCD images, and ephemeris required many iterations between students, teachers, and astronomers and graduate students who were assisting. Poor weather conditions and other frustrations exposed the students to the realities of research. However, they were rewarded with projects that impressed the judges and that will be described.

  15. Radio astronomy. [principles and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J.; Clark, T.

    1974-01-01

    The origins, generation, detection, and interpretation of radio signals are discussed for signals with an assumed random polarization. After defining the basic parameters, the discussion moves to such topics as synchrotron radiation, plasma effects, changes in the electron energy spectrum in the radiating regions, energy loss to ionization, bremsstrahlung, radio astronomical observations of high-energy particles, emission by energetic particles, observation of supernova remnants and pulsars, galactic background continuum radiation, and others.

  16. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  17. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  18. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  19. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  20. GPU accelerated radio astronomy signal convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chris; Haines, Karen; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2008-10-01

    The increasing array size of radio astronomy interferometers is causing the associated computation to scale quadratically with the number of array signals. Consequently, efficient usage of alternate processing architectures should be explored in order to meet this computational challenge. Affordable parallel processors have been made available to the general scientific community in the form of the commodity graphics card. This work investigates the use of the Graphics Processing Unit in the parallelisation of the combined conjugate multiply and accumulation stage of a correlator for a radio astronomy array. Using NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture, our testing shows processing speeds from one to two orders of magnitude faster than a Central Processing Unit approach.

  1. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derman, Samuel

    2010-04-01

    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what radio astronomy is all about. This ever-present radiation provides astronomers with an alternate, non-optical window to the universe, revealing exotic and unfamiliar phenomena previously undetected by even the most powerful optical telescopes. For physics teachers, a classroom discussion of these radio discoveries, however brief, offers an opportunity for igniting interest (and possibly a career option) in even the most apathetic of students. This paper describes, first, the background of some of these events, and second (in the appendixes), a selection of numerical problems so that students can derive for themselves the truly mind-stretching features of these celestial objects.

  2. A Virtual Tour of the Radio Astronomy Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, S. B.; Finley, D. G.; Claussen, M. J.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching Degree at New Mexico Tech and participating in the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program sponsored by the National Science Foundation, spent eight weeks as interns researching and working on projects at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) which will directly benefit students in their classrooms and also impact other science educators. One of the products of the interships is a set of web pages for NRAO's web page educational section. The purpose of these web pages is to familiarize students, teachers, and other people with the process that a radio astronomer goes through to do radio astronomy science. A virtual web tour was created of this process. This required interviewing radio astronomers and other professionals involved with this process at the NRAO (e.g. engineers, data analysts, and operations people), and synthesizing the interviews into a descriptive, visual-based set of web pages. These pages do meet the National as well as New Mexico Standards and Benchmarks for Science Education. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    2005-06-01

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented.

  4. Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of

  5. International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous

  6. On post-SKA radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parijskij, Yuri; Chernenkov, Vladimir

    It is suggested that the development of the SKA will drastically change the face of radio astronomy in the 21st Century. A FAST-style SKA would admit observations of low contrast features, and would be the best design for studying the `dark ages' of the Universe (x>> 1) where sub-arcmin total power instruments can usefully be employed. To date there have been no proposals for post-SKA, billion square-metra instruments; we speculate that mobile communication systems can be used. In the very distant future, SKA multi-beam systems could be used to collect signals reflected by Solar system bodies such as the asteroid belt.

  7. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  8. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

    2014-10-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

  9. Teaching Astronomy at Columbus State University using Small Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Zodiac T.

    2006-12-01

    Astronomy is inherently fascinating to students but dark skies and good weather are not often scheduled during the school day. Radio telescopes provide an all-weather, all-day opportunity for astronomical observations. Columbus State University (CSU) has installed two “Small Radio Telescopes” for use by undergraduate students to pursue extra-curricular research in introductory astronomy. These telescopes are relatively affordable and are designed to be remotely operated through a Windows, Linux, or Macintosh environment. They are capable of diffraction-limited observations of the Sun and galactic Hydrogen in the ‘L-band’. A comprehensive website of projects suitable for high-school students and undergraduates is maintained by a group at MIT. This website ensures users are not left to explore the telescope’s abilities blindly. Students with varied interests learn about the nature of science by using an instrument that doesn’t lend itself to pretty pictures. Radio telescopes also provide a slight engineering flavor drawing in students who might not otherwise be interested in astronomy. This poster will provide a summary of installation, calibration, and future plans, and will share some observations by undergraduates at CSU.

  10. Radio Astronomy: A Strong Link between Undergraduate Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratap, Preethi; Salah, Joseph E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a successful pilot program to develop and test a program that facilitates the linking of undergraduate research and education through radio astronomy. Based on the pilot experiences, students everywhere should be able to exploit the opportunity to strengthen their education through practical research using radio astronomy. (Author/SAH)

  11. JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2014-04-01

    During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously

  12. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  13. A satellite swarm for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, E.; Engelen, S.; Noomen, R.

    2014-09-01

    At present the celestial sky has been mapped in considerable detail for every major wavelength band, except for the ultra-long radiowave band. A space-based interferometer consisting of a swarm of satellites would make it possible to map the celestial sources of 0.1-10 MHz radiation. Such a mission concept called the Orbiting Low Frequency Array (OLFAR) is currently undergoing a feasibility study. This paper presents an analysis of possible operational orbits for the OLFAR satellites. The strategy for OLFAR is to let the satellites drift freely after release into initial orbits. The design of the swarm's reference orbit is primarily motivated by the need for a low radio-noise environment. This results in lunar orbits being main candidates. The design of the initial swarm configuration is primarily motivated by the need for uvw-space coverage. This quantity expresses the variation of lengths and orientations of the satellite relative position vectors over time. Numerical simulations give strong indications that the required uvw-coverage can be met within 1 year of operations with a number of satellites ranging between 25 and 100. A key conclusion is that the orbital behavior of a swarm (characterized by the absence of continuous formation control) is well suited for ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy.

  14. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  15. Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

    2005-03-01

    The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

  16. I.S. Shklovsky and modern radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitskij, G. M.

    2006-10-01

    Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky is one of the founders of radio astronomy as a leading branch in the modern science. Under his leadership in 1953 the Radio Astronomy Department was formed at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscow State University. Shklovsky's research covered a large variety of topics in radio astronomy, space research, solar physics, X-ray astronomy, etc. In this contribution, Shklovsky's life story is reviewed, including the famous expedition to Brazil for radio observations of the solar eclipse. His main works are presented, such as the prediction of the possibility of observing the 21 cm radio line of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium together with some molecular radio lines, the explanation of the spectrum of the Crab Nebula in the optical and radio ranges by a unified synchrotron mechanism, and his studies on the radio emission of the solar corona, including the explanation of drifting solar radio bursts by a plasma mechanism. Other research achievements are reviewed, among which are his idea on the artificial comet implemented during the first lunar launches, and his work on the problem of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

  17. Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varano, S.

    2008-06-01

    Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

  18. Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

  19. World War II Radar and Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.

    2005-08-01

    The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

  20. Observing Projects in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.

  1. Radio astronomy aspects of the NASA SETI Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of SETI data to radio astronomy is studied. The number of continuum radio sources in the 1-10 GHz region to be counted and cataloged is predicted. The radio luminosity functions for steep and flat spectrum sources at 2, 8, and 22 GHz are derived using the model of Peacock and Gull (1981). The relation between source number and flux density is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is evaluated.

  2. Planetary radio astronomy observations from voyager 1 near saturn.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Pearce, J B; Evans, D R; Carr, T D; Schauble, J J; Alexander, J K; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Pedersen, M; Lecacheux, A; Daigne, G; Boischot, A; Barrow, C H

    1981-04-10

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings. PMID:17783837

  3. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Evans, D. R.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Pedersen, M.; Lecacheux, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  4. The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

    2001-12-01

    The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

  5. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  6. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  7. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  8. From radio-astronomy to medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Peters, T M

    1991-12-01

    A common thread in much of the medical imaging that has developed over the past 20 years has been the Fourier transform. It was Richard Bates' interest in radio-interferometry, as well as his fascination with problems of medical imaging that prompted an initial interest in applying Fourier techniques to medical imaging in general and to Computed Tomography in particular. This resulted 20 years ago in one of the earliest technical papers advocating Fourier techniques for reconstructing cross-sections from radiographic projections (Bates and Peters, NZ J Science 14:883-896, 1971). Since those early days, medical imaging has explored into a multi-billion dollar industry. The CT scanner has become the workhorse imaging modality in the radiology department, while its more recent relative, the MR scanner, is rapidly gaining ground as a technique of even greater importance. Richard Bates, with his team of "Medical Imagers" was a very significant force in the development of the field of Medical Imaging as we know it today. This paper attempts to chronicle the genesis of this process from the personal perspective of the author. PMID:1789769

  9. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  13. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  14. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  16. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

  17. The Student as Scientist: Secondary Student Research Projects in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, R. P.

    2000-08-01

    Student research projects are becoming either integral or optional components of Science curricula in several countries. They provide a valuable opportunity for high school students to experience many of the joys and frustrations that make up the intellectual challenge of Science. Astronomy is one branch of Science that lends itself to student projects. Student Research Projects (SRPs) can be individual, group or collaborative between groups in other schools or countries and may involve professional mentors. Use of the Internet and remote access telescopes allow students to undertake challenging research and make worthwhile contributions to professional programs. This paper presents case studies of student projects in optical and radio astronomy from Australian and overseas schools and details both the benefits and problems faced in conducting such projects. Student responses to involvement in projects are discussed. Potential areas for future collaboration and development are highlighted together with the need for more research as to the most effective ways to implement projects and develop student skills.

  18. The World of Radio Astronomy, Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Brinks, Elias

    1996-07-01

    Street lamps are like quasars. Lightning bolts are like the Orion nebula. In addition to showing how celestial phenomenon resemble everyday doodads, radio astronomers are answering an age-old question: Where are we in the universe?

  19. Planetary radio astronomy observations during the Voyager 1 Titan flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigne, G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    During the Voyager 1 Titan flyby, unusual radio emissions were observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment in the 20- to 97-kHz frequency range. It is shown that Titan itself is not the source of the observed radio emission. The emission features are attributed to modification of the normal Saturn kilometric radiation by propagation effects in enhanced density structures within the Titan wake. Furthermore, spiky emissions observed in the magnetic wake of Titan are interpreted in terms of local electrostatic instabilities at the electron plasma frequency. From these measurements a range of electron densities in the wake region is derived, and the consistency of the results is discussed.

  20. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  1. Solar radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of solar radio emissions at decametric to kilometric wavelengths are reviewed. Special attention is given to the radiation of the quiet sun at several metric and decametric wavelengths and to nonthermal radiation from the active sun, including radio bursts of type III (electron beams), type-III bursts from behind the sun, storms of type III bursts, the flare-associated radio bursts, type II bursts (shock waves), and shock-associated bursts. It is pointed out that almost no observations have been made so far of solar radiation between about 20 MHz and about 2 MHz. Below about 2 MHz, dynamic spectra of flux densities of solar burst have been recorded in space and observations were made of the directions of centroids and characteristic sizes of the emitting sources.

  2. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  3. Leiden University "astronomy for development" projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    We shall describe the projects being coordinated by Leiden Observatory to use astronomy for education and human capacity buiding and discuss how they relate to the IAU Strategic Plan. Some of these are being funded by the European Commission.

  4. A Radio Station Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Edna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a radio program in an English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom in Israel. Classrooms of English students listen carefully to daily broadcasts, waiting to solve the brain teaser. Personal messages and catchy music follow the program. The project has encouraged students to use English actively and purposefully. Evaluation of the broadcasts…

  5. Developments in Coherent Amplifiers and Miniaturized Receivers for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kieran; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Gawande, R.; Kooi, J.; Gaier, T.; Lawrence, C. R.; Kangaslahti, P.; Samoska, L.; Varonen, M.; Lai, R.; Sarkozy, S.; Church, S. E.; Sieth, M.; Devaraj, K.; Voll, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of InP HEMT amplifiers have produced a breakthrough in the cryogenic noise performance of these devices. Caltech's Cahill Radio Astronomy Lab (CRAL), JPL and Northrop Grumman (NGAS) are working to produce new amplifiers which can exploit this improved performance for radio astronomy. In parallel, these new amplifiers are being integrated into a family of miniaturized modular receivers which have wide application as focal plane arrays. Such arrays will have a major impact on a diverse range of scientific goals, such as measurement of integrated CO from the Epoch of Reionization, efficient spectroscopic and continuum mapping of Galactic emission and measurement of the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We report on these developments and prospects for the future.

  6. Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    2006-12-01

    The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

  7. Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

  8. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  9. The Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper proposes to place a simple low-frequency dipole antenna on board the Lunar Observer (LO) satellite. LO will orbit the moon in the mid-1990's, mapping the surface at high resolution and gathering new geophysical data. In its modest concept, LORAE will collect crucial data on the radio interference environment while on the near-side (to aid in planning future arrays) and will monitor bursts of emission from the sun and the Jovian planets. LORAE will also be capable of lunar occultation studies of greater than 100 of the brightest sources, gathering arcminute resolution data on sizes and measuring source fluxes. A low resolution all-sky map below 10 MHz, when combined with data from the Gamma-Ray Observatory, will uniquely determine the density of Galactic cosmic ray electrons and the strength of the Galaxy's magnetic field. LORAE also will be able to measure the density of the moon's ionosphere.

  10. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in acousto-optic techniques and in photodetector arrays have made feasible a new type of RF spectrometer, offering the advantages of wide bandwidth, high resolution, large number of channels in compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and relatively low cost systems. Such a system employs an acousto-optic diffraction cell which serves the key role of converting RF signals to ultrasonic traveling-waves modulating the optical index of the cell. The cell is illuminated across its aperture by a monochromatic laser beam. A fraction of the light is diffracted by the acoustic waves. A focusing lens follows the cell and essentially performs a Fourier transform of the RF signal into a far-field intensity pattern. CSIRO in Australia and the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Japan have taken the lead in using acousto-optic techniques in astronomical applications. The first practical device was successfully made at CSIRO for obtaining dynamical spectrographs of solar radio emission.

  11. Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

  12. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  13. Probing the field of radio astronomy with the SKA and the Hartebeesthoek Radio observatory: an engineer's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Sunelle

    2011-07-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is an international project to build the world's largest and most sensitive radio telescope interferometer. It will consist of thousands of antennas distributed over many kilometers, with the hosting country being either South Africa or Australia. This talk will give some background on the SKA technologies, pathfinders and Key Science Projects and also consider the system design options for the SKA Pulsar science case. The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) is the only major radio astronomy observatory in Africa; with KAT-7 in testing and the MeerKAT still in it's design phase. Some of my research work at HartRAO is presented, which includes data analysis of the pointing model for the 26m radio telescope and evaluating the performance of the GPS-disciplined Rubidium and Hydrogen Maser frequency standards. I will also talk about our project to build a 1.4GHz receiver for a commercial satellite TV antenna as well as calibrating data at 22GHz for observing water masers in Orion.

  14. Problems and Projects from Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Describes activities to stimulate school astronomy programs. Topics include: counting stars; the Earth's centripetal force; defining astronomical time; three types of sundials; perceptions of star brightness; sunspots and solar radiation; stellar spectroscopy; number-crunching and the molecular structure of the atmosphere; the Earth-Moon common…

  15. Space situational awareness applications for radio astronomy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Galen; Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) builds, operates, and maintains a suite of premier radio antennas, including the 100m aperture Green Bank Telescope, the largest fully-steerable antenna in the world. For more than five decades the NRAO has focused on astrophysics, providing researchers with the most advanced instruments possible: large apertures, extremely low-noise receivers, and signal processors with high frequency and time resolution. These instruments are adaptable to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) tasks such as radar detection of objects in near-Earth and cis-Lunar space, high accuracy orbit determination, object surveillance with passive methods, and uplink and downlink communications. We present the capabilities of antennas and infrastructure at the NRAO Green Bank Observatory in the context of SSA tasks, and discuss what additions and modifications would be necessary to achieve SSA goals while preserving existing radio astronomy performance. We also discuss how the Green Bank Observatory's surrounding topography and location within the National Radio Quiet Zone will enhance SSA endeavors.

  16. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at neptune.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Peltzer, G R; Peltzer, R G; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Riddle, A C; Schweitzer, A E; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Farrell, W M; Carr, T D; de Pater, I; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Boischot, A; Genova, F; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1989-12-15

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions ofthe planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 +/- 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges. PMID:17756007

  17. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  18. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  19. Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

  20. An evolutionary sequence of low frequency radio astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    1990-01-01

    Many concepts for space-based low frequency radio astronomy missions are being developed, ranging from simple single-satellite experiments to large arrays on the far side of the moon. Each concept involves a different tradeoff between the range of scientific questions it can answer and the technical complexity of the experiment. Since complexity largely determines the development time, risk, launch vehicle requirements, cost, and probability of approval, it is important to see where the ability to expand the scientific return justifies a major increase in complexity. An evolutionary series of increasingly capable missions, similar to the series of missions for infrared or X-ray astronomy, is advocated. These would range from inexpensive 'piggy-back' experiments on near-future missions to a dedicated low frequency array in earth orbit (or possibly on the lunar nearside) and eventually to an array on the lunar farside.

  1. Dirichlet Methods for Bayesian Source Detection in Radio Astronomy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The sheer volume of data to be produced by the next generation of radio telescopes - exabytes of data on hundreds of millions of objects - makes automated methods for the detection of astronomical objects ("sources") essential. Of particular importance are low surface brightness objects, which are not well found by current automated methods. This thesis explores Bayesian methods for source detection that use Dirichlet or multinomial models for pixel intensity distributions in discretised radio astronomy images. A novel image discretisation method that incorporates uncertainty about how the image should be discretised is developed. Latent Dirichlet allocation - a method originally developed for inferring latent topics in document collections - is used to estimate source and background distributions in radio astronomy images. A new Dirichlet-multinomial ratio, indicating how well a region conforms to a well-specified model of background versus a loosely-specified model of foreground, is derived. Finally, latent Dirichlet allocation and the Dirichlet-multinomial ratio are combined for source detection in astronomical images. The methods developed in this thesis perform source detection well in comparison to two widely-used source detection packages and, importantly, find dim sources not well found by other algorithms.

  2. The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

  3. RASDR: Benchtop Demonstration of SDR for Radio Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Oxley, Paul; Fields, David; Kurtz, Dr. Stan; Leech, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA) members present the benchtop version of RASDR, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is optimized for Radio Astronomy. RASDR has the potential to be a common digital receiver interface useful to many SARA members. This document describes the RASDR 0.0 , which provides digitized radio data to a backend computer through a USB 2.0 interface. A primary component of RASDR is the Lime Microsystems Femtocell chip which tunes from a 0.4-4 GHz center frequency with several selectable bandwidths from 0.75 MHz to 14 MHz. A second component is a board with a Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) chip that connects to the Femtocell and provides two USB connections to the backend computer. A third component is an analog balanced mixer up conversion section. Together these three components enable RASDR to tune from 0.015 MHz thru 3.8GHz of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. We will demonstrate and discuss capabilities of the breadboard system and SARA members will be able to operate the unit hands-on throughout the workshop.

  4. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  5. A review of decametric radio astronomy - Instruments and science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Cane, H. V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources.

  6. Introducing the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Hurt, R.

    2008-05-01

    The goal of the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) is to promote and vastly multiply the use of astronomy multimedia resources—from images and illustrations to animations, movies, and podcasts—and enable innovative future exploitation of a wide variety of outreach media by systematically linking resource archives worldwide. High-quality astronomical images, accompanied by rich caption and background information, abound on the web and yet prove notoriously difficult to locate efficiently using existing search tools. The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project offers a solution via the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard. Due to roll out in time for IYA2009, VAMP manages the design, implementation, and dissemination of the AVM standard for the education and public outreach astronomical imagery that observatories publish. VAMP will support implementations in World Wide Telescope, Google Sky, Portal to the Universe, and 365 Days of Astronomy, as well as Uniview and DigitalSky software designed specifically for planetariums. The VAMP workshop will introduce the AVM standard and describe its features, highlighting sample image tagging processes using diverse tools—the critical first step in getting media into VAMP. Participants with laptops will have an opportunity to experiment first hand, and workshop organizers will update a web page with system requirements and software options in advance of the conference (see http://virtualastronomy.org/ASP2008/ for links to resources). The workshop will also engage participants in a discussion and review of the innovative AVM image hierarchy taxonomy, which will soon be extended to other types of media.

  7. Planetary radio astronomy receiver. [experiment on Voyager spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, G. J.; Peltzer, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment on the Voyager spacecraft will measure the amplitude, spectrum, time variations, and polarization of radio emissions over a frequency range of 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz with the aid of the PRA receiver (PRAR) and two 10-m orthogonal monopoles. Sensitivity and dynamic range will allow observation of a wide range of Jovian emissions from near earth to encounter. This paper describes the system elements, including the preamp/attenuator/calibrator, the LF polarization discriminator, the four LF-IF amplifier stages, the HF polarization discriminator, the translation LO, the log-IF and detector, the frequency synthesizer, the data processor, control system, power supply, and antennas.

  8. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  9. Electronic Multi-beam Radio Astronomy Concept: Embrace a Demonstrator for the European SKA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardenne, A.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Patel, P. D.; Vaate, J. G. Bij

    2004-06-01

    ASTRON has demonstrated the capabilities of a 4 m2, dense phased array antenna (Bij de Vaate et al., 2002) for radio astronomy, as part of the Thousand Element Array project (ThEA). Although it proved the principle, a definitive answer related to the viability of the dense phased array approach for the SKA could not be given, due to the limited collecting area of the array considered. A larger demonstrator has therefore been defined, known as “Electronic Multi-Beam Radio Astronomy Concept”, EMBRACE, which will have an area of 625 m2, operate in the band 0.4 1.550 GHz and have at least two independent and steerable beams. With this collecting area EMBRACE can function as a radio astronomy instrument whose sensitivity is comparable to that of a 25-m diameter dish. The collecting area also represents a significant percentage area (˜10%) of an individual SKA “station.” This paper presents the plans for the realisation of the EMBRACE demonstrator.

  10. Optimising Impact in Astronomy for Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Positive outcomes in the fields of science education and international development are notoriously difficult to achieve. Among the challenges facing projects that use astronomy to improve education and socio-economic development is how to optimise project design in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits. Over the past century, medical scientists along with statisticians and economists have progressed an increasingly sophisticated and scientific approach to designing, testing and improving social intervention and public health education strategies. This talk offers a brief review of the history and current state of `intervention science'. A similar framework is then proposed for astronomy outreach and education projects, with applied examples given of how existing evidence can be used to inform project design, predict and estimate cost-effectiveness, minimise the risk of unintended negative consequences and increase the likelihood of target outcomes being achieved.

  11. U.S.-Canadian Partnership in Radio Astronomy Valuable for Science, NRAO Director Says

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    The United States and Canada intend to collaborate on two of the most important radio astronomy projects of the new century - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), astronomers from both countries announced today. "This cooperative program - the North American Partnership in Radio Astronomy - involves the key projects that will dominate radio astronomy world-wide," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This partnership will multiply the efforts of both nations' astronomers for the benefit of science. It builds on a long tradition of cooperative efforts in radio astronomy, and will ensure that we continue that tradition into the new millennium," Vanden Bout said. The U.S.-Canada radio astronomy partnership is outlined in two letters of intent signed recently. The first, between the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), states that both agencies will use their best efforts to obtain the necessary funding for construction and operation of ALMA. The second, between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the NSF, and the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, funded by the NRC, forms a partnership in the EVLA. The VLA Expansion Project is a two-phase program designed to improve the scientific capabilities of the VLA tenfold by replacing 1970s-vintage equipment with modern technologies and adding new radio-telescope antennas to the existing 27-antenna array. Dedicated in 1980, the VLA has been used for more than 10,000 observing projects covering nearly every area of astrophysics. It is the most powerful, flexible and widely-used radio telescope in the world. The Expanded VLA will provide the improved observational capabilities needed to meet the research challenges of the coming years. In addition to the participation by Canada, funds have been pledged by Mexico. Both Mexico and Germany have funded VLA improvements in the

  12. Site selection for a radio astronomy observatory in Turkey: atmospherical, meteorological, and radio frequency analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, Ibrahim; Üler, Ipek; Öz, Şükriye; Onay, Sedat; Özdemir, Ali Rıza; Gülşen, Mehmet; Sarıkaya, Mikail; Dag˜Tekin, Nazlı Derya; Özeren, Ferhat Fikri

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the future site for a large Turkish radio telescope is a key issue. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is now in the stage of construction at a site near Karaman City, in Turkey. A single-dish parabolic radio antenna of 30-40 m will be installed near a building that will contain offices, laboratories, and living accommodations. After a systematic survey of atmospheric, meteorological, and radio frequency interference (RFI) analyses, site selection studies were performed in a predetermined location in Turkey during 2007 and 2008. In this paper, we described the experimental procedure and the RFI measurements on our potential candidate's sites in Turkey, covering the frequency band from 1 to 40 GHz.

  13. The Astronomy Genealogy Project: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is not yet visible, much progress has been made on the Astronomy Genealogy Project (AstroGen) since it was accepted as a project of the Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) three years ago. AstroGen will list the world's astronomers with information about their highest degrees and advisors. (In academic genealogy, your thesis advisor is your parent.) A small group (the AstroGen Team) has compiled a database of approximately 12,000 individuals who have earned doctorates with theses (dissertations) on topics in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, or planetary science. These include nearly all those submitted in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and New Zealand, and most of those in the United States (all through 2014 for most universities and all through 1990 for all). We are compiling more information than is maintained by the Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP). In addition to name, degree, university, year of degree, and thesis advisor(s), all provided by MGP as well, we are including years of birth and death when available, mentors in addition to advisors, and links to the thesis when it is online and to the person's web page or obituary, when we can find it. We are still struggling with some questions, such as the boundaries of inclusion and whether or not to include subfields of astronomy. We believe that AstroGen will be a valuable resource for historians of science as well as a source of entertainment for those who like to look up their academic family trees. A dedicated researcher following links from AstroGen will be able to learn quite a lot about the careers of astronomy graduates of a particular university, country, or era. We are still seeking volunteers to enter the graduates of one or more universities.

  14. Embracing the Wave: Using the Very Small Radio Telescope to Teach Students about Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Doherty, M.; Minnigh, S.; Arndt, M. B.; Pratap, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) is a low-cost educational tool appropriate for laboratory demonstrations of the nature of radio waves and the principles of interferometry for use in both high school and undergraduate physics/astronomy classes. The system consists of small direct broadcast antenna dishes and other commercially available parts and can be assembled for under $500. Complete teaching units have been developed and tested by high school physics teachers to demonstrate radio wave transmission and exponential absorption though materials (Beer's law), the polarization of electromagnetic waves (Malus' law), the inverse square law, and interferometry. These units can be used to explore the properties of electromagnetic waves, including similarities and differences between radio and visible light, while challenging students' misconceptions about a wavelength regime that is important to both astronomy and everyday life. In addition, the VSRT can be used as a radio astronomical interferometer to measure the diameter of the Sun at 12 GHz. Full details, including a parts list, comprehensive assembly instructions, informational memos, teaching units, software, and conformance to national and Massachusetts educational standards, are available on the web at http://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/undergrad/VSRT/index.html . Development of the VSRT at MIT Haystack Observatory is made possible through funding provided by the National Science Foundation.

  15. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  16. The Radio Jove Project: Citizen Science Contributes to Jupiter Decametric Radio Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Higgins, C. A.; Sky, J.; Cecconi, B.; Garcia, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build a simple radio telescope, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth. Regular monitoring of Jupiter and solar radio storms is typical, and Radio Jove amateur observations have improved in their scientific utility. Some observers have upgraded their equipment to make spectroscopic observations in the frequency band from 15-30 MHz. These observations can be particularly useful when made in conjunction with professional telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), the Nancay Decametric Array, the Ukrainian UTR-2 Radio Telescope, etc. The coming Juno mission to Jupiter will observe the radio emissions while in orbit at Jupiter and will benefit from the Earth-based perspective provided by frequent monitoring of the emissions. With these goals in mind work is now underway to provide simple methods of archiving the Radio Jove observations for use by the amateur and professional radio science community in scientifically useful and easily analyzed formats. The data will be ingested to both Radio Jove specific databases and to archives containing a variety of "waves" data. Methods are being developed to assure the scientific validity of contributed data such as certification of the observers. Amateur scientists have made overwhelming contributions to optical astronomy and we believe the same is possible within the radio astronomy community as well.

  17. Found: The Original 1945 Records of Australian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Miller; Ekers, Ron; Sim, Helen

    2015-08-01

    In July 2014, we found the original records of the first published Australian radio astronomy observations. These were obtained by Joseph L. Pawsey and Ruby Payne-Scott in early October 1945. The observations gave strong evidence of a million degree corona as well as frequent radio bursts.These observations followed earlier detections of the radio sun by Stanley Hey, George Southworth, Grote Reber and Elizabeth Alexander. The latter observations (the "Norfolk Island Effect" of March 1945) were the immediate motivation for the campaign carried out by Pawsey and Payne-Scott.These observations formed the basis for a number of pioneering publications: the 9 February 1946 Nature paper of Pawsey, Payne-Scott and McCready which was submitted on the last date on which data was obtained on 23 October 1945, the major publication of the initial Australian radio solar publication in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London in August 1947 and Pawsey's presentation of the radio properties of the million degree corona in the Nature of 2 November 1946. Contemporaneously with these publications, D. F.Martyn was involved in an independent theoretical study of the properties of the solar corona.(Ginzburg and Shklovsky were also involved in this era in a study of the properties of the corona.) The back-to-back Martyn and Pawsey Nature papers were the first that described the radio properties of the hot corona, due to free-free emission. The division of the observed emission into "bursting" and "quiet" modes was challenging for the novice radio astronomers.These historical records had been recognized by Paul Wild in 1968, who instructed the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics secretary to E.("Taffy") G. Bowen, Ms. Sally Atkinson, to submit these to the Australian Academy of Science. Wild characterized these documents as "of considerable historical interest". Apparently the transmission of the documents was not done; a thorough search of the Australian Academy Library in August 2014

  18. User friendly database for Neptune planetary radio astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to understand esoteric characteristics of the PRA instrument or the Voyager spacecraft. Several data sets were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and have either appeared already on peer reviewed CDROM's or are in the process of being reviewed for inclusion in forthcoming CD-ROM's. Many of the data sets are also available online electronically through computer networks; it is anticipated that as time permits, the PDS will make all the data sets that were a part of this contract available both online and on CD-ROM's.

  19. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. The paper reports on quasi-periodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kHz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families is discussed.

  20. Analysis of the Radio Astronomy Explorer lunar orbit mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The second Radio Astronomy Explorer spacecraft (RAE-B) is planned to be inserted into lunar orbit in 1973. The transfer trajectory design, lunar orbit selection and launch opportunities are developed in relation to the spacecraft mass properties, propulsion capability and the scientific, environmental and engineering constraints. Alternative midcourse guidance and lunar orbit trim strategies are analyzed and compared. A means of achieving a launch window without varying launch azimuth and park orbit coast time is described. The resulting mission design is characterized by near-minimum energy lunar transfer trajectories and low eccentricity, retrograde critical inclination lunar orbits. Acceptable launch periods are shown to exist for six consecutive months and for two to four consecutive days per month.

  1. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range. PMID:19405681

  2. Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities

  3. SwaMURAy - Swapping Memory Unit for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winberg, Simon

    2016-03-01

    This paper concerns design and performance testing of an HDL module called SwaMURAy that is a configurable, high-speed data sequencing and flow control module serving as an intermediary between data acquisition and subsequent processing stages. While a FIFO suffices for many applications, our case needed a more elaborate solution to overcome legacy design limitations. The SwaMURAy is designed around a system where a block of sampled data is acquired at a fast rate and is then distributed among multiple processing paths to achieve a desired overall processing rate. This architecture provides an effective design pattern around which various software defined radio (SDR) and radio astronomy applications can be built. This solution was partly in response to legacy design restrictions of the SDR platform we used, a difficulty likely experienced by many developers whereby new sampling peripherals are inhibited by legacy characteristics of an underlying reconfigurable platform. Our SDR platform had a planned lifetime of at least five years as a complete redesign and refabrication would be too costly. While the SwaMURAy overcame some performance problems, other problems arose. This paper overviews the SwaMURAy design, performance improvements achieved in an SDR case study, and discusses remaining limitations and workarounds we expect will achieve further improvements.

  4. An Overview of W.N. Christiansen's Contribution to Australian Radio Astronomy, 1948-1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    In 1948, an accomplished industrial physicist who had harboured a long-term ambition to become an astronomer joined the newly-formed Radio Astronomy Group in the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia. Thus, W.N. (`Chris') Christiansen (1913-2007) began a new career in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. This paper reviews Christiansen's contribution to both instrumentation development and scientific research during the first phase of his career in radio astronomy, covering his work at the Potts Hill and Fleurs field stations prior to his resignation from the Division of Radiophysics in 1960.

  5. The renaissance of radio astronomy: towards the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I will give a brief overview of the largest radio telescope in the world, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The history of this instrument, its development as a huge international project, as well as its main scientific goals, will be summarised. I will then focus on a particular science case by presenting how the first phase of the SKA (SKA1), whose observations are expected to start in the early 2020's, will change our radio view of the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe: galaxy clusters.

  6. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference: The Quiet Skies Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, S.; Gear, C.; Maddalena, R. J.; Heatherly, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Quiet Skies Project is a result of the Research Experience for Teacher (RET) program during the summer of 2004. Teachers were involved in discovering the relationship between radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy observations. S. Rapp participated in astronomy observations with the Green Bank Telescope in order to characterize RFI issues at radio observatories and worked closely with the Green Bank Interference Protection Group. This work included such tasks as mitigation of locally-generated RFI from power poles and running radiation propagation studies for transmitters within the National Radio Quiet Zone. A curriculum was created to allow high school students to participate in a research effort to determine RFI levels in their communities. The aim of the project is to promote student awareness of radio astronomy and radio frequency interference through an inquiry-based science curriculum. It is hoped that the project will go national by 2007. A prototype RFI detector was created and tested at four wavelengths; 850, 900, 1425, and 1675 MHz. High school students used a beta version of the RFI detector to explore the occurrence of RFI at their schools and in their communities. The student goals of the Quiet Skies Project are to: Measure interference levels at their schools and in their communities; Reduce and transmit their data to an NRAO data base; Use online spectrum allocation data, and local information to determine possible causes of interference in their area; Analyze the complex trade-offs between radio astronomy's need for quiet skies, and other commercial, and non-commercial uses of the spectrum and share their insights with others. This work was funded by the NSF-RET program and a grant from the NASA-IDEAS program

  7. Radio frequency interference measurements in Indonesia. A survey to establish a radio astronomy observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Munir, Achmad; Dermawan, Budi; Jaelani, Anton Timur; Léon, Stéphane; Nugroho, Dading Hadi; Suksmono, Andriyan Bayu; Mahasena, Putra; Premadi, Premana Wardayanti; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Kunjaya, Chatief; Dupe, Zadrach Ledoufij; Brahmantyo, Budi; Mandey, Denny; Yusuf, Muhammad; Tri Wulandari, Hesti Retno; Arief, Falahuddin; Irfan, Muhammad; Puri Jatmiko, Agus Triono; Akbar, Evan Irawan; Sianturi, Hery Leo; Tanesib, Jehunias Leonidas; Warsito, Ali; Utama, Judhistira Aria

    2014-02-01

    We report the first measurements of radio frequency spectrum occupancy performed at sites aimed to host the future radio astronomy observatory in Indonesia. The survey is intended to obtain the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment in a spectral range from low frequency 10 MHz up to 8 GHz. The measurements permit the identification of the spectral occupancy over those selected sites in reference to the allocated radio spectrum in Indonesia. The sites are in close proximity to Australia, the future host of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) at low frequency. Therefore, the survey was deliberately made to approximately adhere the SKA protocol for RFI measurements, but with lower sensitivity. The RFI environment at Bosscha Observatory in Lembang was also measured for comparison. Within the sensitivity limit of the measurement equipment, it is found that a location called Fatumonas in the surrounding of Mount Timau in West Timor has very low level of RFI, with a total spectrum occupancy in this measured frequency range being about 1 %, mostly found at low frequency below 20 MHz. More detailed measurements as well as a strategy for a radio quiet zone must be implemented in the near future.

  8. Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie

    2000-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

  9. Network Development of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of ASC LPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.

    All main changes in the network of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory has been related to introduction of the buffer data center in the recent years, upgrading internal and external communication channels and the exploitation of ip-telephony.

  10. Radio Jupiter after Voyager: An overview of the Planetary Radio Astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Jupiter's low frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is reviewed. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized following over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previous unrecognized emission components were discovered: broadband and narrow band kilometric emission and the lesser arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, which is believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequency time domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of Sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in suit measurements of the Io plasma torus hot to cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  11. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  12. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

  13. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

  14. Radio Astronomy in Holland Before 1960: Just a Bit More than HI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The history of early radio astronomy in the Netherlands is explored, especially that which did not involve neutral hydrogen studies. Although little of this early—mainly solar—work was published in professional journals, there is some information in a popular Dutch astronomy magazine. From this it is clear that the early radio observations of the Sun were driven as much by the needs of radio communication as by solar physics. The important role which A.H. de Voogt, Head of the PTT's radio service, played in both Dutch and international radio astronomy is described. A brief sketch is given of the history of the two PTT stations where the early observations were made.

  15. Research on Haystack radiometer, 20-24 GHz maser, and radio astronomy programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    During the first half of 1973, the Haystack antenna was utilized 76% of the time. Of this useful time, 72% was devoted to radio astronomy observing, 5% was spent on radar-related research and 23% went into maintenance and system improvements. Twenty-eight new radio astronomy programs were accepted, eight of which were completed during the period. One new radar program, topographic observations of Mars, was started in June and will be completed early in 1974. Fourteen programs continued from the previous period were also defined as complete. As of 1 July, 28 ratio observing programs were in a continuing status on the Haystack books. Four radar projects were also continuing. The 20-24 GHz maser development described in the preceding report progressed very well during an on-antenna test phase which began early in the year, but which terminated unfortunately in June with the complete loss of gain in the maser. Investigation of this problem is in progress. During this on-antenna test phase, the most sensitive water vapor observing capability which has yet become available was demonstrated.

  16. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal accounts by Peter Mezger on observations of radio recombination lines, by Lewis Snyder and Barry Turner on the early days of astrochemistry, by Don Backer and David Nice on observations of pulsars, and by David Shaffer, James Moran, Ken Kellermann and Barry Clark on aspects of the development of long baseline interferometric techniques. Today's generation of scientists will find interesting reminiscences by Patrick Palmer, Thomas Wilson, and Nobel Laureate Joseph Taylor on their experiences as graduate students doing thesis research at Green Bank, and from Sebastian von Hoerner and Jaap Baars on their work in telescope development. The volume also relates the entry of computers into radio astronomy, and reprints the one-page memo from 1960 which laid out the protocol for use of the new "single roll of magnetic tape" just acquired by the Observatory. A major portion of the book describes some singular events associated with this singular place: the first search for radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations -- Project Ozma -- conducted by Dr. Frank Drake in 1960. But it was Fun... documents how this routine project thrust the NRAO into the national spotlight to the discomfort of its director, a distinguished astronomer of the old school. The book also recounts a few episodes in the amazing life of Grote Reber, the engineer who built the first-ever radio dish in his backyard and was a regular visitor to Green Bank. The NRAO Green Bank Observatory is an international center for research, and in two unique and frequently hilarious articles, Ken Kellermann and Barry Clark tell their stories of the first cooperative radio astronomical projects between the Soviet Union and the U.S., which involved transporting an atomic clock from Green Bank to a Soviet Observatory on the Black Sea at a time when international tensions were high, and it was impossible to make a phone call from the USSR to Green

  17. Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2000-01-01

    This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

  18. Radio astronomy from space; Proceedings of the Workshop, Green Bank, WV, Sept. 30-Oct. 2, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims and technological implementation of planned and proposed space radio observatories are examined in reviews and reports. Observations at mm and submm, cm, dkm, and hm wavelengths are considered, and particular attention is given to astrophysical problems requiring space-based observations; radio astronomy from the moon; coordination of ground, airborne, balloon-borne, and space-based mm and submm astronomy; microwave-background observations at 15-90 GHz, the Large Deployable Reflector, the Space Station mm-wave facility, the use of TDRSS as an orbiting VLBI observatory, and interstellar scattering and resolution limitations. Also discussed are Quasat, Astro-Array, VLBA, solar-system radio astronomy at low frequencies, radio emission from coronal and interplanetary shocks, and Tasmanian LF Galactic background surveys.

  19. A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Saks, Noah; Falcke, Heino; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Bentum, Ark; Thilak Rajan, Raj; Wijnholds, Ir. Stefan J.; Arts, Michel; van-T Klooster, Kees; Belien, Frederik

    The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest. Due to ionospheric scintillation (below 30MHz) and its opaqueness (below 15MHz), earth-bound radio astronomy observations in these bands are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. A radio telescope in space obviously would not be hampered by the Earth's ionosphere. In the past, several (limited) studies have been conducted to explore possibilities for such an array in space. These studies considered aperture synthesis arrays in space, at the back-side of the Moon, or a satellite constellation operating in a coherent mode. In 2009 an ESA project, Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space (DARIS), set out to investigate the space-based radio telescope concept. The focus of this feasibility study is on a moderate size three-dimensional satellite constellation operating as a coherent large aperture synthesis array. This aperture synthesis array would consist of 5 to 50 antennas (satellites) having a maximum separation of 100 km. This study considers the main aspects of such a distributed system in more detail than previous studies. This conference contribution aims at presenting an overview of the DARIS project and at discussing the main results. The project selected extra-galactic surveys and the search for transient radio sources as the best suited science cases within the DARIS concept, and it investigated the scientific and technical requirements for such an array. Several antenna concepts were considered and simulated. An active antenna dipole array concept would be well suited, and a moderate 5 m tip-tip antenna system would

  20. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  1. Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Jonathan C.

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization

  2. Radio Jupiter after Voyager - An overview of the planetary radio astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is presented. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized, based on over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previously-unrecognized emission components have been discovered: broadband and narrow-band kilometric emission, and the lesser-arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter wavelength and hectometer wavelength emission, now believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequencytime domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of the sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in situ measurements of the Io plasma torus hot-to-cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  3. Early Dutch radio astronomy (1940-1970) : the people and the politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbers, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Radio astronomy was born during the Second World War. The early post-war radio astronomy group in the Netherlands was one of the most important radio astronomy groups in the world. There are several reasons for this. Firstly: Dutch radio astronomers were trained as (optical) astronomers, while in most countries engineers and physicists with a background in wartime radar research were the first radio 'astronomers'. This was because radio telescopes shared the technology of wartime radar installations. Because Dutch astronomers were not familiar with the new kind of instrumentation, they had to conclude strategic alliances with industrial partners such as Philips, the PTT and the KNMI. These alliances would offer much more than merely technical know-how, which means that the disadvantage would prove to be an advantage in the end. Secondly: astronomy was still a very small-scale undertaking in the early post-war period. Even so, ZWO was still a very small organisation. The fact that so few people were involved meant that the impact of a personal network could be enormous. Thirdly: the Dutch post-war context was remarkably favourable to science: it was considered to be a key factor in the rebuilding of the country.

  4. Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ≈ 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

  5. Genome Radio Project: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The process of conducting background research for the programs of the Genome Radio Project is continuing. The most developed of the program ``backgrounders`` have been reviewed by series and program advisors from various fields. Preliminary and background interviews have been conducted with dozens of potential program participants and advisors. Structurally, efforts are being directed toward developing and formalizing the project and series advisor relationships so that the best use can be made of those experts who have offered to assist the project in its presentation of program content. The library of research materials has been expanded considerably, creating a useful resource library for the producers.

  6. School Astronomy Club: from Project to Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folhas, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    Prepare a generation of young people for the challenges of the future is a task which forces us to rethink the school, not just for being difficult, but also because students feel that the school has very little to offer, especially something that interests them. Thus, the school is dysfunctional, is ill, and needs prompt treatment. School have to adjust to the new times, and this does not mean changing the old blackboards by advanced interactive whiteboards. The school has to find the way to the students with something that seduce them: the Challenge. The Astronomy Club that I lead in my school is essentially a Project space. Students who voluntarily joined the club, organize themselves according to their interests around projects whose outcome is not defined from the beginning, which requires them to do, undo and redo. Which obliges them to feel the need to ask for help to mathematics or physics to achieve answers, to feel the passion to study with a genuine purpose of learning. Some examples of the work: The younger students are challenged to reproduce the historical astronomical experiments that have opened the doors of knowledge such as the Eratosthenes experiment to determine the perimeter of the Earth (on equinox), or by using congruent triangles, determine the diameter the sun. These students are driven to establish distance scales in the solar system, which, to their astonishment, allows them to clear misconceptions that arise from some pictures of books and allows them to have a scientifically correct idea of the planetary orbit and distance separating the planets of the Solar System. For students from 15 to 18 years, I have to raise the level of the challenges and use the natural tendency of this age bracket to assert making new and exciting things. To this purpose, I am fortunate to have the support of large organizations like NUCLIO, ESA, CERN, and Go-Lab Project, Inspiring Science Education, Open Discovery Space and Global Hands on Universe. Through

  7. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  8. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  9. The TENPLA Project: Communicating Astronomy with the Public in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, Naohiro; Hiramatsu, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    The TENPLA project (pronounced as ``ten-pla'', like a famous Japanese food ``Tempura'') is designed to communicate Astronomy with the public in Japan. We have been working to suggest various ways to enjoy astronomy. We have organised star gazing parties, science cafés, and lectures. We have made many goodies which make people interested in astronomy (e.g. ``Astronomical Toilet Paper''). We have also provided opportunities to communicate with each other for people who have interests in such activities. In this paper we present a broad overview of the TENPLA project.

  10. Analysis of radio astronomy bands using CALLISTO spectrometer at Malaysia-UKM station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavvari, Azam; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Anwar, Radial; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Asillam, Mhd Fairos; Monstein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The e-CALLISTO system is a worldwide network that aims to observe solar radio emission for astronomical science. CALLISTO instruments have been deployed worldwide in various locations that together can provide continuous observation of the solar radio spectrum for 24 h per day year-round. Malaysia-UKM is a strategic equatorial location and can observe the Sun 12 h per day. This paper gives an overview of the spectrum allocation for radio astronomy, which falls in the specified operating frequency band of the CALLISTO spectrometer. The radio astronomy bands are analyzed at the Malaysia-UKM station according to the International Telecommunication Union recommendations. Some observational results are also presented in this paper.

  11. European Frequency Management and the Role of CRAF for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel, W.; Spoelstra, T. A. Th.

    2004-06-01

    In Europe, radio frequency regulation is managed by the CEPT, the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications Administrations (under an MoU with the European Commission). The CEPT develops guidelines and provides national Administrations with tools for harmonised European frequency management. In frequency management matters, the European radio astronomy community is represented by CRAF, the Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies of the ESF, the European Science Foundation. CRAF at present has members from 17 CEPT countries and a number of international organisations and it employs a full-time pan-European spectrum manager. Like several other non-government organis-ations, CRAF participates actively in this process through collaboration and communication with national Administrations and at CEPT level. CRAF has an observer status within the CEPT and is a Sector Member of the ITU-R, allowing it to participate in its own right in European and global fora dealing with radio frequency management.

  12. Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

  13. Low frequency solar radio astronomy at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.

    IIA is presently involved in the expansion of its existing radioheliograph operating in the frequency 120-40 MHz at the Gauribidanur radio observatory located about 80 km north of Bangalore. Once completed, the expanded array will have an angular resolution of ≈ 1' at a typical frequency of 100 MHz. This paper describes the development of solar radio astronomy activities at IIA since 1952 when the first observations were carried out.

  14. Millimeter wavelength spectroscopy of trace atmospheric constituents from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, G. R.; Irvine, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    The Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory system, located in western Massachusetts, is described. It is suggested that high sensitivity in the three-millimeter wavelength band facilitates detection and monitoring of a number of trace molecules in the earth's atmosphere as well as astonomical observation at radio wavelengths. Line formation and radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere are discussed, and the receiver sensitivity is considered.

  15. The First Steps of Radio Astronomy in Czestochowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosik, M.; Starzyński, S.; Szcześniak, M.; Szcześniak, R.; Ceglarek, A.

    2007-12-01

    In the paper, technical documentation and the principle of operation is presented. "KLAUDIA" radio telescope was built in Rabka in 2007 and it is used to receive secondary radio waves, emitted by the Earth's ionosphere at frequency of 40 kHz.

  16. Cyclostationary approaches for spatial RFI mitigation in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellbourg, Grégory; Weber, Rodolphe; Capdessus, Cécile; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interferences (RFIs), and real time filtering algorithms are becoming essential. In this article, it is shown how spatial processing techniques can limit the impact of the incoming RFIs for phased array radio telescopes. The proposed approaches are based on estimation of the RFI spatial signature. It requires the diagonalization of either the classic correlation matrix or the cyclic correlation matrix of the array. Different diagonalization techniques are compared. Then, RFI detection and RFI filtering techniques are illustrated through simulations on data acquired with the Low Frequency Array Radio telescope, LOFAR. The originality of the study is the use of the cyclostationarity property, in order to improve the spatial separation between cosmic sources and RFIs.

  17. Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

  18. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere are reported. Dramatic new information was obtained, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are outlined briefly.

  19. New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive

  20. Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

    2010-07-01

    The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) μV on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) μV on average).

  1. Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.

    1998-10-01

    ``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The

  2. Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The instrumentation of the RAE-2 spacecraft is described. The instruments include a pair of long travelling-wave antennas, a 37-m dipole, two radiometers making one frequency scan every 144 sec, and two rapid-sampling total-power burst receivers which cover the range from 0.025 to 13.1 MHz in 32 discrete steps. Effects of terrestrial noise on RAE-1 and RAE-2 observations are discussed, and it is noted that RAE-2 is uniquely capable of observing repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies. Some observational programs are briefly noted, including observations of the galactic background distribution, measurements of lunar occultations of solar radio bursts, and searches for more radio sources among the planets, galactic objects, and extragalactic sources.

  3. The radio astronomy explorer satellite, a low-frequency observatory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.; Alexander, J. K.; Stone, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    The RAE-1 is the first spacecraft designed exclusively for radio astronomical studies. It is a small, but relatively complex, observatory including two 229-meter antennas, several radiometer systems covering a frequency range of 0.2 to 9.2 MHz, and a variety of supporting experiments such as antenna impedance probes and TV cameras to monitor antenna shape. Since its launch in July, 1968, RAE-1 has sent back some 10 billion data bits per year on measurements of long-wavelength radio phenomena in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and the Galaxy. In this paper we describe the design, calibration, and performance of the RAE-1 experiments in detail.

  4. Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-2 spacecraft has been collecting radio astronomical measurements in the 25 kHz to 13 MHz frequency range from lunar orbit since June, 1973. A summary is given of the technical aspects of the program including the calibration, instrumentation and operation of the RAE-2 experiments. Performance of the experiments over the first 18 months of the flight is summarized and illustrated. Among the unique features of the RAE-2 is the capability to observe repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies.

  5. Low Frequency Radio Astronomy Summary: A Festschrift For Bill Erickson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. G.; Kassim, N. E.; Perez, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    The science and technological issues presented at this workshop in honor of Bill Erickson's 74th birthday, are certainly opening up a new window of astronomical observations at the low end of the radio frequency spectrum. We briefly review some of the contributions concentrating our comments on the topics of science, technology, and history.

  6. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  7. Advances in Composite Reflectors: From X-Ray to Radio Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, S. J.; Abusafieh, A. A.; Mehle, G. V.; Sheikh, D. A.; Giles, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    In recent years, Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) has made significant advances in the use of graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) materials for astronomical instrument applications. The inherent low density, high stiffness, and thermal stability makes GFRC a natural candidate for many astronomy applications. In order to reap these inherent benefits in astronomical applications, basic research has focused on material and process improvement. This has been accompanied by the design, fabrication, and test of several prototype reflectors that cover a broad wavelength spectrum of astronomical interests. The results of, and applications for, these efforts are summarized in the following list. X-Ray Carrier Shell: Innovative composite process yields accuracy and moisture stability. Demonstrated by vacuum optical test of 6" Wolter-I shell. Applicable to Con-X, etc. Lightweight Mirror Substrate for Visible Astronomy: Composite/glass hybrid design. Areal density < 15 kg/m2. Demonstrated by cryo-optical test (to 35K) of 1.6m NMSD mirror. Applicable to NGST, etc. Polishable Composite Facesheet: Glass-like coating applied to composite. Polishable by conventional methods. Multiple six-inch substrates polished to 20 angstroms. Technology will enable future 5 kg/m2 visible to UV optics. 10 kg/m2 Submillimeter Reflector: Apertures to 5m possible with economical, all-composite mirror design, diffraction limited at 80 microns. Demonstrated with cryo-optical test (to 70K) of FIRST 2-meter prototype mirror. Applicable to FIRST and other IR astronomy. Large, Ultra-Stable Optical Support Structure: Uniform and near-zero CTE over broad dimensions. Demonstrated with cryo-optical test of 2-meter FIRST prototype. Applicable to NGST, SIM, LISSA. Ground Based Radio Telescope Reflector: Low-cost, accurate, stable, durable all-composite design for support structure & reflective surface. Demonstrated via fab & test of 3m adjustable and 5m static prototypes. Applicable to LMT, ALMA, etc. These

  8. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  9. Space-based aperture array for ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Raj Thilak; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Bentum, Mark; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Belien, Frederik; Arts, Michel; Saks, Noah; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has seen the advent of various radio astronomy arrays, particularly for low-frequency observations below 100 MHz. These developments have been primarily driven by interesting and fundamental scientific questions, such as studying the dark ages and epoch of re-ionization, by detecting the highly red-shifted 21 cm line emission. However, Earth-based radio astronomy observations at frequencies below 30 MHz are severely restricted due to man-made interference, ionospheric distortion and almost complete non-transparency of the ionosphere below 10 MHz. Therefore, this narrow spectral band remains possibly the last unexplored frequency range in radio astronomy. A straightforward solution to study the universe at these frequencies is to deploy a space-based antenna array far away from Earths' ionosphere. In the past, such space-based radio astronomy studies were principally limited by technology and computing resources, however current processing and communication trends indicate otherwise. Furthermore, successful space-based missions which mapped the sky in this frequency regime, such as the lunar orbiter RAE-2, were restricted by very poor spatial resolution. Recently concluded studies, such as DARIS (Disturbuted Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) have shown the ready feasibility of a 9 satellite constellation using off the shelf components. The aim of this article is to discuss the current trends and technologies towards the feasibility of a space-based aperture array for astronomical observations in the Ultra-Long Wavelength (ULW) regime of greater than 10 m i.e., below 30 MHz. We briefly present the achievable science cases, and discuss the system design for selected scenarios such as extra-galactic surveys. An extensive discussion is presented on various sub-systems of the potential satellite array, such as radio astronomical antenna design, the on-board signal processing, communication architectures and joint space-time estimation of the

  10. A very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, James N.; Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    Because of terrestrial ionospheric absorption, very little is known of the radio sky beyond 10 m wavelength. An extremely simple, low cost very low frequency radio telescope is proposed, consisting of a large array of short wires laid on the lunar surface, each wire equipped with an amplifier and a digitizer, and connected to a common computer. The telescope could do simultaneous multifrequency observations of much of the visible sky with high resolution in the 10 to 100 m wavelength range, and with lower resolution in the 100 to 1000 m range. It would explore structure and spectra of galactic and extragalactic point sources, objects, and clouds, and would produce detailed quasi-three-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs of the Sun.

  11. The time resolution domain of stellar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J.

    1985-01-01

    The high time resolution (HTR) radio observation of late-type stars and RS CVn systems is discussed. Some examples of these sources are addressed, identifying what information HTR observations can provide. HTR can provide important information on flares in late-type stars, and can be used to study coronal structure and the particle acceleration mechanism in these stars. The possible use of HTR to establish the nature of quiescent emission form RS CVn systems is discussed.

  12. Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, Richard M.

    The National Science Foundation has funded a five-year High Performance Computing and Communications project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for the direct implementation of several of the computing recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the "Bahcall report"). This paper is a summary of the project goals and a progress report. The project will implement a prototype of the next generation of astronomical telescope systems - remotely located telescopes connected by high-speed networks to very high performance, scalable architecture computers and on-line data archives, which are accessed by astronomers over Gbit/sec networks. Specifically, a data link has been installed between the BIMA millimeter-wave synthesis array at Hat Creek, California and NCSA at Urbana, Illinois for real-time transmission of data to NCSA. Data are automatically archived, and may be browsed and retrieved by astronomers using the NCSA Mosaic software. In addition, an on-line digital library of processed images will be established. BIMA data will be processed on a very high performance distributed computing system, with I/O, user interface, and most of the software system running on the NCSA Convex C3880 supercomputer or Silicon Graphics Onyx workstations connected by HiPPI to the high performance, massively parallel Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5. The very computationally intensive algorithms for calibration and imaging of radio synthesis array observations will be optimized for the CM-5 and new algorithms which utilize the massively parallel architecture will be developed. Code running simultaneously on the distributed computers will communicate using the Data Transport Mechanism developed by NCSA. The project will also use the BLANCA Gbit/s testbed network between Urbana and Madison, Wisconsin to connect an Onyx workstation in the University of Wisconsin Astronomy Department to the NCSA CM-5, for development of long

  13. A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnbaum, Cecilia; Bradley, Richard F.

    1998-11-01

    Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution to grow is alarming. Preventive measures to eliminate interference through FCC legislation and ITU agreements can be effective; however, many times this approach is inadequate and interference excision at the receiver is necessary. Conventional techniques such as RF filters, RF shielding, and postprocessing of data have been only somewhat successful, but none has been sufficient. Adaptive interference cancellation is a real-time approach to interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy. We describe here, for the first time, adaptive interference cancellation in the context of radio astronomy instrumentation, and we present initial results for our prototype receiver. In the 1960s, analog adaptive interference cancelers were developed that obtain a high degree of cancellation in problems of radio communications and radar. However, analog systems lack the dynamic range, noised performance, and versatility required by radio astronomy. The concept of digital adaptive interference cancellation was introduced in the mid-1960s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low-frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartments of automobiles. These audio-frequency applications require bandwidths of only a few tens of kilohertz. Only recently has high-speed digital filter technology made high dynamic range adaptive canceling possible in a bandwidth as large as a few megahertz, finally opening the door to application in radio astronomy. We have

  14. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 2: Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Significant contributions to low frequency radio astronomy were made in the Australian state of Tasmania after the arrival of Grote Reber in 1954. Initially, Reber teamed with Graeme Ellis, who was then working with the Ionospheric Prediction Service, and they carried out observations as low as 0.52 MHz during the 1955 period of exceptionally low sunspot activity. In the early 1960s, Reber established a 2.085 MHz array in the southern central region of the State and used this to make the first map of the southern sky at this frequency. In addition, in the 1960s the University of Tasmania constructed several low frequency arrays near Hobart, including a 609m × 609m array designed for operation between about 2 MHz and 20 MHz. In this paper we present an overview of the history of low frequency radio astronomy in Tasmania.

  15. New Skills of Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) at PRAO ASC LPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Dumsky, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. U.

    Now a day the task of comparative analysis of sample sources from different astronomical catalogs is becoming very topical for astronomers. It is useful both for the same spectral range data and for their cross-analysis for different spectral ranges. It is also important, that the real data from astronomical instruments is placed on-line. For the above purposes we are developing a website for the PRAO ASC LPI (www.prao.ru) and, based upon it, the Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC). The RADC is a system for storage and processing of radio astronomical data. Here you can find a collection of tools for preparing radio astronomical observations, which includes a base set of main astronomical catalogues useful to radio astronomers, as well as a database of observation results from the Observatory.

  16. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations. (GHT)

  17. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 1: The CSIRO Division of Radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; George, Martin; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s Australia was a world leader in the specialised field of low frequency radio astronomy, with two geographically-distinct areas of activity. One was in the Sydney region and the other in the island of Tasmania to the south of the Australian mainland. Research in the Sydney region began in 1949 through the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics, and initially was carried out at the Hornsby Valley field station before later transferring to the Fleurs field station. In this paper we summarise the low frequency radio telescopes and research programs associated with the historic Hornsby Valley and Fleurs sites.

  18. Enriching Cross Cirriculum Projects with Astronomy for Gifted Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of many GT (Gifted and Talented) teachers is to provide comprehesive and long term projects to enrich cirriculum for their students rather than shorter "worksheet based" activities. Atkins Middle School has collaborated with faculty from the University of Central Arkansas over the past 9 years to create projects which span the academic year and enrich learning while emphasizing the goals of the science standards. An overview of those projects and Astronomy's role within them will be presented.

  19. Planetary Radio Astronomy: The 60 Years from Burke and Franklin to ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    For nearly 60 years, radio astronomy has played a major role in the characterization and monitoring of thermal structure, composition, and temporal changes of the planets and small bodies in our solar system. At this, the 60th anniversary of the initial detection of radio emission by a planet, the role radio astronomy has played in the early characterization of solar system objects, in raising basic scientific questions and motivating planetary exploration missions, and in providing insight into the structure and temporal variations of planets is explored. The evolution of the instrumentation capabilities from crude total-power, or bolometric measurements averaged over an entire planetary disk to today's instrumentation providing radio images of planets and comets with high spectral resolution is also discussed. Major developments such as precise total-power calibration, ultra-large apertures, microwave and millimeter-wave array technology, and supporting laboratory spectroscopy have played major roles in enhancing the effectiveness of radio astronomical observations. The newest generation instruments such as the upgraded Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Altacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now usher in a whole new level of capability in observation of solar system objects.

  20. Reference antenna-based subspace tracking for RFI mitigation in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellbourg, G.; Chippendale, A. P.; Kesteven, M. J.; Jeffs, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Interference mitigation is becoming necessary to make radio astronomy work in bands that are heavily used to support our modern lives. It is becoming particularly difficult to work at frequencies between 1100 MHz and 1300 MHz that are rapidly filling up with satellite navigation signals. Antenna array radio telescopes present the possibility of applying spatial Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation. Spatial filtering techniques for RFI mitigation have been introduced to radio astronomy in the last decades. The success of these techniques relies on accurately estimating the RFI spatial signature (or RFI subspace). The use of a reference antenna steering at the RFI sources provides a good estimation of the RFI subspace when correlated with an array radio telescope. However, predicting the evolution of this subspace with time is necessary in a multiple RFI scenario, when only a single RFI source can be monitored at a time with the reference antenna. This paper introduces a subspace tracking approach, based on the power method applied to covariance data. The RFI spatial signature estimates provided by the reference antenna are used to initialize the power method to support a faster convergence. Practical examples are shown, applying the method to real data from a single 188 element phased array feed designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope.

  1. Scalable desktop visualisation of very large radio astronomy data cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Simon; Questiaux, Jacques; Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Blyth, Sarah; Kuttel, Michelle M.

    2014-07-01

    Observation data from radio telescopes is typically stored in three (or higher) dimensional data cubes, the resolution, coverage and size of which continues to grow as ever larger radio telescopes come online. The Square Kilometre Array, tabled to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will generate multi-terabyte data cubes - several orders of magnitude larger than the current norm. Despite this imminent data deluge, scalable approaches to file access in Astronomical visualisation software are rare: most current software packages cannot read astronomical data cubes that do not fit into computer system memory, or else provide access only at a serious performance cost. In addition, there is little support for interactive exploration of 3D data. We describe a scalable, hierarchical approach to 3D visualisation of very large spectral data cubes to enable rapid visualisation of large data files on standard desktop hardware. Our hierarchical approach, embodied in the AstroVis prototype, aims to provide a means of viewing large datasets that do not fit into system memory. The focus is on rapid initial response: our system initially rapidly presents a reduced, coarse-grained 3D view of the data cube selected, which is gradually refined. The user may select sub-regions of the cube to be explored in more detail, or extracted for use in applications that do not support large files. We thus shift the focus from data analysis informed by narrow slices of detailed information, to analysis informed by overview information, with details on demand. Our hierarchical solution to the rendering of large data cubes reduces the overall time to complete file reading, provides user feedback during file processing and is memory efficient. This solution does not require high performance computing hardware and can be implemented on any platform supporting the OpenGL rendering library.

  2. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  3. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  4. Solar Astronomy at DSES: Plasma Motion Detection at Radio Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Rodney

    2008-05-01

    This article discusses a proposed study of solar plasma motion, a radio receiving system designed to detect plasma motion-driven microwaves, and the initial radio analysis to understand the receiving system characteristics. A phenomenon of interest is the increasing temperature from the solar photosphere to the solar corona. I've been thinking about testable hypothesis[es] for how to measure the different altitudes (via a temperature scale) of the transition zone (between photosphere and corona) of the sun. I think if we choose the appropriate frequencies, one close to the surface, say 11.7 GHz and one above the 2km breakpoint, say 12.7 GHz we might test for a couple of possible phenomena: (1) At Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF), are we seeing a Doppler shifting in the phase of plasma motions, and (2) in a polarized recording of data, can we measure electro- magnetic waves in both electric and magnetic components. The temperatures that are being measured at 11.7 GHz are approximately 15,000 Kelvin and the temperature at 12.7 GHz is approximately 17,000 Kelvin.

  5. Characterising the Venezuelan Troposphere for Radio-Astronomy Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, R.; Muñoz, A. G.; Brito, A.; Cubillán, N.

    2009-05-01

    Venezuela possesses a very useful geographical location for doing Radioastronomy. Recently, the Venezuelan Government (via FIDETEL-Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología) has aproved to the Laboratorio de Astronomía y Física Teórica (LAFT) of La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela) the adquisition of four 3 meter diameter parabolic dishes that will be set as a radio-interferometer receiver and that can be used for certain Radioastronomy purposes. The specifications of the instrument will be treated elsewhere (Muñoz and Hernández 2007). To this aim, as ussually, the first step is to characterize the losses due to the atmosphere, and their evolution over time. In previous works (Muñoz et al. 2004, Memoires of V RIAO/VIII OPTILAS, M10-5 Modelling Tropospheric Radio-Attenuation Parameters for Venezuela, 359; Muñoz et al. 2006, CIENCIA, Vol. 14, 4, 428) we have studied some relevant electromagnetic (e-m) attenuation parameters dueto hydrometeors and absortion gases in the lower atmosphere, focused in local telecommunication applications (surface e-m trajectories). In this work we extend our results to include the cenital and quasi-cenital e-m trajectories, characterizing thus the medium losses in the 0.4-4.0 GHz spectral window for several Venezuelan locations. We report refractivity values and their gradients, tropospheric indexes, extinction coefficients and the total rain attenuation for the whole territory under study.

  6. SOFIA Project: SOFIA-Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Ting

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the SOFIA project is shown. The topics include: 1) Aircraft Information; 2) Major Components of SOFIA; 3) Aircraft External View; 4) Airborne Observatory Layout; 5) Telescope Assembly; 6) Uncoated Primary Mirror; 7) Airborne Astronomy; 8) Requirements & Specifications; 9) Technical Challenges; 10) Observatory Operation; and 11) SOFIA Flight Test.

  7. Scientific Visualization of Radio Astronomy Data using Gesture Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.

    2015-09-01

    MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.

  8. Fast pulsars, strange stars: An opportunity in radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-07-15

    The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit have been discovered suggesting that there may be even shorter ones. If pulsars with periods below 1/2 ms were found, the conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would be almost inescapable. The plausible ground state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter. From the QCD energy scale this is as likely a ground state as the confined phase. We show that strange matter as the ground state is not ruled out by any known fact, and most especially not by the fact that the universe is in the confined phase. 136 refs.

  9. The Inwood Astronomy Project: Ready for IYA 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling Kendall, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Inwood Astronomy Project begins its mission of "100 Nights of Astronomy", an outreach program for the IYA 2009 in New York City. While the city lights may at first glance be a major deterrent to amateur and educational night-sky viewing, the author describes numerous community-based initiatives designed to fit into a racially and ethnically diverse neighborhood of Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, which all give a deeper understanding and appreciation of and for the night sky. The author presents ways for professional astronomers to use their light-polluted cities and towns for the same purpose.

  10. Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  11. The Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project: Watch Out FCI!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilik, Michael; Deming, Grace L.; Hufnagel, Beth

    2002-04-01

    With funding from the NSF, a multidisciplinary team at the University of New Mexico transformed “Astro 101” from a mostly descriptive to a highly-focused conceptual course based on cognitive models of adult learning. By 1996, we had developed a mature implementation, which required alternative assessment tools. One of these, an Astronomy Diagnostic Test version 1 (ADT), was based on misconceptions research in astronomy, and demonstrated large and robust gains with hundreds of participants at UNM. To improve the ADT and expand its use, we formed the Consortium for Astronomy Education Research (CAER) to develop ADT version 2, which was released in June 1999. With additional NSF funding, we kicked off the ADT National Project, which has so far included over 5000 students in the pretest and almost 4000 in the posttest. I will present selected results from ADT 1 and 2, which now has a database almost as extensive as that of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI).

  12. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  13. Virtual reality and project management for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, L. A.; Villarreal, J. L.; Angeles, F.; Bernal, A.; Bribiesca, E.; Flores, R.

    2010-07-01

    Over the years astronomical instrumentation projects are becoming increasingly complex making necessary to find efficient ways for project communication management. While all projects share the need to communicate project information, the required information and the methods of distribution vary widely between projects and project staff. A particular problem experienced on many projects regardless of their size, is related to the amount of design, planning information and how that is distributed among the project stakeholders. One way to improve project communications management is to use a workflow that offers a predefined way to share information in a project. Virtual Reality (VR) offers the possibility to get a visual feedback of designed components without the expenses of prototype building, giving an experience that mimics real life situations using a computer. In this contribution we explore VR as a communication technology that helps to manage instrumentation projects by means of a workflow implemented on a software package called Discut designed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM). The workflow can integrate VR environments generated as CAD models.

  14. Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

  15. Bayesian detection of radar interference in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffs, Brian D.; Lazarte, Weizhen; Fisher, J. Richard

    2006-06-01

    L-Band observations at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other radio observatories are often made in frequency bands allocated to aviation pulsed radar transmissions. It is possible to mitigate radar contamination of the astronomical signal by time blanking data containing these pulses. However, even when strong direct path pulses and nearby fixed clutter echoes are removed there are still undetected weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. In a previous paper we presented an algorithm to improve real-time echo blanking by forming a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. The tracker builds a history which can be used to predict the location of upcoming echoes. We now present details of a new Bayesian detection algorithm which uses this prediction information to enable more sensitive weak pulse acquisition. The developed track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of the next echoes. Regions with higher probability are processed with a lower detection threshold to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection. The ultimate result is more complete removal, by blanking the detected pulse, of radar corruption in astronomical observations.

  16. Radar interference blanking in radio astronomy using a Kalman tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Jeffs, B. D.; Fisher, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    Radio astronomical observations of highly Doppler shifted spectral lines of neutral hydrogen and the hydroxyl molecule must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215-1350 MHz frequency range. The Green Bank telescope (GBT) and many other observatories must deal with these terrestrial signals. Even when strong radar fixed clutter echoes are removed, there are still weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. We present an algorithm which improves aircraft echo blanking using a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. Aircraft tracks can be used to predict regions (in bearing and range) for the next expected echoes, even before they are detected. These data can then be blanked in real time without waiting for the pulse peak to arrive. Additionally, we briefly suggest an approach for a new Bayesian algorithm which combines tracker and pulse detector operations to enable more sensitive weak pulse detection. Examples are presented for Kalman tracking and radar transmission blanking using real observations at the GBT.

  17. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  18. Project CLEA - Software per la Didattica in Radioastronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, M.

    2007-08-01

    Project CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) develops laboratory exercises to illustrate modern astronomical techniques using digital data and color images, dedicates to radio astronomy.

  19. Astronomy Remote Observing Research Projects of US High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

    2006-08-01

    In order to address the challenging climate for promoting astronomy education in the high schools we have used astronomy projects to give students authentic research experiences in order to encourage their pursuit of science and technology careers. Initially, we conducted teacher workshops to develop a cadre of teachers who have been instrumental in recruiting students to work on projects. Once identified, these students have been motivated to conduct astronomy research projects with appropriate guidance. Some have worked on these projects during non-school hours and others through a research course. The goal has been for students to meet the objectives of inquiry-based learning, a major US National Science Standard. Case studies will be described using event-based learning with the NASA Deep Impact mission. Hawaii students became active participants investigating comet properties through the NASA Deep Impact mission. The Deep Impact Education and Public Outreach group developed materials which were used by our students. After learning how to use image processing software, these students obtained Comet 9P/ Tempel 1 images in real time from the remote observing Faulkes Telescope North located on Haleakala, Maui for their projects. Besides conducting event-based projects which are time critical, Oregon students have worked on galaxies and sunspots projects. For variable star research, they used images obtained from the remote observing offline mode of Lowell Telescope located in Flagstaff, Arizona. Essential to these projects has been consistent follow-up required for honing skills in observing, image processing, analysis, and communication of project results through Science Fair entries. Key to our success has been the network of professional and amateur astronomers and educators collaborating in a multiplicity of ways to mentor our students. This work-in-progress and process will be shared on how to inspire students to pursue careers in science and technology with

  20. A Cosmic Distance Ladder Project for Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, R. F.

    2005-05-01

    I have created a six-part, semester long cosmic distance ladder project for the introductory astronomy courses at Westfield State College. Initially developed for an honors section of introductory astronomy, it has now been used in regular sections for two semesters. The project includes calibration of the size of the AU and parsec, parallax calibration of the main sequence, main sequence fitting of a star cluster, calibration of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation, calibration of the absolute magnitude of galaxies, and determination of the Hubble constant and age of the universe. Both real and simulated data are used, including several of the Project CLEA exercises produced at Gettysburg College. The average of the class results for each part is used as inputs for the next part, so the students encounter the same cumulative errors that face astronomers. Although designed around the particular needs and mechanics of the introductory astronomy classes for non-majors at WSC, this project could be adapted for use in courses at many different levels. Support from the WSC Chairs' Travel Fund is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Radio astronomy with the European Lunar Lander: Opening up the last unexplored frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Wolt, Marc; Aminaei, Amin; Zarka, Philippe; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2012-12-01

    The Moon is a unique location in our solar system and provides important information regarding the exposure to free space that is essential for future human space exploration to mars and beyond. The active broadband (100 kHz-100 MHz) tripole antenna now envisaged to be placed on the European Lunar Lander located at the Lunar South Pole allows for sensitive measurements of the exosphere and ionosphere, and their interaction with the Earths magnetosphere, solar particles, wind and CMEs and studies of radio communication on the Moon, that are essential for future lunar human and science exploration. In addition, the Lunar South Pole provides an excellent opportunity for radio astronomy. Placing a single radio antenna in an eternally dark crater or behind a mountain at the South (or North) pole would potentially provide perfect shielding from man-made radio interference (RFI), absence of ionospheric distortions, and high temperature and antenna gain stability that allows detection of the 21 cm wave emission from pristine hydrogen formed after the Big Bang and into the period where the first stars formed. A detection of the 21 cm line from the Moon at these frequencies would allow for the first time a clue on the distribution and evolution on mass in the early universe between the Epoch of Recombination and Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Next to providing a cosmological breakthrough, a single lunar radio antenna would allow for studies of the effect of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the solar wind at distances close to Earth (space weather) and would open up the study of low frequency radio events (flares and pulses) from planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, which are known to emit bright (kJy-MJy) radio emission below 30 MHz (Jester and Falcke, 2009). Finally, a single radio antenna on the lunar lander would pave the way for a future large lunar radio interferometer; not only will it demonstrate the possibilities for lunar radio science and open up the

  2. Image Analysis, Modeling, Enhancement, Restoration, Feature Extraction and Their Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation and Radio Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi.

    The principal topic of this dissertation is the development and application of signal and image processing to Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and radio astronomy. The dissertation consists of nine papers published or submitted for publication. Each of them has a specific and unique topic related to signal processing or image processing in NDE or radio astronomy. Those topics are listed in the following. (1) Time series analysis and modeling of Very Large Array (VLA) phase data. (2) Image analysis, feature extraction and various applied enhancement methods for industrial NDE X-ray radiographic images. (3) Enhancing NDE radiographic X-ray images by adaptive regional Kalman filtering. (4) Robotic image segmentation, modeling, and restoration with a rule based expert system. (5) Industrial NDE radiographic X-ray image modeling and Kalman filtering considering signal-dependent colored noise. (6) Computational study of Kalman filtering VLA phase data and its computational performance on a supercomputer. (7) A practical and fast maximum entropy deconvolution method for de-blurring industrial NDE X-ray and infrared images. (8) Local feature enhancement of synthetic radio images by adaptive Kalman filtering. (9) A new technique for correcting phase data of a synthetic -aperture antenna array.

  3. NASA IDEAS EPO Support of the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M.; Daugherty, J.; Moffett, D.; Case, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was awarded a STScI IDEAS Program grant to develop the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA). SGRA enhances education of science, mathematics, and technology of students in grades 8-12. The purpose of SGRA is to teach the basics of scientific inquiry, which includes methodology, critical thinking, and communication of the results. To facilitate the excitement of science and discovery, teachers and students use the PARI 4.6m ``Smiley" radio telescope via the Internet. The IDEAS grant supported the development of the science curriculum and labs that use the 4.6m radio telescope, teacher workshops, and high speed internet service necessary for remote access to the radio telescope. Partnerships with Brevard High School , Furman University, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville have proven important to the success of the program. In addition, the IDEAS grant was important in our success in acquiring grants from the foundations at Z. Smith Reynolds and Progress Energy, a AAS Small Grant, and a STScI HST/EPO award to further enhance and continue the SGRA Program. More than 100 teachers are now involved in SGRA. To increase awareness of SGRA, we have presented the program at meetings of the AAS, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, the North Carolina Science Museum, and Pisgah Forest Institute summer workshops. Our experience in writing and carrying out the program, along with the NASA components in the program, teachers' comments, and lessons learned, will be presented. We are extremely grateful to the IDEAS Grant Program for helping PARI initiate and develop an exciting program of hands-on Internet radio astronomy from high school classrooms.

  4. New Exercises for the Introductory Astronomy Laboratory from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Luehrmann, M. K.; Hayden, M. B.; Good, R. F.; Cooper, P. R.

    1993-12-01

    Since the summer of 1992, Project CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) has been developing modular lab exercises for introductory astronomy that emphasize modern observing techniques using computers. Four modules are now available for the Windows environment each of which incorporates high-quality bitmapped graphics, a highly interactive simulation of observations, on-line data logging, and extensive printed and on-line documentation. The exercises are The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter, Radar Measurements of the Rotation Rate of Mercury, Photoelectric Photometry of the Pleiades, and the Hubble Redshift-Distance Relation using digital spectrophotometry. Several additional labs are under development, and less elaborate software is available for Mac machines. We will demonstrate the software, describe the current project, illustrate some of our plans for future development, and provide information on obtaining CLEA material. This research has been supported in part by Gettysburg College and NSF Grants USE 9151535, USE 9155927, and DUE 9350899.}

  5. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  6. PROJECT CLEA: Two Decades of Astrophysics Research Simulations for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, Laurence A.; Snyder, G.; Cooper, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1992, Project CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) has been developing simulations for the astronomy laboratory that engage students in the experience of modern astrophysical research. Though designed for introductory undergraduate courses, CLEA software can be flexibly configured for use in high-school classes and in upper-level observational astronomy classes, and has found usage in a wide spectrum of classrooms and on-line courses throughout the world. Now at the two-decade mark, CLEA has produced 16 exercises covering a variety of planetary, stellar, and extragalactic research topics at wavelengths from radio to X-ray. Project CLEA’s most recent product, VIREO, the Virtual Educational Observatory, is a flexible all-sky environment for developing a variety of further exercises. We review the current CLEA offerings and look to the future, especially describing further challenges in developing and maintaining the functionality of CLEA and similar activities as the current investigators wind down the funded development process. This research was sponsored throughout the world. by the National Science Foundation, Gettysburg College, and NASA's XMM-Newton mission.

  7. Tectonic motion site survey of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Allenby, R. J.; Hutton, L. K.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Tiedemann, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    A geological and geophysical site survey was made of the area around the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to determine whether there are at present local tectonic movements that could introduce significant errors to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) geodetic measurements. The site survey consisted of a literature search, photogeologic mapping with Landsat and Skylab photographs, a field reconnaissance, and installation of a seismometer at the NRAO. It is concluded that local tectonic movement will not contribute significantly to VLBI errors. It is recommended that similar site surveys be made of all locations used for VLBI or laser ranging.

  8. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  9. Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

    Traditionally, radio astronomy receivers have been limited to bandwidths less than an octave, and as a result multiple feeds and receivers are necessary to observe over a wide bandwidth. Next generation of instruments for radio astronomy will benefit greatly from reflector antenna feeds that demonstrate very wide instantaneous bandwidth, and exhibit low noise behavior. There is an increasing interest in wideband systems from both the cost and science point of view. A wideband feed will allow simultaneous observations or sweeps over a decade or more bandwidth. Instantaneous wide bandwidth is necessary for detection of short duration pulses. Future telescopes like square kilometer array (SKA), consisting of 2000 to 3000 coherently connected antennas and covering a frequency range of 70 MHz to 30 GHz, will need decade bandwidth single pixel feeds (SPFs) along with integrated LNAs to achieve the scientific objectives in a cost effective way. This dissertation focuses on the design and measurement of a novel decade bandwidth sinuous-type, dual linear polarized, fixed phase center, low loss feed with an integrated LNA. A decade bandwidth, low noise amplifier is specially designed for noise match to the higher terminal impedance encountered by this antenna yielding an improved sensitivity over what is possible with conventional 50 O amplifiers. The self-complementary, frequency independent nature of the planar sinuous geometry results in a nearly constant beam pattern and fixed phase center over more than a 10:1 operating frequency range. In order to eliminate the back-lobe response over such a wide frequency range, we have projected the sinuous pattern onto a cone, and a ground plane is placed directly behind the cone's apex. This inverted, conical geometry assures wide bandwidth operation by locating each sinuous resonator a quarter wavelength above the ground plane. The presence of a ground plane near a self complementary antenna destroys the self complementary nature

  10. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  11. Building information models for astronomy projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Campo, Ramón; Eletxigerra, Iñigo; Ampuero, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    A Building Information Model is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building. BIMs represent the geometrical characteristics of the Building, but also properties like bills of quantities, definition of COTS components, status of material in the different stages of the project, project economic data, etc. The BIM methodology, which is well established in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain for conventional buildings, has been brought one step forward in its application for Astronomical/Scientific facilities. In these facilities steel/concrete structures have high dynamic and seismic requirements, M&E installations are complex and there is a large amount of special equipment and mechanisms involved as a fundamental part of the facility. The detail design definition is typically implemented by different design teams in specialized design software packages. In order to allow the coordinated work of different engineering teams, the overall model, and its associated engineering database, is progressively integrated using a coordination and roaming software which can be used before starting construction phase for checking interferences, planning the construction sequence, studying maintenance operation, reporting to the project office, etc. This integrated design & construction approach will allow to efficiently plan construction sequence (4D). This is a powerful tool to study and analyze in detail alternative construction sequences and ideally coordinate the work of different construction teams. In addition engineering, construction and operational database can be linked to the virtual model (6D), what gives to the end users a invaluable tool for the lifecycle management, as all the facility information can be easily accessed, added or replaced. This paper presents the BIM methodology as implemented by IDOM with the E-ELT and ATST Enclosures as application examples.

  12. Image Reconstruction in Radio Astronomy with Non-Coplanar Synthesis Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrick, L.

    2015-03-01

    Traditional radio astronomy imaging techniques assume that the interferometric array is coplanar, with a small field of view, and that the two-dimensional Fourier relationship between brightness and visibility remains valid, allowing the Fast Fourier Transform to be used. In practice, to acquire more accurate data, the non-coplanar baseline effects need to be incorporated, as small height variations in the array plane introduces the w spatial frequency component. This component adds an additional phase shift to the incoming signals. There are two approaches to account for the non-coplanar baseline effects: either the full three-dimensional brightness and visibility model can be used to reconstruct an image, or the non-coplanar effects can be removed, reducing the three dimensional relationship to that of the two-dimensional one. This thesis describes and implements the w-projection and w-stacking algorithms. The aim of these algorithms is to account for the phase error introduced by non-coplanar synthesis arrays configurations, making the recovered visibilities more true to the actual brightness distribution model. This is done by reducing the 3D visibilities to a 2D visibility model. The algorithms also have the added benefit of wide-field imaging, although w-stacking supports a wider field of view at the cost of more FFT bin support. For w-projection, the w-term is accounted for in the visibility domain by convolving it out of the problem with a convolution kernel, allowing the use of the two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. Similarly, the w-Stacking algorithm applies a phase correction in the image domain to image layers to produce an intensity model that accounts for the non-coplanar baseline effects. This project considers the KAT7 array for simulation and analysis of the limitations and advantages of both the algorithms. Additionally, a variant of the Högbom CLEAN algorithm was used which employs contour trimming for extended source emission flagging. The

  13. Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project: evaluation results.

    PubMed

    Oxford, R L

    1985-01-01

    The Kenya Radio Language Arts Project (RLAP), which has just been completed, documents the effectiveness of interactive radio-based educational instruction. Analyses in the areas of listening, reading, speaking, and writing show that children in radio classrooms consistently scored better than children in nonradio classrooms in every test. An evaluation of the project was conducted with the assistance of the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). Evaluation results came from a variety of sources, including language tests, observations, interviews, demographic and administrative records, and an attitude survey. A large proportion of the project's students were considerably transient. Only 22% of the total student population of 3908 were "normal progression" students -- that is, they advanced regularly through their education during the life of the project. Students who moved from the area, failed a standard (grade), dropped out, or were otherwise untrackable, comprised the remaining 78% of the total. 7 districts were included in the project. Tests were developed for listening and reading in Standards 1, 2, and 3 and in speaking and writing in Standards 2 and 3. The achievement tests were based on the official Kenya curriculum for those standards, so as to measure achievement against the curriculum. Nearly all the differences were highly significant statistically, with a probability of less than 1 in 1000 that the findings could have occurred by chance. Standard 1 radio students scored nearly 8 points higher than did their counterparts in the control group. Standard 2 and 3 radio students outperformed the control students by 4 points. The radio group consistently outperformed the control group in reading, writing, and speaking. Unstructured interviews and observations were conducted by the RLAP field staff. Overwhelmingly positive attitudes about the project prevailed among project teachers and headmasters. The data demonstrate that RLAP works. In fact, it works so

  14. The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, J.; Backer, D.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bower, G. C.; Cheng, C.; Croft, S.; Dexter, M.; Engargiola, G.; Fields, E.; Forster, J.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, C.; Heiles, C.; Helfer, T.; Jorgensen, S.; Keating, G.; Lugten, J.; MacMahon, D.; Milgrome, O.; Thornton, D.; Urry, L.; van Leeuwen, J.; Werthimer, D.; Williams, P. H.; Wright, M.; Tarter, J.; Ackermann, R.; Atkinson, S.; Backus, P.; Barott, W.; Bradford, T.; Davis, M.; Deboer, D.; Dreher, J.; Harp, G.; Jordan, J.; Kilsdonk, T.; Pierson, T.; Randall, K.; Ross, J.; Shostak, S.; Fleming, M.; Cork, C.; Vitouchkine, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Weinreb, S.

    2009-08-01

    The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

  15. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Use of the Tidbinbilla Interferometer to refine the source positions in the Parkes 2.7 GHz survey of the southern sky is described. A result of the first phase of this work was the identification of a quasi-stellar object which appears to be the most remote object yet observed. This object has a red shift of 3.78 (PKS 2000-330, and a velocity of recession equal to 91% of that light. Based on Hubble's law, PKS 2000-330 appears to be 12 billion light years away.

  16. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Mccluskey, J. T.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Kuiper, T.

    1981-01-01

    A K-band reflected-wave ruby maser was used on the 64-meter (DSS-43) antenna at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra, Australia. Spectral line observations were carried out near 22 GHz for water vapor sources and near 24 GHz for ammonia sources. The water vapor observations were made in the direction of known southern OH and H2O maser sources. All of the previously detected water line sources examined were detected. In addition, two new water vapor maser sources were discovered, G301.1+1.1and G308.9+0.1. The spectrum of G301.0+1.1 is presented six ammonia sources were found: G291.3-0.7, G305.4+0.2, G322.2+0.6, G327.3-0.5, G333.6-0.2, and G268.4-0.8. Spectra of two of these sources, G291.3-0.7 (RCW 57) and G305.4+0.2, are presented. Both show clearly the presence of the quadrupole splitting satellite lines that will allow the determination of NH3 optical depths in these clouds.

  17. Radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; McCluskey, J. T.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Kuiper, T.

    1981-10-01

    A K-band reflected-wave ruby maser was used on the 64-meter (DSS-43) antenna at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra, Australia. Spectral line observations were carried out near 22 GHz for water vapor sources and near 24 GHz for ammonia sources. The water vapor observations were made in the direction of known southern OH and H2O maser sources. All of the previously detected water line sources examined were detected. In addition, two new water vapor maser sources were discovered, G301.1+1.1and G308.9+0.1. The spectrum of G301.0+1.1 is presented six ammonia sources were found: G291.3-0.7, G305.4+0.2, G322.2+0.6, G327.3-0.5, G333.6-0.2, and G268.4-0.8. Spectra of two of these sources, G291.3-0.7 (RCW 57) and G305.4+0.2, are presented. Both show clearly the presence of the quadrupole splitting satellite lines that will allow the determination of NH3 optical depths in these clouds.

  18. The ALIVE Project: Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.; Denn, G.

    2008-06-01

    The Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project seeks to discover learning modes and optimal teaching strategies using immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs are computer-generated, three-dimensional environments that can be navigated to provide multiple perspectives. Immersive VEs provide the additional benefit of surrounding a viewer with the simulated reality. ALIVE evaluates the incorporation of an interactive, real-time ``virtual universe'' into formal college astronomy education. In the experiment, pre-course, post-course, and curriculum tests will be used to determine the efficacy of immersive visualizations presented in a digital planetarium versus the same visual simulations in the non-immersive setting of a normal classroom, as well as a control case using traditional classroom multimedia. To normalize for inter-instructor variability, each ALIVE instructor will teach at least one of each class in each of the three test groups.

  19. ASTRONOMY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON ASTRONOMY ESTABLISHES (1) UNDERSTANDINGS AND ATTITUDES, (2) SKILLS, AND (3) CONCEPTS TO BE GAINED IN THE STUDY. THE OVERVIEW EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT. TOPICAL DIVISIONS ARE (1) THE EARTH, (2) THE MOON, (3) THE SUN, (4) THE SOLAR SYSTEM, (5) THE STARS, (6) THE UNIVERSE, AND (7) SPACE…

  20. A New Geodetic Research Data Management System at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, G. L.; Botha, R. C.; Combrinck, L.; Fourie, S. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) hosts two research programmes: radio astronomy and space geodesy. The Space Geodesy programme has four main co-located space geodetic techniques, making HartRAO a true fiducial site. The HartRAO Space Geodesy Programme is expanding its geodetic techniques to include Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) as well as a network of seismometers, accelerometers, tide gauges, and gravimeters. These instruments will be installed across the southern African region and will generate large volumes of data that will be streamed to and stored at HartRAO. Our objective is to implement a complete Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS) to handle all HartRAO's geodetic data on-site in terms of archiving, indexing, processing, and extraction. These datasets and subsequent data products will be accessible to both the scientific community and general public through an intuitive and easy to use web-based front-end. As the first step in this process, we are currently working on establishing a new data centre. This opens up the possibility for the librarian to provide data services and support by working together with researchers and information technology staff. We discuss the rationale, role players and top-level system design of this GRDMS, as well as the current status and planned products thereof.

  1. The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO J=1-->0 emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA multipixel array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l=18deg-55.7d and a latitude range of |b|<1deg, a total of 75.4 deg2. Using both position-switching and On-The-Fly mapping modes, we achieved an angular sampling of 22", better than half of the telescope's 46" angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l<=40deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l>40deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is σ(T*A)~0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We show integrated intensity images (zeroth moment maps), channel maps, position-velocity diagrams, and an average spectrum of the completed survey data set. We also discuss the telescope and instrumental parameters, the observing modes, the data reduction processes, and the emission and noise characteristics of the data set. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community online or in DVD form by request.

  2. Development of a Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingala, Dominique Guelord Kumamputu

    2015-03-01

    This dissertation describes the development and construction of the Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA) at the Durban University of Technology. The MITRA station consists of 2 antenna arrays separated by a baseline distance of 8 m. Each array consists of 8 Log-Periodic Dipole Antennas (LPDAs) operating from 200 MHz to 800 MHz. The design and construction of the LPDA antenna and receiver system is described. The receiver topology provides an equivalent noise temperature of 113.1 K and 55.1 dB of gain. The Intermediate Frequency (IF) stage was designed to produce a fixed IF frequency of 800 MHz. The digital Back-End and correlator were implemented using a low cost Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform and Gnu-Radio software. Gnu-Octave was used for data analysis to generate the relevant received signal parameters including total power, real, and imaginary, magnitude and phase components. Measured results show that interference fringes were successfully detected within the bandwidth of the receiver using a Radio Frequency (RF) generator as a simulated source. This research was presented at the IEEE Africon 2013 / URSI Session Mauritius, and published in the proceedings.

  3. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  4. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  5. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.

    2001-12-01

    During 2000 and 2001, the validity and reliability of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) were formally investigated through the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project. The ADT 2.0 was administered as a pre-test to 5346 students and as a post-test to 3842 students. Student test results were collected from 97 classes that ranged in size from 4 to 320 students with 30 states represented. The 68 professors participating in the ADT National Project taught classes at universities (54%), 4-year colleges (27%), and 2-year colleges (19%). The database was analyzed for reliability at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. A pre-test value for Cronbach's alpha of 0.65 and post-test value of 0.76 demonstrate an acceptable degree of internal consistency. The average score for the 44 participating professors who completed the ADT as experts was 98%. Face and content validity were established by combining results from the experts with feedback from 60 student interviews. Student results from the National Project yielded an average score of 32.4% for the pre-test and 47.3% for the post-test. There is a gender discrepancy in favor of males that persists in both the pre-test (11% points) and the post-test (12% points) scores. The variations across geographic distribution and institution types were not significant. In addition to the 21 content items, the ADT 2.0 has 12 student background questions enabling instructors to have a better understanding of who takes introductory astronomy. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 (GD) and DGE-9714489 (BH).

  6. Indexing data cubes for content-based searches in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Candia, G.; Gregorio, R.; Mendoza, M.; Solar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for observing space have changed profoundly in the past few decades. The methods needed to detect and record astronomical objects have shifted from conventional observations in the optical range to more sophisticated methods which permit the detection of not only the shape of an object but also the velocity and frequency of emissions in the millimeter-scale wavelength range and the chemical substances from which they originate. The consolidation of radio astronomy through a range of global-scale projects such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reinforces the need to develop better methods of data processing that can automatically detect regions of interest (ROIs) within data cubes (position-position-velocity), index them and facilitate subsequent searches via methods based on queries using spatial coordinates and/or velocity ranges. In this article, we present the development of an automatic system for indexing ROIs in data cubes that is capable of automatically detecting and recording ROIs while reducing the necessary storage space. The system is able to process data cubes containing megabytes of data in fractions of a second without human supervision, thus allowing it to be incorporated into a production line for displaying objects in a virtual observatory. We conducted a set of comprehensive experiments to illustrate how our system works. As a result, an index of 3% of the input size was stored in a spatial database, representing a compression ratio equal to 33:1 over an input of 20.875 GB, achieving an index of 773 MB approximately. On the other hand, a single query can be evaluated over our system in a fraction of second, showing that the indexing step works as a shock-absorber of the computational time involved in data cube processing. The system forms part of the Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), an initiative which belongs to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) that

  7. Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

    2009-12-01

    The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

  8. Coherence theory applied to space radio astronomy: Cassini/RPWS, a practical implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecacheux, A.

    2009-04-01

    Solar and planetary, space radio astronomy has taken advantage of several technical and methodological improvements, from the first age - when simple wire antennas and analogue filters were used (RAE, IMP, Voyager) -, later - when spacecraft spin (ISEE, Ulysses) could be exploited for source direction retrieval, and up to now - with the current use of on board digital correlators analyzing multiple wire antennas (Cassini, Stereo). Indeed, correlation analysis from multiple sensors allows, in principle, the full second order statistics of the analyzed signal to be retrieved, thus providing, with respect to simple antenna system, some extra information on the received radio waves (mainly the spatial brightness distribution and intrinsic polarisation of the observed radio source). In the real case of experiments aboard interplanetary spacecraft, one has to take into account a number of undesirable instrumental effects, for instance the perturbation of the antenna response by the spacecraft conductive body or the limitation of the signal to noise ratio by the available telemetry rate. In this talk, taking as a working example the Cassini/RPWS data, we develop a consistent statistical model of such a correlator, which allows actual measurements to be easily characterized and reliably inverted. Some results from observations of Jovian and Saturnian radiating sources are provided as illustrative examples.

  9. Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for ionospheric plasma effects on Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient electron concentrations derived from observations with the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna capacitance probe have been compared with upper hybrid resonance measurements from the same spacecraft. From this comparison an empirical correction factor for the capacitance probe measurements has been derived. The differences between the two types of measurements is attributed to sheath effects.

  10. Radio frequency overview of the high explosive radio telemetry project

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.; Dimsdle, J.; Rich, D.; Smith, F.

    1998-12-31

    High explosive radio telemetry (HERT) is a project that is being developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies. The ultimate goal is to develop a small, modular telemetry system capable of high-speed detection of explosive events, with an accuracy on the order of 10 nanoseconds. The reliable telemetry of this data, from a high-speed missile trajectory, is a very challenging opportunity. All captured data must be transmitted in less than 20 microseconds of time duration. This requires a high bits/Hertz microwave telemetry modulation code to insure transmission of the data with the limited time interval available.

  11. Albrecht Unsöld: his role in the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio emission and in the beginning of radio astronomy in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Albrecht Unsöld's career spanned over 50 years at the beginning of the 20th century. In this period atomic physics made great advances and Unsöld applied this to astrophysical questions. He came in contact with the early radio astronomy observations and devoted part of his career to the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio waves. Although hampered by the post-war situation, Unsöld's contributions to the interpretation of cosmic radio waves were important.

  12. Thunderstorms observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1 over regions of low man made noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I observations of thunderstorms over regions of low man-made noise levels are analyzed to assess the satellite's capability for noise source differentiation. The investigation of storms over Australia indicates that RAE can resolve noise generation due to thunderstorms from the general noise background over areas of low man-made noise activity. Noise temperatures observed by RAE over stormy regions are on the average 10DB higher than noise temperatures over the same regions in the absence of thunderstorms. In order to determine the extent of noise contamination due to distant transmitters comprehensive three dimensional computer ray tracings were generated. The results indicate that generally, distant transmitters contribute negligibly to the total noise power, being 30DB or more below contributions arriving from an area immediately below the satellite.

  13. Next Generation Very Large Array: Centimeter Radio Astronomy in the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Beasley, Anthony; Carilli, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the future scientific discovery and technical challenges for cm radio studies, presenting calculations and simulations of the science of a next generation VLA (ngVLA), an array with vastly improved resolution and sensitivity relative to ALMA and JVLA, operating from ~1 GHz to 115 GHz, with an enhanced ability to image thermal objects on milliarcsecond scales, spanning thermal and non-thermal radio astronomy and bridging SKA and ALMA capabilities.Key areas of astrophysics where ngVLA can make new contributions include:- Probing deep into dusty protoplanetary disks, revealing terrestrial planet formation on AU-scales — regions that are opaque at shorter wavelengths. Observations in this wavelength range are critically required to study the poorly understood growth of dust into rocks.- Providing a census and imaging at kpc-scale resolution, of the cool molecular gas in distant galaxies. The ngVLA will be able to observe the lower order molecular transitions in high redshift, normal star forming galaxies, a key diagnostic for understanding the fuel driving the star formation history of the Universe.- Enabling an unprecedented, wide field imaging capability for nearby galaxies, over the cm frequency range covering key astrochemical tracers, including both thermal/non-thermal radio continuum emission.- Exploring the otherwise-unobservable deep atmospheres of the giant planets. In addition, the subsurfaces of other solar system bodies (e.g. icy satellites, TNOs, comets, asteroids) can be probed via thermal emission and radar remote sensing.- Allowing major improvements in synoptic, astrometric and transient/time-domain measurements at cm wavelengths of a wide variety of active sources, including Fast Radio Bursts, AGNs, pulsars and x-ray binaries.Led by NRAO, work to address the technical challenges for the ngVLA is underway. Areas currently under investigation include: low cost antennas, ultra-wide band feeds and receivers, broad band data transmission, and

  14. National Radio Astronomy Observatory: The early history and development of the observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia, are reviewed.

    PubMed

    Emberson, R M

    1959-11-13

    The existence of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the researches already accomplished there are the result of the foresight and wisdom of United States scientists, the National Science Board, and the Congress, who joined forces to make possible this new national asset. Continued effort will be needed td insure that the observatory will always have the finest possible research instruments and that the site will be a haven of radio quiet. Visiting scientists in some instances may wish to bring equipment with them for studying special problems. Within its means, the observatory will provide supporting facilities, including receivers and other electronic devices, computers, laboratories and shops, and housing. Scientists interested in more details concerning arrangements for visitors should direct their inquiries to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P. O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia. PMID:17753091

  15. PULSE@Parkes, Engaging Students through Hands-On Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert; Hobbs, George; Shannon, Ryan M.; Kerr, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    PULSE@Parkes is an innovative, free educational program run by CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS) in which high school students use the 64m Parkes radio telescope remotely in real time to observe pulsars then analyse their data. The program caters for a range of student ability and introduces students to hands-on observing and radio astronomy. Students are guided by professional astronomers, educators and PhD students during an observing session. They have ample time to interact with the scientists and discuss astronomy, careers and general scientific questions. Students use a web-based module to analyse pulsar properties. All data from the program are streamed via a web browser and are freely available from the online archive and may be used for open-ended student investigations. The data are also used by the team for ongoing pulsar studies with two scientific papers published to date.Over 100 sessions have been held so far. Most sessions are held at CASS headquarters in Sydney, Australia but other sessions are regularly held in other states with partner institutions. The flexibility of the program means that it is also possible to run sessions in other countries. This aspect of the program is useful for demonstrating capability, engaging students in diverse settings and fostering collaborations. The use of Twitter (@pulseatparkes) during allows followers worldwide to participate and ask questions.Two tours of Japan plus sessions in the UK, Netherlands and Canada have reached a wide audience. Plans for collaborations in China are well underway with the possibility of use with other countries also being explored. The program has also been successfully used in helping to train international graduate students via the International Pulsar Timing Array Schools. We have identified strong demand and need for programs such as this for training undergraduate students in Asia and the North America in observing and data analysis techniques so one area of planned

  16. Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

  17. Designing a new Geodetic Research Data Management System for the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, Glend Lorraine

    2015-08-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) participates in astronomic, astrometric and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using both 26- and 15-m diameter radio telescopes. Geodetic data from a Satellite Laser Ranger (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Met4 weather stations and a new seismic vault network must be stored at HartRAO and made available to the scientific community. Some data are e-transferred to correlators, analysis centres and space geodesy data providers, while some data are processed locally to produce basic data products. The new South African co-located seismology network of seismic and GNSS instrumentation will generate large volumes of raw data to be stored and archived at HartRAO. The current data storage systems are distributed and outdated, and management systems currently being used will also not be able to handle the additional large volumes of data. This necessitates the design and implementation of a new, modern research data management system which combines all the datasets into one database, as well as cater for current and future data volume requirements. The librarian’s expertise and knowledge will be used in the design and implementation of the new HartRAO Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS). The librarian’s role and involvement in the design and implementation of the new GRDMS are presented here. Progress to date will also be discussed.

  18. Astronomy Beat: A New Project to Record and Present the "Behind the Scenes" Story of Astronomical Projects and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J.; Fraknoi, A.; Proudfit, L.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a relatively new project at the ASP that captures the spirit of astronomy research and astronomy outreach projects while the key players are still alive. Every two weeks, the Society publishes an "Astronomy Beat" column, explaining new developments and new ideas. At first, only members of the ASP can see them, but with time, more of the columns are being made available on the Web and through the educational programs of the Society.

  19. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  20. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  1. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  2. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  3. The five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Rendong; Li, Di

    2013-04-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese "mega-science" project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in an effective way. Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and international astronomy communities. The National Development and Reform Commission approved the funding proposal of FAST in 2007 with a capital budget close to 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected in 2016.

  4. Applicability of radio astronomy techniques to the processing and interpretation of aperture synthesis passive millimetre-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Salmon, Neil A.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2012-06-01

    This PhD programme is contributing to the development of Passive Millimetre-Wave Imagers (PMMWI) using the principles of interferometric aperture synthesis and digital signal processing. The principal applications are security screening, all-weather flight aids and earth observation. To enhance the cost-effectiveness of PMMWI systems the number of collecting elements must be minimised whilst maintaining adequate image fidelity. A wide range of techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community for improving the fidelity of sparse interferometric array imagery. This paper brings to the attention of readers these techniques and discusses how they may be applied to imaging using software packages publicly available from the radio astronomy community. The intention of future work is to adapt these algorithms to process experimental data from a range of realistic simulations and real-world targets.

  5. The radio astronomy experiment on Helios A and B /E 5c/. [using dipole antenna-preamplifier-radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center radio astronomy experiment on Helios, identified as Experiment 5c, has sixteen observing frequencies over the range of 26.5 to 3000 kHz. The antenna consists of two extendible 15-m booms, forming an electric dipole, two high-impedance preamplifiers located at the root of the booms, and the 16-channel radiometer. Important information about propagation conditions, such as absorption, scattering and refraction, are expected from observations of radio emission regions at distances between 1 and 0,3 AU.

  6. The beginnings of decameter radio astronomy: pioneering works of Semen Ya. Braude and his followers in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Megn, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    S.Ya. Braude (1911-2003) was the well-known radio astronomer, one of the founders of low-frequency astronomical research in the world, in particular in the former Soviet Union. He began to work in this field of science in 1957, in Kharkiv city (Ukraine), from the design and manufacturing small decameter interferometer ID-1 and ID-2. Since that time Braude and his team have developed more sophisticated radio decameter telescopes as UTR-1 and UTR-2 (the largest in the world till now) as well as the first decameter VLBI network URAN. They have obtained some important pioneering results about low-frequency radio emission of objects in our Solar system, Galaxy and Metagalaxy by means of these telescopes. In this paper the key events of early history of decameter radio astronomy research in the former USSR are mentioned with emphasizing the role of S. Braude. For the period of 1957-1962, the quotations of Braude's Personal Diary (2003) are first laying open to the public. The most important results obtained by S.Ya. Braude and his followers as well as perspectives of decameter radio astronomy in Ukraine and in the world are highlighted briefly.

  7. A Collision of Interests - Protecting Radio Astronomy from Interference in a Free-Market Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Bout, P. A.

    2004-05-01

    The protection of radio astronomy (RA) from radio frequency interference (RFI) is becoming increasingly difficult. Established mechanisms for the management of spectrum in the United States and throughout the world have provided a degree of protection from RFI by assigning certain bands to RA on an exclusive or shared use basis. Explosive growth in commercial spectrum use has created spectrum crowding outside the RA bands, especially at lower frequencies below 3 GHz. Constellations of low-earth-orbit satellites are a particular problem to RA in that they always have transmitters above the horizon and these transmitters can spill unwanted emissions into the RA bands from their adjacent operating bands. The desire to study the early Universe presents a new challenge for RA with respect to RFI. The RA protected bands were selected for frequencies of important spectral lines. For objects in the distant, redshifted Universe, these lines can appear at all frequencies below the rest frequency and observations may be needed where the RA bands offer no protection. The growing needs of RA occur at the same time that commercial demand for spectrum is driving the Federal Communications Commission and the International Telecommuncations Union to consider entirely new approaches to spectrum management. These approaches would favor intensive commercial use of spectrum over scientific use in that decisions would be largely based on economic and efficient use considerations. It has even been proposed by some proponents of change in spectrum management policy that the entire spectrum be sold to the highest bidders in one global auction. While this is unlikely to happen, it is indicative of the climate in which RA spectrum managers currently work.

  8. The modern radio astronomy network in Ukraine: UTR-2, URAN and GURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A.; Sodin, L.; Zakharenko, V.; Zarka, P.; Ulyanov, O.; Sidorchuk, M.; Stepkin, S.; Tokarsky, P.; Melnik, V.; Kalinichenko, N.; Stanislavsky, A.; Koliadin, V.; Shepelev, V.; Dorovskyy, V.; Ryabov, V.; Koval, A.; Bubnov, I.; Yerin, S.; Gridin, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Reznichenko, A.; Bortsov, V.; Lisachenko, V.; Reznik, A.; Kvasov, G.; Mukha, D.; Litvinenko, G.; Khristenko, A.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Belov, A.; Rudavin, E.; Vasylieva, I.; Miroshnichenko, A.; Vasilenko, N.; Olyak, M.; Mylostna, K.; Skoryk, A.; Shevtsova, A.; Plakhov, M.; Kravtsov, I.; Volvach, Y.; Lytvinenko, O.; Shevchuk, N.; Zhouk, I.; Bovkun, V.; Antonov, A.; Vavriv, D.; Vinogradov, V.; Kozhin, R.; Kravtsov, A.; Bulakh, E.; Kuzin, A.; Vasilyev, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Vashchishin, R.; Pylaev, O.; Koshovyy, V.; Lozinsky, A.; Ivantyshin, O.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Fischer, G.; Lecacheux, A.; Denis, L.; Coffre, A.; Grieβmeier, J.-M.; Tagger, M.; Girard, J.; Charrier, D.; Briand, C.; Mann, G.

    2016-04-01

    The current status of the large decameter radio telescope UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope) together with its VLBI system called URAN is described in detail. By modernization of these instruments through implementation of novel versatile analog and digital devices as well as new observation techniques, the observational capabilities of UTR-2 have been substantially enhanced. The total effective area of UTR-2 and URAN arrays reaches 200 000 m2, with 24 MHz observational bandwidth (within the 8-32 MHz frequency range), spectral and temporal resolutions down to 4 kHz and 0.5 msec in dynamic spectrum mode or virtually unlimited in waveform mode. Depending on the spectral and temporal resolutions and confusion effects, the sensitivity of UTR-2 varies from a few Jy to a few mJy, and the angular resolution ranges from ~ 30 arcminutes (with a single antenna array) to a few arcseconds (in VLBI mode). In the framework of national and international research projects conducted in recent years, many new results on Solar system objects, the Galaxy and Metagalaxy have been obtained. In order to extend the observation frequency range to 8-80 MHz and enlarge the dimensions of the UTR-2 array, a new instrument - GURT (Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope) - is now under construction. The radio telescope systems described herein can be used in synergy with other existing low-frequency arrays such as LOFAR, LWA, NenuFAR, as well as provide ground-based support for space-based instruments.

  9. The modern radio astronomy network in Ukraine: UTR-2, URAN and GURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A.; Sodin, L.; Zakharenko, V.; Zarka, P.; Ulyanov, O.; Sidorchuk, M.; Stepkin, S.; Tokarsky, P.; Melnik, V.; Kalinichenko, N.; Stanislavsky, A.; Koliadin, V.; Shepelev, V.; Dorovskyy, V.; Ryabov, V.; Koval, A.; Bubnov, I.; Yerin, S.; Gridin, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Reznichenko, A.; Bortsov, V.; Lisachenko, V.; Reznik, A.; Kvasov, G.; Mukha, D.; Litvinenko, G.; Khristenko, A.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Belov, A.; Rudavin, E.; Vasylieva, I.; Miroshnichenko, A.; Vasilenko, N.; Olyak, M.; Mylostna, K.; Skoryk, A.; Shevtsova, A.; Plakhov, M.; Kravtsov, I.; Volvach, Y.; Lytvinenko, O.; Shevchuk, N.; Zhouk, I.; Bovkun, V.; Antonov, A.; Vavriv, D.; Vinogradov, V.; Kozhin, R.; Kravtsov, A.; Bulakh, E.; Kuzin, A.; Vasilyev, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Vashchishin, R.; Pylaev, O.; Koshovyy, V.; Lozinsky, A.; Ivantyshin, O.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Fischer, G.; Lecacheux, A.; Denis, L.; Coffre, A.; Grieβmeier, J.-M.; Tagger, M.; Girard, J.; Charrier, D.; Briand, C.; Mann, G.

    2016-08-01

    The current status of the large decameter radio telescope UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope) together with its VLBI system called URAN is described in detail. By modernization of these instruments through implementation of novel versatile analog and digital devices as well as new observation techniques, the observational capabilities of UTR-2 have been substantially enhanced. The total effective area of UTR-2 and URAN arrays reaches 200 000 m2, with 24 MHz observational bandwidth (within the 8-32 MHz frequency range), spectral and temporal resolutions down to 4 kHz and 0.5 msec in dynamic spectrum mode or virtually unlimited in waveform mode. Depending on the spectral and temporal resolutions and confusion effects, the sensitivity of UTR-2 varies from a few Jy to a few mJy, and the angular resolution ranges from ~ 30 arcminutes (with a single antenna array) to a few arcseconds (in VLBI mode). In the framework of national and international research projects conducted in recent years, many new results on Solar system objects, the Galaxy and Metagalaxy have been obtained. In order to extend the observation frequency range to 8-80 MHz and enlarge the dimensions of the UTR-2 array, a new instrument - GURT (Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope) - is now under construction. The radio telescope systems described herein can be used in synergy with other existing low-frequency arrays such as LOFAR, LWA, NenuFAR, as well as provide ground-based support for space-based instruments.

  10. Engaging students in astronomy and spectroscopy through Project SPECTRA!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Computer simulations for minds-on learning with "Project Spectra!" How do we gain information about the Sun? How do we know Mars has CO2 or that Enceladus has H2O geysers? How do we use light in astronomy? These concepts are something students and educators struggle with because they are abstract. Using simulations and computer interactives (games) where students experience and manipulate the information makes concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge and is completely unlike its paper-and-pencil counterpart. Visualizations also enable teachers to forgo purchasing expensive laboratory equipment. "Project Spectra!" is a science and engineering program that uses computer-based Flash interactives to expose students to astronomical spectroscopy and actual data in a way that is not possible with traditional in-class activities. To engage students in "Project Spectra!", students are given a mission, which connects them with the research at hand. Missions range from exploring remote planetary atmospheres and surfaces, experimenting with the Sun using different filters, or analyzing the soil of a remote planet. Additionally, students have an opportunity to learn about NASA missions, view movies, and see images connected with their mission, which is something that is not practical to do during a typical paper-and-pencil activity. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. These interactives complement in-class Project SPECTRA! activities exploring applications of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  11. The Evolution of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory into a User Based Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.; Bouton, E.

    2006-12-01

    The NRAO was conceived in the mid 1950s as a state-of-the-art facility to allow the United States to compete in the exciting radio astronomy discoveries then taking place in the U.K., the Netherlands and Australia. Otto Struve, the first NRAO director in Green Bank, was chosen to lead the Observatory research program. During Struve's tenure as director, nearly all of the research was carried out by NRAO staff members resident at the Green Bank Observatory. However, under Dave Heeschen, who served as NRAO Director from 1961 to 1978, the number of visitor programs gradually increased; the NRAO scientific staff become more involved in visitor support than in doing their own research, and users became more dependent on instruments and techniques developed by NRAO, often not even coming to the Observatory for their observations. Currently, about half of the observing time on NRAO facilities is allocated to observers from foreign institutions -institutions with which NRAO was built to compete.

  12. FANATIC: an SIS radiometer for radio astronomy from 660 to 695 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Genzel, R.; Plathner, B.; Gundlach, K.-H.

    1994-09-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 695 GHz (lambda 455 - 432 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 h nu/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlO(x)/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn approximately 10 Ohm, an area of approximately 2 sq micron, an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a lambda/4 transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  13. FANATIC: An SIS Radiometer for Radio Astronomy in the 660-690 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Gundlach, K.-H.; Plathner, B.

    1994-05-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 690 GHz (455-435 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 hv/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-Antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn~10 ohm, an area of ~2 um^2 , an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a 1/4-wavelength transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  14. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  15. Seeing the Sky: 100 Projects, Activities, and Explorations in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen astronomy activities are presented including classroom procedures and questions. Topics include different investigations of the moon, planets, stars, sunsets, light pollution, and rainbows and halos. Additional information on measurements used for observations in astronomy, and rainbow characteristics is included. (CW)

  16. Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

  17. Astronomy Against Terrorism: an Educational Astronomical Observatory Project in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, M.; Montes, H.; Kuroda, T.; Morimoto, M.; Ishitsuka, J.

    2003-05-01

    The Cosmos Coronagraphic Observatory was completely destroyed by terrorists in 1988. In 1995, in coordination with the Minister of Education of Peru, a project to construct a new Educational Astronomical Observatory has been executed. The main purpose of the observatory is to promote an interest in basic space sciences in young students from school to university levels, through basic astronomical studies and observations. The planned observatory will be able to lodge 25 visitors; furthermore an auditorium, a library and a computer room will be constructed to improve the interest of people in astronomy. Two 15-cm refractor telescopes, equipped with a CCD camera and a photometer, will be available for observations. Also a 6-m dome will house a 60-cm class reflector telescope, which will be donated soon, thanks to a fund collected and organized by the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory in Japan. In addition a new modern planetarium donated by the Government of Japan will be installed in Lima, the capital of Peru. These installations will be widely open to serve the requirements of people interested in science.

  18. Investigation of radio astronomy image processing techniques for use in the passive millimetre-wave security screening environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Hutchinson, Simon; Salmon, Neil A.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2014-06-01

    Image processing techniques can be used to improve the cost-effectiveness of future interferometric Passive MilliMetre Wave (PMMW) imagers. The implementation of such techniques will allow for a reduction in the number of collecting elements whilst ensuring adequate image fidelity is maintained. Various techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community to enhance the imaging capability of sparse interferometric arrays. The most prominent are Multi- Frequency Synthesis (MFS) and non-linear deconvolution algorithms, such as the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and variations of the CLEAN algorithm. This investigation focuses on the implementation of these methods in the defacto standard for radio astronomy image processing, the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package, building upon the discussion presented in Taylor et al., SPIE 8362-0F. We describe the image conversion process into a CASA suitable format, followed by a series of simulations that exploit the highlighted deconvolution and MFS algorithms assuming far-field imagery. The primary target application used for this investigation is an outdoor security scanner for soft-sided Heavy Goods Vehicles. A quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of the aforementioned image processing techniques is presented, with thoughts on the potential cost-savings such an approach could yield. Consideration is also given to how the implementation of these techniques in CASA might be adapted to operate in a near-field target environment. This may enable a much wider usability by the imaging community outside of radio astronomy and thus would be directly relevant to portal screening security systems in the microwave and millimetre wave bands.

  19. Multi-messenger Astronomy of Gravitational-wave Sources with Flexible Wide-area Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Chen, Kevin; Dowell, Jayce; Gough, Jonathan D.; Kanner, Jonah; Kavic, Michael; Obenberger, Kenneth; Shawhan, Peter; Simonetti, John H.; -Wei Tsai, Gregory B. Taylor, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg2 sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  20. Multi-messenger astronomy of gravitational-wave sources with flexible wide-area radio transient surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Cregg C. Yancey, Brandon E. Bear, Bernadine Akukwe, Kevin Chen, Jayce Dowell, Jonathan D. Gough, Jonah Kanner, Kenneth Obenberger, Peter Shawhan, John H. Simonetti , Gregory B. Taylor , Jr-Wei Tsai

    2016-01-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg(2) sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  1. Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Kamegai, K.; Tsukada, K.

    2006-08-01

    We present the concepts and products of the Tenpla project, a unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy and educators in Japan. The goal of the project is to show the true, latest and exciting results of astronomy, and to let more people be familiar with and find pleasure in astronomy, as they enjoy sports and fine arts. Our mailing list has about 200 participants, including 80 university students. The members share information and exchange views on various educational activities. Derived from the discussions, we have proposed some innovative materials for popularization of astronomy. Our "Astronomical Toilet Paper (ATP)" is a novel tool which enables public people to get close to astronomy. We have also developed a typing game "Sora-Uchi" and a Japanese card game "Astro-Karuta". These products have won a lot of coverage in the mass media and this helps to awake people's interest in astronomy. In this paper, we show the details of our projects and responses of the public.

  2. Finding the Forest Amid the Trees: Tools for Evaluating Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The effective evaluation of educational projects is becoming increasingly important to funding agencies and to the individuals and organizations involved in the projects. This brief "how-to" guide provides an introductory description of the purpose and basic ideas of project evaluation, and uses authentic examples from four different astronomy and…

  3. The Radio JOVE Project: A New Multi-channel Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, D.; Sky, J.; Reyes, F.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

    2004-05-01

    A new radio spectrograph is now operational at the University of Florida Radio Observatory (UFRO) via the education and public outreach project called the Radio JOVE project(http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov). The UFRO telescope is a 16-element 10-40 MHz log spiral array which is sensitive to both right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. Another spectrograph is connected to a 17-30 MHz log-periodic antenna located at Windward Community College in Hawaii (http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu). Freely available software from Radio-Sky Publishing (http://www.radiosky.com) allows students, teachers, and radio astronomy enthusiasts to view the spectral data in real time via the Internet. Ultimately team members will be able to log on to the telescope and control the antenna and spectrometer's total sweep range, polarization, and calibrations. The software and telescope controls are discussed, and recent data results are shown. These data are of high quality and can lead to research applications.

  4. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 3: Ellis, Reber and the Cambridge field station near Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Low frequency radio astronomy in Tasmania began with the arrival of Grote Reber to the State in 1954. After analysing ionospheric data from around the world, he concluded that Tasmania would be a very suitable place to carry out low frequency observations. Communications with Graeme Ellis in Tasmania, who had spent several years studying the ionosphere, led to a collaboration between the two in 1955 during which year they made observations at Cambridge, near Hobart. Their observations took place at four frequencies between 2.13 MHz and 0.52 MHz inclusive, with the results at the higher frequencies revealing a clear celestial component

  5. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

  6. The General Education Astronomy Source (GEAS) Project: Extending the Reach of Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N. P.; Muise, A. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present a set of NASA and NSF sponsored resources to aid in teaching astronomy remotely and in the classroom at the college level, with usage results for pilot groups of students. Our goal is to increase the accessibility of general education science coursework to underserved populations nationwide. Our materials are available for use without charge, and we are actively looking for pilot instructors. Primary components of our program include an interactive online tutorial program with over 12,000 questions, an instructor review interface, a set of hands-on and imaging- and spectra-driven laboratory exercises, including video tutorials, and interviews with diverse individuals working in STEM fields to help combat stereotypes. We discuss learning strategies often employed by students without substantial scientific training and suggest ways to incorporate them into a framework based on the scientific method and techniques for data analysis, and we compare cohorts of in-class and distance-education students.

  7. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    coordinating consortiums in charge of complex, high-performance ground systems." ALMA is an international astronomy facility. It is a partnership between Europe, North America and Japan, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The European contribution is funded by ESO and Spain, with the construction and operations being managed by ESO. A matching contribution is being made by the USA and Canada, who will also provide 25 antennas. Japan will provide additional antennas, thus making this a truly worldwide endeavour. ALMA will be located on the 5,000m high Llano de Chajnantor site in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. ALMA will consist of a giant array of 12-m antennas separated by baselines of up to 18 km and is expected to start partial operation by 2010-2011. The excellent site, the most sensitive receivers developed so far, and the large number of antennas will allow ALMA to have a sensitivity that is many times better than any other comparable instrument. "ALMA will bring to sub-millimetre astronomy the aperture synthesis techniques of radio astronomy, enabling precision imaging to be done on sub-arcsecond angular scales, and will nicely complement the ESO VLT/VLTI observatory", said Dr. Hans Rykaczewski, the ALMA European Project Manager. Millimetre-wave astronomy is the study of the universe in the spectral region between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. In this realm, ALMA will study the evolution of galaxies, including very early stages, gather crucial data on the formation of stars, proto-planetary discs, and planets, and provide new insights on the familiar objects of our own solar system. A prototype antenna had already been built by Alcatel Alenia Space and European Industrial Engineering and thoroughly tested along with prototypes antennas from Vertex/LSI and Mitsubishi at the ALMA Antenna Test Facility located at the Very Large Array site in Socorro, New Mexico. For more information on the ALMA project, please go to http://www.eso.org/projects/alma/.

  8. An antenna, a radio and a microprocessor: which kinds of observation are possible in meteor radio astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteors are usually investigated by professional radars. Amateur astronomers cannot have transmitters, so usually they can only listen to sounds generated by a radio tuned to a TV or military transmitter. Until recently, this kind of observation has not produced good data. The experience of "RAMBo" (Radar Astrofilo Meteorico Bolognese) shows which data can be extracted from an amateur meteor scatter observatory and the results which can be achieved.

  9. Inquiry-Based Educational Design for Large-Scale High School Astronomy Projects Using Real Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Michael; McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the theory behind the educational design used to implement a large-scale high school astronomy education project. This design was created in response to the realization of ineffective educational design in the initial early stages of the project. The new design follows an iterative improvement model where the materials…

  10. Development of Radio Astronomy at Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, Nsukka Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyu, Nasiru; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Lanre, Daniyan O.; Ezechi, Nwachukwu E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio telescopes for research, teaching and learning at Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) observatory are currently in place of development. A small parabolic radio telescope with diameter of 3.0 m working at 1420 MHz is already available for general purpose of radio astronomical observations. In addition, a Radio Jove telescope with dual dipole antenna working at 20 MHz and Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitor working at 24 KHz are also available. It is suitable to monitor daily solar burst, solar flares as well as Jupiter decametric emission. More over, CBSS radio interferometers are now under construction. It consists of non-tracking Radio Jove array and SID monitor as well as two radio telescope tracking interferometers. The latter is planned to utilize up to 4 antennas. Multi frequency receivers are made available at 24 KHz, 20 and 1420 MHz and will be used for VLBI in the near future.

  11. WSCLEAN: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, A. R.; McKinley, B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Briggs, F. H.; Wayth, R. B.; Kaplan, D. L.; Bell, M. E.; Feng, L.; Neben, A. R.; Hughes, J. D.; Rhee, J.; Murphy, T.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, D. C.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Roshi, D. A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2014-10-01

    Astronomical wide-field imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new wide-field interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependences of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarization correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that combining w-stacking with the w-snapshot algorithm does not significantly improve computing requirements over pure w-stacking. The source code of our new imager is publicly released.

  12. Simulations in the Introductory Astronomy Laboratory: Six Years of Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.

    1998-12-01

    Since 1992, Project CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) has been developing introductory computer-based exercises aimed at the introductory astronomy laboratory. These exercises simulate important techniques of astronomical research using digital data and Windows- based software. Each of the 9 exercises developed to date consists of software, technical guides for teachers, and student manuals for the exercises. CLEA software is used widely at many institutions, and at a variety of setting from middle school to upperclass astronomy classes. The current design philosophy and goals of Project CLEA will be discussed, along with the results of both formal and informal assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of is approach. Plans for future development will be presented. Project CLEA is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation

  13. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  14. The Contribution of the Division of Radiophysics Murraybank Field Station to International Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    During the 1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the work of the dynamic radio astronomy group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. Most of the observations were made at the network of field stations maintained by the Division in or near Sydney, and one of these field stations was Murraybank in the north-western suburbs of Sydney. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the GalaxyThe Observatory7423311954Obs....74...23DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954a. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy. The Observatory, 74, 23-31. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, IIThe Observatory741581641954Obs....74..158DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954b. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, II. The Observatory, 74, 158-164. GVaucouleursDe1961Classification and radial velocities of bright southern galaxiesMemoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society68

  15. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted four successful eclipse expeditions to Africa and northern Europe. This short paper lists the personnel involved, discusses their instrumentation, describes the observations made, and evaluates the significance of these observations in an international context.

  16. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 4: Kerr, Shain, Higgins and the Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; George, Martin; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Between 1949 and 1952 the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics was a world leader in low frequency radio astronomy, through research conducted mainly by Alex Shain and Charlie Higgins at their Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney. In this paper we discuss the personnel, radio telescopes and research programs (mainly conducted at 9.15 and 18.3 MHz) associated with the Hornsby Valley site.

  17. The Radio Meteor Zoo: a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calders, S.; Verbeeck, C.; Lamy, H.; Martínez Picar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the BRAMS radio meteor network have started a citizen science project called Radio Meteor Zoo in collaboration with Zooniverse in order to identify meteor reflections in BRAMS spectrograms. First, a small-scale version of the Radio Meteor Zoo was carried out with a sample of meteor identifications in 12 spectrograms by 35 volunteers. Results are presented here and allowed us to define a method that reliably detects meteor reflections based on the identifications by the volunteers. It turns out that, if each spectrogram is inspected by 10 volunteers, hit and false detection percentages of 95% respectively 6% are expected. The Radio Meteor Zoo is online at https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/radio-meteor-zoo. Citizen scientists are kindly invited to inspect spectrograms.

  18. The Spectrum of Citizen Science Projects in Astronomy and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B. J. H.; Day, B.; Gay, P. L.; Jacoby, S. H.; Raddick, M. J.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Citizen science projects are gaining in popularity and are seen by some as a paradigm shift that will benefit participants, extend scientific research, and improve public understanding of how science is done. All projects engage nonspecialists in observations, measurements, or classifications that further some aspect of scientific activity. In astronomy and space science, there is a range of involvement from passive to active, and differences in how necessary the citizen scientists are to the scientific goals of the project. Some projects are dealing with scientific questions that could not be investigated effectively and efficiently without the aid of large numbers of human volunteers. We will conduct a panel discussion of the lessons learned from several current citizen science projects in astronomy and space science. We will also engage session participants in round table discussions of future citizen science projects, especially in light of the large data sets becoming available online and access to educational telescopes.

  19. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  20. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 1: Nordmann's attempt to observe solar radio emission in 1901

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

    2007-03-01

    Soon after the discovery of radio waves by Hertz in 1886 the idea that the Sun must emit this radiation was suggested. A number of scientists from different nations then attempted to detect this emission, and one of these was the French astronomer, Charles Nordmann. This paper provides biographical Information an Nordmann before discussing his attempt to detect solar emisson in 1901 and the reasons he was unsuccessful.

  1. The Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy: Graduates, Undergraduates and High School Students Engaged in the Exploration of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andy; Jenet, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA) is a part of the University of Texas system located in Brownsville, Texas. Under the umbrella of CARA is the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC). The ARCC is a virtual control room where researchers and students (graduate, undergraduate, and local high school students) control and take data utilizing the Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Long Wavelength Array. This poster presents a general outline of CARA programs and recent accomplishments—including on-going pulsar discoveries, the expansion of the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) to four sites across North America, and the graduation of our second cohort of ARCC Scholars.

  2. Learning Approaches, Course Experience, and Astronomy Understanding in The Oklahoma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Jennifer; Williams, Karen; Rutledge, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Details a project designed to bolster the quality of astronomy education through teacher workshops. Workshop topics include the solar system, stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, and cosmology. The Learning Approach Questionnaire (LAQ) is used to determine the effects of the workshops. (DDR)

  3. Communicating Astronomy in a Metropolis and Disaster Area - Activities of the Tenpla Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamegai, K.; Takanashi, N.; Hiramatsu, M.; Naito, S.

    2015-03-01

    We present recent activities delivering astronomy to the public by the Tenpla project in Japan. One is voluntary activities in the disaster area of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The other is holding tens of star parties and public lectures in the central area of Tokyo.

  4. Applying of interactive methods for astronomy education in a school project "International space colony TANHGRA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Veselka S.

    Several interactive methods, applied in the astronomy education during creation of the project about a colony in the Space, are presented. The methods Pyramid, Brainstorm, Snow-slip (Snowball) and Aquarium give the opportunity for schooler to understand and learn well a large packet of astronomical knowledge.

  5. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  6. The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

    1999-01-01

    A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

  7. Radio Astronomy Tools in Python: Spectral-cube, pvextractor, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, A.; Robitaille, T.; Beaumont, C.; Rosolowsky, E.; Leroy, A.; Brogan, C.; Hunter, T.; Teuben, P.; Brisbin, D.

    2015-12-01

    The radio-astro-tools organization has been established to facilitate development of radio and millimeter analysis tools by the scientific community. The first packages developed under its umbrella are: • The spectral-cube package, for reading, writing, and analyzing spectral data cubes • The pvextractor package for extracting position-velocity slices from position-position-velocity cubes along aribitrary paths • The radio-beam package to handle gaussian beams in the context of the astropy quantity and unit framework • casa-python to enable installation of these packages - and any other - into users' CASA environments without conflicting with the underlying CASA package. Community input in the form of code contributions, suggestions, questions and commments is welcome on all of these tools. They can all be found at http://radio-astro-tools.github.io.

  8. Source counts at 5 gigahertz from the MG survey. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Burke, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The MIT-Green Bank (MG) radio survey (reported by Bennett and colleagues in 1984 and 1985) is the largest 5 GHz survey to date. In this paper the source counts from the MG survey are examined. They are consistent with past measurements, but due to the large size of the MG survey the Poisson errors have been reduced. Radio source evolution models (such as that reported by Condon in 1984) are consistent with these new measurements.

  9. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) earth physics. [application to radio astronomy and interferometric earth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Michelson/Pease stellar interferometer are discussed. An analog of the interferometer using radio waves is described. The use of a conventional hard-wired interferometer with very long base line interferometry (VLBI) is analyzed. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the VLBI techniques. A summary of VLBI geodetic experiments is tabulated. The concept and application of the astronomical radio interferometric earth surveys (ARIES) are reported. A schematic diagram of ARIES implementation is provided.

  10. Managing Astronomy Research Data: Case Studies of Big and Small Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy data management refers to all actions taken upon data over the course of the entire research process. It includes activities involving the collection, organization, analysis, release, storage, archiving, preservation, and curation of research data. Astronomers have cultivated data management tools, infrastructures, and local practices to ensure the use and future reuse of their data. However, new sky surveys will soon amass petabytes of data requiring new data management strategies.The goal of this dissertation, to be completed in 2015, is to identify and understand data management practices and the infrastructure and expertise required to support best practices. This will benefit the astronomy community in efforts toward an integrated scholarly communication framework.This dissertation employs qualitative, social science research methods (including interviews, observations, and document analysis) to conduct case studies of data management practices, covering the entire data lifecycle, amongst three populations: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) collaboration team members; Individual and small-group users of SDSS data; and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) collaboration team members. I have been observing the collection, release, and archiving of data by the SDSS collaboration, the data practices of individuals and small groups using SDSS data in journal articles, and the LSST collaboration's planning and building of infrastructure to produce data.Preliminary results demonstrate that current data management practices in astronomy are complex, situational, and heterogeneous. Astronomers often have different management repertoires for working on sky surveys and for their own data collections, varying their data practices as they move between projects. The multitude of practices complicates coordinated efforts to maintain data.While astronomy expertise proves critical to managing astronomy data in the short, medium, and long term, the larger astronomy

  11. Development of Astronomy at the Planetarium of Havana. Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    In December 2009 to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy was inaugurated in Havana with a great constructive effort the only Planetarium in regular public service, currently serving in Cuba.After 5 years of operation open to the public is time to propose a series of activities that raise its level of activity as a Cultural Center of Science and Technology.The establishment of a cathedra of Astronomy and Astrophysics attached to a center of Higher Education once the staff acquire sufficient capacity and experience to conduct research programs is proposed, and also, to provide scientific expertise to educators in supporting the national system of education and outreach of the Cultural Center.In addition to becoming a member of the International Association of Planetariums, its active members will participate to international and national events, will increase our national membership in the International Astronomical Union and its commissions, an also to the Red Pop UNESCO and other related groups of IberoamericaIn order to ensure the scientific life of its main technical staff, efforts will be made to establish agreements with Higher Education related centers such as the Faculty of Physics at the University of Havana, the Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology and other schools allowing professional activities of staff in these institutions to the Cultural Centre as university extension. This includes the maintenance of university students of all specialties covering fixed shifts as guides / aids in attention to visitors.The Cultural Center is designed as a modern concept embedded in a Colonial architecture and traditional external environment. Exhibitions, shows the space and other facilities - will provide visitors a set of tools to bring back home, concepts and information about the universe before it was too remote and too complex for the average citizen. It is undoubtedly a unique educational opportunity in the country to demystify the

  12. Astronomy and Space Science On The School - An Outreach Project for Elementary and High School Students of Brasilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    This project aims to develop interdisciplinary actions, articulated and convergence in the field of education, dissemination and popularization of science and technology in Brasilia-DF, the Federal District of Brazil. These actions are also been carried out at DF surroundings areas. Since 2015 linked convergent actions are focused on the development of space science and astronomy teaching with hands on experimental activities. Workshops, short basic astronomy courses, expositions and planetarium show are been carried out by a team of professors, graduate and under graduate students from University of Brasilia- UnB. At the same time upgrade actions are been done in order to modernize The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory located at the far campus of UnB, named Fazenda Água Limpa. It is now a Center for research and space science dissemination and popularization not only for students but also for the whole community of Brasilia. Working toghether with the Physics Institute of UnB we have the recently created Museum of Science and Technology of Brasilia, also located at the UnB campus. The Museum is responsible for contac with schools and Brasilia community and for the organization of the activities of the Science on the School Project. Science on the School is an educational, scientific and cultural proposal approved and financed by the brazillian national research council (CNPq) and by the Science and Technology Reseach Foundation of Brasilia. Besides science dissemination for the brazillian society the project is also developing theoretical and experimental research in the area of Space Science and Astronomy. The project also aim to transform the Museum in a strong Science Education Center for the Brazil central region population, It is going to be a cultural environment and leisure for the Federal District and surrounding areas of Brasilia. In this work we will describe the coordinate actions of The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory the Physics Institute of

  13. A 5 Giga Samples Per Second 8-Bit Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Homin; Liu, Howard; Guzzino, Kim; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Chang, Ray; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2014-08-01

    We have designed, manufactured, and characterized an 8-bit 5 Giga samples per second (Gsps) ADC printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). An e2v EV8AQ160 ADC chip was used in the design and the board is plug compatible with the field programmable gate array (FPGA) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) community. Astronomical interference fringes were demonstrated across a single baseline pair of antennas using two ADC boards on the Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) telescope. Several radio interferometers are using this board for bandwidth expansion, such as Submillimeter Array; also, several experimental telescopes are building new spectrometers using the same board. The ADC boards were attached directly to the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH-2) FPGA board for processing of the digital output signals. This ADC board provides the capability of digitizing radio frequency signals from DC to 2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth), and to an extended bandwidth of 2.5 GHz (5 dB) with derated performance. The following worst-case performance parameters were obtained over 2 GHz: spur free dynamic range (SFDR) of 44 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) of 35 dB, and effective number of bits (ENOB) of 5.5.

  14. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  15. Inferential statistics for transient signal detection in radio astronomy phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Natalia A.; Prestage, Richard M.; Alkhweldi, Marwan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we develop two statistical rules for the purpose of detecting pulsars and transients using signals from phased array feeds installed on a radio telescope in place of a traditional horn receiver. We assume a known response of the antenna arrays and known coupling among array elements. We briefly summarize a set of pre-processing steps applied to raw array data prior to signal detection and then derive two detection statistics assuming two models for the unknown radio source astronomical signal: (1) the signal is deterministic and (2) the signal is a random process. The performance of both detectors is analyzed using both real and simulated data.

  16. Analysis of the Capability and Limitations of Relativistic Gravity Measurements Using Radio Astronomy Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Counselman, C. C., III

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radar observations of planets and very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations of extragalactic objects to test theories of gravitation are described in detail with special emphasis on sources of error. The accuracy achievable in these tests with data already obtained, can be summarized in terms of: retardation of signal propagation (radar), deflection of radio waves (interferometry), advance of planetary perihelia (radar), gravitational quadrupole moment of sun (radar), and time variation of gravitational constant (radar). The analyses completed to date have yielded no significant disagreement with the predictions of general relativity.

  17. Development of educational CD-ROMs in astronomy: Information on a collaborative project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frede, Valerie

    The observatory of Paris and the institute of teacher training (IUFM) in Toulouse have collaborated to develop multimedia support for astronomy lessons. The goal of this project is to provide additional didactical material such as CD-ROMs to elementary and high school teachers which will be used by children in the classroom. In this paper, we present the aims of the project and describe briefly the contents that have been developed so far. The project is a part of “Astrophysique sur Mesure”, a broader project led by the observatory of Paris which encourages the involvement of astronomers in the development of pedagogical tools.

  18. Science operations management. [with Infrared Astronomy Satellite project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The operation teams engaged in the IR Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) project included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The detailed involvement of these scientists in the design, testing, validation, and operations phases of the IRAS mission contributed to the success of this project. The Project Management Group spent a substantial amount of time discussing science-related issues, because science team coleaders were members from the outset. A single scientific point-of-contact for the Management Group enhanced the depth and continuity of agreement reached in decision-making.

  19. Clustering-based Filtering to Detect Isolated and Intermittent Pulses in Radio Astronomy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Tang, B.; Lazio, T. J.; Spolaor, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio-emitting neutron stars (pulsars) produce a series of periodic pulses at radio frequencies. Dispersion, caused by propagation through the interstellar medium, delays signals at lower frequencies more than higher frequencies. This well understood effect can be reversed though de-dispersion at the appropriate dispersion measure (DM). The periodic nature of a pulsar provides multiple samples of signals at the same DM, increasing the reliability of any candidate detection. However, existing methods for pulsar detection are ineffective for many pulse-emitting phenomena now being discovered. Sources exhibit a wide range of pulse repetition rates, from highly regular canonical pulsars to intermittent and nulling pulsars to rotating radio transients (RRATs) that may emit only a few pulses per hour. Other source types may emit only a few pulses, or even only a single pulse. We seek to broaden the scope of radio signal analysis to enable the detection of isolated and intermittent pulses. Without a requirement that detected sources be periodic, we find that a typical de-dispersion search yields results that are often dominated by spurious detections from radio frequency interference (RFI). These occur across the DM range, so filtering out DM-0 signals is insufficient. We employ DBSCAN data clustering to identify groups within the de-dispersion results, using information for each candidate about time, DM, SNR, and pulse width. DBSCAN is a density-based clustering algorithm that offers two advantages over other clustering methods: 1) the number of clusters need not to be specified, and 2) there is no model of expected cluster shape (such as the Gaussian assumption behind EM clustering). Each data cluster can be selectively masked or investigated to facilitate the process of sifting through hundreds of thousands of detections to focus on those of true interest. Using data obtained by the Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we show how this approach can help separate RFI from

  20. The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes: Upgrade of the antennas from satellite communication to radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Yoshinori; Saito, Yu; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Soon, Kang Lou; Momose, Munetake; Yokosawa, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Kenta; Tomoaki, Oyama; Kono, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Hideyuki, Kobayashi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Ueno, Yuji; Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sorai, Kazuo; Takaba, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Sekido, Mamoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Naomasa; Omodaka, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes (former satellite communication antennas) were so upgraded as to work at 6, 8, and 22 GHz. We developed the receiver systems, IF systems, back-end systems (including samplers and recorders), and reference systems. We measured the performance of the antennas. The system temperature including the atmosphere toward the zenith, T_sys^{ast }, is measured to be ˜30-40 K for 6 GHz and ˜25-35 K for 8 GHz. T_sys^{ast } for 22 GHz is measured to be ˜40-100 K in winter and ˜150-500 K in summer seasons, respectively. The aperture efficiency is 55%-75% for Hitachi at 6 GHz and 8 GHz, and 55%-65% for Takahagi at 8 GHz. The beam sizes at 6 GHz and 8 GHz are ˜4{^'.}6 and ˜3{^'.}8, respectively. The side-lobe level is less than 3%-4% at 6 and 8 GHz. Pointing accuracy was measured to be better than ˜0{^'.}3 for Hitachi and ˜0{^'.}6 for Takahagi. We succeeded in VLBI observations in 2010 August, indicating good performance of the antenna. We started single-dish monitoring observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources in 2012 December, and found several new sources showing short-term periodic variation of the flux density.

  1. Project Explorer GAS #007: Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stluka, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Polls were taken at the Project Explorer meetings regarding flying without the radio experiment transmitting. The radio downlinks require extra coordination and are sensitive to certain payloads. The poll results were unanimous. The radio downlinks are vital in providing data on the health and status of the total experiments package, in real time, during the flight. The amateur radio operators, prepared to receive the downlinks and OSCAR-10 relays, revealed that there was enormous interest throughout the world, to participate. This sets the stage for the reflight opportunities which the GAS program has provided. Major activities, pertinent to the STS-41G flight preparations by the GAS #007 team and support group, are listed.

  2. Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

  3. RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.

  4. Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

    2014-10-01

    We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented. PMID:25362437

  5. Strategies for Creating Cornerstone Education Projects for the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2008-12-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations has designated 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), a year-long global education program to commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first astronomical observations through a telescope. IYA2009 has an importance well beyond what can be accomplished in just one year. The main goal is to use this year to build sustainable, long-term education programs for measurable changes in science literacy in school children and in the public at large. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with headquarters in Tucson and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) with headquarters in Washington D.C. are leading the coordination of IYA2009 activities in the United States under a grant from the National Science Foundation. NASA is also playing a large role. NOAO and AAS are working closely with United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Astronomical Union (IAU), Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), and other trusted astronomy partners worldwide. Through collaboration and coordination, the participating partners will convey the excitement of personal discovery, the merits of the scientific process, and the pleasure of sharing new and fundamental knowledge about the Universe. This talk will describe the goals of the major cornerstone projects led by the United States including the Galileoscope education kit, dark skies education, image exhibition, and Galileo teacher training project. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  6. Astronomy and development: a multidisciplinary project in the Mexican countryside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo Alfaro, Hector; Caretta, César; Brito, Elcia M. S.

    2015-08-01

    We outline a long term project focused on children and young students living in rural places of the Mexican State of Guanajuato. This multidisciplinary project includes astronomers, environment engineers, biologists and sociologists of Universidad de Guanajuato. One part of the activities are done in situ, at the villages, and other is currently proposed to be held at the Public Astronomical Observatory of Universidad de Guanajuato. Organizing the trips and the activities for scholar groups at the observatory (where telescopes, computers and microscopes are available) would fit very well within several of the IAU-OAD strategies. We expect that, attending the FM20 of the IAU and presenting our results there will help us to develop regionalcollaborations and showing the many opportunities for new possible volunteers.

  7. Past, Present and Future of Chinese Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Through out the ancient history, Chinese astronomers had made tremendous achievements. Since the main purpose of the ancient Chinese astronomy was to study the correlation between man and the universe, all the Emperors made ancient Chinese astronomy the highly regarded science throughout the history. After a brief introduction of the achievement of ancient Chinese astronomy, I describe the beginnings of modern astronomy research in China in the 20th century. Benefiting from the fast development of Chinese economy, the research in astronomy in China has made remarkable progress in recent years. The number of astronomers has doubled in the past ten years, and the number of graduate students has grown over 1300. The current budget for astronomy research is ten times larger than that ten years ago. The research covers all fields in astronomy, from galaxies to the Sun. The recent progress in both the instruments, such as the Guo Shoujing's telescope, a Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), and the theoretical research will be briefly presented. The ongoing and future projects on the space- and ground-based facilities will be described, including the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), ``Chang E'' (Lunar mission) project, Hard X-ray Modulate Telescope (HXMT), DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), Deep Space Solar Observatory (DSO), Chinese Antarctic Observatory (CAO), 65m steerable radio telescope, Chinese Spectral Radioheliogaph (CSRH) etc.

  8. Gravity-gradient dynamics experiments performed in orbit utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-1) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    Six dynamic experiments were performed in earth orbit utilizing the RAE spacecraft in order to test the accuracy of the mathematical model of RAE dynamics. The spacecraft consisted of four flexible antenna booms, mounted on a rigid cylindrical spacecraft hub at center, for measuring radio emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Attitude control of the gravity stabilized spacecraft was tested by using damper clamping, single lower leading boom operations, and double lower boom operations. Results and conclusions of the in-orbit dynamic experiments proved the accuracy of the analytic techniques used to model RAE dynamical behavior.

  9. The magnetic field of Jupiter - A comparison of radio astronomy and spacecraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Gulkis, S.

    1979-01-01

    The inner magnetic field of Jupiter is characterized on the basis of Pioneer 10 and 11 measurements and earth-based decimetric radio observations. The dipole parameters derived from the two data sets are in good agreement. Problems in reconciling asymmetries observed in the earth-based data and the spacecraft data are discussed. Models of synchrotron emission from arbitrary magnetic field configurations and high-resolution maps of the Jovian radiation belts in all polarizations are needed to further understanding of Jupiter's magnetic field

  10. A planetary radio astronomy discussion of the 1.55 cm microwave emission of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Chang, T. C.; Darby, L. T.; Finkelstein, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Using 1.55 cm observations of the earth made by the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) experiment on Nimbus 5, the appearance of the earth from Venus is simulated. A single antenna unable to resolve the earth's disk would give a time-averaged disk temperature of 183 K. In one rotation, the disk temperature would vary from 194 K to 172 K. During the 1973 inferior conjunction, a radio telescope with 1 arc sec resolution would resolve most of the major surface features of the earth.

  11. Application of Field System-FS9 and a PC to Antenna Control Unit interface in Radio Astronomy in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, E. V. S.; Ishitsuka, J. I. I.; Koyama, K. Y.

    2006-08-01

    We are in the process to transform a 32m antenna in Peru, used for telecommunications, into a Radio Telescope to perform Radio Astronomy in Peru. The 32m antenna of Peru constructed by NEC was used for telecommunications with communications satellites at 6 GHz for transmission, and 4 GHz for reception. In collaboration of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Japan, and National Observatory of Japan we developed an Antenna Control System for the 32m antenna in Peru. It is based on the Field System FS9, software released by NASA for VLBI station, and an interface to link PC within FS9 software (PC-FS9) and Antenna Control Unit (ACU) of the 32 meters antenna. The PC-FS9 controls the antenna, commands are translated by interface into control signals compatibles with the ACU using: an I/O digital card with two 20bits ports to read azimuth and elevation angles, one 16bits port for reading status of ACU, one 24bits port to send pulses to start or stop operations of antenna, two channels are analogic outputs to drive the azimuth and elevation motors of the antenna, a LCD display to show the status of interface and error messages, and one serial port for communications with PC-FS9,. The first experiment of the control system was made with 11m parabolic antenna of Kashima Space Research Center (NICT), where we tested the right working of the routines implemented for de FS9 software, and simulations was made with looped data between output and input of the interface, both test were done successfully. With this scientific instrument we will be able to contribute with researching of astrophysics. We expect to into a near future to work at 6.7GHz to study Methanol masers, and higher frequencies with some improvements of the surface of the dish.

  12. The Radio Mathematics Project: Nicaragua 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick, Ed.; And Others

    The design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional radio used to teach primary school mathematics in rural Nicaragua is described in detail. The purpose of this Agency for International Development (AID) research and development project has been to demonstrate that rural school children can receive consistently high quality instruction in…

  13. The Astronomy Collections: From the Project to the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobis, L.

    2015-04-01

    Within some astronomical libraries, just as it is with other libraries, there are collections we might refer to as being in "the border zone." The materials most representative of this are those that relate to an institution's heritage and history. The challenges of these patrimonial collections are scientific, legal, economic, and political. These collections establish the scientific status of their respective libraries because they extend beyond meeting the needs of astronomers: the material is important in defining the history of the field. The influence of these libraries derives from these heritage materials. From this point of view, the library is a worksite and a laboratory for librarians, project managers, and researchers.

  14. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.

    PubMed

    Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data. PMID:17902962

  15. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, David P.; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L.; Lamb, James W.; Lawrence, Ronald P.; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J.; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H.; Cartwright, John K.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

  16. Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

  17. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  18. Molecular Clouds and Clumps in the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

    2009-05-01

    The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of 13CO J = 1 → 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18° < ell < 55fdg7 and Galactic latitudes |b| <= 1°. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s-1. Because the GRS uses 13CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than 12CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of 13CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

  19. MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND CLUMPS IN THE BOSTON UNIVERSITY-FIVE COLLEGE RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R. E-mail: alexj@bu.edu E-mail: ronak@bu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18{sup 0} < l < 55.{sup 0}7 and Galactic latitudes |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the {sup 13}CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s{sup -1}. Because the GRS uses {sup 13}CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than {sup 12}CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of {sup 13}CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

  20. Solar sailing for radio astronomy and seti: An extrasolar mission to 550 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.

    1994-11-01

    Current or near-term technology is capable of propelling small payloads to 550 Astronomical Units (AU) on flights of decades duration. Beyond 550 AU, natural or artificial electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitted by galactic objects occulted by the Sun is greatly amplified by solar gravitational focusing. Propulsion systems capable of launching such an extrasolar probe include Jupiter gravity-assist, flat or inflatable solar sails unfurled from parabolic solar orbits sunward of the Earth, and the proton-reflecting 'Magsail'. Best performance for a near-future probe is obtained using the solar sail; a superconducting Magsail has great potential for course-correction purposes. A properly configured solar sail can also serve as a radio telescope and as a solar-energy collector to power the probe's instrumentation. The best direction for the probe's trajectory is towards the galactic anti-center. This is because of the astrophysical interest in amplified EM radiation from the galactic center and the large number of Sunlike stars in the galactic arm. Many of these stars could be surveyed for artificial radio emissions using the proposed probe by astronomers engaged in SETI (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence). By chance, the anti-galactic-center is not too far from the positions on the celestial sphere of the nearby Sunlike stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. This random celestial arrangement increases the potential interest of the proposed mission. While focused on or near the galactic center, the probe could also examine a number of objects of astrophysical interest. These include supernova remnants, HI and HIII regions, and neutron stars or black holes near the galctic center. A number of alternative directions for probes of this type exists. Missions could be flown to sample amplified radio emissions from globular clusters such as M13 and M22 and extra-galactic objects such as the Magellanic Clouds and the Great Spiral Galaxy (M31) in Andromeda. For a number of

  1. VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

  2. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  3. Project CLEA - The Moons of Jupiter: Understanding the Kepler's Laws in Astronomy 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on a study of impact of Project CLEA - Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy software on students’ understanding of the Kepler's Third Law. The study was conducted at the University of Missouri among 26 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course. There were 16 female and 15 male students participants between age of 18 and 24. The study was designed to find out whether students had different attitudes toward the simulation: its visual design and its intuitiveness and easiness to use. The study tested whether these attitudes reflected on the students’ learning outcomes of the discussed astronomy topic. To measure students’ computer proficiency and how comfortable they were using computers they were given a computer attitude inventory. The participants took a pretest and a posttest designed by the Project CLEA developers for the Moons of Jupiter module. The students also filled out a questionnaire where they reflected on their experience of using the software. Two weeks later the research participants took a final astronomy course examination which included a question on the Kepler's Third Law. Our research shows that students who indicated that they liked the simulation performed better on the posttest.. At the same time, we found that there was no relationship between the students’ attitude towards the simulation and their performance on the final exam. Students, who used CLEA simulation regardless of their attitudes towards it, significantly outperformed their classmates during the final exam on the Kepler's third law question. It is also interesting to note that students performed better on five out of six posttest questions - there was no change on a question involved mathematical application of the Kepler's Third Law formula.

  4. The GalileoMobile Project: sharing astronomy with students and teachers around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Herrera, Sandra; Del Sordo, Fabio; Spinelli, Patricia; Ntormousi, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy is an inspiring tool that can be used to motivate children to learn more about the world, to encourage critical thinking, and engage them in different scientific disciplines. Although many outreach programs bring astronomy to the classroom, most of them act in developed countries and rely heavily on internet connection. This leaves pupils and teachers in remote areas with little access to the latest space missions and the modern astronomical advances. GalileoMobile is an itinerant astronomy education initiative aiming to bridge this gap by donating educational material and organizing activities, experiments and teacher workshops at schools in rural areas. The initiative is run on a voluntary basis by an international team of astronomers, educators, and science communicators, working together to stimulate curiosity and interest in learning, to exchange different visions of the cosmos and to inspire a feeling of unity "under the same sky" between people from different cultures. Since the creation of the project in 2008, we have travelled to Chile, Bolivia, Peru, India, Uganda, Brazil and Colombia, and worked with about 70 schools. From our experiences, we learnt that 1) bringing experts from other countries is very stimulating for children and encourages a collaboration beyond borders; 2) inquiry-based methods are important for making the learning process more effective; 3) involving local educators in our activities helps the longstanding continuation of the project. We are incorporating these lessons learned into a new concept of the project. Constellation 2015, aims to establish a South American network of schools committed to the long-term organisation of astronomical outreach activities amongst their pupils and local communities. Constellation was declared Cosmic Light Project by the International Year of Light 2015 and awarded funding by the OAD. At this Focus Meeting, we will present the outcomes from our latest expeditions in Brazil and Colombia in

  5. Project ASTRO NOVA brings Standard Based Astronomy to New Jersey Schools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, W.; Vinski, J.; Gallagher, A. C.

    2000-12-01

    Begun in 1998, Project ASTRO NOVA is hosted by the Planetarium at Raritan Valley Community College in Somerville, New Jersey. It is part of a National Network of eleven Project ASTRO sites created by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific with financial support of the National Science Foundation (see other papers at this meeting). Our goal is to bring hands-on inquiry based astronomy into classrooms and help teachers meet the New Jersey Science Standards. New Jersey mandates the teaching of astronomy in grades K-12 and statewide assessment takes place in grades 4 and 8. Capitalizing on New Jersey's record number of amateur astronomers per capita our site has trained 75 astronomers (including 21 professional astronomers) over the last three years. Before the start of each school year a new group of astronomers is trained together with their partner teacher(s) in the use of hands-on and age-appropriate astronomy activities that support the New Jersey Science Standards. Astronomers adopt a classroom and visit the same students at least four times during the year. Currently 53 astronomers are participating during the 2000-2001 school year. The program in New Jersey targets teachers in grades 3-9. A total of 114 teachers have been training at our annual workshops and 75 of them are participating during the 2000-2001 school year. Satisfaction with the program has been high with students, teachers and astronomers. When students meet scientists as role models and experience that doing science can be a lot of fun they become more interested. At the same time teachers are re-energized and gain a better understanding of how to teach science and astronomy. Finally, astronomers have the satisfaction of making a real difference in the lives of thousands of children, gain a better understanding of the issues in K-12 education and learn new teaching strategies for use in their college classes or astronomy clubs. In general we find that students and teachers are becoming better

  6. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  7. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%–2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%–3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%–6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  8. Digital Signal Processing Using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-Input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocz, J.; Greenhill, L. J.; Barsdell, B. R.; Price, D.; Bernardi, G.; Bourke, S.; Clark, M. A.; Craig, J.; Dexter, M.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S.; Hallinan, G.; Hartman, J.; Jameson, A.; MacMahon, D.; Taylor, G.; Schinzel, F.; Werthimer, D.

    2015-03-01

    A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ˜ 100 MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ˜ 58 MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8 Tops s-1 and 0.236 Tbit s-1 throughput in a 9 kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260 MB s-1 for 9-s time averaging of cross-power and 1 s averaging of total power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneous, computing architecture.

  9. Extragalactic Radio Astronomy from an Armchair: Continuum Spectral Shapes of 150 Faint Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Andernach, H.

    1994-08-01

    We have used all available radio-source surveys to construct the continuum spectra for sources in an area of 5 by 10 degrees near the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP), previously observed at 2.7 GHz with the Effelsberg telescope. Most of the surveys are of similar angular resolution (~3 to 5 arcmin) and cover a wide range of frequencies from 38 MHz to 5 GHz. We have developed a cross-identification algorithm that takes into account the dependence of source structure on observing frequency. This improved the number of true matches between the source catalogues. Spectra for 229 sources with flux measurements at two or more frequencies were constructed. For 124 of these we found data at four or more frequencies, allowing us to classify their spectral shape. In our rather faint sample (S_2.7GHz > 20 mJy) we find the fraction of sources with spectral curvature to be much lower than in samples of stronger sources previously studied by other authors. Preliminary optical identifications are being drawn from the digitized versions of the first Palomar Sky Survey prepared at STScI.

  10. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Kundu, Mukul; Arsac, Jacques; Blum, Émile-Jacques; Boischot, André

    2009-11-01

    The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. There was also an abiding interest in the terrestrial effects of this solar radio emission. Among these solar pioneers were French radio astronomers from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In this paper we review the early solar observations made by them from Paris, Marcoussis and Nançay prior to the construction of a number of innovative multi-element solar interferometers at the Nançay field station in the mid-1950s.

  11. Millimetre-Wave Spectrum of Isotopologues of Ethanol for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Adam; Schäfer, Mirko; Ordu, Matthias H.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Complex molecules have been identified in star-forming regions and their formation is linked to the specific physical and chemical conditions there. They are suspected to form a role in the origins of life. Amongst these, ethanol is a fairly abundant molecule in warmer regions. For this reason, we have recently carried out laboratory measurements and analyses of the rotational spectra of the three mono-substituted deuterium isotopologues of ethanol (one of which, CH_2DCH_2OH, exists as two distinct conformers according to the position of the deuterium atom with respect to the molecular skeleton). Measurements were taken between 35-500 GHz, allowing accurate predictions in the range of radio telescopes. We have concentrated on the lowest energy anti conformers. The dataset was constrained for fitting with a standard Watson-S reduction Hamiltonian by rejecting transitions from high-lying states, which appear to be perturbed by the gauche states, and by averaging some small methyl torsional splits. This treatment is compatible with the needs for a first search in the interstellar medium, in particular in spectra taken by ALMA. For this purpose an appropriate set of predictions will be included on the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy. Previous results on the two mono-substituted 13C isotopologues which led to a tentative detection in Sgr B2(N) will be briefly summarized and compared with the latest measurements. The usefulness of studying different isotopologues in the interstellar medium will also be rapidly addressed. Bouchez et al, JQSRT 113 (11), pp. 1148-1154, 2012. Belloche et al. A&A 559, id.A47, 187pp., 2013.

  12. A Review of High School Level Astronomy Student Research Projects Over the Last Two Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. T.; Hollow, R.; Rebull, L. M.; Danaia, L.; McKinnon, D. H.

    2014-09-01

    Since the early 1990s with the arrival of a variety of new technologies, the capacity for authentic astronomical research at the high school level has skyrocketed. This potential, however, has not realised the bright-eyed hopes and dreams of the early pioneers who expected to revolutionise science education through the use of telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation in the classroom. In this paper, a general history and analysis of these attempts is presented. We define what we classify as an Astronomy Research in the Classroom (ARiC) project and note the major dimensions on which these projects differ before describing the 22 major student research projects active since the early 1990s. This is followed by a discussion of the major issues identified that affected the success of these projects and provide suggestions for similar attempts in the future.

  13. Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.

    2006-11-01

    Foreword; Preface; 1. General data; 2. Astronomy and astrophysics; 3. Radio astronomy; 4. Infrared and submillimeter astronomy; 5. Ultraviolet astronomy; 6. X-ray astronomy; 7. Gamma-ray astronomy; 8. Cosmic rays; 9. Earth's atmosphere and environment; 10. Relativity and cosmology; 11. Atomic physics; 12. Electromagnetic radiation; 13. Plamsa physics; 14. Experimental astronomy and astrophysics; 15. Astronautics; 16. Mathematics; 17. Probability and statistics; 18. Radiation safety; 19. Astronomical catalogs; 20. Computer science; 21. Glossary of abbreviations and symbols; Appendices; Index.

  14. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D’Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlation are proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here, we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope’s bandwidth (the so-called “FX” structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with two opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chip memory and the CMACs are reused as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the ICs size and power consumption. It is intended for fabrication in a 32nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76-3.3pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N=4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-level I/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5-7pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N=32) and ALMA (N=64) telescopes achieve about 5000pJ and 1000pJ, respectively using application-specific ICs (ASICs) in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA at N=256; it

  15. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  16. Sustainable Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, C.; Goetz, J.; Johnson, T.

    2011-09-01

    Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently "retire" observing equipment to local schools. While public evenings continue to be popular, the donated equipment was underutilized due to a lack of trained student observing assistants. With sponsorship from NASA's IYA Student Ambassador program, the sustainable astronomy project began in 2009 to generate greater interest in astronomy and train middle school and high school students as observing assistants. Carleton physics majors developed curricular materials and instituted regular outreach programs for grades 6-12. The Northfield High School Astronomy Club was created, and Carleton undergraduates taught high school students how to use telescopes and do CCD imaging. During the summer of 2009, Carleton students began the Young Astronomers Summer Experience (YASE) program for middle school students and offered a two-week, astronomy-rich observing and imaging experience at Goodsell Observatory. In concert with NASA's Summer of Innovation initiative, the YASE program was offered again in 2010 and engaged a new group of local middle school students in hands-on scientific experiments and observing opportunities. Members of the high school astronomy club now volunteer as observing assistants in the community and graduates of the YASE programs are eager to continue observing as members of a public service astronomy club when they enter the Northfield High School. These projects are training future scientists and will sustain the public's interest in astronomy long after the end of IYA 2009.

  17. Education and Public Outreach activities in Radio astronomy with the SKA South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oozeer, N.; Bassett, B. A.; de Boer, K.

    2014-10-01

    A Human Capital Development (HCD) program is a crucial part of any large organisation, and especially for large new research facilities such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Africa. HCD provides a way of developing and channeling new minds into a very demanding field that ensures sustainability of the project and a multitude of spin-off benefits. Apart from educating learners at various levels, the HCD program must also inspire and educate the general public about the projects via an active outreach program. We highlight the various types of outreach activities that have been carried out in South Africa and the other SKA Africa partner countries. While there exist many teaching models we introduce and explore a novel concept of peer teaching for research known as the Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) and present some of its results. The JEDI workshops have resulted in a considerable number of learners embarking on advanced careers in science and research, and the demand is still growing.

  18. The Smiley Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Daugherty, J.; Owen, L.

    2004-12-01

    More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational astronomy. To fill in this resource gap, PARI has developed the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy and the Smiley 4.6 m Radio Telescope to provide high schools access to a state-of-the-art, internet accessable radio observatory for class projects and activities. We describe here the development of the Smiley radio telescope, its control systems and give examples of several class activities which have been developed for use by high school students. We describe the future development of Smiley and plans to upgrade its performance. The SGRA has been supported by grants from Progress Energy, Z. Smith Reynolds, STScI IDEAS, and the AAS Small Research Grant Program which is supported by NASA.

  19. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  20. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  1. Light Pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia: An Observational Project for Introductory Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, K. S.; VSU Astronomy Students Team

    2000-12-01

    A long-term study of light pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia has been initiated as a collaborative project among students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses at Valdosta State University. A single honors student began the project in Spring 2000; during the Fall 2000 semester all students enrolled in ASTR 1020K (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students were provided with charts showing the appearance of the constellations Cygnus, Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Orion (as appropriate) at limiting magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 in 0.5-magnitude steps. On clear, moonless nights students compared the visual appearance of these constellations to the charts, allowing them to determine a limiting magnitude for their location. Preliminary results suggest that, even on the clearest nights, stars fainter than magnitude 5.0 are not visible from any location within Lowndes County. This limitation results largely from ambient light from Valdosta, the only urban area within the county, and also from atmospheric extinction in a region of high humidity. By participating in this exercise, students in a class traditionally populated by non-science majors gain an appreciation for the collaborative nature of modern science. They also become familiar more familiar with the night sky than they might were their exposure limited to the traditional two-hour weekly laboratory session. Most importantly, as young adults they experience first-hand the deleterious effects of light intrusion upon their enjoyment of the night sky!

  2. Broadband Upgrade for the 1.668-GHz (L-Band) Radio Astronomy Feed System on the DSN 70-m Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D.; Khayatian, B.; Lopez, B.; Torrez, T.; Long, E.; Sosnowski, J.; Franco, M.; Teitelbaum, L.

    2015-08-01

    Currently, each of the three Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m antennas provides a narrowband, 1.668-GHz (L-band) receive capability for radio astronomy observations. This capability is delivered by a large feedhorn mounted on the exterior of one of the feedcones. It provides a single polarization into a pair of redundant low-noise amplifiers. Recently, funding was obtained to upgrade this system to wideband (1.4-1.9 GHz) dual-polarization operation. This required development of a new feedhorn, polarizer, orthomode transducer (OMT), and waveguide transitions. In this article, we describe the design and laboratory testing of these components.

  3. Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

  4. The Five-Hundred Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (fast) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Rendong; Li, Di; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization and a wide band without involving complex feed systems; and the light-weight feed cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in July of 2007 with a capital budget ~ 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected to be in 2016. This review intends to introduce the project of FAST with emphasis on the recent progress since 2006. In this paper, the subsystems of FAST are described in modest details followed by discussions of the fundamental science goals and examples of early science projects.

  5. The early history of low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 6: Michael Bessell and the University of Tasmania's Richmond field station near Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Following some initial research in Tasmania between 1955 and 1957, notably by Graeme Ellis and Grote Reber, low frequency radio astronomy became a significant activity of the University of Tasmania from the early 1960s, with the main aims being to study the radio Milky Way and Jupiter's decametric emissions. Although locations very close to Hobart Airport were to see the majority of this work, in the early to mid-1960s low frequency antenna arrays were set up and used by the University at nearby Penna and Richmond. This paper describes the erection and use of the Richmond arrays, which in 1962-1963 operated at a site 1 km north of the town of Richmond, and at frequencies of 2.35, 1.55 and 1.03 MHz.

  6. The SETI Radio Observational Project - Strategy, instrumentation, and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes strategies, tradeoffs, instrumentation, and overall objectives for the SETI Radio Observation Project. Novel approaches have been formulated in order to achieve coverage of the desirable frequency and spatial regimes (about 80% of the sky and in the frequency range of 1.4-25 GHz). A mixed strategy has been developed which uses the survey capability of small antennas and the sensitivity of modern maser amplifiers to achieve sensitivities comparable to those reached by previous observers, but with as much as 10,000 times the scope of both the frequency and spatial coverage possible to those experimenters.

  7. The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, N. J.; Fisher, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well as special efforts planned for IYA2009, strongly support many of the objectives of IYA. Some of these are: 1. Stimulate interest in astronomy and science, especially among young people and in audiences not normally reached. 2. Increase scientific awareness. 3. Support and improve formal and informal science education. 4. Provide a contemporary image of science and scientists. 5. Facilitate new astronomy education networks and strengthen existing ones. 6. Improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement of underrepresented groups. The Space Place program has cultivated a large network of community partners (Obj. 5), including museums, libraries, and planetariums, as well as a large network of avocational astronomy societies. We send the community partners monthly mailings of the latest NASA materials for their "NASA Space Place" display boards (Obj. 1, 2, 3, 5). The astronomy societies receive original articles with the latest "insider" news on NASA missions for publication in their newsletters or on their websites (Obj. 2, 5). Through these leveraged partnerships, we reach a large audience of children; parents; formal and informal educators; rural, minority, and otherwise underserved audiences (Obj. 1, 6); and avocational astronomers, many of whom work with children and the general public in the classroom or at special events (Obj. 2, 3). Supporting Obj. 4, are the "Space Place Live" cartoon "talk show" episodes, spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/live. For IYA 2009, we will specifically prepare our partners to plan and carry

  8. Automated radio astronomy operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The improvements in using a computer to drive a DSN 64-meter antenna are described. The development is used to simplify operation, improve antenna safety, reduce antenna wear, present the abuse of antenna by misoperation, increase quantity and quality of data gathered, and give users a greater choice of automatic operations.

  9. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  10. Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  11. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  12. Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Iya Dark Skies Awareness Working Group

    2010-12-01

    Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found that to influence cultural change effectively — to make people literally look up and see the light — we must make children a main focus, use approaches that offer involvement on many levels, from cursory to committed, and offer involvement via many venues. We must make the programs and resources as turn-key as possible, especially for educators — and provide ways to visualize the problem with simple, easily grasped demonstrations. The programs spanned a wide range; from new media technology for the younger generation, to an event in the arts, to various types of educational materials, to the promotion of dark skies communities, to national and international events and to global citizen science programs. The DSA Cornerstone Project is continuing most all of these programs beyond IYA2009. The International Dark-Sky Association as well as the Starlight Initiative is endorsing and helping to continue with some of the most successful programs from the DSA. The GLOBE at Night campaign is adding a research component that examines light pollution’s affects on wildlife. Dark Skies Rangers activities are being implemented in Europe through the Galileo Teacher Training Program. The new “One Star at a Time” will engage people to protect the night sky through personal pledges and registration of public stargazing areas or StarParks, like the newest one in Italy. The Starlight Initiative’s World Night in Defence of the Starlight will take place on the Vernal Equinox. DSA will again oversee the Dark Skies portion of Global

  13. The Radio Sky in the STARLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Buck, S.; Harris, R.; Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.; Castelaz, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    The STARLAB is a portable planetarium created, produced, and distributed by Learning Technologies, Ltd. Upon entering the STARLAB, images are projected onto the ceiling of the planetarium's dome using custom, interchangeable projection cylinders mounted on top of an ultrabright point light source. The STARLAB is ideal for teaching students about astronomy since it may be easily transported to schools across the nation. In order to take advantage of this powerful teaching tool, one of the foremost priorities of the Sensing the Radio Sky project was the development a projection cylinder that would visually interpret the quantitative data taken with radio telescopes and present that information in a form that students could understand and appreciate. The final version of the cylinder demonstrates a variety of topics relevant to an understanding of radio astronomy. When using the Radio Sky cylinder in the STARLAB, teachers may discuss the differences between optical and radio astronomy such as the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy, different sources of electromagnetic radiation, and important radio sources within and outside of the Galaxy. In addition, the flexibility of the cylinder's design allows for a variety of educational activities to be conducted within the STARLAB, all complemented by the Radio Sky cylinder's unique presentation of the Galaxy in radio wavelengths. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  14. Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of

  15. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  16. The Sky on Earth project: a synergy between formal and informal astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Giordano, Enrica; Lanciano, Nicoletta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the Sky on Earth project funded in 2008 by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, Research and University, inside its annual public outreach education program. The project’s goal was to realise a stable and open-access astronomical garden, where children, teachers and citizens could be engaged in investigations about day and night sky phenomena. The project was designed taking into account our prior researches in formal and informal astronomy education. It was realised in the garden of GiocheriaLaboratori, an out-of-school K-6 educational structure of Sesto San Giovanni municipality (near Milan, Italy). Setting and tools were designed with the help of some students of the ‘Altiero Spinelli’ vocational school and their science and technology teachers. Since its installation, the astronomical garden has been used in workshops and open-days, teachers’ preparation courses and research experiences. We might conclude that the Sky on Earth project represents an example of a positive and constructive collaboration between researchers, educators, high school students and teachers. It may also be considered as a potential attempt to face on the well-known gap between research in science education and school practices.

  17. Managing a big ground-based astronomy project: the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Gary H.

    2008-07-01

    TMT is a big science project and its scale is greater than previous ground-based optical/infrared telescope projects. This paper will describe the ideal "linear" project and how the TMT project departs from that ideal. The paper will describe the needed adaptations to successfully manage real world complexities. The progression from science requirements to a reference design, the development of a product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and an organization that parallels the WBS, the implementation of system engineering, requirements definition and the progression through Conceptual Design to Preliminary Design will be summarized. The development of a detailed cost estimate structured by the WBS, and the methodology of risk analysis to estimate contingency fund requirements will be summarized. Designing the project schedule defines the construction plan and, together with the cost model, provides the basis for executing the project guided by an earned value performance measurement system.

  18. Biomedical Monitoring By A Novel Noncontact Radio Frequency Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The area of Space Health and Medicine is one of the NASA's Space Technology Grand Challenges. Space is an extreme environment which is not conducive to human life. The extraterrestrial environment can result in the deconditioning of various human physiological systems and thus require easy to use physiological monitoring technologies in order to better monitor space crews for appropriate health management and successful space missions and space operations. Furthermore, the Space Technology Roadmap's Technology Area Breakdown Structure calls for improvements in research to support human health and performance (Technology Area 06). To address these needs, this project investigated a potential noncontact and noninvasive radio frequency-based technique of monitoring central hemodynamic function in human research subjects in response to orthostatic stress.

  19. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  20. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2008-07-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  1. Dark Skies Africa: a Prototype Project with the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance Elaine; Tellez, Daniel; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2015-08-01

    The IAU’s Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) awarded the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with a grant to deliver a “Dark Skies Outreach to Sub-Saharan Africa” program to institutions in 12 African countries during 2013: Algeria, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Ghana, Zambia, South Africa, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia and Senegal. The program helped students identify wasteful and inefficient lighting and provided ways to reduce consumption and to keep energy costs in check. The goal was to inspire students to be responsible stewards in helping their community safeguard one of Africa’s natural resources - a dark night sky.Thirteen kits made by the NOAO Education and Public Outreach group were sent to coordinators at university, science center and planetarium-type institutions in the 12 countries and to the IAU OAD. The program’s kit included complete instructional guides and supplies for six hands-on activities (e.g., on the importance of shielding lights and using energy efficient bulbs) and a project on energy conservation and responsible lighting (through energy audits). The activities were taught to the coordinators in a series of six Google+ Hangout sessions scheduled from June to mid-November. The coordinators at the institutions in turn trained local teachers in junior and senior high schools. The Google+ Hangout sessions also included instruction on carrying out evaluations. From the end of November until mid-December students from the different African countries shared final class projects (such as posters or powerpoints) on the program’s website.The entire program was designed to help coordinators and educators work with students, parents and the community to identify dark sky resource, lighting and energy issues and to assess their status, efficiency and effectiveness. The audience will take away from the presentation lessons learned on how well the techniques succeeded in using Google+ Hangout sessions to instruct and

  2. Detailed Studies of Projection Effects, Radio Power Selection Effects, and Key Physical Parameters of Classical Double Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lin

    1998-11-01

    A sample of classical double radio sources with redshifts between zero and two was compiled to study the properties of these sources and their gaseous environments. A detailed theoretical investigation of projection effects shows that different derived parameters have different sensitivities to the projection angle /theta, but in general, projection effects are not significant for θsbsp~>60o. Several potential diagnoses of the projection angle are provided by the theoretical studies. Results obtained using one of these methods suggest that the projection angle of Cygnus A is greater than ~40o to 55o, consistent with independent estimates; and the projection angles of other sources in the sample are likely to be greater than 30o to 40o. This is consistent with independent results obtained here by comparing radio galaxies with radio-loud quasars. The data also suggest that low-redshift radio-loud quasars have lower radio surface brightness and non-thermal pressure than radio galaxies, which cannot be explained by pure projection effects. Detailed studies of radio power selection effects suggest that these selection effects are unlikely to be significant for most derived parameters, such as the ambient gas density of the radio source. Results on several key parameters of FRII sources are presented. Studies of the beam power suggest that it remains roughly constant over a source's lifetime. An increase of the beam power with redshift is observed, and it appears that radio power is not an accurate measure of the beam power. Thermal pressures typical of clusters of galaxies are found for the gaseous environments of the FRII sources, which would lead to an appreciable amount of microwave diminution from some of these clusters. The data hint of different pressure gradients at high and low redshift, which may be explained by an increase of cluster core radius with redshift. Preliminary results on the gravitational mass of the surrounding cluster are presented. The redshift

  3. Inquiry-Based Educational Design for Large-Scale High School Astronomy Projects Using Real Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we outline the theory behind the educational design used to implement a large-scale high school astronomy education project. This design was created in response to the realization of ineffective educational design in the initial early stages of the project. The new design follows an iterative improvement model where the materials and general approach can evolve in response to solicited feedback. The improvement cycle concentrates on avoiding overly positive self-evaluation while addressing relevant external school and community factors while concentrating on backward mapping from clearly set goals. Limiting factors, including time, resources, support and the potential for failure in the classroom, are dealt with as much as possible in the large-scale design allowing teachers the best chance of successful implementation in their real-world classroom. The actual approach adopted following the principles of this design is also outlined, which has seen success in bringing real astronomical data and access to telescopes into the high school classroom.

  4. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

  5. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF2 radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and contribute to our understanding of near-Earth space.

  6. The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP): What Makes a Great First Research Project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Schwieterman, Edward; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2016-01-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington has been providing incoming students with the opportunity to work on research projects in astronomy and astrobiology almost as soon as they step on campus. These projects, which are developed by graduate students, post-docs, and faculty members, must be accessible to students with limited formal education in astronomy and physics and only ~5 weeks of instruction in computer programming. Projects must be simple enough to be completed within ~6 weeks, but challenging enough to yield interesting outcomes that will encourage students to continue working on research even after the first quarter seminar is over. In this talk, I will identify the challenges and goals associated with designing a 6-week, introductory research project for new undergraduates. I will then discuss some of the most successful outcomes of recent Pre-MAP projects, which have included publications, presentations by Pre-MAP students at conferences, press releases, and observing proposals.

  7. The Life Story of a Star, Book 5. Guidebook. The University of Illinois Astronomy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book five in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This guidebook discusses the interior of stars, their source of energy, and their evolution. Topics presented include: the physical properties of the sun; model of the solar…

  8. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Lequeux, James; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Delannoy, Jean

    2007-11-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were initially sited at Marcoussis, near Paris, before being transferred to the Nançay field station in 1957. The third Würzburg antenna was used by staff from the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, and was installed at Meudon Observatory on the outskirts of Paris. This paper describes the three antennas, lists the personnel involved, discusses the observations made, evaluates the significance of this research in a national and international context, and comments on their current whereabouts.

  9. Investigation of onboard quantum time scale for orbital flight of a space radio telescope (the RadioAstron project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Results of observing the operation of instrumentation of the ground-space complex of the Radio-Astron project during space flight conditions of the radio observatory are presented. The technology of quality evaluation of the data received from the space radio telescope (SRT) is considered. The dependence of readings of the onboard frame counter on SRT radial velocity and distance is determined. Technology of constructing a model of the ground-space atomic clocks and onboard quantum time scale based on the results of radio astronomic observations is tested. The method of measurement of the coherent cumulative navigation delay using the onboard quantum time scale is considered. The results of observation of the effect of relativistic and kinematic time dilation onboard the SRT are presented.

  10. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  11. Global Astronomy Month: Astronomy around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMonigal, C.; Simmons, M.

    2015-09-01

    For six years Global Astronomy Month has taken place each April, growing into a wide-ranging and diverse array of programmes comprising the world's largest worldwide, annual celebration of astronomy. Innovative programmes developed through partnerships, along with the availability of this novel platform, have allowed an expansion of what the month has to offer. Beginning with familiar observing programmes that engage amateur astronomers, programmes have become increasingly inclusive, extending to non-astronomy fields inspired by space. This article explores the development of Global Astronomy Month, the lessons learnt and how the project has provided a stage for expanding existing programmes and testing new ideas.

  12. The birth of high-energy neutrino astronomy: A personal history of the DUMAND project

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A. )

    1992-01-01

    DUMAND is a project to build a Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector offshore near the island of Hawaii. At present under construction, it hopes to inaugurate the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. Potential sources of high-energy neutrinos are listed, and estimates of neutrino intensity given. The paper is concerned with the physics, technology, and history of the project, which started informally in 1973. It survived through a series of summer conferences until it was funded as a feasibility study in 1979 and established in the Hawaii DUMAND Center, at the University of Hawaii. Over a dozen collaborating groups have contributed to the successful construction and operation of DUMAND I, the SPS or Short Prototype String, which established the benign character of the ocean environment and demonstrated its suitability for DUMAND II, a 216-phototube array now under construction. DUMAND II, recently funded, will have more than 20 times the area of any existing detector and a mass of almost 2 million tons; this size is minimal for the intensities and cross sections anticipated. The project became feasible---both technically and financially---through important technical advances in data transmission via fiber optics, high-speed computer technology, special photomultiplier tubes made by Hamamatsu and Philips, remotely controlled undersea vehicles with manipulative abilities, and many deep-sea electronic and oceanographic components. It is supported by an international collaboration with 15 collaborating institutions in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. It is scheduled to install a three-string test array (TRIAD) by late 1992, and the complete nine-string array is scheduled for operation in late 1993.

  13. The sky as a laboratory: an educational project of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Padova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciroi, S.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2011-06-01

    ``The Sky as a Laboratory'' is an educational project of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Padova aimed to give students a physical approach to astronomy and astrophysics. It is a regional program designed to improve science education in the last two grades of high school, by creating cooperation between scientists and teachers. Currently it is present in 30 high schools around all provinces of the region of Veneto in the North-East of Italy. The close involvement in the didactical activities of high schools teachers is without any doubt the winning strategy of the project. Their enthusiastic participation to teaching and organising activities attracts each year the attention for sciences of an increasing number of students and suggests new ideas for future educational activities.

  14. Characterization of fluoride fibers for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy project.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Takayuki; Perrin, Guy; Vergnole, Sébastien; Woillez, Julien; Guerin, Jean

    2005-08-20

    We report on the interferometric characterization of a pair of 300 m long single-mode non-polarization-maintaining fibers designed for the Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy ('OHANA) project whose goal is to realize a kilometric near-infrared astronomical array by connecting the large telescopes of the Mauna Kea observatory with single-mode fibers. The fluoride glass fibers are operated in the astronomical K band (2.0-2.4 microm) in which their attenuation is low. We have measured very low differential chromatic dispersion, and the wideband fringe visibility is 0.9 if the two fiber arms have the same temperature. The thermal sensitivity of fibers with respect to their interferometric properties has been studied. The differential chromatic dispersion of the fibers is highly sensitive to the temperature difference. On the contrary, the coherent loss due to mismatch of polarization states is not significantly dependent on the temperature difference. Compensation of thermally induced differential dispersion by use of CaF2 glass plates is demonstrated. PMID:16121786

  15. African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa (Southern African Large Telescope and Karoo Array Telescope) astronomy is re-emerging across the continent. The SKA will represent the pinnacle of technological advancement in astronomy when constructed; requiring ultra high speed data transmission lines over 3000 km baselines and the World's fastest computer for correlation purposes. The investment alone to build the SKA on African soil will be of great economic benefit to its people, but the required network connectivity will significantly drive commercial expansion far beyond the initial value of the SKA investment. The most important consequence of hosting the SKA in Africa would be the impact on Human Capital Development (HCD) on the continent. Major HCD projects already underway producing excellent results will be presented. )

  16. The Quiet Skies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and radio frequency interference (RFI), an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project--the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space…

  17. Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

    2006-08-01

    The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

  18. Reports on astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. M.

    The current activities of the International Astronomical Union in organizing observational campaigns, establishing standards, and facilitating scientific communication are reviewed in reports submitted by the commission presidents. Topics examined include ephemerides, celestial mechanics, positional astronomy, instruments and techniques, solar activity, atomic and molecular data, planetary science, the rotation of the earth, meteors and interplanetary dust, photographic astrometry, double and multiple stars, variables, galaxies, stellar spectra, radial velocities, and the structure and dynamics of the Galactic system. Consideration is given to interstellar matter, stellar constitution, the theory of stellar atmospheres, star clusters and associations, radio astronomy, close binaries, astronomy from space, stellar classification, cosmology, high-energy astrophysics, and the search for extraterrestrial life.

  19. Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

  20. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  1. TOPS and Beyond: Training Master Teachers to Mentor Student Astronomy Projects Using the Faulkes Telescope-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedient, J.; Meech, K. J.; Kadooka, M. A.; Mattei, J. A.; Hamai, J.; Hemphill, R.; Hu, S.

    2003-05-01

    2003 was the fifth and final year of the NSF-funded ``Towards Other Planetary Systems'' (TOPS) secondary school teacher training program conducted by the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai'i. While previous years concentrated on basic astronomy skills, cultural astronomy and astrobiology, TOPS 2003 focused on training master teachers and prior TOPS participants in the requisite skills to mentor student projects using the Faulkes Telescope-North (FTN), a 2-meter telescope under construction at the Haleakala High Altitude Observatory. The FTN and a twin in Australia will be the world's largest telescopes dedicated solely to education. This poster presentation describes the teacher's experiences with several prototype astrobiology projects suitable for a 2-meter-class telescope, including monitoring variable stars in star-forming regions, detecting extrasolar planet transits, and observing objects in the Kuiper Belt. Plans for partnering teachers with amateur astronomers proficient in observational techniques are also discussed; the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) is a likely reservoir of such individuals. The recent selection of a University of Hawai'i group led by the TOPS Director as a NASA Astrobiology Institute Lead Team will provide a framework for development of teacher-student-amateur astronomer teams advised by professional astronomers and conducting astrobiology research. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, ESI-9731083, and through University of Maryland and University of Hawaii subcontract Z667702, which was awarded under prime contract NASW-00004 from NASA.

  2. A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

    2010-08-01

    A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

  3. NSF Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, L.; Boltuch, D.; Fultz, C.; Buck, S.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.; Castelaz, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    The intent of the "Sensing the Radio Sky" project is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year project began in the summer of 2004. A total of twelve interns and four faculty mentors from Furman University and UNCA have participated at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop the Radio Sky project. The project united physics and multimedia majors and allowed these students to apply their knowledge of different disciplines to a common goal. One component of the project is the development and production of a cylinder to be displayed in portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The project is near completion and the final draft will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. The development of the Radio Sky project has also provided a template for potential similar projects that examine our universe in different wavelengths, such as gamma ray, x-ray, and infrared. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  4. New Projects in Astronomy: Where do they come from and how do they get realized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewing, Michael; Debouzy, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    New observing facilities in astronomy today require very big investments, both on the ground and in space. The high priority scientific goals that the communities have identified and included in their "Vision" and "Roadmap" documents, lead to a push for increased sensitivity, meaning larger aperture telescopes and more efficient detectors, and a push for increased angular resolution, meaning again larger apertures or large interferometers, not only in one part of the electro-magnetic spectrum but at all wavelengths. The recent roadmap plans for astronomy, both in Europe and elsewhere reflect these high ambitions. What does it take to make them come true? In this contribution, which represents a personal point of view, we reflect on some of the structures, mechanisms and processes that have contributed to the very successful, dynamic evolution of European astronomy during the last few decades, and that provide the basis on which the even bigger scientific and technical challenges of the future can successfully be tackled.

  5. Elementary astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  6. A Voyage through the Radio Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

  7. Learning Astronomy by Doing Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    In the modern science curriculum, students should learn science knowledge or "facts"; they should develop science skills, strategies, and habits of mind; they should understand the applications of science to technology, society, and the environment; and they should cultivate appropriate attitudes toward science. While science knowledge may be taught through traditional lecture-and-textbook methods, theories of learning (and extensive experience) show that other aspects of the curriculum are best taught by doing science -- not just hands-on activities, but "minds-on" engagement. That means more than the usual "cookbook" activities in which students use a predetermined procedure to achieve a predetermined result. The activities should be "authentic"; they should mirror the actual scientific process. In this presentation, I will describe several ways to include science processes within astronomy courses at the middle school, high school, and introductory university level. Among other things, I will discuss: topics that reflect cultural diversity and "the nature of science"; strategies for developing science process skills through projects and other practical work; activities based on those developed and carried out by amateur astronomers; topics and activities suitable for technical-level courses (we refer to them as "applied" in my province); projects for astronomy clubs and science fairs; and topics that expose students to astronomy research within lecture courses.

  8. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  9. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  10. Summary Report on the Radio Farm Forum Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnasiri, Supalak; Griffin, Robert S.

    The main objective of the program was to obtain qualitative data on the value of Radio Farm Forums (RFF), to both the farmers and the extension service, in terms of facilitating two-way communication between the two parties. The concept of RFF is to provide agricultural information through integrated use of mass media and interpersonal…

  11. Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Network Radio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panciers, David J.

    In the fall of 1973, public, school, and college librarians in the Lowell, Massachusetts, area formed the Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Networks (LACOIN). With a grant from the Library Services and Construction Act, Title III, LACOIN initiated library-sponsored public affairs radio broadcasting for its community. Utilizing the Lowell…

  12. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  13. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  14. Annual Progress Report to the Department of Energy for Project Entitled "Board on Physics and Astronomy"

    SciTech Connect

    Shapero, Donald

    2008-06-12

    The overall objectives of the Board on Physics and Astronomy are to identify important new developments at the scientific forefronts, foster interactions with other fields, strengthen connections to technology, and facilitate effective service to the nation by the scientific community. The membership of the BPA is drawn from universities, industry, and national laboratories. Meetings are devoted to reviewing activities being carried out under its auspices, discussing critical issues, and developing new initiatives. In general, studies initiated by the BPA focusing on particular areas of physics or astronomy are carried out by ad hoc groups of experts in those areas. More information on the BPA’s strategy, activities, and volunteers can be found in the attached PDF.

  15. Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-01-01

    The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

  16. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ≥ 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ≥ 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  17. MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

    2006-12-01

    The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  18. Stereoscopic 3D Projections with MITAKA An Important Tool to Get People Interested in Astronomy and Space Science in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Nemoto; Shoichi, Itoh; Hidehiko, Agata; Mario, Zegarra; Jose, Ishitsuka; Edwin, Choque; Adita, Quispe; Tsunehiko, Kato

    2014-02-01

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan has developed space simulation software "Mitaka". By using Mitaka on two PCs and two projectors with polarizing filter, and look through polarized glasses, we can enjoy space travel in three dimensions. Any one can download Mitaka from anywhere in the world by Internet. But, it has been prepared only Japanese and English versions now. We improved a Mitaka Spanish version, and now we are making projections for local people. The experience of the universe in three dimensions is a very memorable for people, and it has become an opportunity to get interested in astronomy and space sciences. A 40 people capacity room, next o to our Planetarium, has been conditioned for 3D projections; also a portable system is available. Due to success of this new outreach system more 3D show rooms will be implemented within the country.

  19. Putting The "Yee-Hah!" In Astronomy Outreach: Professional Development Through The ASP "Sky Rangers" Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Gurton, S.; Hurst, A.

    2010-05-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific is conducting a NASA-funded professional development program to help increase astronomy education and outreach capacity at national parks, nature centers, and other outdoor and environmental centers--venues that still have a dark night sky as a natural resource and a yen to interpret it for their visitors. Through online workshops and on-site workshops at national parks, the ASP staff, working in conjunction with partners from the National Park Service, National Association for Interpretation, and the Association of Science and Technology Centers, provides materials and training focusing on the sky. Participants become part of ASP's "Astronomy from the Ground Up" informational education community of practice, with ongoing options to hone their new skills. The presenter will report on early progress and lessons learned, as well as future plans, as the ASP and its partners work to help wilderness and nature interpreters put a little more "yee-hah!" in their visitor presentations aimed at the sky.

  20. Astronomy Across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ted

    2014-01-01

    African astronomy is growing rapidly. The Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere, MeerKat and the Square Kilometer Array will revolutionize radio astronomy in the coming decade, and Namibia hosts HESS II, the world’s largest gamma-ray telescope. A growing community of observational and theoretical astronomers utilizes these multi-wavelength observational facilities. The largest concentrations of researchers are in southern Africa, but the community is now expanding across the continent. Substantial resources are being invested in developing the next generation of African astronomers. The African Astronomical Society was formed in 2011 to foster and coordinate the growth of the science in Africa. The IAU has located its global Office of Astronomy for Development in South Africa, with the mandate to find innovative ways of using astronomy to promote social and educational development around the world. African astronomy offers abundant opportunities for collaborative research with colleagues from across the globe. This special session will introduce many of the aspects of African astronomy to the US community, with the aim of engendering new partnerships and strengthening existing ones.

  1. Astronomy in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  2. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  3. The U.S. Program for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009): Outcomes, Lessons Learned, and Legacy Projects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, D.

    2009-12-01

    The United States conducted an active and wide-ranging program for IYA2009, thanks largely to support from the American Astronomical Society, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. The U.S. effort included leadership of several international “cornerstone” projects, including the Galileoscope telescope kit, the “From Earth to the Universe” image exhibition, Dark-Skies Awareness, and a variety of creative New Media activities, such as a daily podcast (“365 Days of Astronomy”) and a virtual island in Second Life. In addition, U.S. astronomy educators and outreach professionals played major roles in IYA2009 cornerstone projects designed to promote greater gender equity in astronomy (“She is An Astronomer”); to provide the best astronomy resources for formal education (the Galileo Teacher Training Program); and to conduct global weekend-long celebrations of astronomy involving star parties, several live Webcasts, and special events (“100 Hours of Astronomy” and “Galilean Nights”). NASA led special projects to provide large astronomy images to science centers across the nation, and sent comprehensive exhibits on the major themes of modern astronomy to dozens of libraries in small and medium-sized cities, based on competitive proposals for community impact (“Visions of the Universe”). Underpinning all of these efforts was a variety of methods for informing and engaging the large community of U.S. amateur astronomers, and active communication with our colleagues in Canada, Puerto Rico and Mexico. This talk will review the outcomes and major success stories from the year, discuss several lessons learned that could be useful for pending efforts such as the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, and provide a look ahead for IYA2009 projects and resources that are expected to continue to be active in 2010 and beyond.

  4. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  5. Developing Astronomy in Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

  6. Skynet Junior Scholars: Bringing Astronomy to Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Kate; Williamson, Kathryn; Gartner, Constance; Hoette, Vivian L.; Heatherly, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS), funded by the National Science Foundation, aims to engage middle school youth from diverse audiences in investigating the universe with research quality robotic telescopes. SJS project development goals include: 1) Online access to optical and radio telescopes, data analysis tools, and professional astronomers, 2) An age-appropriate web-based interface for controlling remote telescopes, 3) Inquiry-based standards-aligned instructional modules. From an accessibility perspective, the goal of the Skynet Junior Scholars project is to facilitate independent access to the project by all youth including those with blindness or low vision and those who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) students have long been an underserved population within STEM fields, including astronomy. Two main barriers include: (1) insufficient corpus of American Sign Language (ASL) for astronomy terminology, and (2) DHH education professionals who lack astronomy background. A suite of vocabulary, accessible hands-on activities, and interaction with trained professionals, are critical for enhancing the background experiences of DHH youth, as they may come to an astronomy lesson lacking the basic "incidental learning" that is often taken for granted with hearing peers (for example, from astronomy in the media).A collaboration between the Skynet Junior Scholars (SJS) project and the Wisconsin School for the Deaf is bringing astronomy to the DHH community in an accessible way for the first time. We follow a group of seven DHH youth over one semester as they interact with the SJS tools and curriculum to understand how they assimilate astronomy experiences and benefit from access to telescopes both directly (on school campus and at Yerkes Observatory) and through Skynet's robotic telescope network (optical and radio telescopes, inquiry-based modules, data analysis tools, and professional astronomers). We report on our first findings of resources and

  7. Astronomy in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

  8. PARTNeR: A Tool for Outreach and Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan Ángel Vaquerizo; Fuertes, Carmen Blasco

    PARTNeR is an acronym for Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo (Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo). It is intended for general Astronomy outreach and, in particular, radioastronomy, throughout Spanish educational centres. To satisfy this target, a new educational material has been developed in 2007 to help not only teachers but also students. This material supports cross curricular programs and provides with the possibility of including Astronomy in related subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Technology, Mathematics or even English language. In this paper, the material that has been developed will be shown in detail and how it can be adapted to the disciplines from 4th year ESO (Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria-Compulsory Secondary Education) to High School. The pedagogic results obtained for the first year it has been implemented with students in classrooms will also be presented.

  9. The FOSTER Project: Teacher Enrichment Through Participation in NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Hull, G.; Gillespie, C., Jr.; DeVore, E.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's airborne astronomy program offers a unique opportunity for K-12 science teacher enrichment and for NASA to reach out and serve the educational community. Learning from a combination of summer workshops, curriculum supplement materials, training in Internet skills and ultimately flying on NASA's C-141 airborne observatory, the teachers are able to share the excitement of scientific discovery with their students and convey that excitement from first hand experience rather than just from reading about science in a textbook. This year the program has expanded to include teachers from the eleven western states served by NASA Ames Research Center's Educational Programs Office as well as teachers from communities from around the country where the scientist who fly on the observatory reside. Through teacher workshops and inservice presentations, the FOSTER (Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment) teachers are sharing the resources and experiences with many hundreds of other teachers. Ultimately, the students are learning first hand about the excitement of science, the scientific method in practice, the team work involved, the relevance of science to their daily lives and the importance of a firm foundation in math and science in today's technologically oriented world.

  10. Undergraduate Research in the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Ian; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Turner, J.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Pearson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in research as an undergraduate is an invaluable learning experience that leads to successful post-undergrad studies. Because of this, the University of Arizona Astronomy Club strives to provide multiple opportunities for its members to get involved in research as early as possible. Areas of research covered by our projects include exoplanet research, stellar cycles, and radio observations. These projects cover exoplanet parameterization, the utilization of Kepler data, and various star-formation studies, respectively. Participation in our projects builds stronger data-collecting and reduction skills, while also leading to tangible achievements such poster presentations at AAS, ASP, and DPS, and published papers in astronomical journals.

  11. Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor

    2014-06-01

    Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds

  12. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope project and its early science opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Nan, Rendong; Pan, Zhichen

    2013-03-01

    The National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), has started building the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope is a Chinese mega-science project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). FAST also represents part of Chinese contribution to the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Upon its finishing around September of 2016, FAST will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz. The design specifications of FAST, its expected capabilities, and its main scientific aspirations were described in an overview paper by Nan et al. (2011). In this paper, we briefly review the design and the key science goals of FAST, speculate the likely limitations at the initial stages of FAST operation, and discuss the opportunities for astronomical discoveries in the so-called early science phase.

  13. The Serendip piggyback SETI project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, Michael; Bowyer, Stuart; Werthimer, Dan; Donnelly, Charles; Herrick, Walter

    1988-01-01

    The Serendip project, an ongoing SETI program of monitoring and processing broadband radio signals acquired by existing radio astronomy observatories, are summarized. Serendip operates in a piggyback mode, making use of whatever observing plan is under way at its host observatory. The Serendip system at NRAO and the signature detection and identification techniques used by the project are described. The method used to reject terrestrial interference is discussed.

  14. The "Sky on Earth" Project: A Synergy between Formal and Informal Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sabrina; Giordano, Enrica; Lanciano, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the "Sky on Earth" project funded in 2008 by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, Research and University, inside its annual public outreach education program. The project's goal was to realise a stable and open-access astronomical garden, where children, teachers and citizens could be engaged in investigations…

  15. The DNA Files: Report from Genome Radio Project, March--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-10

    The Genome Radio Project (GRP) core staff are now all in place and the office infrastructure has been set up. The project logo, stationery, and letterhead have all been approved. The name of the series has been identified: The DNA Files. Weekly staff planning meetings and work plans have been initiated; the research component has been launched; interviews of potential production personnel are being conducted. The first three months of the GRP were principally devoted to the further development of the entire two-year project, specifically by pursuing full funding for this project from sources other than DOE. The principal purpose of this planning grant includes the following: produce a pilot documentary which can be used to strengthen the marketing strategy of the overall project; create concrete strategies for best engaging the talents and energies of the project`s advisors; and identify concrete collaborations that maximize the efficacy of a well-designed set of ancillary materials. During this period, GRP collaborated with the Exploratorium in San Francisco to record their series of evening lectures on the social implications of genetic research and its applications. Project staff also attended Lawrence Berkeley Lab.`s Genome Educators Workshops, and the Public Radio Conference.

  16. Infrared Astronomy in the Past Half Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, M.

    Infrared astronomy has greatly changed in the past four decades. From a small extension to optical astronomy that stretched out to slightly longer wavelengths, infrared astronomy gradually reached out to cover the entire wavelength range to the radio regime, and established itself as a field of importance in its own right. These efforts required the development of new detection techniques that permitted access to ever larger portions of the near-,mid and far-infrared regime and extended out into the submillimeter domain. Infrared and submillimeter techniques became essential for the investigations of star formation processes that took place at such low temperatures that no optical emission could be expected. The new observations pierced the dark dust clouds populating the Milky Way to provide a clear view of the Galaxy's center. In the distant Universe startlingly luminous merging galaxies came into view. We were beginning to look far back in time to perceive the gradual evolution of galaxies over the aeons. A serious drawback, however, persisted. At progressively longer wavelengths the view of the Universe became increasingly blurred. Ordinary telescopes no longer provided sharp views. Interferometers would have to be pioneered and constructed at great cost. Major investments led to the construction of dedicated facilities, on the ground, in the air and in space. The increased funding, however, also dictated that infrared astronomers reorganize themselves.Initially started by a few individuals working with their students and a few technicians, infrared astronomy had to change as increasing numbers of scientists entered the field and began to erect facilities that required the dedicated efforts of hundreds of astronomers on a single project. Infrared astronomy has evolved into Big Science, a limit at which increasing budgets threaten to become an unacceptable burden on society. Members of our discipline will need to think carefully how we may continue to pursue

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Gen-4 and Gen-5 Radio Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current plans for the prototype radio development.

  18. Primary Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  19. Intermediate Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  20. Research Projects and Undergraduate Retention at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker-LaFollette, Amanda; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Towner, A. P.; McGraw, A. M.; Biddle, L. I.; Robertson, A.; Turner, J.; Smith, C.

    2013-06-01

    The University of Arizona’s Astronomy Club utilizes its access to the many telescopes in and around Tucson, Arizona, to allow students to fully participate in a variety of research projects. Three current projects - the exoplanet project, the radio astronomy project, and the Kepler project - all work to give undergraduates who are interested in astronomy the opportunity to explore practical astronomy outside the classroom and in a peer-supported environment. The exoplanet project strives to teach students about the research process, including observing exoplanet transits on the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Tucson, AZ, reducing the data into lightcurves with the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), modeling the lightcurves using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and writing and publishing a professional paper, and does it all with no faculty involvement. The radio astronomy project is designed to provide students with an opportunity to work with a professor on a radio astronomy research project, and to learn about the research process, including observing molecules in molecular clouds using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter radio telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. The Kepler project is a new project designed in part to facilitate graduate-undergraduate interaction in the Astronomy Department, and in part to allow students (both graduate and undergraduate) to participate in star-spot cycle research using data from the Kepler Mission. All of these research projects and structures provide students with unique access to telescopes, peer mentoring, networking, and understanding the entire process of astronomical research.

  1. The Radio Communication Project in Nepal: a culture-centered approach to participation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

    2008-08-01

    Considerable research has been conducted on the topic of entertainment-education (DD), the method of using entertainment platforms such as popular music, radio, and television programming to diffuse information, attitudes, and behaviors via role modeling. A significant portion of the recently published EE literature has used the example of the Radio Communication Project (RCP) in Nepal to demonstrate the effectiveness of EE and to argue that EE campaigns can indeed be participatory in nature. In this project, we apply the culture-centered approach to examine the discursive space created by the RCP and its claim of being participatory, A critical examination of RCP discourse brings forth an alternative lens for approaching RCP and its participatory claim. PMID:18709698

  2. The Role of the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy among Middle and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; Deutscher, Rebecca

    This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to…

  3. Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Eric C.

    2006-12-01

    4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

  4. Crowdfunding Astronomy Outreach Projects: Lessons learned from the UNAWE crowdfunding campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, A. J., Heenatigala, T.; Russo, P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, crowdfunding has become a popular method of funding new technology or entertainment products, or artistic projects. The idea is that people or projects ask for many small donations from individuals who support the proposed work, rather than a large amount from a single source. Crowdfunding is usually done via an online portal or platform which handles the financial transactions involved. The Universe Awareness (UNAWE) programme decided to undertake a Kickstarter1 crowdfunding campaign centring on the resource Universe in a Box. In this article we present the lessons learned and best practices from that campaign.

  5. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  6. VSOP-2/ASTRO-G Project Overview for the Astronomy Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, M.; VSOP-2/ASTRO-G Project Team

    2009-08-01

    We will introduce the observing system and operation of the ASTRO-G satellite which is the spacecraft for the VSOP-2 project that follows the success of the first space VLBI project, VSOP. VSOP-2 will have 10 times higher angular resolution (34 μasec) and 10 times higher frequency (43 GHz), compared with VSOP, in order to observe the innermost regions of AGN jets and astronomical masers. To achieve good performance, we must obtain the 10 times higher sensitivity using new technologies. The new technologies involve a large precision antenna, fast-position switching capability, a new MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers, and a 1 GHz wide-band down-link. We must obtain sufficient quantity of observation time with close collaboration among ASTRO-G, ground telescopes, and tracking stations. We are forming a new international council (VISC2) to provide mission guidance on all scientific aspects related to the VSOP-2 mission..

  7. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  8. The New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, Nigel; Marten, Michael

    1996-08-01

    There's more to the Universe than meets the eye. In a marvelous review of multi-wavelength astronomy, The New Astronomy compares traditional optical images to infrared, ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray astronomical observations of a staggering variety of cosmic objects. With over 300 photographs and images obtained by telescopes and detectors operating at different wavelengths, the authors present startlingly different views of the solar system, stars, galaxies and, in this new edition, Halley's Comet and Supernova 1987A. Specially processed by astronomers worldwide, these images reveal in spectacular detail otherwise invisible events such as starbirth, stardeath, and distant quasar eruptions. Emphasizing the physical processes that produce astronomical radiation, they explain how the observations have expanded our existing knowledge and provided new discoveries. They also describe the new techniques in nontechnical language. By giving equal weight to observations at all wavelengths, this book corrects the bias toward optical astronomy and objectively presents all views of the Universe. It will appeal to everyone interested in the mysteries of astronomy. Nigel Henbest and Michael Marten previously collaborated (along with Heather Couper) on The Guide to the Galaxy (CUP, 1994).

  9. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  10. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  11. Astronomy in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  12. Vision for Astronomy in South Africa and partnership with the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2014-01-01

    The 2002 National Research and Development Strategy identified astronomy as a national geographic advantage. This identification was based on the historical investments in optical and, to a lesser extent, radio astronomy up to that point and the realisation that the conditions prevailing in Sutherland were among the best in the world. Since then a number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the HESS, SKA and the AVN. Currently, investments in astronomy are by far the biggest investments being made by the Department of Science and Technology (DST). South Africa’s involvement in modern astronomy dates back to 1685 when a French Astronomer, Guy Tachard, setup an observatory at the southern tip of Africa to decipher the star charts of the extreme southern sky. In 1820, a permanent observatory - the Royal Observatory - was established outside of Cape Town and astronomy has been practised continuously since then. By the late 1980s, it became clear that for South African astronomers and astrophysicists to continue conducting first class research, the acquisition of a much larger, powerful and sophisticated telescope would be necessary. This provided the impetus for a new vision to construct the largest single optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, eventually known as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Within the last decade, the African appetite for radio astronomy initiatives has increased exponentially. This has largely been spurred by the African bid to host the SKA project and the need for African countries to work in close partnership that consequently resulted in a successful bid to co-host the SKA project and the subsequent need to ensure its effective implementation. This partnership, and the interactions related thereto, has effectively enhanced awareness around the requirements for hosting radio astronomy instrumentation and the associated benefits that could be derived in making such

  13. New horizons in astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    Besides the study of astronomy itself, other topics included cover the geological and biological developments on earth and basic physics of matter, heat, and light. Optical and radio telescopes are discussed, as well as photographic and photoelectric means of detection. The immediate solar system is described by topics on the properties and atmospheres of the inner and outer planets, the sun's energy, sunspots, and the solar spectrum. Stars both on and off the main sequence are discussed in terms of distances, intrinsic properties, lifetimes and evolution. The Milky Way is compared to other galaxies in size, star population and structure, and the different galaxy shapes are pictured. Topics of most recent interest are covered by results of the lunar explorations, new concepts of Mars, and problems of space travel. Problems of modern astronomy include pulsars, neutron stars, and quasars.

  14. Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

  15. System definition phase and acquisition phase project plan for Small Astronomy Satellite SAS-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the SAS-D project is to conduct spectral distribution studies of celestial ultraviolet sources using an Explorer-class spacecraft launched by a Delta vehicle into a geosynchronous orbit in the last half of 1975. The telescope system is intended for use by guest astronomers for a major portion of the total observing time. The concept of the overall system, designed to resemble functionally the operation of a ground-based observatory, should maximize the usefulness of the instrument to the astronomical community by limiting the amount of special instruction needed to use the spaceborne telescope. The SAS-D mission will obtain information on what stars, nebulae, and galaxies are and how they develop.

  16. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  17. Radio transients: an antediluvian review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, R. P.; Bell, M. E.

    2011-09-01

    We are at the dawn of a new golden age for radio astronomy, with a new generation of facilities under construction and the global community focused on the Square Kilometre Array as its goal for the next decade. These new facilities offer orders of magnitude improvements in survey speed compared to existing radio telescopes and arrays. Furthermore, the study of transient and variable radio sources, and what they can tell us about the extremes of astrophysics as well as the state of the diffuse intervening media, have been embraced as key science projects for these new facilities. In this paper we review the studies of the populations of radio transients made to date, largely based upon archival surveys. Many of these radio transients and variables have been found in the image plane, and their astrophysical origin remains unclear. We take this population and combine it with sensitivity estimates for the next generation arrays to demonstrate that in the coming decade we may find ourselves detecting 10^5 image plane radio transients per year, providing a vast and rich field of research and an almost limitless set of targets for multi-wavelength follow up.

  18. Astronomy Program for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David H.

    1979-01-01

    An account of a teacher's experience in presenting astronomy to 12 to 15 year olds in a summer science program is presented. Observations of planets, meteors, and the sun are the major projects which are discussed. (SA)

  19. Radio relics tracing the projected mass distribution in CIZA J2242.8+5301*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Kakuwa, Jun; Fujita, Yutaka; Zhang, Yuying; Tanaka, Masayuki; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    We present a weak-lensing analysis for a merging galaxy cluster, CIZA J2242.8+5301, which hosts double radio relics, using three-band Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging (Br'z'). Since the lifetime of dark matter halos colliding into clusters is longer than that of X-ray emitting gas halos, weak-lensing analysis is a powerful method to constrain merger dynamics. Two-dimensional shear fitting using a clean background catalog suggests that the cluster undergoes a merger with a mass ratio of about 2 : 1. The main halo is located around the gas core in the southern region, while no concentrated gas core is associated with the northern sub-halo. We find that the projected cluster mass distribution resulting from an unequal-mass merger is in excellent agreement with the curved shapes of the two radio relics and the overall X-ray morphology, except for the lack of the northern gas core. The lack of a prominent radio halo enables us to constrain an upper limit of the fractional energy of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of (δ B/B)^2<{O}(10^{-6}) at a resonant wavenumber, by finding a balance between the acceleration time and the time after the core passage or the cooling time, with an assumption of resonant acceleration by a second-order Fermi process.

  20. Impact of the integrated Radio Communication Project in Nepal, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Storey, D; Boulay, M; Karki, Y; Heckert, K; Karmacharya, D M

    1999-01-01

    The Radio Communication Project (RCP) in Nepal is an ongoing, theory-based, multimedia reproductive health campaign which began in 1995. It consists of two entertainment-education radio serials (a soap opera for the general public and a dramatized distance education serial for health workers), additional radio spot advertisements and promotions, and complementary print materials. This paper examines impact data from a variety of sources, including a pre- and postpanel survey of currently married women (N = 1905), three waves of clinic-based observations of client-provider interactions (N = 240 per wave) and client exit interviews (N = 240 per wave), and 2 years of clinic service statistics, in order to draw inferences about the separate and combined effects of the RCP components. The study found increased health worker interpersonal interaction skills, improved quality of client-provider interactions, increased client self-efficacy in dealing with health workers, improved client attitudes toward health services and toward the practice of family planning, increased adoption of family planning, and increased family planning service utilization, all attributable to the RCP. The panel data allowed statistical control of the influence of predisposing factors before the campaign on postcampaign ideation and behavior. The effect of the RCP on contraceptive behavior was largely indirect through its influence on ideation. Implications for the design of integrated, multimedia, entertainment-education campaigns and integrated evaluation designs are discussed. PMID:10790785

  1. Monitoring the Communication Channel from Puschshino to Moscow in the Project of Space Radio Telescope "radioastron"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Isaev, K. A.

    The need for transmission and storage of large amounts of scientific data in the project space radio telescope "Radioastron" required us to organize a reliable communication channel between the tracking station in Pushchino and treatment centers in Moscow. Network management data requires us to an integrated approach and covers the organization secure access to manage network devices, timely replacement of equipment and software upgrades, backups, as well as documentation of the network infrastructure. The reliability of the channel is highly dependent on continuous monitoring of network and server equipment and communication lines.

  2. The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by

  3. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  4. Minoan Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Mary; Henriksson, Göran

    Of the three great cultures of the ancient eastern Mediterranean — the Babylonian, Egyptian, and Minoan — we have considerable knowledge of the astronomy of the first two through their documents (see relevant sections of this Handbook). Very little written material, however, has survived from Minoan Crete, but the evidence of other impressive archaeological discoveries implies that the inhabitants were on a par with their neighbors and had made similar advances in astronomy. In lieu of written sources, we have used the methods of archaeoastronomy to recover as much as possible about Minoan astronomy. In short, these are measuring the orientations of walls and their opposite horizons at a representative selection of monuments, analyzing the measurements statistically, and comparing the results with digital reconstruction of the positions of significant celestial bodies for the time when the walls were built.

  5. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  6. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  7. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that we can relate to what is now science are observations of the sky: Astronomy. The earliest written records of every civilization we know of - from China, Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates and Indus valleys, Central America, the Andes, and so forth - all contain at least some astronomical texts. There are in addition monuments and artifacts that show a clear interest in astronomy, such as Stonehenge and rock paintings, from cultures that left no written records. The interest in celestial phenomena contributed to the development of Babylonian arithmetic and Greek geometry.

  8. Astronomy: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean

    This book presents classroom activities and reading materials. The activities use a hands-on approach and address the standards. Each features both a student section and a teacher guide. Eleven activities include: (1) "It's Only a Paper Moon"; (2) "Time Traveler"; (3) "Solar System Scale"; (4) "Hello Out There!"; (5) "How Far to the Star?"; (6)…

  9. Astronomy Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubin, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    Various microcomputer-generated astronomy graphs are presented, including those of constellations and planetary motions. Graphs were produced on a computer-driver plotter and then reproduced for class use. Copies of the programs that produced the graphs are available from the author. (Author/JN)

  10. Astronomy Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  11. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  12. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  13. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  14. Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

  15. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    PubMed Central

    Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk. PMID:26217350

  16. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk. PMID:26217350

  17. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

  18. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  19. Astronomy in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Patricia

    Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

  20. Astronomy posters. Abstracts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, H.

    Contents: IAU Symposia Nos. 164: Stellar populations. 165: Compact stars in binaries. 166: Astronomical and astrophysical objectives of sub-milliarcsecond optical astrometry. 167: New developments in array technology and applications. 168: Examining the Big Bang and diffuse background radiations. 169: Unsolved problems of the Milky Way. Joint Discussions Nos. 1: Gas disks in galaxies. 2: Origin and detection of planetary systems. 3: Helio- and asteroseismology. 4: Current developments in astronomy education. 5: Activity in the central parts of galaxies. 6: Sun and heliosphere - challenges for solar-terrestrial physics, magneto- and hydrodynamics. 7: History of astronomy. 8: Time scales - state of the art. 9: Women in astronomy. 10: Extragalactic planetary nebulae. 11: Stellar and interstellar lithium and primordial nucleosynthesis. 12: Accuracy of the HR diagram and related parameters. 13: Recent advances in convection theory and modelling. 14: Towards the establishment of the astronomical standards. 15: Statistical evaluation of astronomical time series. 16: Astrophysical applications of powerful new atomic databases. 17: Dust around young stars: How related to solar system dust? 18: Solar system radar observations. 19: Nutation. 20: The status of archiving astronomical data. Working Groups Nos. 1: Problems of astronomy in Africa. 2: Near-Earth objects detection. 3: International catalog projects. 4: Asteroids and comets.

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  2. Grassroots Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    Congress has a large impact on the amount and quality of astronomical research that takes place in the United States. By funding NASA and NSF, as well as other agencies such as the Department of Education and the Department of Defense, the Federal Government enables U.S. astronomers to perform cutting edge research. However, Congress makes decisions based on input from citizens. It the citizens are silent on an issue, Congress does not know it exists. Last summer the U.S.amatuer community rallied in support of professional research, resulting in a healthy budget for both NASA and NSF astronomy research. I will present a summary of how the funding process works and how and why amateurs can and should help ensure continued research funding for U.S. astronomy.

  3. The Space Geodesy Project and Radio Frequency Interference Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Hilliard M.; Beaudoin, C.; Corey, B. E.; Tourain, C. L.; Petrachenko, B.; Dickey, John

    2013-01-01

    The Space Geodesy Project (SGP) development by NASA is an effort to co-locate the four international geodetic techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) into one tightly referenced campus and coordinated reference frame analysis. The SGP requirement locates these stations within a small area to maintain line-of-sight and frequent automated survey known as the vector tie system. This causes a direct conflict with the new broadband VLBI technique. Broadband means 2-14 GHz, and RFI susceptibility at -80 dBW or higher due to sensitive RF components in the front end of the radio receiver.

  4. Relativistic astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimishin, I. A.

    The ideas of special and general relativity are discussed in relation to astronomy, in particular, problems concerning blackholes and models of the universe. Such problems as the redshift in the spectra of galaxies, the nature of quasars, and the possible relationships between the microcosm and the macrocosm are also treated. Special attention is given to problems of topology and the three-dimensionality of the universe.

  5. Astronomy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Software Bisque's TheSky, SkyPro and Remote Astronomy Software incorporate technology developed for the Hubble Space Telescope. TheSky and SkyPro work together to orchestrate locating, identifying and acquiring images of deep sky objects. With all three systems, the user can directly control computer-driven telescopes and charge coupled device (CCD) cameras through serial ports. Through the systems, astronomers and students can remotely operate a telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory Institute.

  6. Chaco astronomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  7. Communicating Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

    2007-08-01

    Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

  8. Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2004-01-01

    What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

  9. Humanising Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  10. The Jailbreak Health Project--incorporating a unique radio programme for prisoners.

    PubMed

    Minc, Ariane; Butler, Tony; Gahan, Gary

    2007-10-01

    Several studies in NSW have identified prisoners to be at high risk for blood borne viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis C among men in NSW correctional centres is 40% and over 60% among women. It is even higher among those with histories of injecting drug use. As part of the state's strategy to minimise the spread of blood borne viruses and promote healthy lifestyles among prisoners, the Community Restorative Centre broadcasts a weekly half hour radio programme to prisoners and the community. The project is funded through the NSW Health Department and aims to provide support to prisoners, ex-prisoners and their families. Jailbreak's success hinges on the participation of the very people [prisoners] the show wishes to target. The radio show is aimed specifically at broadcasting health promotion and harm-minimisation messages to prisoners and their supporters although this is not obvious. When you tune in to Jailbreak you will hear a diverse range of opinion, music and poetry from people caught up in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless at the heart of this exciting and challenging project is the delivery of engaging, relevant and clear health messages to prison inmates, ex-inmates and families in relation to HIV, hepatitis and sexual health. Since 2002, valuable health information, often in the form of personal stories, vignettes and quiz questions, can be heard in and around Sydney on 2SER 107.3 FM or online at http://www.2ser.com. Jailbreak has not been without controversy and has to balance the security focus of correctional authorities and the illegality of substance use in correctional centres with the need to convey messages to prisoners in relation to harm-minimisation. PMID:17854735

  11. College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

  12. NASE Training Courses in Astronomy for Teachers throughout the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Network for Astronomy School Education, NASE, is a project that is organizing courses for teachers throughout the entire world. The main objective of the project is to prepare secondary and primary school teachers in astronomy. Students love to know more about astronomy and teachers have the opportunity to observe the sky that every school has…

  13. Undergraduate Astronomy Imaging Labortatory: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutel, R. L.; Sauerbrei, P. J.; Ottenheimer, A.

    1992-12-01

    The University of Iowa has set up a CCD-based astronomy laboratory for undergraduate astronomy courses, with emphasis on use in a freshman-level introductory course. The equipment consists of a computer-controlled mount with several Cassegrain optical systems (10-35cm aperture) and medium format CCD cameras. The system is completely automated, including dome control, filter selection, focus, and pointing corrections. This allows the student to concentrate on planning, executing, and analyzing interesting scientific projects without extensive technical training. The images are analyzed on a network of ten 486 PC's which are connected to the CCD-control computer for easy image file access. We will present sample results from a large number of solar system, stellar, and extragalactic observations. We have also developed a number of `cloudy-sky' laboratory exercises using CD-ROM images from the NASA planetary spacecraft (e.g. Voyager, Magellan, Viking) as well as maps from radio, infrared, and x-ray surveys. We plan to upgrade this system to allow remote operation of a dark-site telescope within one year. A video of the equipment and a demonstration of the telescope control software will be shown. Also, samples of a laboratory manual will be available illustrating the types of observations and cloudy-sky exercises which have been done.

  14. Introducing Astronomy Related Research into Non-Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Douglas

    The concern over the insufficient number of students choosing to enter the science and engineering fields has been discussed and documented for years. While historically addressed at the national level, many states are now recognizing that the lack of a highly-skilled technical workforce within their states' borders has a significant effect on their economic health. Astronomy, as a science field, is no exception. Articles appear periodically in the most popular astronomy magazines asking the question, "Where are the young astronomers?" Astronomy courses at the community college level are normally restricted to introductory astronomy I and II level classes that introduce the student to the basics of the night sky and astronomy. The vast majority of these courses is geared toward the non-science major and is considered by many students to be easy and watered down courses in comparison to typical physics and related science courses. A majority of students who enroll in these classes are not considering majors in science or astronomy since they believe that science is "boring and won't produce any type of career for them." Is there any way to attract students? This paper discusses an approach being undertaken at the Estrella Mountain Community College to introduce students in selected mathematics courses to aspects of astronomy related research to demonstrate that science is anything but boring. Basic statistical techniques and understanding of geometry are applied to a large virgin data set containing the magnitudes and phase characteristics of sets of variable stars. The students' work consisted of developing and presenting a project that explored analyzing selected aspects of the variable star data set. The description of the data set, the approach the students took for research projects, and results from a survey conducted at semester's end to determine if student's interest and appreciation of astronomy was affected are presented. Using the data set provided, the

  15. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. Klingsporn

    2005-11-14

    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  16. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  17. The Red Radio Ring: a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z = 2.553 discovered through the citizen science project SPACE WARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; More, A.; Verma, A.; Marshall, P. J.; Jackson, N.; Belles, P.-E.; Beswick, R.; Baeten, E.; Chavez, M.; Cornen, C.; Cox, B. E.; Erben, T.; Erickson, N. J.; Garrington, S.; Harrison, P. A.; Harrington, K.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Jordan, C.; Lin, Y.-T.; Leauthaud, A.; Lintott, C.; Lynn, S.; Kapadia, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Macmillan, C.; Makler, M.; Miller, G.; Montaña, A.; Mujica, R.; Muxlow, T.; Narayanan, G.; Briain, D. Ó.; O'Brien, T.; Oguri, M.; Paget, E.; Parrish, M.; Ross, N. P.; Rozo, E.; Rusu, C. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez-Argüelles, D.; Simpson, R.; Snyder, C.; Schloerb, F. P.; Tecza, M.; Wang, W.-H.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Wilcox, J.; Viero, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zeballos, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (intrinsic LIR ≈ 1013 L⊙) with strong radio emission (intrinsic L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025 W Hz-1) at z = 2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project SPACE WARPS through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (re ≈ 3 arcsec) around an LRG at z = 0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3→2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [O III] and Hα line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph. We have resolved the radio emission with high-resolution (300-400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and Very Large Array C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-infrared imaging to construct a lens model, which indicates a lensing magnification of μ ≈ 10. The source reconstruction appears to support a radio morphology comprised of a compact (<250 pc) core and more extended component, perhaps indicative of an active nucleus and jet or lobe.

  18. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  19. NASA SERC digital correlator projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canaris, John

    1992-01-01

    Interest in custom digital correlator processors is growing, in both the radio astronomy and earth sensing communities, as scientists realize that VLSI technology is available to them. This paper presents three digital correlator projects currently underway at the NASA SERC for VLSI Systems Design. The projects are as follows: a 60MHz chip for the ESTAR satellite; a 100MHz, 1024 channel autocorrelator; and a 64 MHz, VLSI system consisting of 8 32- channel complex crosscorrelators including phase rotators.

  20. Astronomy stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenson, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    For many years I have taught physics and astronomy courses to liberal arts students. I have found most of my students to be intelligent and diligent, but not anxious to study science. They typically take the class only because their degree requires a science course. Many arrive having already decided they will not be able to do the math or understand the scientific concepts, and have essentially built a wall between themselves and science. In the 1990s, in an effort to help break down that wall, as part of an NSF-supported course, "The Evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life," I began using creative writing assignments.