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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

2010-01-01

2

The Radio JOVE Project: Inexpensive Radio Astronomy for the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio astronomy observations of Jupiter and the sun. Students build a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive non-profit kit (about \\$125) and use it to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio telescopes connected to the Web. The project is a useful adjunct to activities in optical astronomy since students should recognize that we learn about the Universe through more than just the optical spectrum. In addition to supplementing knowledge of Jupiter and the sun, the project teaches about charged particles and magnetic fields. Building of the kit is also a mini-course in electronics. The Radio JOVE website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) contains science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, software, and education resources for students and teachers.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.; Pine, W.

2000-12-01

3

The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

2004-12-01

4

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

1991-01-01

5

Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Leech, Marcus [Shirleys Bay Radio Astronomy Consortium; Oxley, Paul [Retired; Flagg, Richard [Retired; Fields, David [ORNL

2011-01-01

6

High-School Solar Radio Astronomy Project in Mexico Based on Radio Jove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the RADIO JOVE project (http:radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) we propose a curse in solar radio astronomy for the high school system (CCH) at UNAM. The aim of this curse is to introduce solar radio astronomy to students and teachers, building their own radio telescope, and participating in radio astronomical measurements becoming familiar with the emissions of the Sun and Jupiter. The project is also based on the observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope(www.mexart.unam.mx) and the real time data from the Virtual Earth Sun Observatory (www.veso.unam.mx) at the Instituto de Geofisica-UNAM. The aim of this Project is to adapt the materials to the high school system in Mexico.

Garcia Cole, A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.

2007-05-01

7

Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory (MRAO) is operated by the Astrophysics Group of the Department of Physics at the Cavendish Laboratory. The observatory is located 8 km south-west of Cambridge at Lord's Bridge and was established in 1957 through the generosity of Mullard Limited with support from the Science Research Council. Current work is supported by the PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY R...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

8

Radio astronomy receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general survey of the principles of radio astronomy receivers is presented. System noise temperature, the sensitivity of different receiver types, and the calibration of receivers are studied. A total-power receiver is analyzed as a basic radio telescope receiver and the results are used to obtain the performance of other receiver types such as the Dicke receiver, Graham's receiver, correlation

M. Tiuri

1964-01-01

9

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

10

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

1992-01-01

11

Division X: Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

2010-05-01

12

Pulsars in a Box: A Radio Astronomy Exercise for Windows from PROJECT CLEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest astronomy laboratory exercise from PROJECT CLEA, "Radio Astronomy of Pulsars", is designed for use in introductory astronomy classes, but contains options and features that make it usable by upperclass astronomy students as well. The heart of the exercise is a simulated radio telescope, whose aperture, location, and beamwidth can be set by the instructor. It is steered by pushing buttons, but instead of seeing a star field on the field monitor,students see a projection of the sky showing, with a colored dot,where the beam is pointing. Large LED-like readouts display time and telescope coordinates. The telescope can be operated in either a tracking or transit mode. Using the telescope, students point to several pulsars suggested by the write-up (from an on-line catalog of over 500). Students can then use a multi-channel tunable receiver, with multiple oscilloscope displays, to view the incoming signal vs. time. The signal received is a combination of random receiver and background noise plus the pulsar signal (if it is in the beam) Receivers are tunable from 400 to 1400 MHz, and both the time and frequency behavior of signals can be studied. By measuring the dispersion delay at a number of different frequencies, students can determine the pulsar's distance. Data can be stored, displayed, and printed using a versatile measuring window. Though we provide a manual for a 2-3 hour lab exercise involving dispersion measures, the database and receivers can be used for a wide variety of other exercises, for instance the measurement of pulsar spin-down rates. We welcome suggestions for improvements and applications.

Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

1996-12-01

13

Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session, problems of linking positions from one observing session to another can be avoided, the astronomers say. The result will be a much stronger, more precise, reference grid. Telescopes in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and in the Pacific will participate. Improving the celestial positional grid will allow astronomers better to pinpoint the locations and measure the motions of objects in the sky. As astronomers increasingly study objects using multiple telescopes observing at different wavelengths, such as visible light, radio, infrared, etc., the improved positional grid will allow more accurate overlaying of the different images. The improved celestial reference frame also strengthens a terrestrial reference frame used for radio-telescope measurements that contribute to geophysical research. The precise geodetic measurements help geophysicists understand phenomena such as plate tectonics, earth tides, and processes that affect our planet's orientation in space. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio telescope system with 10, 240-ton dish antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. Operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, the VLBA offers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in astronomy. The multi-telescope observation will be accompanied by public-outreach activities in celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. A public web page devoted to the observation will be hosted at Bordeaux Observatory, and some of the participating telescopes will have webcams available.

2009-11-01

14

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom.

S. K. Dunn; J. Brown

2003-01-01

15

GLONASS and Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLONASS navigation satellites transmit one of their navigation signals in a frequency band that overlaps the frequency band 1610.6-1613.8 MHz used for radio astronomical observations of the spectral line of hydroxyl (OH) at 1612.231 MHz. Following growing levels of interference during the 1980s, IUCAF and GLONASS entered into negotiations. A joint experiment was conducted in November 1992 to verify the levels of interference to different types of radio astronomical measurements and to test possible interference mitigation methods that the GLONASS administration could employ without compromising the integrity of the navigation signal. Twelve radio observatories around the world participated. During the 2-day experiment the centre frequencies of navigation signals were removed from the radio astronomy band and some navigation signals were turned off. The results of the experiment are reviewed. These formed the basis for the GLONASS-IUCAF signed in November 1993, which has served as a model for coordination agreements between GLONASS and many administrations. The agreement sets out s step-by-step plan for interference reduction. The current status and future prospects are reviewed.

Cohen, R. J.

2004-06-01

16

Japanese radio astronomy - past, present, and future.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past, present and future of radio astronomy in Japan are described from the author's personal view point. The radio astronomy in Japan is quickly growing in terms of the telescope size, the budget scale, and the total number of researchers in the country. The status of the major future projects such as VSOP, VERA, LMSA, and the submillimeter-wave telescope at Mt.Fuji is reviewed.

Deguchi, S.

1995-06-01

17

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. Thisstudy began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but theperiod of rapid progress began 15 years later. From then to the present, thewavelength range has expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, theangular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds,and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, thetechnique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceedingthose obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technicaladvances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributedmuch to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous nationalradio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era oftruly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a shorthistory of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures,coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolometer receiver systems, observingmethods for single apertures and interferometers, and an overview of aperturesynthesis.

Wilson, T. L.

18

Orbiting Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection below 10 MHz. OL- FAR is Orbiting Low Frequency ARray, a project whose aim is to develop

Raj Thilak Rajan; Steven Engelen; Mark Bentum; Chris Verhoeven

2011-01-01

19

Basics of Radio Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workbook is used for training teachers and volunteers who wish to operate the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope. The students in this district operate the telescope from the Apple Valley location. Also, students and teachers across the country can register to operate the telescope from their own classrooms. This workbook can also be used as a resource for information on how radio telescopes work, the fundamentals of the electromagnetic spectrum, thermal and non-thermal radiation, 21-cm hydrogen line, Kirchhoff's laws of spectral analysis, the Doppler effect, coordinate systems, and the SETI project.

Fisher, Diane

2004-07-16

20

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and

Richard A. Perley; Frederic R. Schwab; Alan H. Bridle

1989-01-01

21

National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery presented by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory contains a large number of radio astronomy images and photographs of radio observatories. Each image is accompanied by descriptive text. Links provide further information.

2010-02-09

22

Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1993-12-01

23

The future for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

2013-12-01

24

Expanding radio astronomy in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

Gaylard, M. J.

2013-04-01

25

Origins of Canadian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar technology after World War II was rapidly applied to the radio astronomy founded by Jansky and Reber. The first post-war discoveries in various countries from 1945 to 1950 were made with instruments built from surplus parts, and quickly led to the design of specialized equipment. The development in Ottawa at the Laboratories of the National Research Council is outlined, initially for solar radio observations and then for the early galactic observations at the Goth Hill Radio Observatory, near Ottawa.

Covington, A. E.

1988-08-01

26

Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy have been closely linked since the emergence of radio astronomy as a scientific discipline in the 1930s. Even before the official establishment of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, protection against contemporary and future radio noise levels was seen as crucial to ensure success of any new observatory. My talk will examine the various local, regional, national, and international efforts enacted to protect NRAO and other American radio astronomy sites from RFI.

Smith, Sierra

2014-01-01

27

Simple instruments in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy has a major role in the study of the universe. The spiral structure of our Galaxy and the cosmic background radiation were first detected, and the dense component of interstellar gas is studied, at radio wavelengths. COBE revealed very weak temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, considered to be the seeds of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Most electromagnetic radiation from outer space is absorbed or reflected by the Earth's atmosphere, except in two narrow spectral windows: the visible-near-infrared and the radio, which are nearly transparent. Centimetre and longer radio waves propagate almost freely in space; observations of them are practically independent of weather. Turbulence in our atmosphere does not distort the wavefront, which simplifies the building of radio telescopes, because no devices are needed to correct for it. Observations at these wavelengths can be made in high atmospheric humidity, or where the sky is not clear enough for optical telescopes. Simple instruments operating at radio wavelengths can be built at low cost in tropical countries, to teach students and to familiarize them with radio astronomy. We describe a two-antennae radio interferometer and a single-dish radio telescope operating at centimetre wavelengths. The Sun and strong synchrotron radio-sources, like Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A, are potential targets.

Nguyen-Quang-Rieu

28

The threat to radio astronomy from radio pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference of man-made signals to radio astronomy is discussed and changes to the international radio regulations are proposed to protect the future of radio astronomy. The benefits of radio astronomy are outlined and the problem of shared frequency bands is described. The interference caused by the Soviet Glonass satellite is used to illustrate the problems caused by interference.

R. J. Cohen

1989-01-01

29

Radio frequency interference mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of radio telescopes is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current generation. Examples of such new telescopes are the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), currently under construction in the Netherlands, and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), currently in a concept study phase. Another trend is that technological advances in the fields of electronics and communications systems have led to a vast increase in radio communication applications and systems, and also to an increasing demand for radio spectrum. These two trends, more sensitive telescopes and a much denser spectrum use, imply that radio astronomy will become more vulnerable to interference from radio transmitters. Although protection criteria exist for radio astronomy, it becomes increasingly difficult to keep the radio astronomy frequency bands free from interference. In order to mitigate interference in radio astronomical data, filtering techniques can be used. In this thesis, modern array signal processing techniques have been applied to narrow-band multichannel interference detection and excision, and to narrow-band spatial interference filtering. By investigating the subspace structure of the telescope array output covariance matrices, new results were found, such as upper limits on interference residuals after excision and spatial filtering. The effect of bandwidth, extendedness of the interfering sources, and multipath effects on the detection and spatial filter effectiveness were studied as well. The advantage of a multichannel approach over a single telescope approach was demonstrated by using experimental data from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). As the performance of mitigation algorithms can be improved by calibration of the telescope gains and noise powers, calibration algorithms were developed. These algorithms were verified both for single and dual polarised arrays. Finally, a LOFAR interference mitigation strategy was developed.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2005-12-01

30

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

31

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2012-10-01

32

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2010-10-01

33

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2013-10-01

34

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2009-10-01

35

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2011-10-01

36

Submillimeter receivers for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of development of receivers for submillimeter-wave radio astronomy is reviewed. Bolometers for continuum observation, hot-electron mixer receivers for narrowband spectral line observation, and heterodyne receivers, both Schottky diode and superconducting tunnel junction, are presented. At the lower frequency end of the submillimeter band, standard waveguide techniques, scaled from millimeter wavelengths, prevail. At wavelengths shorter than about 0.5 mm,

Raymond Blundell; CHEUK-YU EDWARD TONG

1992-01-01

37

Industrial interference and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

Jessner, A.

2013-07-01

38

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2010-10-01

39

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2009-10-01

40

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2013-10-01

41

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2011-10-01

42

Obit: Radio Astronomy Data Handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.

Cotton, Bill

2013-07-01

43

Python Ephemeris Module for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of the Python pyephem module was developed for Deep Space Network (DSN) radio astronomy. The class DSS( ) provides the geodetic coordinates of the DSN stations as well as other properties such as antenna diameter. The class Quasar( ) provides positional data for the sources in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array (NRAO VLA) Calibrator Handbook and flux estimates based the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) Database or the VLA Calibrator Handbook. Flux calibration data are also available for the bright planets. Class Pulsar( ) provides the data from the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue in Python format.

Kuiper, T. B.

2013-05-01

44

Multichannel Interference Mitigation Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interference, and on-line detection and filtering algorithms are becoming essential. To facilitate the introduction of such techniques into radio astronomy, we formulate the astronomical problem in an array signal processing language and give an introduction to some elementary algorithms from that field. We consider two topics in detail: interference detection by rank

Amir Leshem; Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

2000-01-01

45

Array Signal Processing for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy forms an interesting application area for array signal processing techniques. Current synthesis imaging telescopes consist of a small number of identical dishes, which track a fixed patch in the sky and produce estimates of the time-varying spatial covariance matrix. The observations sometimes are distorted by interference, e.g., from radio, TV, radar or satellite transmissions. We describe some of the tools that array signal processing offers to filter out the interference, based on eigenvalue decompositions and factor analysis, which is a more general technique applicable to partially calibrated arrays. We consider detection of interference, spatial filtering techniques using projections, and discuss how a reference antenna pointed at the interferer can improve the performance. We also consider image formation and its relation to beamforming.

Veen, Alle Jan; Leshem, Amir; Boonstra, Albert Jan

2004-06-01

46

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

47

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2011-07-01

48

Planetary radio astronomy experiment for Voyager missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planetary radio astronomy experiment will measure radio spectra of planetary emissions in the range 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. These emissions result from wave-particle-plasma interactions in the magnetospheres and ionospheres of the planets. At Jupiter, they are strongly modulated by the Galilean satellite Io.

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; R. G. Peltzer; A. C. Riddle

1977-01-01

49

Technology Advances for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of radio astronomy continues to provide fundamental contributions to the understanding of the evolution, and inner workings of, our universe. It has done so from its humble beginnings, where single antennas and receivers were used for observation, to today's focal plane arrays and interferometers. The number of receiving elements (pixels) in these instruments is quickly growing, currently approaching one hundred. For the instruments of tomorrow, the number of receiving elements will be in the thousands. Such instruments will enable researchers to peer deeper into the fabric of our universe and do so at faster survey speeds. They will provide enormous capability, both for unraveling today's mysteries as well as for the discovery of new phenomena. Among other challenges, producing the large numbers of low-noise amplifiers required for these instruments will be no easy task. The work described in this thesis advances the state of the art in three critical areas, technological advancements necessary for the future design and manufacturing of thousands of low-noise amplifiers. These areas being: the automated, cryogenic, probing of diameter100 mm indium phosphide wafers; a system for measuring the noise parameters of devices at cryogenic temperatures; and the development of low-noise, silicon germanium amplifiers for terahertz mixer receivers. The four chapters that comprise the body of this work detail the background, design, assembly, and testing involved in these contributions. Also included is a brief survey of noise parameters, the knowledge of which is fundamental to the design of low-noise amplifiers and the optimization of the system noise temperature for large, dense, interferometers.

Russell, Damon Stuart

50

The Astronomy Genealogy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

Tenn, Joseph S.

2014-01-01

51

Astronomy Science Fair Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Extrasolar Planet Transit", ``Lightcurve of a Variable Star", and ``Retrograde Motion of Mars" are some of the titles of high school students' projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teachers who participated in the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy summer outreach program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech mentored their students. After attending the 3-week National Science Foundation Institute for several summers since 1999, these teachers in the summer of 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain images from telescopes, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software ``Astrometrica" to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year. These students made observing plans for images from the 31inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and/or from the 2.2m University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. Learning about filters, exposure time, magnitude, frequency of taking CCD images, and ephemeris required many iterations between students, teachers, and astronomers and graduate students who were assisting. Poor weather conditions and other frustrations exposed the students to the realities of research. However, they were rewarded with projects that impressed the judges and that will be described.

Pittichová, J.; Kadooka, M.-A.; Meech, K. J.

2004-12-01

52

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

53

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

54

Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

Andernach, H.

55

Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation in Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next generation of radio telescopes is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current generation. Examples of such new telescopes are the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), currently under construction in the Netherlands, and ...

A. J. Boonstra

2005-01-01

56

Performance evaluation of sparse adaptive radio astronomy arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial filtering is a promising method of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation in radio interferometric systems, but there are no quantitative results concerning the performance of radio astronomy arrays using this technique. In this paper performance bounds are calculated for sparse arrays, typical in radio astronomy (VLA, WSRT, GMRT). Two parameters are proposed to characterize the benefits of spatial filtering:

Peter A. Fridman

2001-01-01

57

CLEA: Radio Astronomy of Pulsars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The software for this exercise presents students with a radio telescope whose default operating characteristics (beam width, receiver noise, steerability) can be set by the instructor. Students can point the telescope at a source in the sky, viewing the output of the radio receiver on a graphic display that resembles a digital oscilloscope. The student manual describes an exercise in which students first acquaint themselves with the operation of the radio telescope. They then measure the signals from several pulsars at various frequencies, learning about the appearance of pulsar signals, the strength and period of the signal as a function of frequency, and the relation between pulsar period and age of the pulsar. Finally they view the signal from a pulsar at three different frequencies, using the delay in arrival times due to interstellar dispersion to estimate the distance to the pulsar.

Marschall, Laurence; Snyder, Glenn; Cooper, P. R.; Hayden, Michael; Good, Rhonda

2005-11-03

58

The interferometer in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is developed for the response of a two-element radio interferometer to a partially coherent field, without restriction as to bandwidth or antenna properties. It is shown that for a completely incoherent source the narrow-band interferometer output is a component of the Fourier transform of the source brightness, which can therefore be mapped by repeated interferometer observations. A partially

N. C. Mathur

1968-01-01

59

GPU accelerated radio astronomy signal convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing array size of radio astronomy interferometers is causing the associated computation to scale quadratically\\u000a with the number of array signals. Consequently, efficient usage of alternate processing architectures should be explored in\\u000a order to meet this computational challenge. Affordable parallel processors have been made available to the general scientific\\u000a community in the form of the commodity graphics card. This

Chris Harris; Karen Haines; Lister Staveley-Smith

2008-01-01

60

Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of the MIT Haystack Observatory, and has a 30-year background in observational radio astronomy and interferometric imaging. His email is [cjl at haystack dot mit dot edu].

Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

2014-04-01

61

The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented.

Sullivan, Woodruff T.

2005-06-01

62

RADIONET: the EC Infrastructure Cooperation Network in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RADIONET was established to provide a forum for the exchange of information amongst the infrastructures forming the European VLBI Network (EVN) and to monitor progress in the initiatives for the future large scale facilities in radio astronomy, ALMA and SKA. A brief review of the specific goals of RADIONET will be given as an introduction to later talks on the EVN, ALMA and SKA. In addition, mention will be made of the two new large diameter radio telescope projects: the 64 m telescope in Sardinia and the 40 m telescope at Yebes near Madrid.

Schilizzi, R. T.

63

Development of cryogenic phased array feeds for Radio Astronomy antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory and Brigham Young University are jointly working to develop phased array feed systems for use on radio astronomy reflector antennas. This paper describes recent progress in development of a cryogenically cooled L-band PAF receiver. Noise test results for dipole elements and cryogenic low-noise amplifier assemblies are presented. The results indicate it will be possible to achieve PAF system noise temperature competitive with the best single-beam radio astronomy receivers.

Norrod, Roger D.; Fisher, J. R.; Jeffs, B. D.; Warnick, Karl F.

2010-10-01

64

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

65

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; D. R. Evans; T. D. Carr; J. J. Schauble; J. K. Alexander; M. L. Kaiser; M. D. Desch; M. Pedersen; A. Lecacheux; G. Daigne; A. Boischot; C. H. Barrow

1981-01-01

66

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2012-10-01

67

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2009-10-01

68

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2013-10-01

69

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2010-10-01

70

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2011-10-01

71

Radio Astronomy data transfer using KAREN network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and various international organizations involved in joint projects and VLBI observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate

Stuart Weston; Timothy Natusch; Sergei Gulyaev

2011-01-01

72

On post-SKA radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that the development of the SKA will drastically change the face of radio astronomy in the 21st Century. A FAST-style SKA would admit observations of low contrast features, and would be the best design for studying the `dark ages' of the Universe (x>> 1) where sub-arcmin total power instruments can usefully be employed. To date there have been no proposals for post-SKA, billion square-metra instruments; we speculate that mobile communication systems can be used. In the very distant future, SKA multi-beam systems could be used to collect signals reflected by Solar system bodies such as the asteroid belt.

Parijskij, Yuri; Chernenkov, Vladimir

73

Radio astronomy and spectrum management - The impact of WARC-79  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of radio astronomy are considered, taking into account broad-band and narrow-band cosmic radiation, the evolution of equipment and techniques of the radio astronomer toward better sensitivity and better angular resolution, and the three general classes into which radio telescopes can be divided. Attention is given to the extraordinary interference problems faced by radio astronomers, the location of radio-astronomy observatories in secluded locations, the preparation by radio astronomers and space scientists for WARC-79, the actions taken at WARC-79, and the WARC impact. It is pointed out that radio astronomy has emerged from WARC-79 in a better position in the International Radio Regulations than it has ever enjoyed in the past. Radio astronomers can be satisfied that the requirements of their radio service are generally being given serious consideration. Most of the requests for allocations have been granted at frequencies above 20 GHz.

Pankonin, V. (NSF, Washington, DC); Price, R.M. (New Mexico, University, Albuquerque, NM)

1981-08-01

74

Cubesat Missions for Low Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many concepts and several mission proposals for low frequency radio interferometers in space during the past two decades. Most of these idea are based on multiple small spacecraft, each acting as one antenna element in a three-dimensional array. The science goals for single cubesats or arrays operating at frequencies near and below Earth's ionosphere cutoff span a wide range research areas from solar and planetary observations to galactic and extragalactic astronomy to cosmological observations of large-scale structure evolution before the epoch of reionization. Recently several groups have realized that the rapid progress in the capabilities of cubesats make them a logical basis for such mission concepts. A workshop on cubesat-based low frequency radio astronomy missions was held at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at Caltech during July 2012. This paper will summarize the discussions and conclusions from that workshop. These include a number of future mission ideas based on cubesat technologies, as well as recommendations for near-term technology demonstrations that would reduce risk for many of the potential missions. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from the JPL Center for Academic Partnerships and KISS is gratefully acknowledged.

Jones, Dayton L.

2013-01-01

75

JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously generate images or video to display those features. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

2014-04-01

76

Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy: 1: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of a number of nations that made important contributions in the fledgling field of radio astronomy in the years immediately following WWII. In this paper we discuss the invention of the Yagi-Uda antenna and the detection of solar radio emission in 1938, before reviewing radio astronomical developments that occurred between 1948 and 1961 in Osaka, Nagoya, Tokyo and Hiraiso. In order to place these early Japanese experiments in a national and international context we briefly review the world-wide development of radio astronomy in the immediate post-War years before discussing the growth of optical astronomy in Japan at this time.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Kaifu, Norio; Hayashi, Masa; Nakamura, Tsuko; Stewart, Ronald; Yokoo, Hiromitsu

2012-11-01

77

Grote Reber (1911-2003): A Radio Astronomy Pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forceful personality and self-confidence led Grote Reber to a series of remarkable discoveries in radio astronomy, and later to a wide variety of research in many other fields of science and technology. Although he worked primarily as an amateur, independently of the scientific establishment, Reber was ultimately recognized with many of the major prizes in astronomy.

Kellermann, K. I.

2005-01-01

78

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The papers contained in this special section are extended versions of some of the papers presented at the Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004), held in Penticton, British Columbia, Canada, in July 2004.

Ellingson, Steven W.

2005-07-01

79

Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

Paulikas, G. A.

1974-01-01

80

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

2009-12-01

81

Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

2005-03-01

82

The Advancement of Radio Astronomy at Brigham Young University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are presenting on the status and future plans of the radio astronomy project at Brigham Young University. The Physics and Astronomy department and the West Mountain Observatory already have optical facilities that offer students the opportunity to observe in the optical and NIR, but not at any other wavelengths. An array is being built to allow students to obtain data in the radio spectrum. The array is being built around the already operational 4 meter dish on top of the Eyring Science Center and will eventually contain baselines up to 8 km and a 10 m dish. We currently have selected the four sites for additional baselines. The array initially will be ready to observe HI at 1420 MHz and the OH MASER lines at 1665 MHz and 1667 MHz. We present preliminary spectra in L-band (21-18cm) with the 4 meter dish. The system will be using LNA's for signal amplification and will have digital correlation and spectral analysis through CASPER. The system is locked to a rubidium clock with a GPS master. In the future, we hope to extend the frequency coverage to C-band (5 GHz).

Honick, Charles; Migenes, V.; Blakley, D.

2014-01-01

83

Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

Varano, S.

2008-06-01

84

Radio Astronomy's Debut at the American Astronomical Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of radio astronomy emerged in North America, on a very small scale, late in 1945. The first meeting of the AAS with a paper on the subject was in 1947 (by a Canadian team). Interest increased in 1948 and peaked the following year at the Ottawa meeting, where delegates visited two radio installations. Interest then waned until the

R. A. Jarrell

1999-01-01

85

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2012-10-01

86

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2013-10-01

87

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2009-10-01

88

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2010-10-01

89

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2011-10-01

90

Starting with Nothing: Archives at National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Founded in 1956, National Radio Astronomy Observatory had no Archivist or Archives program until mid-2003, when the new Archivist, working less than half time, began building the collection. Our institutional records were scattered between multiple storage areas at NRAO sites in four different states, and no one knew what we had. Personal papers of pioneers and participants in the development of US radio astronomy were also often scattered, unknown, and unindexed. This paper presents the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on our own institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history as a whole.

Bouton, E. N.

2007-10-01

91

Improved interference cancellation in synthesis array radio astronomy using auxiliary antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial filtering and subspace projection methods have been proposed for removing interference signals at radio astronomy (RA) imaging arrays. Given the fact that RA signal levels are usually below noise levels, and since high gain antennas significantly reduce the interference to noise level at antenna feeds, it is often difficult to form the accurate interference signal parameter estimates. By adding

Brian D. Jeffs; Karl Warnick; Lisha Li

2003-01-01

92

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not limit themselves solely to visual light as a means of investigating the universe, most introductory astronomy laboratories do. This short coming can be remedied easily through the use of radio astronomy. With a bit of modification to equipment designed for television or FM radio purposes, the existing university laboratories can be modified in an economical way to have ``hands-on" access for the students into the field of radio astronomy. In that many of the exotic discoveries about the universe have been made through radio astronomy in the last thirty years, it can be used as a tool in furthering the student's understanding of our universe,

Scott, J. B.; Imholt, Timothy; Benge, Raymond; Roberts, James

2001-10-01

93

A Mathematical Review of Polyphase Filterbank Implementations for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of polyphase filterbanks is commonly used for signal processing in radio astronomy. The rapid and ongoing evolution of parallel hardware architectures requires optimised implementations of such techniques to be redeveloped. However, much of the published research regarding polyphase filterbanks refers the reader to signal processing books with a more general scope. Furthermore, these references tend to focus on the design of filters, rather than their implementation. For this reason, this work presents a mathematical background for the implementation of a polyphase filterbank specific to radio astronomy. It also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of polyphase filterbanks in comparison with more commonly used techniques.

Harris, Christopher; Haines, Karen

2011-10-01

94

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

2001-12-01

95

A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The

J. Davis; D. G. Finley

2000-01-01

96

Suggestions for some single dish radio astronomy standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the possibility of adopting standards within the context of radio astronomy and the benefits to be derived thereby. In particular we consider the application of standards within the three areas of the receiver hardware, the control and communication between different parts of the observing system, and the interface with the astronomer. The adoption of such

Anders J. G. Emrich; Nicholas D. Whyborn

1993-01-01

97

RADIONET: the EC Infrastructure Cooperation Network in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

RADIONET was established to provide a forum for the exchange of information amongst the infrastructures forming the European VLBI Network (EVN) and to monitor progress in the initiatives for the future large scale facilities in radio astronomy, ALMA and SKA. A brief review of the specific goals of RADIONET will be given as an introduction to later talks on the

R. T. Schilizzi

2001-01-01

98

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; A. C. Riddle; J. K. Alexander; M. D. Desch; M. L. Kaiser; J. R. Thieman; T. D. Carr; S. Gulkis; A. Boischot; Y. LEBLANC; B. M. PEDERSEN; D. H. STAELIN

1979-01-01

99

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

100

Combating Pulsed Radar Interference in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a small fraction of the radio spectrum can be reserved exclusively for passive scientific measurements, so radio astronomers must expect to observe some natural radiation at frequencies allocated to an increasing number of active users of the spectrum. This paper presents a scheme for removing pulsed transmissions of air surveillance radar from astronomical data based on the temporal and

Qing Zhang; Yibin Zheng; Stephen G. Wilson; J. Richard Fisher; Richard Bradley

2003-01-01

101

An outside view of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is in a golden age of discovery of the new, with a growing appreciation from astrophysics that physics has studied so far an almost insignificant fraction of reality. This golden age is enabled by technology, with next generation technologies approaching the Giga-euro/dollar investment level. This forces a strategic view of relative strengths in the past, and strategies for future developments. Some of these may transcend traditional wavelength classifications.

Gilmore, G.

102

Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

2013-01-01

103

Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the

James W. Warwick; David R. Evans; Gerard R. Peltzer; Robert G. Peltzer; Joseph H. Romig; Constance B. Sawyer; Anthony C. Riddle; Andrea E. Schweitzer; Michael D. Desch; Michael L. Kaiser; W. M. Farrell; T. D. Carr; I. de Pater; D. H. Staelin; S. Gulkis; R. L. Poynter; A. Boischot; F. Genova; Y. Leblanc; A. Lecacheux; B. M. Pedersen; P. Zarka

1989-01-01

104

Developments in Coherent Amplifiers and Miniaturized Receivers for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the development of InP HEMT amplifiers have produced a breakthrough in the cryogenic noise performance of these devices. Caltech's Cahill Radio Astronomy Lab (CRAL), JPL and Northrop Grumman (NGAS) are working to produce new amplifiers which can exploit this improved performance for radio astronomy. In parallel, these new amplifiers are being integrated into a family of miniaturized modular receivers which have wide application as focal plane arrays. Such arrays will have a major impact on a diverse range of scientific goals, such as measurement of integrated CO from the Epoch of Reionization, efficient spectroscopic and continuum mapping of Galactic emission and measurement of the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We report on these developments and prospects for the future.

Cleary, Kieran; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Gawande, R.; Kooi, J.; Gaier, T.; Lawrence, C. R.; Kangaslahti, P.; Samoska, L.; Varonen, M.; Lai, R.; Sarkozy, S.; Church, S. E.; Sieth, M.; Devaraj, K.; Voll, P.

2013-01-01

105

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

106

Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

1974-01-01

107

Radio broadcasting: an attractive way of broadcasting astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is full of beautiful skyscapes, shining stars and huge planets. The vast majority of them can be transformed into tactile images and complemented by audio descriptions. These translations of visual information into raised lines, shapes and textures can be felt with the fingertips instead of viewed with the eyes. In this way, the beauties of the Universe enter the universe of blind and visually impaired people. Happily, we all have radio broadcasting as an important source of information and entertainment. Science radio programmes can bring the real music of the spheres (as Pythagoras once suggested) to the audience.

Mosoia, C.

2008-06-01

108

Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

1992-01-01

109

A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution

Cecilia Barnbaum; Richard F. Bradley

1998-01-01

110

Introducing the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) is to promote and vastly multiply the use of astronomy multimedia resources—from images and illustrations to animations, movies, and podcasts—and enable innovative future exploitation of a wide variety of outreach media by systematically linking resource archives worldwide. High-quality astronomical images, accompanied by rich caption and background information, abound on the web and yet prove notoriously difficult to locate efficiently using existing search tools. The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project offers a solution via the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard. Due to roll out in time for IYA2009, VAMP manages the design, implementation, and dissemination of the AVM standard for the education and public outreach astronomical imagery that observatories publish. VAMP will support implementations in World Wide Telescope, Google Sky, Portal to the Universe, and 365 Days of Astronomy, as well as Uniview and DigitalSky software designed specifically for planetariums. The VAMP workshop will introduce the AVM standard and describe its features, highlighting sample image tagging processes using diverse tools—the critical first step in getting media into VAMP. Participants with laptops will have an opportunity to experiment first hand, and workshop organizers will update a web page with system requirements and software options in advance of the conference (see http://virtualastronomy.org/ASP2008/ for links to resources). The workshop will also engage participants in a discussion and review of the innovative AVM image hierarchy taxonomy, which will soon be extended to other types of media.

Wyatt, Ryan; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Hurt, R.

2008-05-01

111

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in acousto-optic techniques and in photodetector arrays have made feasible a new type of RF spectrometer, offering the advantages of wide bandwidth, high resolution, large number of channels in compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and relatively low cost systems. Such a system employs an acousto-optic diffraction cell which serves the key role of converting RF signals to ultrasonic traveling-waves modulating the optical index of the cell. The cell is illuminated across its aperture by a monochromatic laser beam. A fraction of the light is diffracted by the acoustic waves. A focusing lens follows the cell and essentially performs a Fourier transform of the RF signal into a far-field intensity pattern. CSIRO in Australia and the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Japan have taken the lead in using acousto-optic techniques in astronomical applications. The first practical device was successfully made at CSIRO for obtaining dynamical spectrographs of solar radio emission.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1980-01-01

112

Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

113

Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

Kaiser, M. L.

1990-01-01

114

The Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the GAVRT Project is to provide students and educators with curriculum vehicles that will promote science literacy, support a better understanding of the scientific community, and to provide the opportunity to collect real-time data with sophisticated science equipment through distance learning. The GAVRT Project is an opportunity for students and teachers, K-12, to control a 34-meter radio telescope. This project uses radio astronomy to introduce students to the process of science and to provide a unique opportunity that encourages students of all academic and social levels to experience discovery for themselves. The GAVRT curriculum is designed to meet National Science Standards and tailored for each teacher to meet their home State Science Standards. The project is made possible by a partnership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Lewis Center for Educational Research

Reeder, Pat

2002-10-01

115

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

116

The Nicaragua Radio Mathematics Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Radio Mathematics Project was funded by the Agency for International Development to design, implement, and evaluate, in conjunction with personnel of a developing country, a system for teaching primary-grade mathematics by radio. In July 1974, a project in Nicaragua began with a series of radio presentations, each followed by 20 minutes of…

Searle, Barbara

117

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomy Observatory (in Sardinia,) and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. Funding agencies are the Italian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the Sardinia Regional Government, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI,) that has recently rejoined the project. The telescope site is about 35 km North of Cagliari. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 7.9 m diameter secondary mirror and supplementary Beam-WaveGuide (BWG) mirrors. With four possible focal positions (primary, Gregorian, and two BWGs), SRT will be able to allocate up to 20 remotely controllable receivers. One of the most advanced technical features of the SRT is the active surface: the primary mirror will be composed by 1008 panels supported by electromechanical actuators digitally controlled to compensate for gravitational deformations. With the completion of the foundation on spring 2006 the SRT project entered its final construction phase. This paper reports on the latest advances on the SRT project.

Tofani, Gianni; Alvito, Gianni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Bortolotti, Claudio; Bruca, Loredana; Buffa, Franco; Cattani, Alessandro; Comoretto, Gianni; Cremonini, Andrea; Cresci, Luca; D'Amico, Nichi; Deiana, Gian Luigi; Fara, Antonietta; Feretti, Luigina; Fiocchi, Franco; Flamini, Enrico; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Grueff, Gavril; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Maccaferri, Andrea; Mantovani, Franco; Mariotti, Sergio; Migoni, Carlo; Messina, Filippo; Monari, Jader; Morsiani, Marco; Murgia, Matteo; Musmeci, José; Nanni, Mauro; Natale, Vincenzo; Navarrini, Alessandro; Negusini, Monia; Nesti, Renzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Palla, Francesco; Panella, Dario; Pernechele, Claudio; Pilloni, Salvatore; Pisanu, Tonino; Poddighe, Antonio; Poloni, Marco; Poma, Angelo; Poppi, Sergio; Porceddu, Ignazio; Prandoni, Isabella; Roda, Juri; Roma, Mauro; Sarti, Pierguido; Scalambra, Alessandro; Schillirň, Francesco; Tarchi, Andrea; Vargiu, Gian Paolo; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo

2008-08-01

118

Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

1989-01-01

119

Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

1971-01-01

120

Dirichlet Methods for Bayesian Source Detection in Radio Astronomy Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sheer volume of data to be produced by the next generation of radio telescopes - exabytes of data on hundreds of millions of objects - makes automated methods for the detection of astronomical objects ("sources") essential. Of particular importance are low surface brightness objects, which are not well found by current automated methods. This thesis explores Bayesian methods for source detection that use Dirichlet or multinomial models for pixel intensity distributions in discretised radio astronomy images. A novel image discretisation method that incorporates uncertainty about how the image should be discretised is developed. Latent Dirichlet allocation - a method originally developed for inferring latent topics in document collections - is used to estimate source and background distributions in radio astronomy images. A new Dirichlet-multinomial ratio, indicating how well a region conforms to a well-specified model of background versus a loosely-specified model of foreground, is derived. Finally, latent Dirichlet allocation and the Dirichlet-multinomial ratio are combined for source detection in astronomical images. The methods developed in this thesis perform source detection well in comparison to two widely-used source detection packages and, importantly, find dim sources not well found by other algorithms.

Friedlander, A. M.

2014-02-01

121

The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

2004-12-01

122

Automating Radio Astronomy in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy observations with the DSN are being automated to simplify operations for DSN personnel, enable remote directing and monitoring by investigators, allow the use of short blocks of antenna time, and use of unanticipated antenna availability on very short notice. The key elements of the system are the Equipment Activity Controller (EAC), which performs the same functions as a DSN operator's console but with additional capabilities, the Radio Astronomy Controller (RAC), which controls radio astronomy and other R&D equipment, and the PC Field System (PCFS), which controls the VLBI recorders. Normally, the EAC is client to both the RAC and the PCFS. The EAC graphical user interface (GUI) normally runs on the EAC, but need not, allowing for remote operation. Messages between the client and servers are Extended Tcl (TclX) commands and are passed using a simple TCP/IP protocol called Net Services. The Tcl command set has been augmented with Net Services commands. The EAC will accept commands from both the PCFS and RAC, enabling either of those to be the focus of the experiment, with the EAC acting effectively as a client providing access to DSN antennas and receivers. The design also allows a user developed program (e.g. a Tk script) on a remote computer (e.g. at JPL) to be the focus of the experiment. All communications and the DSN's operational network are secured through the use of hardware encryption units. This poster describes primarily the RAC and the design of its server software. Each connection to the server is assigned its own Tcl interpreter. All have access to specific commonly shared data. While only certain tasks can control resources, a large number of monitoring connections can be accepted. In addition, the server executes specific Tcl scripts at predefined intervals. These timed scripts can be edited in real-time for greater experiment flexibility.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Leflang, J. G.; Trinh, T.

1996-12-01

123

Effects of a satellite power system on ground-based radio and radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that when the satellite power system (SPS) is in operation, the power signal and its harmonics, which fall close to radio astronomy bands, may cause overloading of input stages. Mitigation will require the development of cryogenically cooled filters. Radiation within radio astronomy bands can arise from transmitter-generated noise, thermal noise from the large solar cell arrays, and

A. R. Thompson

1981-01-01

124

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

125

Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA.

Gavril Grueff; Giovanni Alvito; Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Andrea Maccaferri; Giuseppe Maccaferri; Marco Morsiani; Leonardo Mureddu; Vincenzo Natale; Luca Olmi; Alessandro Orfei; Claudio Pernechele; Angelo Poma; Ignazio Porceddu; Lucio Rossi; Gianpaolo Zacchiroli

2004-01-01

126

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

127

Compressive Sensing: Analysis of Signals in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compressive sensing (CS) theory says that for some kind of signals there is no need to keep or transfer all the data acquired accordingly to the Nyquist criterion. In this work we investigate if the CS approach is applicable for recording and analysis of radio astronomy (RA) signals. Since CS methods are applicable for the signals with sparse (and compressible) representations, the compressibility of RA signals is verified. As a result, we identify which RA signals can be processed using CS, find the parameters which can improve or degrade CS application to RA results, describe the optimum way how to perform signal filtering in CS applications. Also, a range of virtual LabVIEW instruments are created for the signal analysis with the CS theory.

Gaigals, G.; Greit?ns, M.; Andziulis, A.

128

Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

Hsu, Eddie

2000-01-01

129

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference: The Quiet Skies Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quiet Skies Project is a result of the Research Experience for Teacher (RET) program during the summer of 2004. Teachers were involved in discovering the relationship between radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy observations. S. Rapp participated in astronomy observations with the Green Bank Telescope in order to characterize RFI issues at radio observatories and worked closely with the Green Bank Interference Protection Group. This work included such tasks as mitigation of locally-generated RFI from power poles and running radiation propagation studies for transmitters within the National Radio Quiet Zone. A curriculum was created to allow high school students to participate in a research effort to determine RFI levels in their communities. The aim of the project is to promote student awareness of radio astronomy and radio frequency interference through an inquiry-based science curriculum. It is hoped that the project will go national by 2007. A prototype RFI detector was created and tested at four wavelengths; 850, 900, 1425, and 1675 MHz. High school students used a beta version of the RFI detector to explore the occurrence of RFI at their schools and in their communities. The student goals of the Quiet Skies Project are to: Measure interference levels at their schools and in their communities; Reduce and transmit their data to an NRAO data base; Use online spectrum allocation data, and local information to determine possible causes of interference in their area; Analyze the complex trade-offs between radio astronomy's need for quiet skies, and other commercial, and non-commercial uses of the spectrum and share their insights with others. This work was funded by the NSF-RET program and a grant from the NASA-IDEAS program

Rapp, S.; Gear, C.; Maddalena, R. J.; Heatherly, S. A.

2004-12-01

130

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

131

Radio Astronomy at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR and Other Armenian Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment and development of radio astronomy in Armenia is described in detail. Information about the radio telescopes of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) is summarised. The main results of radio-astronomy studies carried out by BAO staff are described, including a number that used large Soviet and foreign radio telescopes, primarily studies of active galaxies.

Sanamian, V. A.

132

Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

2006-08-01

133

Application of graphical interaction to the analysis of radio astronomy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly interactive computer graphics system has been implemented for the display and analysis of high-resolution radio images which are produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope being built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Some of the users of this system are in-house scientists who use the system routinely. However, many of the users are occasional visitors from

James M. Torson

1980-01-01

134

Maximum subarray algorithms for use in optical and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum sub-array algorithm has been implemented within a field programmable gate array as an efficient centroiding method for wavefront slope estimation. However, a convenient platform for this work is a graphics processor unit (GPU). Translation of the maximum subarray algorithm to a GPU has been performed and shows significant performance gains compared to a single-core CPU. Recently, this algorithm has been applied to radio telescope images acquired for the Australian square kilometer array pathfinder project. This paper provides an overview of the maximum subarray algorithm and shows how this can be utilized for optical and radio telescope applications.

Weddell, S. J.; Takaoka, T.; Read, T.; Candy, R.

2012-10-01

135

Gordon James Stanley and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy in Australia and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the end of the Second World War, the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory applied the expertise and surplus radar equipment acquired during the war to problems of astronomy. Gordon Stanley was among the first group of scientists and engineers to work in the exciting new field of radio astronomy. Like many of his contemporaries, he had a strong background in radio and electronics but none in astronomy. At the Radiophysics Laboratory, and later at Caltech, Stanley developed innovative new radio telescopes and sophisticated instrumentation which resulted in important new discoveries that changed, in a fundamental way, our understanding of the Universe. He was one of those who played a key role in the early development of radio astronomy both in Australia and the United States.

Kellermann, Ken I.; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

136

Network Development of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of ASC Lpi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All main changes in the network of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory has been related to introduction of the buffer data center in the recent years, upgrading internal and external communication channels and the exploitation of ip-telephony.

Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.

137

Statistically Stable Estimates of Variance in Radio-Astronomy Observations as Tools for Radio-Frequency Interference Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selection of statistically stable (robust) algorithms for data variance calculating has been made. Their properties have been analyzed via computer simulation. These algorithms would be useful if adopted in radio-astronomy observations in the presence of strong sporadic radio-frequency interference (RFI). Several observational results have been presented here to demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms in RFI mitigation.

Fridman, P. A.

2008-05-01

138

Measurement of a large deployable antenna for radio astronomy in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large radio astronomy antenna on Halca satellite was deployed in 1997 in space. The main reflector with the maximum diameter of 10 m is composed in a novel deployment scheme of tension truss as shown. The operating frequencies are 1.66 GHz (L-band), 4.85 GHz (C-band) and 22.15 GHz (Ka-band), all protected for radio astronomy use. If a mast is

T. Takano; S. Kuroda; H. Kobayashi; N. Kawaguch; E. Hanayama

2001-01-01

139

Thunderstorms and ground-based radio noise as observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) data were analyzed to determine the frequency dependence of HF terrestrial radio noise power. RAE observations of individual thunderstorms, mid-ocean areas, and specific geographic regions for which concommitant ground based measurements are available indicate that noise power is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency which conforms to expectations over the geographic locations and time periods investigated. In all cases investigated, active thunderstorm regions emit slightly higher power as contrasted to RAE observations of the region during meteorologically quiet periods. Noise levels are some 15 db higher than predicted values over mid-ocean, while in locations where ground based measurements are available a maximum deviation of 5 db occurs. Worldwide contour mapping of the noise power at 6000 km for five individual months and four observing frequencies, examples of which are given, indicate high noise levels over continental land masses with corresponding lower levels over ocean regions.

Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

1973-01-01

140

ITEMS Project: An online sequence for teaching mathematics and astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes an elearning sequence for teaching geometry and astronomy in lower secondary school created inside the ITEMS (Improving Teacher Education in Mathematics and Science) project. It is based on results from the astronomy education research about studentsŠ difficulties in understanding elementary astronomical observations and models. The sequence consists of a set of computer animations embedded in an elearning environment aimed at supporting students in learning about astronomy ideas that require the use of geometrical concepts and visual-spatial reasoning.

Martínez, Bernat; Pérez, Josep

2010-10-01

141

Development of the Radio Astronomy Data Centre (radc) at Prao ASC Lpi RAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) have been developed at PRAO ASC LPI during the recent years. It consists of: a) the database of the most important astronomical catalogues for radio astronomers; b) the database of the observational data of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. The database of astronomical catalogues http://astro.prao.ru/db/ contains few tens of the most important catalogues for the planning of the radio astronomy observations. Since 2011, the database of astronomical catalogues has been actively equipped with graphical tools for data visualization and cross-analysis of catalogues between each other. The observation database http://observations.prao.ru/ has collected observational data from the base observatory instruments and radio telescopes. That database provides access to the observation instruments and telescopes descriptions, techniques of making data samples per instruments, information about types of observations, observers and dates of observations, etc.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Ladeyshchikov, D. A.; Dumskiy, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Zaytsev, A. Y.; Logvinenko, S. V.

142

A Calibrated Digital Sideband Separating Spectrometer for Radio Astronomy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual sideband (2SB) receivers are well suited for the spectral observation of complex astronomical signals over a wide frequency range. They are extensively used in radio astronomy, their main advantages being to avoid spectral confusion and to diminish effective system temperature by a factor 2 with respect to double sideband (DSB) receivers. Using available millimeter-wave analog technology, wideband 2SB receivers generally obtain sideband rejection ratios (SRR) of 10--15 dB, insufficient for a number of astronomical applications. We report here the design and implementation of an FPGA-based sideband separating FFT spectrometer. A 4 GHz analog front end was built to test the design and measure sideband rejection. The setup uses a 2SB front end architecture, except that the mixer outputs are directly digitized before the IF hybrid, using two 8 bit ADCs sampling at 1 GSPS. The IF hybrid is implemented on the FPGA together with a set of calibration vectors that, properly chosen, compensate for the analog front end amplitude and phase imbalances. The calibrated receiver exhibits a sideband rejection ratio in excess of 40 dB for the entire 2 GHz RF bandwidth.

Finger, Ricardo; Mena, Patricio; Reyes, Nicolás; Rodriguez, Rafael; Bronfman, Leonardo

2013-03-01

143

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

1982-01-01

144

Research on Haystack radiometer, 20-24 GHz maser, and radio astronomy programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first half of 1973, the Haystack antenna was utilized 76% of the time. Of this useful time, 72% was devoted to radio astronomy observing, 5% was spent on radar-related research and 23% went into maintenance and system improvements. Twenty-eight new radio astronomy programs were accepted, eight of which were completed during the period. One new radar program, topographic observations of Mars, was started in June and will be completed early in 1974. Fourteen programs continued from the previous period were also defined as complete. As of 1 July, 28 ratio observing programs were in a continuing status on the Haystack books. Four radar projects were also continuing. The 20-24 GHz maser development described in the preceding report progressed very well during an on-antenna test phase which began early in the year, but which terminated unfortunately in June with the complete loss of gain in the maser. Investigation of this problem is in progress. During this on-antenna test phase, the most sensitive water vapor observing capability which has yet become available was demonstrated.

1973-01-01

145

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-01-01

146

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest. Due to ionospheric scintillation (below 30MHz) and its opaqueness (below 15MHz), earth-bound radio astronomy observations in these bands are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. A radio telescope in space obviously would not be hampered by the Earth's ionosphere. In the past, several (limited) studies have been conducted to explore possibilities for such an array in space. These studies considered aperture synthesis arrays in space, at the back-side of the Moon, or a satellite constellation operating in a coherent mode. In 2009 an ESA project, Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space (DARIS), set out to investigate the space-based radio telescope concept. The focus of this feasibility study is on a moderate size three-dimensional satellite constellation operating as a coherent large aperture synthesis array. This aperture synthesis array would consist of 5 to 50 antennas (satellites) having a maximum separation of 100 km. This study considers the main aspects of such a distributed system in more detail than previous studies. This conference contribution aims at presenting an overview of the DARIS project and at discussing the main results. The project selected extra-galactic surveys and the search for transient radio sources as the best suited science cases within the DARIS concept, and it investigated the scientific and technical requirements for such an array. Several antenna concepts were considered and simulated. An active antenna dipole array concept would be well suited, and a moderate 5 m tip-tip antenna system would lead to a sky noise limited system. Multiple digital signal processing scenarios were considered. Ultimately, although a distributed signal processing approach would be fa-vorable in terms of reliability and scalability, for complexity reasons the project has chosen to have several (5 to 50) identical receiving nodes, and one centralized processing node i.e. the correlator. Analysis has shown that with current technologies, one MHz bandwidth can be processed with full duty cycle. The limiting factor is the inter-satellite link bandwidth. Several deployment locations, such as Moon orbit, Earth-Moon L2, and dynamic Solar orbits were investigated. Each of those locations has its pro's and con's such as interference levels from the Earth (which drive the number of sampling bits), relative speed-vectors of the satellite nodes (influencing maximum correlator integration times, and the need for orbit maintenance), and achievable down-link bandwidth to Earth. Two preferred deployment location were selected: Moon orbit and dynamic Solar orbit. The main advantage of the Moon orbit is that the syn-thetic aperture is filled more rapidly, making it more suitable for transient science than the dynamic Solar orbit. The project also studied the relation between the three-dimensional satellite configuration, the deployment location and the quality of the sky maps. The conclusion is that for the science cases under consideration, sufficient independent aperture sampling points can be obtained in a 1 MHz limited band (with 1 kHz channels) by using bandwidth synthesis. It is expected that, as a result, up to about one million astronomical sources can be detected in a five year duration mission.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Saks, Noah; Falcke, Heino; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Bentum, Ark; Thilak Rajan, Raj; Wijnholds, Ir. Stefan J.; Arts, Michel; van-T Klooster, Kees; Belien, Frederik

147

Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization. Results are given for simulated and experimental data, demonstrating deeper beampattern nulls by 6 to 30dB. To increase the system bandwidth toward the hundreds of MHz bandwidth required by astronomers for a fully science-ready instrument, an FPGA digital backend is introduced using a 64-input analog-to-digital converter running at 50 Msamp/sec and the ROACH processing board developed at the University of California, Berkeley. International efforts to develop digital back ends for large antenna arrays are considered, and a road map is proposed for development of a hardware correlator/beamformer at BYU using three ROACH boards communicating over 10 gigabit Ethernet.

Landon, Jonathan C.

148

Personal recollections of W.N. Christiansen and the early days of Chinese radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1963 and 1998, Professor W.N. Christiansen visited China more than a dozen times, bringing valuable scientific information, expert guidance and all possible help to the young Chinese radio astronomy team. Here, the writer presents his memories of two typical, deeply-shared experiences, `The Shahe Experiment' and `The Making of the Miyun Meter Wave Aperture Synthesis Telescope;, as expressions of the kind thoughts of a whole generation of Chinese researchers in astronomy.

Wang, Shouguan

2009-03-01

149

Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ? 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

2013-09-01

150

New Astronomy from the Moon: a Lunar Based Very-Low Frequency Radio Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the universe, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. Such a project will utilize the same transportation, communication, and power systems required for further exploration of the Moon. The lunar surface provides unique advantages for astronomy, even compared to orbits or Lagrange points. It is a large and stable platform that can shield unwanted radiation and that will be easily accessible once a lunar base is established. Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s. The most seriously investigated concept has always been a very-low- frequency (VLF) array on the lunar far side for mainly three reasons. First, the very low frequencies below ~30 MHz is the last window in the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy, giving us good reasons to anticipate unexpected discoveries. Second, because of E a r t h ' s significant radio interference, the lunar far side may well be the only site accessible that enables sensitive galactic / extra-galactic VLF observations. Finally, an array of short dipole antennas is one the most technologically feasible observatories to be placed and operated on the Moon. The motivations for a lunar based VLF array is detailed in the first section. The second section provides a review of the foregoing effort and a summary of the consensus to date. To make this dream into a reality, we identify the next required steps in the third section. We must f i r s t address any unresolved issues, especially concerning the lunar environmental factors like the ionosphere density. We should make the most out of the upcoming lunar missions by proposing relevant measurements. Most importantly, we should begin proposing our first array now. C o n s i d e r i n g the limited budget, the first realistic surface array will be deployed as a piggyback payload to early landers on the lunar south pole. The side of the Malapert Mountain that is facing away from Earth may be a good radio-quiet site. To address issues relevant to the lunar VLF array project, we have developed a general tool to simulate the propagation of radio waves in the lunar environment. In this study, we investigated (1) how well the Moon shields long-wavelength radio interference, (2) how the Malapert Mountain at the lunar south pole shields terrestrial radio interference, and (3) how the lunar surface environment i n f l u e n c e interferometric observations. These radio wave simulation studies and their results are presented in the fourth section. Finally, in the last section, we make recommendations for future missions and propose the first surface array to be deployed on the far side of the Malapert Mountain near the lunar south pole. To finalize the site and the design of the observatory, recommendations are presented for specific m e a s u r e m e n t s to be made by upcoming missions including SMART-1, LunarSat, and SELENE. It is especially critical to obtain detailed topology at candidate sites and to determine the electron d e n s i t y profile above the lunar surface at various times of the lunar month. Suggestions are given for a precursor orbiting array around 2010, a surface array on the lunar south pole around 2015, and ultimately a far side array around 2020. To realize the dream of gaining new views of the universe f r o m the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these missions.

Takahashi, Yuki D.

2002-01-01

151

The Student as Scientist: Secondary Student Research Projects in Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student research projects are becoming either integral or optional components of Science curricula in several countries. They provide a valuable opportunity for high school students to experience many of the joys and frustrations that make up the intellectual challenge of Science. Astronomy is one branch of Science that lends itself to student projects. Student Research Projects (SRPs) can be individual,

R. P. Hollow

152

Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; A. C. Riddle; J. K. Alexander; M. D. Desch; M. L. Kaiser; J. R. Thieman; T. B. Carr; S. Gulkis; A. Boischot; C. C. Harvey; B. M. Pedersen

1979-01-01

153

The wideband backend for host country radio astronomy in the Spanish DSN Robledo complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Deep Space Network hosts three complexes worldwide for spacecrafts tracking. The Spanish complex, the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC), operates a set of highly sensitive antennas, which are used for Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) during a percentage of their operational time. We have designed, developed and built a wideband backend for HCRA in MDSCC, which greatly improves its available facilities, and opens new scientic cases to be tackled. The backend is able to sample up to 6 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth, in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz, using two dierent antennas. An intermediate-frequency (IF) processor downconverts the two-polarization signals to four base-band channels of 1.5 GHz width. Digitalisation is done through a set of FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which can provide spectral resolutions from 7 to 200 kHz, and spectral coverages from 100MHz to 1.5 GHz each. This new facility enables HCRA to aord new scientic projects, such as extragalactic radio astronomy and spectral surveys; at the same time, the available time for HC is greatly optimized. It was necessary the development of dedicated software for spectra acquisition and control of the equipment, and also the upgrading of the existing observing programs. Once end-to-end assembled, the whole backend was tested through a set of commissioning observations. In this contribution the main features of the new backend are described, including the IF processor, the FFT spectrometer and the developed software. Some astronomical results are also included.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; García Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Larrańaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.

2012-09-01

154

The Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Online Labs for Introductory Level Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project site provides high quality applets simulating important astrophysical phenomena such as eclipsing binaries, stellar evolution on the H-R diagram, lunar phases, planetary orbits, planetary motion, and planetary obliquity. Instructions, simulations, and explorations are provided for both the student and instructor including assessment.

Lee, Kevin M.

2004-12-23

155

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest.

Albert-Jan Boonstra; Noah Saks; Heino Falcke; Marc Klein-Wolt; Ark Bentum; Raj Thilak Rajan; Ir. Stefan J. Wijnholds; Michel Arts; Kees van-T Klooster; Frederik Belien

2010-01-01

156

Fanatic: An SIS radiometer for radio astronomy from 660 to 695 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 695 GHz (?? 455 – 432 µm). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources duringFANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25hv\\/k).

A. I. Harris; K. F. Schuster; R. Genzel; B. Plathner; K.-H Gundlach

1994-01-01

157

Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Effects on Optical and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of the satellite solar power system on astronomy are concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit

G. M. Stokes; P. A. Ekstrom

1980-01-01

158

Improving long time stability of a radio astronomy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical radio receivers used to observe weak radio sources often suffer from instabilities in the output signal due to ambient temperature changes, which make it impossible to detect even strong celestial sources. Here, I report about a cheap and successful solution based on a wine cooler to keep operating temperature stable within ± 0.1 °C.

Monstein, C.

2014-03-01

159

The First Steps of Radio Astronomy in Czestochowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, technical documentation and the principle of operation is presented. "KLAUDIA" radio telescope was built in Rabka in 2007 and it is used to receive secondary radio waves, emitted by the Earth's ionosphere at frequency of 40 kHz.

Jarosik, M.; Starzy?ski, S.; Szcze?niak, M.; Szcze?niak, R.; Ceglarek, A.

2007-12-01

160

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

161

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Planetary Orbit Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates the physics of planetary orbits. The user can control the size and orbital path of the orbit. Each of Kepler's three laws and aspects of Newton's Law are each demonstrated. Velocity and acceleration vectors can be displayed, as well as the axes of the orbit. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This resource is part of a larger collection of online labs for introductory astronomy.See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

Lee, Kevin M.

2007-12-20

162

MITIGATION OF CONTINUOUS INTERFERENCE IN RADIO ASTRONOMY USING SPATIAL FILTERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of radio astronomical measurements by man-made Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is becoming an increasingly serious problem and therefore the application of interference mitigation techniques is essential. Most current techniques address impulsive or intermittent interference and are based on time-frequency detection and blanking. Contin- ually present interferers cannot be cut out in the time-frequency plane and have to be

Sebastiaan van der Tol; Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

163

Radio Astronomy and eVLBI using KAREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to\\u000atransfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the AUT Radio\\u000aAstronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and the international\\u000aorganisations with which we are collaborating and conducting observations. Here\\u000awe report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing\\u000adifferent data transfer protocols. We

Stuart Weston; Tim Natusch; Sergei Gulyaev

2010-01-01

164

Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation has funded a five-year High Performance Computing and Communications project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for the direct implementation of several of the computing recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the "Bahcall report"). This paper is a summary of the project goals and a progress report. The project will implement a prototype of the next generation of astronomical telescope systems - remotely located telescopes connected by high-speed networks to very high performance, scalable architecture computers and on-line data archives, which are accessed by astronomers over Gbit/sec networks. Specifically, a data link has been installed between the BIMA millimeter-wave synthesis array at Hat Creek, California and NCSA at Urbana, Illinois for real-time transmission of data to NCSA. Data are automatically archived, and may be browsed and retrieved by astronomers using the NCSA Mosaic software. In addition, an on-line digital library of processed images will be established. BIMA data will be processed on a very high performance distributed computing system, with I/O, user interface, and most of the software system running on the NCSA Convex C3880 supercomputer or Silicon Graphics Onyx workstations connected by HiPPI to the high performance, massively parallel Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5. The very computationally intensive algorithms for calibration and imaging of radio synthesis array observations will be optimized for the CM-5 and new algorithms which utilize the massively parallel architecture will be developed. Code running simultaneously on the distributed computers will communicate using the Data Transport Mechanism developed by NCSA. The project will also use the BLANCA Gbit/s testbed network between Urbana and Madison, Wisconsin to connect an Onyx workstation in the University of Wisconsin Astronomy Department to the NCSA CM-5, for development of long-distance distributed computing. Finally, the project is developing 2D and 3D visualization software as part of the international AIPS++ project. This research and development project is being carried out by a team of experts in radio astronomy, algorithm development for massively parallel architectures, high-speed networking, database management, and Thinking Machines Corporation personnel. The development of this complete software, distributed computing, and data archive and library solution to the radio astronomy computing problem will advance our expertise in high performance computing and communications technology and the application of these techniques to astronomical data processing.

Crutcher, Richard M.

165

Supporting the Outdoor Classroom: An Archaeo-Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field trips and the outdoor classroom are a vital part of many areas of education. Ideally, the content should be taught within a realistic environment rather than just by providing a single field trip at the end of a course. The archaeo-astronomy project located at Nottingham Trent University envisages the development of a virtual environment…

Brown, Daniel; Francis, Robert; Alder, Andy

2013-01-01

166

Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit: Final Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about habitable planets. Learners will discuss what they know about the astronomical conditions of the planets they have found in earlier lessons and what they still need to know in order to determine if they are habitable to humans. They research possible methods for answering these questions and write a proposal on how and why their planet should be further researched. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 14, the concluding lesson, in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

167

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began part time work as NRAO's first archivist. With the completion of an addition to the headquarters building in Charlottesville in spring 2005, the fledgling NRAO Archives moved into a new 1400 sq ft space. In addition to NRAO materials, the Archives also collects papers of individuals. Grote Reber, who built the first radio telescope in his backyard in Wheaton IL in 1937, had in 1995, donated many of his personal papers to NRAO, and these papers have been indexed and are available to researchers. We continue to receive additional materials from his estate in Tasmania. The complete papers of John Kraus, author, researcher, and professor in radio astronomy and engineering at Ohio State University for many years, were donated to the NRAO Archives by his son and estate executor in spring 2005. The NRAO Archives has also mounted Web resources with texts written by Nan Dieter Conklin and by Doc Ewen describing their work in the developing years of US radio astronomy. This talk will present the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history.

Bouton, E. N.

2005-12-01

168

The Inwood Astronomy Project: Ready for IYA 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inwood Astronomy Project begins its mission of "100 Nights of Astronomy", an outreach program for the IYA 2009 in New York City. While the city lights may at first glance be a major deterrent to amateur and educational night-sky viewing, the author describes numerous community-based initiatives designed to fit into a racially and ethnically diverse neighborhood of Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, which all give a deeper understanding and appreciation of and for the night sky. The author presents ways for professional astronomers to use their light-polluted cities and towns for the same purpose.

Shilling Kendall, Jason

2009-01-01

169

New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater size. The book reprints internal memos, reports, and recollections of astronomers who were there, as the initial elation turned to frustration when the 140 Foot Telescope project became mired in technical difficulties, plans for larger dishes were put on hold, and the scientific staff of the fledgling Observatory struggled to create a National Observatory with inadequate equipment in a very remote location. Articles by David Heeschen and John Findlay tell the story of the creation of the 300 Foot Telescope, at that time the largest in the world, which went from initial concept to full operation in only 23 months, and began a rich life of research that put the NRAO on the world scientific map. The 300 Foot Telescope was originally intended to be an interim instrument, but as documented in the book, demand for its use was so high that it was kept in operation long after its initial planned retirement, with regular upgrades and new generations of electronics. The sudden collapse of the 300 Foot Telescope on a calm evening after 26 years of operation shocked the astronomical community. But it was Fun... features dramatic first-hand accounts by the people who were there that night: the telescope operator who found himself under a falling structure; the Observatory staff who at first could not believe what happened, and those who worked during the night and into the next day to secure the area, preserve information on what happened, and deal with the rush of publicity. The book includes extensive photographs and the Executive Summary Report of the panel which was commissioned to investigate the collapse and its implication for the design of other large radio telescopes. But it was Fun... will appeal to a variety of audiences. Historians of science will be interested in the articles by David Heeschen, Gerald Tape, and Hugh van Horn, on the evolution of the concept of a National Observatory, and the difficulties of putting the concepts into practice in Green Bank. Those interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal a

2007-07-01

170

Radar interference blanking in radio astronomy using a Kalman tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical observations of highly Doppler shifted spectral lines of neutral hydrogen and the hydroxyl molecule must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215–1350 MHz frequency range. The Green Bank telescope (GBT) and many other observatories must deal with these terrestrial signals. Even when strong radar fixed clutter echoes are removed, there are

W. Dong; B. D. Jeffs; J. R. Fisher

2005-01-01

171

Virtual reality and project management for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the years astronomical instrumentation projects are becoming increasingly complex making necessary to find efficient ways for project communication management. While all projects share the need to communicate project information, the required information and the methods of distribution vary widely between projects and project staff. A particular problem experienced on many projects regardless of their size, is related to the amount of design, planning information and how that is distributed among the project stakeholders. One way to improve project communications management is to use a workflow that offers a predefined way to share information in a project. Virtual Reality (VR) offers the possibility to get a visual feedback of designed components without the expenses of prototype building, giving an experience that mimics real life situations using a computer. In this contribution we explore VR as a communication technology that helps to manage instrumentation projects by means of a workflow implemented on a software package called Discut designed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM). The workflow can integrate VR environments generated as CAD models.

Martínez, L. A.; Villarreal, J. L.; Angeles, F.; Bernal, A.; Bribiesca, E.; Flores, R.

2010-07-01

172

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TĂl’cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto

Juan A´ngel Vaquerizo

2010-01-01

173

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto

Juan Ángel Vaquerizo

2010-01-01

174

Broad-band antenna array with application to radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad-band antenna element and beam-forming matrix have been developed for reception of signals at 25-100 MHz. The element is a zig-zag log-periodic antenna with a nominal impedance of430Omegaand a VSWR of less than 1.9. The matrix utilizes time-delay gradients to obtain frequency-independent beam positions and also allows several different beam positions to be monitored simultaneously. Observations of natural radio

C. Rufenach; W. Cronyn; K. Neal

1973-01-01

175

New Skills of Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) at PRAO ASC LPI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now a day the task of comparative analysis of sample sources from different astronomical catalogs is becoming very topical for astronomers. It is useful both for the same spectral range data and for their cross-analysis for different spectral ranges. It is also important, that the real data from astronomical instruments is placed on-line. For the above purposes we are developing a website for the PRAO ASC LPI (www.prao.ru) and, based upon it, the Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC). The RADC is a system for storage and processing of radio astronomical data. Here you can find a collection of tools for preparing radio astronomical observations, which includes a base set of main astronomical catalogues useful to radio astronomers, as well as a database of observation results from the Observatory.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Dumsky, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. U.

176

Design of passive microwave components for radio astronomy applications using HFSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution the design of passive components for radio astronomy receiver front-end is presented. In particular three devices are shown: A 100GHz orthomode transducer, a 22GHz polarizer and a 22GHz circular waveguide coupler. The first device has been studied to demonstrate the potentiality of the electroformation for the fabrication of passive components at the higher frequencies of the microwave

R. Nesti; G. Pelosi; S. Selleri; G. Tofani

177

Computational Intelligence in Radio Astronomy: Using Computational Intelligence Techniques to Tune Geodesy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a number of popular Computational Intelligence (CI) algorithms are used to tune Geodesy models, a radio astronomy\\u000a problem. Several single and multiple objective variations of the Geodesy problem are examined with good results obtained using\\u000a state-of-the-art CI algorithms. These novel applications are used to develop insights into methods for applying CI algorithms\\u000a to unknown problem domains and

Daniel Angus; Adam Deller

2008-01-01

178

Radio Astronomy at the Centre for High Performance Computing in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present results on galaxy evolution and cosmology which we obtained using the supercomputing facilities at the CHPC. These include cosmological-scale N-body simulations modelling neutral hydrogen as well as the study of the clustering of radio galaxies to probe the relationship between dark and luminous matter in the universe. I will also discuss the various roles that the CHPC is playing in Astronomy in SA, including the provision of HPC for a variety of Astronomical applications, the provision of storage for radio data, our educational programs and our participation in planning for the SKA.

Catherine Cress; UWC Simulation Team

2014-04-01

179

Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

180

Scalable desktop visualisation of very large radio astronomy data cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation data from radio telescopes is typically stored in three (or higher) dimensional data cubes, the resolution, coverage and size of which continues to grow as ever larger radio telescopes come online. The Square Kilometre Array, tabled to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will generate multi-terabyte data cubes - several orders of magnitude larger than the current norm. Despite this imminent data deluge, scalable approaches to file access in Astronomical visualisation software are rare: most current software packages cannot read astronomical data cubes that do not fit into computer system memory, or else provide access only at a serious performance cost. In addition, there is little support for interactive exploration of 3D data. We describe a scalable, hierarchical approach to 3D visualisation of very large spectral data cubes to enable rapid visualisation of large data files on standard desktop hardware. Our hierarchical approach, embodied in the AstroVis prototype, aims to provide a means of viewing large datasets that do not fit into system memory. The focus is on rapid initial response: our system initially rapidly presents a reduced, coarse-grained 3D view of the data cube selected, which is gradually refined. The user may select sub-regions of the cube to be explored in more detail, or extracted for use in applications that do not support large files. We thus shift the focus from data analysis informed by narrow slices of detailed information, to analysis informed by overview information, with details on demand. Our hierarchical solution to the rendering of large data cubes reduces the overall time to complete file reading, provides user feedback during file processing and is memory efficient. This solution does not require high performance computing hardware and can be implemented on any platform supporting the OpenGL rendering library.

Perkins, Simon; Questiaux, Jacques; Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Blyth, Sarah; Kuttel, Michelle M.

2014-07-01

181

A Fast Reduction Method of Survey Data in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fast reduction method of survey data obtained using a single-dish radio telescope. Along with a brief review of classical method, a new method of identification and elimination of negative and positive bad channels are introduced using cloud identification code and several IRAF(Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) tasks relating statistics. Removing of several ripple patterns using Fourier Transform is also discussed. It is found that BACKGROUND task within IRAF is very efficient for fitting and subtraction of baseline with varying functions. Cloud identification method along with the possibility of its application for analysis of cloud structure is described, and future data reduction method is discussed.

Lee, Youngung

2001-04-01

182

Astronomy Remote Observing Research Projects of US High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address the challenging climate for promoting astronomy education in the high schools we have used astronomy projects to give students authentic research experiences in order to encourage their pursuit of science and technology careers. Initially, we conducted teacher workshops to develop a cadre of teachers who have been instrumental in recruiting students to work on projects. Once identified, these students have been motivated to conduct astronomy research projects with appropriate guidance. Some have worked on these projects during non-school hours and others through a research course. The goal has been for students to meet the objectives of inquiry-based learning, a major US National Science Standard. Case studies will be described using event-based learning with the NASA Deep Impact mission. Hawaii students became active participants investigating comet properties through the NASA Deep Impact mission. The Deep Impact Education and Public Outreach group developed materials which were used by our students. After learning how to use image processing software, these students obtained Comet 9P/ Tempel 1 images in real time from the remote observing Faulkes Telescope North located on Haleakala, Maui for their projects. Besides conducting event-based projects which are time critical, Oregon students have worked on galaxies and sunspots projects. For variable star research, they used images obtained from the remote observing offline mode of Lowell Telescope located in Flagstaff, Arizona. Essential to these projects has been consistent follow-up required for honing skills in observing, image processing, analysis, and communication of project results through Science Fair entries. Key to our success has been the network of professional and amateur astronomers and educators collaborating in a multiplicity of ways to mentor our students. This work-in-progress and process will be shared on how to inspire students to pursue careers in science and technology with these projects.

Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

2006-08-01

183

Broadband beamforming of dense aperture array (DAA) and focal plane array (FPA) signals using 3D spatio-temporal filters for applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that 3D spatio-temporal filters have potential applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy for the broadband-beamforming\\u000a of the array of signals that is received from dense aperture arrays (DAAs) and also from focal plane arrays (FPAs). In particular,\\u000a we consider possible applications for the planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project where broadband beamforming is required\\u000a at the front-end

Thushara K. Gunaratne; Len T. Bruton

2011-01-01

184

Fast pulsars, strange stars: An opportunity in radio astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit have been discovered suggesting that there may be even shorter ones. If pulsars with periods below 1/2 ms were found, the conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would be almost inescapable. The plausible ground state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter. From the QCD energy scale this is as likely a ground state as the confined phase. We show that strange matter as the ground state is not ruled out by any known fact, and most especially not by the fact that the universe is in the confined phase. 136 refs.

Glendenning, N.K.

1990-07-15

185

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Solar System Models Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based module illustrates the universe as envisioned by early thinkers, culminating in a detailed look at the geocentric and heliocentric models. The models demonstrate the paths of the planets and the sun during their orbits, and also trace planetary and solar paths through the zodiac. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This resource is part of a larger collection of packaged curriculum materials by the Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-09-19

186

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio

Gianni Tofani; Gianni Alvito; Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Claudio Bortolotti; Loredana Bruca; Franco Buffa; Alessandro Cattani; Gianni Comoretto; Andrea Cremonini; Luca Cresci; Nichi D'Amico; Gian Luigi Deiana; Antonietta Fara; Luigina Feretti; Franco Fiocchi; Enrico Flamini; Flavio Fusi Pecci; Gavril Grueff; Giuseppe Maccaferri; Andrea Maccaferri; Franco Mantovani; Sergio Mariotti; Carlo Migoni; Filippo Messina; Jader Monari; Marco Morsiani; Matteo Murgia; José Musmeci; Mauro Nanni; Vincenzo Natale; Alessandro Navarrini; Monia Negusini; Renzo Nesti; Luca Olmi; Alessandro Orfei; Andrea Orlati; Francesco Palla; Dario Panella; Claudio Pernechele; Salvatore Pilloni; Tonino Pisanu; Antonio Poddighe; Marco Poloni; Angelo Poma; Sergio Poppi; Ignazio Porceddu; Isabella Prandoni; Juri Roda; Mauro Roma; Pierguido Sarti; Alessandro Scalambra; Francesco Schillirň; Andrea Tarchi; Gian Paolo Vargiu; Giampaolo Zacchiroli

2008-01-01

187

Effects of a satellite power system on ground-based radio and radar astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that when the satellite power system (SPS) is in operation, the power signal and its harmonics, which fall close to radio astronomy bands, may cause overloading of input stages. Mitigation will require the development of cryogenically cooled filters. Radiation within radio astronomy bands can arise from transmitter-generated noise, thermal noise from the large solar cell arrays, and possibly from intermodulation, component failures, and turn-on transients. It is noted that noise and harmonics can also be generated by the power-collecting rectennas, and that there may be propagation effects resulting from ionospheric heating. It is concluded that for any radio telescope, a zone of sky will be centered on the arc of satellites and observations here with high sensitivity will be precluded. It is estimated that the width of the zone, as determined by thermal radiation, will vary from about 30 deg for single-antenna telescopes to a few degrees for high-resolution arrays and interferometers. It is noted that since there will be some degradation in performance in bands close to the power signal and its second harmonic, adequate shielding by terrain between radio observatories and power receiving sites will be necessary.

Thompson, A. R.

1981-02-01

188

Astronomie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomie gibt eine ausgezeichnete, reich illustrierte Darstellung aller klassischen und modernen Teilgebiete dieser Wissenschaft. Dabei wird ebenso großer Wert auf die faszinierenden Beobachtungsergebnisse und die zugrundeliegenden physikalischen Vorgänge gelegt. Das Buch eignet sich damit gleichermaßen als Begleiter zur Astronomie-Vorlesung wie als Fundgrube und Nachschlagewerk für jede(n) Astronomiebegeisterte(n). "... ein so modernes Buch, wie es kaum ein einzelner Autor vorlegen könnte." #Sterne und Weltraum (2/89)(zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

Karttunen, Hannu; Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl J.; Marx, Siegfried A.; Lehmann, Holger H.

189

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

2011-03-01

190

The Contribution of an Experimental WWII Radar Antenna to Australian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division's short-lived Georges Heights field station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill field station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, Galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, H.

2011-01-01

191

African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa

Gordon MacLeod

2010-01-01

192

Building information models for astronomy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Building Information Model is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building. BIMs represent the geometrical characteristics of the Building, but also properties like bills of quantities, definition of COTS components, status of material in the different stages of the project, project economic data, etc. The BIM methodology, which is well established in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain for conventional buildings, has been brought one step forward in its application for Astronomical/Scientific facilities. In these facilities steel/concrete structures have high dynamic and seismic requirements, M&E installations are complex and there is a large amount of special equipment and mechanisms involved as a fundamental part of the facility. The detail design definition is typically implemented by different design teams in specialized design software packages. In order to allow the coordinated work of different engineering teams, the overall model, and its associated engineering database, is progressively integrated using a coordination and roaming software which can be used before starting construction phase for checking interferences, planning the construction sequence, studying maintenance operation, reporting to the project office, etc. This integrated design & construction approach will allow to efficiently plan construction sequence (4D). This is a powerful tool to study and analyze in detail alternative construction sequences and ideally coordinate the work of different construction teams. In addition engineering, construction and operational database can be linked to the virtual model (6D), what gives to the end users a invaluable tool for the lifecycle management, as all the facility information can be easily accessed, added or replaced. This paper presents the BIM methodology as implemented by IDOM with the E-ELT and ATST Enclosures as application examples.

Arińo, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Campo, Ramón; Eletxigerra, Ińigo; Ampuero, Pedro

2012-09-01

193

PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

1992-06-01

194

PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

1992-01-01

195

Acousto-optical correlation spectrometer for radio astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this thesis is to develop and construct a wide-band, high-resolution, two-channel prototype acousto-optic correlation spectrometer (AOCS) to analyze signals received by the three-element millimeter-wave interferometer at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), which may be used to study the distribution of carbon monoxide and other molecules in galaxies. The proposed correlation spectrometer has the main advantage of large time-bandwidth products and hence of low cost per frequency channel. Thus, it is suitable for many scientific objectives that require both large bandwidth and high resolution, such as mapping the distribution and temperature of the interstellar gases of galactic sources and extragalactic sources or studying the atmospheric conditions of planets in the solar system. Phase switching has been used to reduce the zero level variation of this instrument, and is found to be more effective than other schemes used by the single dish acousto-optical spectrometers. Both the frequency resolution and the frequency coverage of this instrument can be changed easily, and give it a flexibility not attainable by the filter-bank spectrometers.

Cheung, K.

1987-01-01

196

Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

2013-05-01

197

Bayesian detection of radar interference in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-Band observations at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other radio observatories are often made in frequency bands allocated to aviation pulsed radar transmissions. It is possible to mitigate radar contamination of the astronomical signal by time blanking data containing these pulses. However, even when strong direct path pulses and nearby fixed clutter echoes are removed there are still undetected weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. In a previous paper we presented an algorithm to improve real-time echo blanking by forming a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. The tracker builds a history which can be used to predict the location of upcoming echoes. We now present details of a new Bayesian detection algorithm which uses this prediction information to enable more sensitive weak pulse acquisition. The developed track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of the next echoes. Regions with higher probability are processed with a lower detection threshold to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection. The ultimate result is more complete removal, by blanking the detected pulse, of radar corruption in astronomical observations.

Jeffs, Brian D.; Lazarte, Weizhen; Fisher, J. Richard

2006-06-01

198

Albrecht Unsöld: his role in the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio emission and in the beginning of radio astronomy in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albrecht Unsöld's career spanned over 50 years at the beginning of the 20th century. In this period atomic physics made great advances and Unsöld applied this to astrophysical questions. He came in contact with the early radio astronomy observations and devoted part of his career to the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio waves. Although hampered by the post-war situation, Unsöld's contributions to the interpretation of cosmic radio waves were important.

Wielebinski, Richard

2013-03-01

199

Comparison of two cyclostationary detectors for radio frequency interference mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation has become a significant issue for current and future radio telescopes. This paper presents a new scheme for removing radio frequency interference from astronomical data. It exploits a priori knowledge of the transmitters, namely, their cyclostationary statistical properties. Two real-time cyclostationary detectors are proposed and compared. Results on both synthetic and real data demonstrate the efficiency of this concept.

Bretteil, S.; Weber, R.

2005-07-01

200

The ALIVE Project: Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project seeks to discover learning modes and optimal teaching strategies using immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs are computer-generated, three-dimensional environments that can be navigated to provide multiple perspectives. Immersive VEs provide the additional benefit of surrounding a viewer with the simulated reality. ALIVE evaluates the incorporation of an interactive, real-time ``virtual universe'' into formal college astronomy education. In the experiment, pre-course, post-course, and curriculum tests will be used to determine the efficacy of immersive visualizations presented in a digital planetarium versus the same visual simulations in the non-immersive setting of a normal classroom, as well as a control case using traditional classroom multimedia. To normalize for inter-instructor variability, each ALIVE instructor will teach at least one of each class in each of the three test groups.

Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.; Denn, G.

2008-06-01

201

NASA IDEAS EPO Support of the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was awarded a STScI IDEAS Program grant to develop the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA). SGRA enhances education of science, mathematics, and technology of students in grades 8-12. The purpose of SGRA is to teach the basics of scientific inquiry, which includes methodology, critical thinking, and communication of the results. To facilitate the excitement of science and discovery, teachers and students use the PARI 4.6m ``Smiley" radio telescope via the Internet. The IDEAS grant supported the development of the science curriculum and labs that use the 4.6m radio telescope, teacher workshops, and high speed internet service necessary for remote access to the radio telescope. Partnerships with Brevard High School , Furman University, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville have proven important to the success of the program. In addition, the IDEAS grant was important in our success in acquiring grants from the foundations at Z. Smith Reynolds and Progress Energy, a AAS Small Grant, and a STScI HST/EPO award to further enhance and continue the SGRA Program. More than 100 teachers are now involved in SGRA. To increase awareness of SGRA, we have presented the program at meetings of the AAS, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, the North Carolina Science Museum, and Pisgah Forest Institute summer workshops. Our experience in writing and carrying out the program, along with the NASA components in the program, teachers' comments, and lessons learned, will be presented. We are extremely grateful to the IDEAS Grant Program for helping PARI initiate and develop an exciting program of hands-on Internet radio astronomy from high school classrooms.

Castelaz, M.; Daugherty, J.; Moffett, D.; Case, J.

2005-05-01

202

Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in astronomy and other sciences and are now faculty members, a current Hubble Fellow, the PI of a facility class instrument on an 11-meter telescope (SALT), etc.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2013-01-01

203

BYU Radio Astronomy System for Imaging Galactic H1 and OH MASERs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a radio astronomy system initially designed to image galactic H1 (Hydrogen Spin-Flip) [at 1.42 GHz] and OH MASERS [ 1.66 GHz ] in star forming regions. Initial system architecture includes one 4-meter dish antenna, 0.38dB noise figure LNA and conventional super-heterodyne block down-conversion. Enhancements underway include baseline extensions for these wavelengths, CASPER based digital correlation / spectrometer design activity including Linux server, additional imaging wavelengths, rubidium clocks, and lock-in amplifiers.

Blakley, Daniel; Migenes, Victor

2011-10-01

204

DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

Mulhall, B. D. L.

1977-01-01

205

A Wide-Band, Active Antenna System for Long Wavelength Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an ""active"" antenna system for HF/VHF (long wavelength) radio astronomy that has been successfully deployed 256-fold as the first station (LWA1) of the planned Long Wavelength Array. The antenna system, consisting of crossed dipoles, an active balun/preamp, a support structure, and a ground screen has been shown to successfully operate over at least the band from 20 MHz (15 m wavelength) to 80 MHz (3.75 m wavelength) with a noise figure that is at least 6 dB better than the Galactic background emission-noise temperature over that band. Thus, we met the goal to design and construct a compact, inexpensive, rugged, and easily assembled antenna system that can be deployed many-fold to form numerous large individual ""stations"" for the purpose of building a large, long wavelength synthesis array telescope for radio astronomical and ionospheric observations.

Hicks, Brian C.; Paravastu-Dalal, Nagini; Stewart, Kenneth P.; Erickson, William C.; Ray, Paul S.; Kassim, Namir E.; Burns, Steve; Clarke, Tracy; Schmitt, Henrique; Craig, Joe; Hartman, Jake; Weiler, Kurt W.

2012-10-01

206

Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

2012-06-01

207

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A K-band reflected-wave ruby maser was used on the 64-meter (DSS-43) antenna at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra, Australia. Spectral line observations were carried out near 22 GHz for water vapor sources and near 24 GHz for ammonia sources. The water vapor observations were made in the direction of known southern OH and H2O maser sources. All of the previously detected water line sources examined were detected. In addition, two new water vapor maser sources were discovered, G301.1+1.1and G308.9+0.1. The spectrum of G301.0+1.1 is presented six ammonia sources were found: G291.3-0.7, G305.4+0.2, G322.2+0.6, G327.3-0.5, G333.6-0.2, and G268.4-0.8. Spectra of two of these sources, G291.3-0.7 (RCW 57) and G305.4+0.2, are presented. Both show clearly the presence of the quadrupole splitting satellite lines that will allow the determination of NH3 optical depths in these clouds.

Shaffer, R. D.; Mccluskey, J. T.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Kuiper, T.

1981-01-01

208

The 64 m Sardinia radio telescope optics design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sardinia radio telescope (SRT) is a project proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA, in Bologna, Italy). The SRT with a diameter of 64 m will be the third and largest Italian radio telescope. Designed to accommodate several instruments with a frequency coverage from 0.30 GHz to 100 GHz. In addition to the radio astronomy science applications, this

G. Cortes-Medellin

2002-01-01

209

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's explore the universe together. First we'll be learning about stars: what they are and how they are formed. Then we'll explore different websites to learn about other parts of our solar system Write 5 new things you learn about stars from EACH of these sites: How Stars Work A Star s Story Now explore the rest of the universe. Write 3 new things you learn from EACH of these sites: Astronomy Kidastronomy NASA Planetary Tour StarChild Finished and unsure what to do? Go back to each of these websites and check out the games about ...

Cazier, Ms.

2009-10-09

210

Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found

C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

211

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tenpla project is a Japanese unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy, young astronomers, and social education facilities such as science museums (see also poster by M. Hiramatsu). In this paper, we report our individual activities for public in detail. Our aim is to provide bridges between astronomy and public, especially people who are unfamiliar with astronomy, directly by students and young astronomers at many scene of life such as in schools, cafés, or hospitals. Examples of our activities are as follows (1) Learning astronomy with local people, by local people, for local people. (2) Science cafés about astronomy at book stores, small restaurants and local airport. (3) Traveling lecture of astronomy for hospitalized children.

Kamegai, K.; Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Tsukada, K.

2006-08-01

212

Parameters of a forward scatter radio meteor set-up: Preliminary calculations for the MSR radio meteor project in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MSR set-up was developed considering several parameters related to radio astronomy calculations for the observing system, neighborhood environmental characteristics, and many conditions related to the placement of the instrument. In the present work a forward scatter radio meteor link is analyzed to obtain the required parameters for a meteor radio astronomy dedicated set-up. The analysis is illustrated by calculating the parameters for the MSRV2 system employed at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronoma (IAR).

Semegone, Juan Martin; Sanz, Juan A.

2006-08-01

213

Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for ionospheric plasma effects on Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambient electron concentrations derived from observations with the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna capacitance probe have been compared with upper hybrid resonance measurements from the same spacecraft. From this comparison an empirical correction factor for the capacitance probe measurements has been derived. The differences between the two types of measurements is attributed to sheath effects.

Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

1975-01-01

214

Observations of noise bands associated with the upper hybrid resonance by the Imp 6 radio astronomy experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intense noise bands occurring near the upper hybrid resonanace ; frequency have been observed with the Imp 6 GSFC radio astronomy experiment in ; the plasmasphere. The identification of the upper hybrid resonance provides an ; accurate measure of the local electron density and allows the observed noise data ; to be fit to the scale of characteristic frequencies

Stephen R. Mosier; Michael L. Kaiser; L. W. Brown

1973-01-01

215

Unformatted Digital Fiber-Optic Data Transmission for Radio Astronomy Front-Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a prototype integrated receiver front-end that combines all conversions from RF to baseband, from analog to digital, and from copper to fiber into one compact assembly, with the necessary gain and stability suitable for radio astronomy applications. The emphasis in this article is on a novel digital data link over optical fiber which requires no formatting in the front-end, greatly reducing the complexity, bulk, and power consumption of digital electronics inside the antenna, facilitating its integration with the analog components, and minimizing the self-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI) which could leak into the signal path. Management of the serial data link is performed entirely in the back-end based on the statistical properties of signals with a strong random noise component. In this way, the full benefits of precision and stability afforded by conventional digital data transmission are realized with far less overhead at the focal plane of a radio telescope.

Morgan, Matthew A.; Fisher, J. Richard; Castro, Jason J.

2013-06-01

216

Analysis of Wind Influence to Radio Astronomy Observations at Irbene Radio-telescope Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of modelling wind-related deformations in an RT-16 radio telescope (located at Irbene, Latvia) mirror system are presented. The Finite Volume method is used for the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamic model of turbulent airflow around the telescope. An open sourced Computational Fluid Dynamic toolkit OpenFOAM is used for the solution of Partial Different Equations. Notable model difficulties arise due to the open nature of the air flow leading to unknown far field turbulence parameters. Our future plans are to create a unified, coupled, liquid-solid interaction model for RT-32/RT-16 antennas.

Upnere, Sabine; Jekabsons, Normunds; Joffe, Roberts; Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs

2011-01-01

217

100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

Simmons, M.

2008-11-01

218

Probing Strongly-Scattered Compact Objects Using Ultra-High-Resolution Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores fundamental limits in radio astronomy and develops techniques that utilize the scintillation of compact objects to probe detailed properties of their emission regions and of the scattering material. I develop a statistical framework for observations with spectral resolution at or near the Nyquist limit, suitable for describing the observed statistics of strongly-scattered sources. I demonstrate that these statistics can effectively isolate the signature of an extended emission region, requiring no assumptions about the nature or distribution of the scattering material. Then, using observations of the Vela pulsar at 760 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope, I thereby achieve a spatial resolution of 4 km at the pulsar. Finally, I explore the signature of refractive scintillation on the interferometric visibility measured on long baselines, and I derive optimal correlation estimators for quantized data.

Johnson, Michael Douglas

219

The Development of Radio Astronomy at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides information about the emergence and development of radio astronomy at the Sternberg Astronmical Institute of Moscow State University (GAISH), and further at the Space Research Institute (IKI). The main results of theoretical studies of mechanisms for the Sun, Galactic and extragalactic radio emission and their relationship to physical processes in space are laid out in detail. The results of observations carried out at the initiative of and with the participation of radio astronomers from GAISH and IKI using many radio telescope in the Soviet Union and abroad are also considered, including methods for space radio astronomy.

Gindilis, L. M.

220

Spatial filtering of RF interference in radio astronomy using a reference antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical observations are increasingly contaminated by RF interference. Assuming an array of telescopes, we have previously considered spatial filtering techniques based on projecting out the interferer array signature vector. In this paper, we consider extending the astronomical array with a reference antenna (or array), and develop spatial filtering algorithms for this situation. The information from the reference antenna improves

Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

2004-01-01

221

Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

2012-01-01

222

Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

Harvey-Carter, Liz

2009-01-01

223

Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

2012-05-01

224

Ultra-low noise InP pHEMTs for cryogenic Deep-Space and Radio-Astronomy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

InP HEMTs provide the best available low-noise transistor performance. The availability of InP HEMTs for cryogenic front-ends is of paramount importance in ultra-low noise Deep-Space Network (DSN) and Radio-Astronomy (RA) applications. In DSN applications, cryo-cooled InP HEMT front-ends are at the heart of the ESA 34 m antennas used to detect data carrying signals and telemetry information from deep space

A. R. Alt; C. R. Bolognesi; J. D. Gallego; C. Diez; I. Lopez-Fernandez; A. Barcia

2011-01-01

225

News and Views: Bite the bullet; Radio astronomy lurking in your laptop; Want to find planets? Track the lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John O'Sullivan, a radio astronomer, has received the 2009 Australian Prime Minister's Prize for Science for technology that was devised to improve radio astronomy, but now allows fast and reliable wireless computing for all of us - genuine knowledge transfer in action. A spectrographic survey has found that stars with planets - like our Sun - tend to have a lot less lithium in their make-up than comparable stars without planetary systems. It is not yet clear how this comes about, but it points the way to a shortcut to finding new exoplanetary systems.

2009-12-01

226

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-01-01

227

TOPS and Beyond: Training Master Teachers to Mentor Student Astronomy Projects Using the Faulkes Telescope-North  

Microsoft Academic Search

2003 was the fifth and final year of the NSF-funded ``Towards Other Planetary Systems'' (TOPS) secondary school teacher training program conducted by the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai'i. While previous years concentrated on basic astronomy skills, cultural astronomy and astrobiology, TOPS 2003 focused on training master teachers and prior TOPS participants in the requisite skills to mentor student projects using

J. Bedient; K. J. Meech; M. A. Kadooka; J. A. Mattei; J. Hamai; R. Hemphill; S. Hu

2003-01-01

228

Public Databases for Radio Astronomy: a joint venture between East and West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing astronomical data centers and databases of celestial objects show a notable lack in published information on sources of radio emission. Two western and two eastern research teams have spent independent efforts in the past both in collecting systematically old and newly published source lists in electronic form, and in building search tools to query these. This project joins the efforts of all teams and proposes to establish the first reasonably complete and publicly accessible database of radio sources. The organization of the database of astrophysical catalogs is described. This ``CATalog supporting System'' (CATS) runs under the UNIX/LINUX operating system and permits external users to process requests on the basis of various net protocols and via electronic mail.

Trushkin, S. A.; Andernach, H.; Micol, A.; Gubanov, A. G.; Verkhodanov, O.; Titov, V. B.; Chernenkov, V. N.

229

Radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Astronomy is a new and growing branch of Astronomy. Although it seems that radio echo studies must be confined to the solar system, they can play an important part in developing our understanding of the Sun and the planets. At the present time these objects are barely detectable by radar techniques and much of the work has been concerned

J. V. Evans

1960-01-01

230

Adapting the RBSEU Nova Search Project for Use in Intro Astronomy at Truckee Meadows Community College: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster summary describes how the RBSEU Nova Search project was adapted for use in the introductory astronomy course at Truckee Meadows Community College. The summary discusses what the RBSEU Nova Search project is, motivations for including undergraduate research experiences in a non-majors astronomy course, and "lessons learned" in successfully implementing this project.

Loranz, D.

2011-09-01

231

ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in coordinating consortiums in charge of complex, high-performance ground systems." ALMA is an international astronomy facility. It is a partnership between Europe, North America and Japan, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The European contribution is funded by ESO and Spain, with the construction and operations being managed by ESO. A matching contribution is being made by the USA and Canada, who will also provide 25 antennas. Japan will provide additional antennas, thus making this a truly worldwide endeavour. ALMA will be located on the 5,000m high Llano de Chajnantor site in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. ALMA will consist of a giant array of 12-m antennas separated by baselines of up to 18 km and is expected to start partial operation by 2010-2011. The excellent site, the most sensitive receivers developed so far, and the large number of antennas will allow ALMA to have a sensitivity that is many times better than any other comparable instrument. "ALMA will bring to sub-millimetre astronomy the aperture synthesis techniques of radio astronomy, enabling precision imaging to be done on sub-arcsecond angular scales, and will nicely complement the ESO VLT/VLTI observatory", said Dr. Hans Rykaczewski, the ALMA European Project Manager. Millimetre-wave astronomy is the study of the universe in the spectral region between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. In this realm, ALMA will study the evolution of galaxies, including very early stages, gather crucial data on the formation of stars, proto-planetary discs, and planets, and provide new insights on the familiar objects of our own solar system. A prototype antenna had already been built by Alcatel Alenia Space and European Industrial Engineering and thoroughly tested along with prototypes antennas from Vertex/LSI and Mitsubishi at the ALMA Antenna Test Facility located at the Very Large Array site in Socorro, New Mexico. For more information on the ALMA project, please go to http://www.eso.org/projects/alma/.

2005-12-01

232

The General Education Astronomy Source (GEAS) Project: Extending the Reach of Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a set of NASA and NSF sponsored resources to aid in teaching astronomy remotely and in the classroom at the college level, with usage results for pilot groups of students. Our goal is to increase the accessibility of general education science coursework to underserved populations nationwide. Our materials are available for use without charge, and we are actively looking for pilot instructors. Primary components of our program include an interactive online tutorial program with over 12,000 questions, an instructor review interface, a set of hands-on and imaging- and spectra-driven laboratory exercises, including video tutorials, and interviews with diverse individuals working in STEM fields to help combat stereotypes. We discuss learning strategies often employed by students without substantial scientific training and suggest ways to incorporate them into a framework based on the scientific method and techniques for data analysis, and we compare cohorts of in-class and distance-education students.

Vogt, N. P.; Muise, A. S.

2014-07-01

233

The Spectrum of Citizen Science Projects in Astronomy and Space Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen science projects are gaining in popularity and are seen by some as a paradigm shift that will benefit participants, extend scientific research, and improve public understanding of how science is done. All projects engage nonspecialists in observations, measurements, or classifications that further some aspect of scientific activity. In astronomy and space science, there is a range of involvement from

B. J. H. Méndez; B. Day; P. L. Gay; S. H. Jacoby; M. J. Raddick; C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

234

Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

Caballero, J. A.

2012-05-01

235

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Basic Coordinates and Seasons Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based teaching module illustrates three different, but related concepts. Terrestrial coordinates and the celestial equatorial coordinate system are covered and are used to explore the motion of the sun and how it relates to seasons. There are interactive maps that display terrestrial and celestial equatorial coordinates. Users can change the point location on the map and view coordinates from different reference points. The third component of this package explores Earth's seasons and the ecliptic as the earth orbits the sun. This module is part of a larger collection of simulation-based labs for introductory astronomy.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-09-19

236

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Motions of the Sun Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation reviews some of the material from Basic Coordinates and Seasons Module and The Rotating Sky Module and adds information to put all the pieces together for a more complete description of the motions of the sun culminating in the the Paths of the Sun Simulator. Computation of meridional altitude and stellar visibility are also introduced. The user can change the date, latitude and speed of the orbit. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

237

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Eclipsing Binary Stars Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation demonstrates how information about stars which can not be directly observed can be inferred from a special class of binary stars â eclipsing binaries. The simulation shows two stars orbiting each other. As one star is eclipsed the corresponding decrease in flux is displayed on a graph. The user can control the system orientation, stellar properties and the speed of the simulation. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

238

Teaching of Astronomy and Astrophysics in University of Delhi and the under-graduate projects in IRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have two courses in General Relativity and Cosmology, two in Astronomy and Astrophysics and one in observational Astronomy. In addition to this, B Sc. and M Sc. students do projects both formal and informal basis. The IUCAA Resource Centre, is a place where students from different colleges come to use the library, discuss with people working in Astronomy & Astrophysics as well as to do projects in Astronomy & Astrophysics. The recent addition on the telescope facility as well as the upgradation of the IRC as a data centre has enhanced the interest among students in this area.

Seshadri, T. R.

239

Development project of radio on free space optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio on Fiber (RoF) technologies are available to realize a universal platform for transparent forwarding various types of wireless services under multi air interferences coexistence in a ubiquitous network environment. By applying free space optical techniques for RoF, its concept can be extended to free space channels. This paper describes a development project of DWDM Radio on Free Space Optics

Katsutoshi Tsukamoto; Shozo Komaki; Mitsuji Matsumoto

2007-01-01

240

Advanced Amateur Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is for amateur astronomers and telescope users who want to move beyond elementary stargazing to more challenging projects. Written by an accomplished amateur astronomer, this indispensable guide to more advanced work is packed with information and lucid explanations. The first section of the book sets out the fundamental principles of practical astronomy, with chapters on telescope optics, the atmosphere, telescope hardware, astrophotography, and electronic imaging. This knowledge is then applied to the full range of celestial bodies accessible by telescope: the solar system, stars and galaxies. For those users who want to move to even greater challenges, chapters on photometry, spectroscopy and radio astronomy bring observational astronomy to a level where data of real scientific value can be acquired.

North, Gerald

241

Learning Approaches, Course Experience, and Astronomy Understanding in The Oklahoma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project designed to bolster the quality of astronomy education through teacher workshops. Workshop topics include the solar system, stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, and cosmology. The Learning Approach Questionnaire (LAQ) is used to determine the effects of the workshops. (DDR)

Mann, Jennifer; Williams, Karen; Rutledge, Carl

1998-01-01

242

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Hydrogen Energy Levels Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital lab introduces the concept of how quantum mechanics and light relate with respect to the Hydrogen atom. The module revolves around the Hydrogen Atom Simulator, a Bohr model version of a idealized hydrogen atom as it interacts with photons of various wavelengths. Watch the electron jump to higher energy levels as it absorbs photons, then emit photon(s) and drop back to a lower level. Students can drag the electron between levels and shoot photons of different wavelength/frequency at the atom. The module also includes an instructor's manual, student guide, worksheets, and background information requisite to understanding the concepts. The Thermal Distribution histogram gives a temperature dependent plot of occupied states for many, many atoms. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2012-01-26

243

Discovering astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

Chapman, R. D.

1978-01-01

244

New Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elsevier Science began a fully electronic and refereed journal in astronomy and astrophysics in 1996. "New Astronomy" is available via the Web as well as in print. Elsevier states the journal will publish "articles in all fields of astronomy and astrophysics: theoretical, observational and instrumental. 'New Astronomy' includes full length research articles and letter articles. The journal covers solar, stellar, galactic and extragalactic astronomy and astrophysics. It reports on original research in all wavelength bands, ranging from radio to gamma-ray." The journal's Web site provides a listing of receiving editors, as well as a call for papers. It will be a scholarly journal of "rigorously refereed" papers and aims to provide a short publication time, with accepted articles being made immediately available electronically. Detailed instructions on submittal are at the site.

1996-01-01

245

Using an Observatory Project to Develop Professional Communication in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive project using the Highland Road Park Observatory camera. This project encompasses the formal portions for both written and spoken communication, and carries 55% of the course credit.

Dr. Robert Hynes, Assistant Professor, Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University

246

Advances in Composite Reflectors: From X-Ray to Radio Wave Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) has made significant advances in the use of graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) materials for astronomical instrument applications. The inherent low density, high stiffness, and thermal stability makes GFRC a natural candidate for many astronomy applications. In order to reap these inherent benefits in astronomical applications, basic research has focused on material and

S. J. Connell; A. A. Abusafieh; G. V. Mehle; D. A. Sheikh; D. C. Giles

2000-01-01

247

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center describes: the discovery of infrared waves; what infrared waves are and how they are used in astronomy; atmospheric windows; near, middle, and far infrared; the infrared universe; and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. It also provides an IR astronomy timeline; history and development of IR detector technology; information on projects, news and discoveries; an IR gallery; classroom activities; and links for getting involved in astronomy.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

248

The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

1999-01-01

249

Science Sampler: Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project involved thousands of student scientists across the nation in the collection and analysis of astronomical data using a 34-meter radio telescope. These students contributed to the work of the world's foremost authorities on space science when they forwarded their information to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists. The JPL scientists used the information to expand their studies of Jupiter, Uranus, and variable quasars.

Maclaren, Dave; Ibe, Mary

2003-05-01

250

Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

Jones, Richard C.

1994-01-01

251

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrańaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

252

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

253

Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

Doran, G.

2013-01-01

254

The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.03 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestrial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics. The ALFA interferometer will image and track transient disturbances in the solar corona and interplanetary medium - a new capability which is crucial for understanding many aspects of solar-terrestrial interaction and space weather. ALFA will also produce the first sensitive, high-angular-resolution radio surveys of the entire sky at low frequencies. The radio sky will look entirely different below about 30 MHz. As a result, ALFA will provide a fundamentally new view of the universe and an extraordinarily large and varied science return.

Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Blume, W.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Gopalswamy, N.; Howard, R.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

255

Project Explorer GAS #007: Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polls were taken at the Project Explorer meetings regarding flying without the radio experiment transmitting. The radio downlinks require extra coordination and are sensitive to certain payloads. The poll results were unanimous. The radio downlinks are vital in providing data on the health and status of the total experiments package, in real time, during the flight. The amateur radio operators, prepared to receive the downlinks and OSCAR-10 relays, revealed that there was enormous interest throughout the world, to participate. This sets the stage for the reflight opportunities which the GAS program has provided. Major activities, pertinent to the STS-41G flight preparations by the GAS #007 team and support group, are listed.

Stluka, E. F.

1986-01-01

256

National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center: Arecibo Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 305m radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory "is the largest single-dish radio telescope on our planet and is available to the global scientific community for astronomical observation at wavelengths between 6 m and 3 m." Researchers can search WAPP data and information about past, present, and future projects at the Observatory. The extensive website provides numerous data reduction packages and file formats. Users can find extensive materials on the planetary studies, space and atmospheric science, and astronomy occurring at the observatory. Students and educators can learn about Arecibo's summer program. The News link is filled with fascinating new accomplishments, employment opportunities, and upcoming astronomy talks and seminars.

257

Radio Astronomy: A Revision of Chapter 22, Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey is a summary of available information on radiation environments at radio frequencies (about 10 m to 1 cm wavelength); the Moon, the Planets, and space beyond the solar system are described. The topics presented are refraction and absorption of ...

D. A. Guidice

1967-01-01

258

A cryostat for radio astronomy receivers using superconducting mixers at millimetre wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid cryostat using a commercial refrigerator and a bath of liquid helium has been built and tested. Its design and characteristics are consistent with operation in a radio telescope. The cryostat cools the superconducting mixer of a sensitive millimeter wave receiver to 2.7 K. The optical axis of the receiver is well defined mechanically, and the temperature of the

Emile-Jacques Blum

1986-01-01

259

Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10. 7-cm flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies made by means of high-resolution radio telescopes indicate that solar centrimetric emission contains contributions from many different sources and involves more than one radiation mechanism. Two emission components have been identified: bright, compact sources and weaker, diffuse emission which is distributed over the plage and surrounding areas of enhanced magnetic field. There is evidence for the occurrence of weaker

K. F. Tapping

1987-01-01

260

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorization which would change the frequency...effective radiated power (ERP) in the primary plane...miles) with 1 kW or more ERP in the primary plane...miles) with 25 kW or more ERP in the primary plane...with the Radio Frequency Management Coordinator,...

2012-10-01

261

eCUIP Project: Cultural Astronomy -- Bringing the Heavens to Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching module, part of the University of Chicago Internet Project, explores astronomy from the cultural context of past societies and their observations of the heavens. What sorts of phenomena did they observe and how did these observations impact their everyday lives? The module provides a unique way to study the moon, sun, solar system, and stars within a cross-curricular framework that includes history, cultural anthropology, physical science, and mathematics. Teachers will find lesson plans, image sets of physical phenomena, a multimedia gallery, and extension activities. eCUIP is a digital library project developed as a collaboration between Chicago Public Schools and the University of Chicago.

2011-11-14

262

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) provides the Infrared Astronomy Website as one of its outreach programs. Infrared Astronomy, or "the detection and study of the infrared radiation (heat energy) emitted from objects in the Universe," is described and placed in context in the sections Discovery of Infrared, What is Infrared, Infrared Astronomy, Background, and the Infrared Universe. For current information, see the News & Discoveries, Active/ Future Projects, and Activities sections; past and current projects supported by IPAC are featured in the Infrared Gallery. The site targets a broad audience and is geared towards many learning levels.

263

Project CLEA - The Moons of Jupiter: Understanding the Kepler's Laws in Astronomy 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results on a study of impact of Project CLEA - Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy software on students’ understanding of the Kepler's Third Law. The study was conducted at the University of Missouri among 26 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course. There were 16 female and 15 male students participants between age of 18 and 24. The study was designed to find out whether students had different attitudes toward the simulation: its visual design and its intuitiveness and easiness to use. The study tested whether these attitudes reflected on the students’ learning outcomes of the discussed astronomy topic. To measure students’ computer proficiency and how comfortable they were using computers they were given a computer attitude inventory. The participants took a pretest and a posttest designed by the Project CLEA developers for the Moons of Jupiter module. The students also filled out a questionnaire where they reflected on their experience of using the software. Two weeks later the research participants took a final astronomy course examination which included a question on the Kepler's Third Law. Our research shows that students who indicated that they liked the simulation performed better on the posttest.. At the same time, we found that there was no relationship between the students’ attitude towards the simulation and their performance on the final exam. Students, who used CLEA simulation regardless of their attitudes towards it, significantly outperformed their classmates during the final exam on the Kepler's third law question. It is also interesting to note that students performed better on five out of six posttest questions - there was no change on a question involved mathematical application of the Kepler's Third Law formula.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2008-05-01

264

The Harvard Radio Meteor Project Meteor Velocity Distribution Reappraised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative distribution of atmospheric encounter speeds at constant mass for observations made as part of the Harvard Radio Meteor Project synodic year observations has been recalculated using a cumulative mass index, ? = 1.1 ± 0.1, and the mass velocity relation from F. Verniani (1973, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8429-8462), ? = 4.23 ± 0.07. A discrepency in the

A. D. Taylor

1995-01-01

265

Alternate Methods of Measuring Public Radio Audiences: A Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project was undertaken to explore ways to profile public radio audiences inexpensively and simply. The major effort was through use of the station's monthly programing guide mailing list. Persons found in this list were interviewed and their listening habits compared with a general survey (baseline) group. The survey showed that public…

Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; LeRoy, David J.

266

Conveying astronomy to the public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy offers us a unique chance to carry out outreach projects in great scale and, to think about new ways to improve our efforts. In this paper I present a few considerations on my activity as a popularisation person. I address its importance and I will emphasize on radio, television and public lectures. I also stress certain ingredients I believe popularisation must include; it must be interesting, diverse, simple, pertinent, and be peer reviewed.

Fierro, Julieta

2011-06-01

267

Application of Field System-FS9 and a PC to Antenna Control Unit interface in Radio Astronomy in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process to transform a 32m antenna in Peru, used for telecommunications, into a Radio Telescope to perform Radio Astronomy in Peru. The 32m antenna of Peru constructed by NEC was used for telecommunications with communications satellites at 6 GHz for transmission, and 4 GHz for reception. In collaboration of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Japan, and National Observatory of Japan we developed an Antenna Control System for the 32m antenna in Peru. It is based on the Field System FS9, software released by NASA for VLBI station, and an interface to link PC within FS9 software (PC-FS9) and Antenna Control Unit (ACU) of the 32 meters antenna. The PC-FS9 controls the antenna, commands are translated by interface into control signals compatibles with the ACU using: an I/O digital card with two 20bits ports to read azimuth and elevation angles, one 16bits port for reading status of ACU, one 24bits port to send pulses to start or stop operations of antenna, two channels are analogic outputs to drive the azimuth and elevation motors of the antenna, a LCD display to show the status of interface and error messages, and one serial port for communications with PC-FS9,. The first experiment of the control system was made with 11m parabolic antenna of Kashima Space Research Center (NICT), where we tested the right working of the routines implemented for de FS9 software, and simulations was made with looped data between output and input of the interface, both test were done successfully. With this scientific instrument we will be able to contribute with researching of astrophysics. We expect to into a near future to work at 6.7GHz to study Methanol masers, and higher frequencies with some improvements of the surface of the dish.

Vidal, E. V. S.; Ishitsuka, J. I. I.; Koyama, K. Y.

2006-08-01

268

Special purpose image display devices and techniques at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO has developed an image storage unit/control panel that greatly enhances the functionality and user-friendliness of its image display computers. Described here are the hardware design and capabilities of this system. In addition, a selection is presented from an image display software 'bag of tricks': various image display techniques that have been found to be extremely useful in the analysis of radio astronomical imaging data and may be of interest to those in other fields of the physical sciences.

Rots, Arnold H.

1989-12-01

269

Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.  

PubMed

We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data. PMID:17902962

Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

2007-09-01

270

Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

Woody, David P.; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L.; Lamb, James W.; Lawrence, Ronald P.; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J.; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H.; Cartwright, John K.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.

2007-09-01

271

Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

Maxwell, A.

1983-01-01

272

A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

1989-01-01

273

Breaking the I\\/O Bottleneck at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper discusses our approach and the current NRAO environmentin more detail and then presents the details of phase one of the project, including a brief discussion of thefile structure chosen, a sketch of the implementation and performance results and observations. The finalsection presents our future plans for the remainder of the project and beyond.4

John F. Karpovich; Andrew S. Grimshaw; James C. French

274

Monitoring and Control of EMBRACE: A 4608 Element Phased Array for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMBRACE is a technology demonstrator for the decimetre wavelength range of the Square Kilometre Array. As a demonstrator instrument, the primary goal is to test and verify its merits as an SKA candidate design. For this purpose, we have developed the control software for EMBRACE including the real-time control software, the data acquisition and the observation setup systems. We have reused and adapted the LOFAR C++ control software and implemented a similar architecture on the LCU (Local Control Unit) computer. Station Control Unit (SCU) software provides a Python interface to LCU for users to easily setup observation scripts for various types of observation and to capture integrated data. Tests with satellites and strong radio sources are in progress to validate the system and characterize the demonstrator.

Taffoureau, C.; Renaud, P.; Picard, P.; Borsenberger, J.; Torchinsky, S.; Olofsson, H.; Viallefond, F.

2012-09-01

275

Sustainable Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently "retire" observing equipment to local schools. While public evenings continue to be popular, the donated equipment was underutilized due to a lack of trained student observing assistants. With sponsorship from NASA's IYA Student Ambassador program, the sustainable astronomy project began in 2009 to generate greater interest in astronomy and train middle school and high school students as observing assistants. Carleton physics majors developed curricular materials and instituted regular outreach programs for grades 6-12. The Northfield High School Astronomy Club was created, and Carleton undergraduates taught high school students how to use telescopes and do CCD imaging. During the summer of 2009, Carleton students began the Young Astronomers Summer Experience (YASE) program for middle school students and offered a two-week, astronomy-rich observing and imaging experience at Goodsell Observatory. In concert with NASA's Summer of Innovation initiative, the YASE program was offered again in 2010 and engaged a new group of local middle school students in hands-on scientific experiments and observing opportunities. Members of the high school astronomy club now volunteer as observing assistants in the community and graduates of the YASE programs are eager to continue observing as members of a public service astronomy club when they enter the Northfield High School. These projects are training future scientists and will sustain the public's interest in astronomy long after the end of IYA 2009.

Blaha, C.; Goetz, J.; Johnson, T.

2011-09-01

276

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

277

The Smiley Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational astronomy. To fill in this resource gap, PARI has developed the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy and the Smiley 4.6 m Radio Telescope to provide high schools access to a state-of-the-art, internet accessable radio observatory for class projects and activities. We describe here the development of the Smiley radio telescope, its control systems and give examples of several class activities which have been developed for use by high school students. We describe the future development of Smiley and plans to upgrade its performance. The SGRA has been supported by grants from Progress Energy, Z. Smith Reynolds, STScI IDEAS, and the AAS Small Research Grant Program which is supported by NASA.

Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Daugherty, J.; Owen, L.

2004-12-01

278

The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well as special efforts planned for IYA2009, strongly support many of the objectives of IYA. Some of these are: 1. Stimulate interest in astronomy and science, especially among young people and in audiences not normally reached. 2. Increase scientific awareness. 3. Support and improve formal and informal science education. 4. Provide a contemporary image of science and scientists. 5. Facilitate new astronomy education networks and strengthen existing ones. 6. Improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement of underrepresented groups. The Space Place program has cultivated a large network of community partners (Obj. 5), including museums, libraries, and planetariums, as well as a large network of avocational astronomy societies. We send the community partners monthly mailings of the latest NASA materials for their "NASA Space Place" display boards (Obj. 1, 2, 3, 5). The astronomy societies receive original articles with the latest "insider" news on NASA missions for publication in their newsletters or on their websites (Obj. 2, 5). Through these leveraged partnerships, we reach a large audience of children; parents; formal and informal educators; rural, minority, and otherwise underserved audiences (Obj. 1, 6); and avocational astronomers, many of whom work with children and the general public in the classroom or at special events (Obj. 2, 3). Supporting Obj. 4, are the "Space Place Live" cartoon "talk show" episodes, spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/live. For IYA 2009, we will specifically prepare our partners to plan and carry out activities to tie in with the IYA April topic, Galaxies and the Distant Universe. The infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft are strongly represented on The Space Place web site, with interactive games, images, and crafts that explore the wonders of and latest discoveries about galaxies. In addition, in our mailings and other partner communications throughout the year, we will feature special activities and projects on spaceplace.nasa.gov, and suggest ways to use these resources in IYA-related events.

Leon, N. J.; Fisher, D. K.

2008-12-01

279

Astronomy: A handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to astronomical literature and nomenclature is provided and a description of the observing instruments of the amateur astronomer is given. Optical radiation receivers are considered along with radio astronomy for amateur astronomers, the terrestrial atmosphere and its effects, fundamentals of spherical astronomy, modern sundials, applied mathematics for amateur astronomers, the sun, the observation of total solar eclipses, the

G. D. Roth

1975-01-01

280

Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

2012-08-01

281

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the teaching and learning of astronomy, in elementary and secondary school, colleges and universities, and for the public through astronomy outreach and communication. I describe International Year of Astronomy 2009, and some of the national and personal projects in which I am involved.

Percy, John R.

2010-10-01

282

Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

2012-01-01

283

Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found that to influence cultural change effectively — to make people literally look up and see the light — we must make children a main focus, use approaches that offer involvement on many levels, from cursory to committed, and offer involvement via many venues. We must make the programs and resources as turn-key as possible, especially for educators — and provide ways to visualize the problem with simple, easily grasped demonstrations. The programs spanned a wide range; from new media technology for the younger generation, to an event in the arts, to various types of educational materials, to the promotion of dark skies communities, to national and international events and to global citizen science programs. The DSA Cornerstone Project is continuing most all of these programs beyond IYA2009. The International Dark-Sky Association as well as the Starlight Initiative is endorsing and helping to continue with some of the most successful programs from the DSA. The GLOBE at Night campaign is adding a research component that examines light pollution’s affects on wildlife. Dark Skies Rangers activities are being implemented in Europe through the Galileo Teacher Training Program. The new “One Star at a Time” will engage people to protect the night sky through personal pledges and registration of public stargazing areas or StarParks, like the newest one in Italy. The Starlight Initiative’s World Night in Defence of the Starlight will take place on the Vernal Equinox. DSA will again oversee the Dark Skies portion of Global Astronomy Month, in which the International Dark Sky Week will be celebrated. DSA will be collaborating with Belgium’s “Night of Darkness” to endeavor to make that lights out event a more global event. DSA will endeavor to support dark skies education worldwide, as in Northern Ireland. DSA will seek to expand light pollution prevention campaigns like Austria’s. People whose homes meet the criteria of good lighting are invited to put a sticker from Austria’s biggest newspaper in their front window to show their support. DSA also seeks to collaborate with the IAU Office for Astronomy Development. The presentation will focus on the DSA programs during IYA and the sustainability of the DSA programs after IYA, as well as the expansion to other programs worldwide, with particular emphasis in communicating dark skies awareness with the public and its educational value in attracting young people to study science and technology. See www.darkskiesawareness.org for more information on the programs.

Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Iya Dark Skies Awareness Working Group

2010-12-01

284

Reorganization of the astronomy section of NSF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Section of the National Science Foundation has been reorganized to better reflect present directions of current interest in astronomy research. Robert Fleischer continues as Head of the section.The former programs for optical astronomy and radio astronomy have been abolished. Each of the new programs described below includes theoretical and laboratory studies, as well as observations in all spectral

Anonymous

1971-01-01

285

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a fact sheet describing the GAVRT program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. The GAVRT Project introduces students in elementary through high school grades to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2011-04-06

286

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2008-07-01

287

The Life Story of a Star, Book 5. Guidebook. The University of Illinois Astronomy Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is book five in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This guidebook discusses the interior of stars, their source of energy, and their evolution. Topics presented include: the physical properties of the sun; model of the solar…

Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

288

Multiwavelength Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center explains how the universe can be observed using the entire electromagnetic spectrum. There is an introduction to using light in astronomy; information on and images taken from different areas of the electromagnetic spectrum of objects in the solar system, the Milky Way galaxy and beyond; and a table of radiation types, their characteristic temperatures, and objects emitting this type of radiation. The tutorial explains how observations are made using X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared wavelengths, and radio wavelengths. There is a section on why telescopes are sent to space and a multiwavelength gallery.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

289

The birth of high-energy neutrino astronomy: A personal history of the DUMAND project  

SciTech Connect

DUMAND is a project to build a Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector offshore near the island of Hawaii. At present under construction, it hopes to inaugurate the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy. Potential sources of high-energy neutrinos are listed, and estimates of neutrino intensity given. The paper is concerned with the physics, technology, and history of the project, which started informally in 1973. It survived through a series of summer conferences until it was funded as a feasibility study in 1979 and established in the Hawaii DUMAND Center, at the University of Hawaii. Over a dozen collaborating groups have contributed to the successful construction and operation of DUMAND I, the SPS or Short Prototype String, which established the benign character of the ocean environment and demonstrated its suitability for DUMAND II, a 216-phototube array now under construction. DUMAND II, recently funded, will have more than 20 times the area of any existing detector and a mass of almost 2 million tons; this size is minimal for the intensities and cross sections anticipated. The project became feasible---both technically and financially---through important technical advances in data transmission via fiber optics, high-speed computer technology, special photomultiplier tubes made by Hamamatsu and Philips, remotely controlled undersea vehicles with manipulative abilities, and many deep-sea electronic and oceanographic components. It is supported by an international collaboration with 15 collaborating institutions in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. It is scheduled to install a three-string test array (TRIAD) by late 1992, and the complete nine-string array is scheduled for operation in late 1993.

Roberts, A. (Hawaii DUMAND Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States))

1992-01-01

290

The Quiet Skies Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and radio frequency interference (RFI), an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project--the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space…

Rapp, Steve

2008-01-01

291

The STARE Project: A Search for Transient Astronomical Radio Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many astronomical objects are known to produce transient radio emission, including the Sun, Jupiter, flare stars, and supernovae. Other phenomena are expected to produce transient radio emission as well; gamma-ray bursts are obvious candidates. Although other attempts have been made to detect transient radio emission, to our knowledge no search has had both the sensitivity and sufficient sky coverage to

C. A. Katz; J. N. Hewitt; C. B. Moore; J. D. Ellithorpe

1994-01-01

292

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

Rapp, Steve

2010-01-01

293

Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

2006-08-01

294

The U.S. Program for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009): Outcomes, Lessons Learned, and Legacy Projects (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States conducted an active and wide-ranging program for IYA2009, thanks largely to support from the American Astronomical Society, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. The U.S. effort included leadership of several international “cornerstone” projects, including the Galileoscope telescope kit, the “From Earth to the Universe” image exhibition, Dark-Skies Awareness, and a variety of creative New Media activities, such as a daily podcast (“365 Days of Astronomy”) and a virtual island in Second Life. In addition, U.S. astronomy educators and outreach professionals played major roles in IYA2009 cornerstone projects designed to promote greater gender equity in astronomy (“She is An Astronomer”); to provide the best astronomy resources for formal education (the Galileo Teacher Training Program); and to conduct global weekend-long celebrations of astronomy involving star parties, several live Webcasts, and special events (“100 Hours of Astronomy” and “Galilean Nights”). NASA led special projects to provide large astronomy images to science centers across the nation, and sent comprehensive exhibits on the major themes of modern astronomy to dozens of libraries in small and medium-sized cities, based on competitive proposals for community impact (“Visions of the Universe”). Underpinning all of these efforts was a variety of methods for informing and engaging the large community of U.S. amateur astronomers, and active communication with our colleagues in Canada, Puerto Rico and Mexico. This talk will review the outcomes and major success stories from the year, discuss several lessons learned that could be useful for pending efforts such as the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, and provide a look ahead for IYA2009 projects and resources that are expected to continue to be active in 2010 and beyond.

Isbell, D.

2009-12-01

295

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

296

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

297

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

2010-08-01

298

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http:\\/\\/www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band

A. Orfei; L. Carbonaro; A. Cattani; A. Cremonini; L. Cresci; F. Fiocchi; A. Maccaferri; G. Maccaferri; S. Mariotti; J. Monari; M. Morsiani; V. Natale; R. Nesti; D. Panella; M. Poloni; J. Roda; A. Scalambra; G. Tofani

2010-01-01

299

Advances in Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The editors of the third Special Issue on Radio Telescopes, which appeared in the Proceedings of the IEEE in May 1994, surmised in their introduction that "perhaps yet a future issue is merited, one devoted to those new telescopes that are still on the drawing boards." Now, 15 years later, such an issue lies in front of you, featuring 16 papers describing both the realization of new instruments and the status of several giant radio telescopes, most of which are moving from the drawing board to different stages of construction. The development of astronomy over this period has led radio astronomers to concentrate on both the highest and the lowest ranges of the radio spectrum. The technological advance in the millimeter wavelength domain has enabled an enormous improvement in observing capabilities. In the low frequency range, roughly 10 - 2000 MHz, new telescopes are being planned that combine a large instantaneous field of view with a large number of high- resolution antenna beams. In addition to these developments, this issue features papers on several new single aperture telescopes. We also have three papers covering advances in technologies that are applicable to multiple projects, namely, antenna metrology, imaging techniques, and the use of phased array techniques. The issue begins with a short paper by the guest editors on "Radio Astronomy in the Early Twenty-First Century." There we attempt to put the topics of the following papers in historical perspective and to provide background information for readers whose expertise lies outside astronomy. The remaining papers are organized into three broad categories: single antenna telescopes, synthesis array telescopes, and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Although the last is also a synthesis array, the intensity of SKA-related work now under way around the world justifies a separate set of papers devoted to it. This issue features new single-aperture and synthesis array radio telescopes and covers advances in antenna metrology, imaging techniques, and the use of phased array technology.

Baars, Jacob W. M.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Thompson, A. Richard

2009-08-01

300

Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

2013-04-01

301

Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1991-01-01

302

Planetary astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

1991-01-01

303

Infrared astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

1991-01-01

304

Simultaneous Multi-frequency Pulsar Observations: Investigation of the Radio Emission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the progress to date at the observational and theoretical fronts, understanding the physical processes that govern pulsar radio emission continues to be an outstanding problem in pulsar astronomy. In this paper, we report on recent, simultaneous, multi-frequency observations made between the Lovell, Effelsberg and GMRT (Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope). The general goals of this project are: (i) investigating the

N. D. R. Bhat; A. Karastergiou; Y. Gupta; M. Kramer; A. G. Lyne

2001-01-01

305

The Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) Science Education Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project (GAVRT) offers a unique opportunity for students in grades K through 12 to not only learn about science through radio astronomy, but to actually do it. GAVRT is a science education partnership involving NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Lewis Center for Educational Research (LCER). Following a preparation period using curriculum

D. C. MacLaren; M. J. Klein; S. E. Wolff

2004-01-01

306

Comparison of site velocities derived from collocated GPS, VLBI and SLR techniques at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (Comparison of site velocities)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space geodetic techniques provide highly ac- curate methods for estimating bedrock stability at sub- centimetre level. We utilize data derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) techniques, collocated at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Obser- vatory, to characterise local plate motion and compare the solutions from the three techniques. Data from the GNSS station were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK (version 10.4) software, data from the SLR station (MOBLAS-6) were processed using the Satellite Laser Ranging Data Analy- sis Software (SDAS) and the VLBI data sets were processed using the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) software. Results show that there is a good agreement between horizontal and vertical velocity components with a maximum devia- tion of 1.7 mm/yr, 0.7 mm/yr and 1.3 mm/yr between the North, East and Up velocity components respectively for the different techniques. At HartRAO there is no significant trend in the vertical component and all the techniques used are consistent with the a-priori velocities when com- pared with each other. This information is crucial in mon- itoring the local motion variations since geodetic instru- ments require a very stable base to minimise measurement errors. These findings demonstrate that station coordinate time-series derived with different techniques and analysis strategies provide comparable results

Munghemezulu, C.; Combrinck, L.; Mayer, D.; Botai, O. J.

2014-02-01

307

Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Network Radio Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1973, public, school, and college librarians in the Lowell, Massachusetts, area formed the Lowell Area Council on Interlibrary Networks (LACOIN). With a grant from the Library Services and Construction Act, Title III, LACOIN initiated library-sponsored public affairs radio broadcasting for its community. Utilizing the Lowell…

Panciers, David J.

308

Stereoscopic 3D Projections with MITAKA An Important Tool to Get People Interested in Astronomy and Space Science in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan has developed space simulation software "Mitaka". By using Mitaka on two PCs and two projectors with polarizing filter, and look through polarized glasses, we can enjoy space travel in three dimensions. Any one can download Mitaka from anywhere in the world by Internet. But, it has been prepared only Japanese and English versions now. We improved a Mitaka Spanish version, and now we are making projections for local people. The experience of the universe in three dimensions is a very memorable for people, and it has become an opportunity to get interested in astronomy and space sciences. A 40 people capacity room, next o to our Planetarium, has been conditioned for 3D projections; also a portable system is available. Due to success of this new outreach system more 3D show rooms will be implemented within the country.

Shiomi, Nemoto; Shoichi, Itoh; Hidehiko, Agata; Mario, Zegarra; Jose, Ishitsuka; Edwin, Choque; Adita, Quispe; Tsunehiko, Kato

2014-02-01

309

DNA Files: Report from Genome Radio Project, March--June 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Genome Radio Project (GRP) core staff are now all in place and the office infrastructure has been set up. The project logo, stationery, and letterhead have all been approved. The name of the series has been identified: The DNA Files. Weekly staff plan...

1995-01-01

310

Radio-Noise Levels of EHV Transmission Lines Based on Project EHV Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of three years of experimental and theoretical research on transmission-line radio noise at Project EHV are presented. Computer programs were developed to process the data on a statistical basis, and as output provide both histograms and regression analyses for four test configurations operated at the 500-and 700-kV levels. Fair weather radio-noise levels were found to be significantly affected

J. J. Laforest; M. Baretsky; D. D. Maccarthy

1966-01-01

311

Sustainable Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently \\

C. Blaha; J. Goetz; T. Johnson

2011-01-01

312

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bad Astronomy is a site dedicated to misconceptions and myths held regarding astronomy, and the popular culture that propogates them. Of particular note are the many reviews of movies and television from a scientific perspective

Plait, Phil

313

Astronomy 250  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of lecture notes discusses the fundamentals of astronomy. The lecture notes review the topics of celestial mechanics, light, matter, planets, telescopes, the sun, stellar astronomy, stellar evolution, life in the universe, galaxies, and cosmology.

Rieke, Marcia

2011-05-24

314

An Evaluative Study of the Effectiveness and Effects of Astronomy Materials Prepared by the University of Illinois Elementary-School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated was the effectiveness of the materials of one book, "Charting the Universe," of the six books that comprise the University of Illinois Elementary Science Project. Five hypotheses were tested, including one related to students' general understanding of science, and another related to students' views of astronomy, arithmetic, scientists,…

Klopfer, Leopold E.

315

Resources for College Libraries: Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of us have built library collections of books to serve researchers -- graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in astronomy and astrophysics, and the Core List of Astronomy Books project, coordinated by Liz Bryson, exemplifies our collaborative efforts to identify the best books available at the research level. As the editor of the astronomy section of the Resources for College Libraries: A Core List for the Undergraduate Curriculum project, I have tried to ascertain what books college-age students of astronomy are actually reading (or should be reading!). To aid in this endeavor, I have obtained astronomy course reserve lists from colleagues at several U.S. colleges and universities, and regularly obtain lists of the astronomy books currently charged out to undergraduates at Princeton. I shall describe the RCL project, some of the book usage data I collected, and finally, give a brief update on the status of the Astrophysics Library at Princeton.

Holmquist, J. E.

2007-10-01

316

Project RESUN, a Radio EVLA Search for UHE Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade there have been several attempts to detect Ultra High Energy (UHE) neutrinos via radio ?erenkov bursts in terrestrial ice or the lunar regolith. So far these searches have yielded no detections, but the inferred flux upper limits have started to constrain physical models for UHE neutrino generation. We report results from the Radio EVLA Search for UHE Neutrinos (RESUN) experiment, aimed at further limiting isotropic and point-source production models. RESUN uses the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) configured in multiple sub-arrays of four antennas observing at 1.4 GHz and pointed along the lunar limb to detect cm-wavelength ?erenkov bursts. No pulses of lunar origin exceeding a threshold of 0.017 ?V m -1 MHz -1 were detected during a observing campaign totaling 200 h. The RESUN null detection implies an upper limit to the differential isotropic neutrino flux EdN/ dE < 1 km -2 yr -1 sr -1 at 90% confidence level for sources with energy ( E) exceeding 10 21.2 eV and EdN/ dE < 0.1 km -2 yr -1 sr -1 for E > 10 22.5 eV. The isotropic flux upper limit is the lowest published for lunar searches in the range 10 20.7 eV < E < 10 22.3 eV and is inconsistent with extragalactic and halo Z-burst models for neutrino generation, in agreement with the ANITA Antarctic ice observations and WMAP neutrino mass estimates. Further, we establish 90% confidence differential flux limits for selected AGN sources located along the lunar celestial path.

Jaeger, T. R.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G.

2010-12-01

317

Astronomy in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

Lee, William H.

2013-01-01

318

Personal Science and its Implications for Science Education: Reflections Arising from a Combined Project in Science Education and Astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined study in Astronomy and Science Education was undertaken to explore the personal dimension of science within research and science education. The term "personal science" has been introduced to embrace a host of personal factors unavoidably present in the pursuit of science. The primary goal of this thesis is to demonstrate the reality of personal science within my researching as an astronomer and to argue that the notion of personal science must play a significant role in our thinking about science education. The thesis develops in two sections:. Part A of the thesis, found in Chapters 1-7, focuses on the impact that personal science should have on science education. In this section the diversity implied by the term "science" as it is presently used within science education discourse is considered and it is argued that the idea of personal science should be an essential dimension of school portrayals of science. In developing the idea of personal science a number of influential philosophies of science have been considered in light of my own experience as an astronomer and teacher. Attention is given to Holton's thematic analysis of science and Polanyi's philosophy of personal knowledge and it is argued that Polanyi's conception of personal knowledge may be used to found a more effective epistemology for science education. The problem of fostering, communicating and sharing one's personal science is addressed. The suggestion is made that a curriculum focused on one's personal experiencing of the ideas will be more effective in portraying the personal dimension of science. Narrative and story-telling are explored as effective means of communicating and sharing one's personal science. Part B of the thesis presents the results of three research projects in astronomy. The first project is the observation and analysis of the ellipsoidal binary system 42 Persei and presents the first known model of this system. The second project describes participation in an international collaborative effort to measure the modes of oscillation for two Delta-Scuti variable stars. The third project describes the search for rapid variability within a group of selected A type stars.

Martin, Brian E.

1990-01-01

319

The Serendip piggyback SETI project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Serendip project, an ongoing SETI program of monitoring and processing broadband radio signals acquired by existing radio astronomy observatories, are summarized. Serendip operates in a piggyback mode, making use of whatever observing plan is under way at its host observatory. The Serendip system at NRAO and the signature detection and identification techniques used by the project are described. The method used to reject terrestrial interference is discussed.

Lampton, Michael; Bowyer, Stuart; Werthimer, Dan; Donnelly, Charles; Herrick, Walter

1988-01-01

320

A software-defined radio receiver for APCO project 25 signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

APCO Project 25 (P25) is the digital communications stan- dard that has widespread deployment amongst emergency first-responders in several different countries. This paper describes the implementation of a low-cost software-defined radio receiver for APCO Project 25 signals. The OP25 Re- ceiver has been developed as part of an investigation into the security of the P25 protocol suite and provides low-level

Steve Glass; Vallipuram Muthukkumarasamy; Marius Portmann

2009-01-01

321

Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds a distinguished doctorate and a Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Karlsruhe. Contact him at pankrat@mit.edu, victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius.

Pankratius, Victor

2014-06-01

322

A Regression of the Moon's Nodes: A Major Project in Introductory Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive observational project of the movement of the moon is described. Directions for building a cross-staff used to measure the angle between specific stars and the moon and a copy of a stereographic projection of the celestial sphere used in data reduction are provided. (KR)

Hickman, Jennifer, Ed.

1991-01-01

323

The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope project and its early science opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), has started building the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope is a Chinese mega-science project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). FAST also represents part of Chinese contribution to the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Upon its finishing around September of 2016, FAST will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz. The design specifications of FAST, its expected capabilities, and its main scientific aspirations were described in an overview paper by Nan et al. (2011). In this paper, we briefly review the design and the key science goals of FAST, speculate the likely limitations at the initial stages of FAST operation, and discuss the opportunities for astronomical discoveries in the so-called early science phase.

Li, Di; Nan, Rendong; Pan, Zhichen

2013-03-01

324

The DNA Files: Report from Genome Radio Project, March--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Genome Radio Project (GRP) core staff are now all in place and the office infrastructure has been set up. The project logo, stationery, and letterhead have all been approved. The name of the series has been identified: The DNA Files. Weekly staff planning meetings and work plans have been initiated; the research component has been launched; interviews of potential production personnel are being conducted. The first three months of the GRP were principally devoted to the further development of the entire two-year project, specifically by pursuing full funding for this project from sources other than DOE. The principal purpose of this planning grant includes the following: produce a pilot documentary which can be used to strengthen the marketing strategy of the overall project; create concrete strategies for best engaging the talents and energies of the project`s advisors; and identify concrete collaborations that maximize the efficacy of a well-designed set of ancillary materials. During this period, GRP collaborated with the Exploratorium in San Francisco to record their series of evening lectures on the social implications of genetic research and its applications. Project staff also attended Lawrence Berkeley Lab.`s Genome Educators Workshops, and the Public Radio Conference.

NONE

1995-07-10

325

Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy

B. V. Sreekantan

2002-01-01

326

Aperture Synthesis in Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper analyzes certain general characteristics of the Ryle system, the Mills and Christiansen crosses, variable-base interferometers, of compound and multi-element interferometers, representing specific cases of aperture synthesis. The main attention ...

N. M. Tseitlin

1970-01-01

327

Seeing the Deep Sky: Telescopic Astronomy Projects Beyond the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packed with a vast array of telescopic projects involving different kind of stars, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies which lie beyond our solar system. Takes a look at stars of diverse chemical or atomic ``brew'', old and new, tiny or vast, dense or tenuous; the ways in which they behave and much more.

Fred Schaaf

1992-01-01

328

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

329

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an extensive set of online resources for Astronomy Today, an introductory astronomy textbook. The website provides learning goals, practice problems, labeling exercises, images, and animations for each of the 20 chapters. A mechanism is provided so students may submit scores on the online quizzes to their instructors through the website.

Chaisson, Eric; Mcmillan, Steve

2005-04-25

330

Primary Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

331

Intermediate Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

332

Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

1991-01-01

333

HPC in Astronomy: overview and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a personal overview of italian high performance computing in astronomy, as given with the presentation of this meeting, then suggest ways for a more fruitful interaction with the rest of Astronomy; finally and more important, I suggest a qualitative improvement of high performance computing in astronomy through the support of challenging and competitive key projects.

Peres, G.

334

Space-Frequency Projection of Planar AMCs on Integrated Antennas for 60 GHz Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present planar low-profile designs of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) appropriate for integration of planar antennas into small form-factor devices for wireless communications applications. These novel AMC designs have a single metallization layer with no vias, and the whole system is suitable for inexpensive on-package integration for 60-GHz radio transceivers. They allow simultaneously for projecting the AMC behavior directly

Chryssoula A. Kyriazidou; Harry F. Contopanagos; Nicolaos G. Alexopoulos

2012-01-01

335

The Project SSG-S: a Rapid Document Delivery Service for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly fifty years the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) has given considerable financial support to a series of German libraries for the acquisition of research literature in various areas. Particular emphasis was put on the acquisition of special research literature in addition to the standard material as found in many collections. The project SSG-S aims at making these collected resources as comprehensively and easily as possible available to institutions of higher education, research and private enterprise alike. This does not only include a rapid document delivery service, but also aims at recording and making accessible all relevant material including electronic documents.

Sens, Irina

336

Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

2012-05-01

337

Vision for Astronomy in South Africa and partnership with the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2002 National Research and Development Strategy identified astronomy as a national geographic advantage. This identification was based on the historical investments in optical and, to a lesser extent, radio astronomy up to that point and the realisation that the conditions prevailing in Sutherland were among the best in the world. Since then a number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the HESS, SKA and the AVN. Currently, investments in astronomy are by far the biggest investments being made by the Department of Science and Technology (DST). South Africa’s involvement in modern astronomy dates back to 1685 when a French Astronomer, Guy Tachard, setup an observatory at the southern tip of Africa to decipher the star charts of the extreme southern sky. In 1820, a permanent observatory - the Royal Observatory - was established outside of Cape Town and astronomy has been practised continuously since then. By the late 1980s, it became clear that for South African astronomers and astrophysicists to continue conducting first class research, the acquisition of a much larger, powerful and sophisticated telescope would be necessary. This provided the impetus for a new vision to construct the largest single optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, eventually known as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Within the last decade, the African appetite for radio astronomy initiatives has increased exponentially. This has largely been spurred by the African bid to host the SKA project and the need for African countries to work in close partnership that consequently resulted in a successful bid to co-host the SKA project and the subsequent need to ensure its effective implementation. This partnership, and the interactions related thereto, has effectively enhanced awareness around the requirements for hosting radio astronomy instrumentation and the associated benefits that could be derived in making such commitments. Consequently, there have been concerted efforts in support of various radio astronomy initiatives that sit at the cusp of the continents ambitions for the hosting of the SKA.

Nemaungani, Takalani

2014-01-01

338

System definition phase and acquisition phase project plan for Small Astronomy Satellite SAS-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the SAS-D project is to conduct spectral distribution studies of celestial ultraviolet sources using an Explorer-class spacecraft launched by a Delta vehicle into a geosynchronous orbit in the last half of 1975. The telescope system is intended for use by guest astronomers for a major portion of the total observing time. The concept of the overall system, designed to resemble functionally the operation of a ground-based observatory, should maximize the usefulness of the instrument to the astronomical community by limiting the amount of special instruction needed to use the spaceborne telescope. The SAS-D mission will obtain information on what stars, nebulae, and galaxies are and how they develop.

1971-01-01

339

Submillimeter Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the advantages of using submillimeter astronomy in the study of astronomical questions where other wavelengths are not useful. The problems involved in the use of submillimeter waves and a description of the instruments used are includ...

A. E. Salomonovich

1969-01-01

340

Astronomy Program for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of a teacher's experience in presenting astronomy to 12 to 15 year olds in a summer science program is presented. Observations of planets, meteors, and the sun are the major projects which are discussed. (SA)

Levy, David H.

1979-01-01

341

Using CO to probe the radio-FIR correlation - a pilot project for the ATLAS CO study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boyle et al (2007) found a kink in the radio-FIR correlation, which now appears to be caused by a population of galaxies which are abnormally radio-quiet, thus falling below the standard radio-FIR correlation. Here we propose to search for CO in one such galaxy to find out what makes them different. This project is also a feasibility study for a much larger CO study of ATLAS galaxies planned for next year, but we have decided to focus the pilot project by attacking a particular scientific problem.

Norris, Ray; Middelberg, Enno; Feain, Ilana; Boyle, Brian; Mao, Minnie

2008-04-01

342

Radio frequency interference protection of communications between the Deep Space Network and deep space flight projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing density of electrical and electronic circuits in Deep Space Station systems for computation, control, and numerous related functions has combined with the extension of system performance requirements calling for higher speed circuitry along with broader bandwidths. This has progressively increased the number of potential sources of radio frequency interference inside the stations. Also, the extension of spectrum usage both in power and frequency as well as the greater density of usage at all frequencies for national and international satellite communications, space research, Earth resource operations and defense, and particularly the huge expansion of airborne electronic warfare and electronic countermeasures operations in the Mojave area have greatly increased the potential number and severity of radio frequency interference incidents. The various facets of this problem and the efforts to eliminate or minimize the impact of interference on Deep Space Network support of deep space flight projects are described.

Johnston, D. W. H.

1981-01-01

343

New Radio Continuum Observations of the Compact Source Projected Inside NGC 6334A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handful of HII regions are known to exhibit a compact radio source near their centers. The nature of these compact radio sources is not well established. We present the analysis of new as well as archival Very Large Array observations of the compact source projected near the center of the NGC 6334A HII region, part of the NGC 6334 complex. We show that the compact source is time variable on a scale of years and determine for one epoch a non-thermal spectrum, suggestive of synchrotron emission. We propose that this source could be the wind interaction region of a massive binary system that could be the ionizing source of NGC 6334A.

Rodríguez, L. F.; Masqué, J. M.; Dzib, S. A.; Loinard, L.; Kurtz, S. E.

2014-04-01

344

Visualising Astronomy: "Other Worlds"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructures that are built and used for astronomical research are financed by - and therefore must be justified to - our society. Astronomy has an innate appeal for people of all ages, partly because it concerns the fascinating, great questions "of life, the Universe and everything" and partly because much of the data obtained with telescopes can be presented as objects of stunning beauty. These are key facts when considering communicating astronomy with the public. This native advantage that astronomy has over many other sciences does not, however, relieve us of the obligation to explain what we are doing to the public at large. There are many reasons for doing this. They range from attracting bright young people into the subject to fuel future research endeavours to convincing decision-takers to allocate large sums of money to finance increasingly expensive and ambitious projects.

Wyatt, R.

2009-02-01

345

The Astronomy Encyclopedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more than 3,000 alphabetically arranged entries and 500 stunning color and black-and-white photographs, star maps, and diagrams, The Astronomy Encyclopedia covers everything that the general enthusiast--and the more serious researcher--would want to know about planets, stars, galaxies, and our universe. Here is concise, reliable information on the whole field of astronomy, ranging from adaptive optics and cold dark matter, to Islamic astronomy and the lens defect known as vignetting. It includes a host of major articles on the cornerstones of astronomical investigation, such as the Milky Way, the sun and the planets, optical and radio telescopes, stars, black holes, astrophysics, observatories, astronomical photography, space programs, the constellations, and famous astronomers. And there are concise entries on planetary features and satellites, asteroids, observational techniques, comets, satellite launchers, meteors, and subjects as diverse as life in the Universe and the structure of meteorites. Scores of tables list the brightest stars in the major constellations, annual meteor showers, major variable stars, dwarf stars, energy production processes in the Sun, and other relevant data. More than 100 astronomers from leading universities and observatories around the world, each an expert in their own particular field, wrote and reviewed the entries to ensure their authority. Readers can thus be assured that the Encyclopedia provides the most up-to-date and reliable information available. Under the general editorship of Patrick Moore, one of the world's best-known and most trusted voices on astronomy, The Astronomy Encyclopedia is an authoritative and strikingly attractive roadmap for exploring the last great frontier of the world in which we live.

Moore, Patrick

2002-11-01

346

Astronomy: Project Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents classroom activities and reading materials. The activities use a hands-on approach and address the standards. Each features both a student section and a teacher guide. Eleven activities include: (1) "It's Only a Paper Moon"; (2) "Time Traveler"; (3) "Solar System Scale"; (4) "Hello Out There!"; (5) "How Far to the Star?"; (6)…

Smith, P. Sean

347

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

SciTech Connect

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

348

Diagnostics of Energy Release and Magnetic Fields on the Sun by Radio Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of radio astronomy on the knowledge of energy release processes and magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere is reviewed. Solar radio astronomy takes advantage of a richness of spectral and morphological features containing information about all...

A. Krueger

1989-01-01

349

US Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the 19th century ended, astronomy underwent a period of rapid growth in the United States, a growth that was fueled by both the expansion of the university system and private philanthropy and which also paralleled the growth in astrophysical research. For the first half of the 20th century, the US government took little interest in the funding of astronomical

K. Marvel; R. Milkey

2000-01-01

350

Radar Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general review of radar astronomy is given. Typical radar systems are described and results cited. Methods of determining elements of orbits and rotation rates of planets are discussed. A proposed test of the Einstein theory of general relativity is des...

G. H. Pettengill I. I. Shapiro

1965-01-01

351

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

352

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of references, images, and information for general astronomy. This work covers topics from the basics of science and observation through the solar system, stars, cosmology, and astrobiology. The material is clearly organized by topic using links to reference materials on the web.

Murphy, Ricky L.

2007-12-28

353

Astronomy Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a collection of quizzes from a wide range of topics. Subjects covered include historical astronomy, astronomical units and scales, telescopes, planetary geology, the sun, stellar evolution, cosmology, and life in the universe. These quizzes have five to ten multiple choice questions each. Quizzes are graded automatically and the student is told which answers are correct and incorrect.

Arny, Thomas

2010-01-26

354

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

355

Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2010-01-01

356

National Radio Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) "operates powerful, advanced radio telescopes spanning the western hemisphere." The website is nicely divided into information for the general public, astronomers, and teachers and students. Users can learn all about NRAO's many telescopes located throughout the United States. Researchers can find out about meetings, conferences, software resources, and surveys. Amateur radio astronomers can find links describing how to build antennas and interferometers. Everyone will enjoy the numerous images of astronomical phenomena and NRAO's telescopes and facilities.

357

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

358

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

359

International Year of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA) is a year long celebration of astronomical and scientific milestones. The U.S. website of the IYA offers a host of information about the learning opportunities, community events, and celebrations planned for the IYA in the U.S. Visitors interested in the IYA outside of the U.S. can click on the link "International Homepage" on the right side of the homepage. The cornerstone of the IYA is the 100 Hours of Astronomy project that is touted on the website as the largest science public outreach program. For numerous links to websites dedicated to the program, visitors should scroll down to the heading "100 Hours is Coming!" Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Get Involved" tab at the top of the page to find information about how to participate in the events of IYA. The ways to participate are divided up by who wants to get involved, such as an Astronomy Enthusiast, Amateur Astronomer, Teacher, Homeschooler, Parent or Grandparent, Professor, or Planetarium. Each category has a pdf of a printable flyer that has all the resources and tips on it to make the most of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

2011-09-19

360

NASE Training Courses in Astronomy for Teachers throughout the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Network for Astronomy School Education, NASE, is a project that is organizing courses for teachers throughout the entire world. The main objective of the project is to prepare secondary and primary school teachers in astronomy. Students love to know more about astronomy and teachers have the opportunity to observe the sky that every school has…

Ros, Rosa M.

2012-01-01

361

College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

2003-12-01

362

On gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Photons in the visible range form the basis of astronomy. They move in straight lines, which preserves source information,\\u000a but they arise only very indirectly from nuclear or high-energy processes. Cosmic-ray particles, on the other hand, arise\\u000a directly from high-energy processes in astronomical objects of various classes, but carry no information about source direction.\\u000a Radio emissions are still more complex

P. Morrison

1958-01-01

363

Astronomy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of astronomy lesson plans and experiments from across the internet was developed by Reach Out, a center linking University of Michigan and community mentors with children and teens. Topics covered include comets, the Sun, sunspots, the aurora, craters, galaxies, moons, star properties, Moon phases, and meteors. Each lesson plan gives credit to the developer, and contains all the information necessary for applying the lesson in a classroom setting.

364

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

365

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

366

Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

2004-01-01

367

The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Societŕ Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

2011-10-01

368

Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

Rahe, Jurgen (editor)

1993-01-01

369

The Smiley Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational

R. M. Blake; M. W. Castelaz; J. Daugherty; L. Owen

2004-01-01

370

Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project  

SciTech Connect

This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

P. E. Klingsporn

2005-11-14

371

ASTRONET: Towards a Strategic Plan for European Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a comprehensive long-term plan for the development of European astronomy - optical and radio, ground and space - has been discussed for many years, but still waits to be done. Also, European astronomy would benefit much from better-coordinated actions among countries. A consortium of European funding agencies is now launching ASTRONET, a four-year ERANET initiative to achieve these goals.

A.-M. Lagrange

2005-01-01

372

Reports on Astronomy 2010-2012 (IAU XXVIIIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Fundamental astronomy; 2. Sun and heliosphere; 3. Planetary systems science; 4. Stars; 5. Variable stars; 6. Interstellar matter; 7. Galactic system; 8. Galaxies and the Universe; 9. Optical and infrared techniques; 10. Radio astronomy; 11. Space and high energy astrophysics; 12. Union-wide activities; 13. Executive committee; Index.

Corbett, Ian F.

2012-04-01

373

Popularising science through astronomy, an Algerian experience in grassroot activism and its academic spin-off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate the success story of an amateur astronomy association based at Constantine, which has spearheaded the efforts of spreading astronomy and scientific culture in Algeria. This association has organised throughout the past decade many activities from large national yearly gatherings to a weekly radio program, through public sighting campaigns. It has been instrumental in the establishment of a pluri-university graduate study program in astrophysics, the so called Ecole Doctorale d'Astrophysique (EDA), the first of its kind in Algeria. We describe in particular how astronomers from various parts of Algeria involved in amateur astronomy have known each other, and banded together to the point of constituting a critical size group able to set up such a national graduate program with plans for the establishment of the first observatory in our country, the Aurčs Observatory in Eastern Algeria Aurčs mountain range. A strong interest for the project has been shown by the astronomical community, some site testing undertaken, and international collaboration sought. With some dedicated support, its foundation could take place within the year 2009. Could IAY2009 be turned into an annus mirabilis for Algeria and a showcase for the astronomy community worldwide with behind it a textbook case of synergy between amateur astronomy and academic endeavor in the astronomical sciences?

Mimouni, Jamal

2011-06-01

374

Astronomy Education and Popularization in Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, universities) in Serbia is reviewed. The attempts to introduce astronomy as an elective course in elementary schools and to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in secondary schools are discussed. The role of the Petnica Science Center is briefly described, as well as the participation of the Serbian team in the International Astronomy Olympiads. A special emphasis is put on recent changes introduced in the accredited study programs at all five Serbian state universities. The research projects performed in two main astronomical institutions in Serbia are outlined. The numerous amateur astronomical societies in Serbia are presented and their growing activities summarized.

Atanackovic, O.

2013-05-01

375

The Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Study: Executive volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy.

1975-01-01

376

Radioastron (Spectr-R project)—a radio telescope much larger than the earth: Ground segment and key science areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space interferometer Radioastron is working jointly with the largest radio telescopes of the world. Ground tracking stations provide for retrieving the information and determining the orbital parameters for data processing centers. The project is aimed at systematic studies of images of radio emitting regions, their coordinates, and time-dependent variations near super-massive black holes in galactic nuclei, stellarmass black holes, neutron and quark stars, regions of star and planet formation in our and other galaxies, the structure of interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the Earth's gravitational field.

Alexandrov, Yu. A.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Zinoviev, A. N.; Komaev, R. V.; Kanevskiy, B. Z.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Larionov, M. G.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Sakharov, B. A.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Yakimov, V. E.

2012-12-01

377

The Political Uses of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its first twelve years of rule the African National Congress (ANC) Government spent more on astronomy than all governments combined between 1910-1993. Three factors drove this unexpected development: (a) national prestige; (b) dignity of the continent of Africa; and (c) Black dignity. Both astronomy and astronautics project an image of modernity - the cutting edge of high technology. When the Government supports initiatives such as SALT, SKA, the proposed national space agency, and microsats, it does so because it perceives these as having a political importance far beyond their intrinsic importance to astronomy. These project "soft power" - an image of modernity to foreign powers and foreign investors - which contribute to their intangible perceptions of South Africa. Astronomers need to encourage this trend by both greatly increasing public outreach programmes and by making representations to the media, Parliament, and other public authorities, on issues such as light pollution.

Gottschalk, K.

2007-07-01

378

The Compact, Time-variable Radio Source Projected Inside W3(OH): Evidence for a Photoevaporated Disk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the compact (~0.''05), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of ? = 1.3 ± 0.3 (S ?vprop??). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source (~6500 K) suggest that we are most likely detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk.

Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Garza, Carolina B.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana

2013-08-01

379

Multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 19-22, 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present volume on multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography discusses AXAF grazing incidence mirrors, the theory and high throughput optics of grazing incidence optics, multilayer mirror fabrication and characterization, and multilayer optics for X-ray projection lithography. Attention is given to the VETA-I X-ray detection system, a motion detection system for AXAF X-ray ground testing, image analysis of the AXAF VETA-I X-ray mirror, and optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons. Topics discussed include the application of aberration theory to calculate encircled energy of Wolter I-II telescopes, W/C multilayers deposited on plastic films, nonspecular X-ray scattering from Si/Mo multilayers, and multilayer thin-film design as FUV polarizers. Also discussed are thin-film filter lifetesting results in the EUV, chromospheric and coronal observations with multilayer optics, present and future requirements of soft X-ray projection lithography, and the imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope.

Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

1993-01-01

380

Highlights of astronomy. Volume 7 - Proceedings of the Nineteenth IAU General Assembly, Delhi, India, November 19-28, 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book first presents papers on pulsars and their genesis, dark matter in the universe, and Venus. Then, a collection of papers is presented which review the status of research on reference frames, long-period eclipsing binary stars and related objects, solar and stellar nonradial oscillations, radio astronomy and cosmology, the relationship of stellar activity to rotation and magnetic fields, evolution in young populations in galaxies, and supernovae. Then papers on more specialized subjects are given, including the Hipparcos project, coronal activity and interplanetary disturbances, the MERIT and COTES programs, synthetic photometry, and standard stars. Two additional contributions on new radio telescopes and galactic constants are also presented.

Swings, J.-P.

381

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

382

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

383

Astronomy Mission Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about finding habitable planets. Learners will use an online, multimedia module to simulate the techniques that scientists might use to find a star system and planet that meet the astronomical conditions required for human habitability. Students then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 13 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

384

Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)

Kruglak, Haym

1973-01-01

385

Service Learning in Introductory Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Service learning is a method of instruction where the students in a course use the course's content in a service project. The service is included as a portion of the students' course grades. During the fall semester 2010, service learning was incorporated into the Introduction to Astronomy course at Misericordia University. The class had…

Orleski, Michael

2013-01-01

386

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

387

Lunar Interferometric Radio Array: LIRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Interferometric Radio Array (LIRA) is a performance driven design, with emphasis on utilizing the unique attributes of the far-side of the moon as a platform for radio astronomy. LIRA consists of three independent Lunar Telescope Units (LTUs), autonomously landed on the moon, and a communications relay satellite orbiting at libration point two (L2). Each LTU deploys a large

John Abbott; Shane Pixton; Christopher J. Roberts; Mahmut Reyhanoglu

2000-01-01

388

In Brief: Launch of astronomy year 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) will involve 135 nations and thousands of events around the world. In addition to opening ceremonies in Paris on 15-16 January and in many other countries during January and February, other planned events include the Cosmic Diary project about the daily lives of full-time astronomers; the 365 Days of Astronomy project to publish one podcast per day during the entire year; and the 100 Hours of Astronomy project on 2-5 April, which includes the goal of having as many people as possible look through a telescope. Also, the Dark Skies Awareness project will help to raise awareness of light pollution. The International Astronomical Union and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization launched IYA2009 under the theme, ``The universe, yours to discover.'' For more information, visit http://www.astronomy2009.org.

Showstack, Randy

2009-01-01

389

USS - the project of a complex for automatization of preparing and making observations at the radio telescope RATAN-600  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main tasks and principles of organization and methodology of construction of an automatization complex for preparation and conduction of observations at RATAN-600 are described. The complex USS (United Supporting System) is regarded to be a system that integrated key subsystems of the radio telescope and ensures their qualitatively new and interrelated development. The first results of the work done on the project are presented.

Zhekanis, G. V.; Kononov, V. K.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Tsybulev, P. G.

390

Apollo-Soyuz test project. Volume 1: Astronomy, earth atmosphere and gravity field, life sciences, and materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The joint U.S.-USSR experiments and the U.S. conducted unilateral experiments performed during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are described. Scientific concepts and experiment design and operation are discussed along with scientific results of postflight analysis.

1977-01-01

391

Development and Use of Astronomy-Like Devices for UFO Monitoring: A Research Project for the Study of UFO Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project aimed at studying unidentified atmospheric `nocturnal lights' in world areas of recurrence is presented. In such a context targets are considered and treated on a par with celestial and\\/or atmospheric objects having no fixed coordinates. Such a project involves the use of a battery of 20 mini-telescopes which can be interchangeable with wide-field lenses. Both types of

M. Teodorani

1994-01-01

392

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

393

Astronomy Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some links to Astronomy applets, animations, and movies. Celestial and Terrestrial Motions Sky and telescope Interactive Sky Chart Rotating Sky Explorer Ecliptic (Zodiac) Simulator Seasonal Solar Motions Antarctica Time Lapse: A Year on Ice Aurora Australis: The Southern Lights [Daylight Hours Explorer Season as viewed from Space Animation Sun Position and Season animation Paths of the Sun Seasons and Ecliptic Simulator Sun s Rays Simulator Sun Motions Simulator Time-Lapse Seasons Simulator Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Kepler s 1st and 2nd laws Applet Orbit Applet Planetary Orbit Simulator Gravity Simulator Moon Phases and Satellite Motions Lunar and Solar Eclipse Information Moon Phase Animation What Causes Tides Lunar Phase Quizzer Eclipse Shadow Simulator Moon Phases and the Horizon Diagram Synodic Lag The Solar System Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Images Planetary Photo Journal Planetary Configuration Simulator Geocentric Retrograde Motion Animation Epicycle / Orbit Applet Gravity Simulator Ptolemaic Orbit of Mars The Universe Virtual Reality Milky Way Panorama Interactive H-R Diagram Element Absorption and Emision Lines Doppler Shift Demonstrator Lookback Time Simulator Other: SpaceWeather.com ...

Teitelbaum, Mr.

2010-11-18

394

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

395

Radio and Optical Telescopes for School Students and Professional Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!

Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.

2013-01-01

396

Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

2010-01-01

397

Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

Simmons, M.

2011-10-01

398

Social Astronomy: Cooperating with Local Community Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the IYA2009 Canada Committee, chaired by Jim Hesser, first came together, it established a vision: "to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every person in Canada, and to cultivate partnerships that sustain public interest in astronomy". We called the engaging astronomy experience a "Galileo Moment". We knew that a Galileo Moment could be a first look through a telescope at the Moon, Jupiter or Saturn. But we especially wanted to connect with new audiences, not just the same people who always came to astronomy events. So we knew that a Galileo Moment could equally well be the intellectual or emotional effect of an astronomy-inspired piece of art or music. So far in 2009, over 10 000 Canadians have experienced a Galileo Moment of the latter kind, thanks to the Tafelmusik Baroque Orchestra's The Galileo Project.

Bará, S.

2009-11-01

399

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy activities at these events which were attended by approximately 50,000 people.

Lubowich, D.

2010-08-01

400

GAVRT and Radio Jove: Partners in K-12 Science Teacher Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio Jove Project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) have a recent partnership to train K-14 teachers to use radio astronomy telescopes as vehicles for science education. The partnership is part of the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) education and outreach program. Teachers attend training workshops to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build or operate their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. Corresponding lesson plans and curriculum material are available on the websites. Three teacher training workshops for the GAVRT/Jove program were held in 2010 and the results of the training and usage in the classroom will be reviewed. We plan to expand teacher opportunities in 2011 by offering web-based training programs.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Nakamura, B.; Dorcey, R.

2010-12-01

401

Education with Infrared Astronomy and Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present education and outreach results using our experiences involving the Spitzer Space Telescope project, Star Formation in High Redshift Clusters with Spitzer. The project is a collaboration between the Spitzer Science Center and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measured star formation rates in three galaxy clusters at intermediate redshifts. Six teachers were chosen for the program, each with an interest and involvement in astronomy education. From this project, lesson plans, public outreach, lectures and demonstrations were generated which better the understanding of infrared astronomy, multiwavelength astronomy, galaxy and star formation, and cosmology. The teacher mentors are Dr. Gregory Rudnick (NOAO), Dr. Rose Finn (Siena College), and Dr. Vandana Desai (Caltech). Please see the companion posters by Emily Petroff, Zak Schroeder, and Thomas Loughran, et al, for information concerning the science results.

Hemphill, Rosa; Blackwell, J. A.; Herrold, A.; Petroff, E.

2007-12-01

402

Encyclopedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Astronomy: 1. Ancient (pre-telescopy) astronomy; 2. Period overviews; 3. International Astronomical Union; Part II. The Solar System: 4. Overview - the Solar System; 5. Sun, Earth, and Moon; 6. Inner Solar System; 7. Giant planets; 8. Smaller objects; 9. Exoplanets; Part III. Stars: 10. Stars considered individually; 11. Stars considered as a group; 12. Types of stars; Part IV. Galaxies and Cosmology: 13. Milky Way; 14. Other galaxies and cosmology; Part V. General Astronomical Tools and Techniques (After 1600); Part VI. Optical Telescopes and Observatories: 15. Overview - optical telescopes and observatories; 16. Optical observatories; Part VII. Radio Telescopes, Observatories and Radar: 17. Overview - radio telescopes and observatories; 18. Early radio astronomy and observatories; 19. Later radio observatories; Part VIII. Other Ground-Based Observatories; Part IX. Solar System Exploration Spacecraft: 20. Overview - Solar System exploration spacecraft; 21. Individual Solar System spacecraft; Part X. Selected Observatory Spacecraft: 22. Overview - spacecraft observatories; 23. Individual spacecraft observatories; Name index; Subject index.

Leverington, David

2013-06-01

403

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

404

Neutrino Astronomy with Underwater km3 Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations by modern telescopes provided a bright picture of close and far Universe, yielding important details on what lies beyond our Solar System. These data also confirmed to some extent the predicted limits of optical and radio astronomy. A new kind of probe is requested in order to both investigate those regions of the Universe which are hardly to be studied with photon and proton astronomy, and to obtain more insights on the processes going on in well-known sources: here come the high-energy neutrino era and km3 under-water(-ice) C?erenkov neutrino telescopes.

Lattuada, D.

2010-03-01

405

Introductory Astronomy Clearinghouse: Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides introductory astronomy activities on topics such as: fundamentals of astronomy, observing the sky, the sun, stars, stellar evolution, the H-R diagram, the Milky Way Galaxy, galaxies, and cosmology.

2005-04-27

406

Final report for the Chautauqua Radio Workshop Project. July 1, 1980-October 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Energy conservation education must reach millions of Americans in order to see any real and immediate decrease in energy consumption. Since our society gets much of its information from the media, this seems like a most effective vehicle for disseminating energy conservation information to the American Public. Radio is listened to by the vast majority of Americans each day of their lives. Radio as a communications medium is an extremely cost effective method of mass communication and education, and is perceived as a personal medium which has great potential to affect a change in the daily energy consumption habits of the public. Call-in radio programs centering around energy conservation are an effective method of presenting informative, energy education programming that provide instantaneous access for listener/consumer participation. The linking of available telephone and radio technology (via call-in radio shows) allows people all over the US, including remote rural areas, access to the latest energy conservation information and renewable energy technolgy.

Renz, B.

1982-01-25

407

Astronomy for African development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as

Kevindran Govender

2011-01-01

408

Cambridge Dictionary of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Held up by the heliopause? Floored by the flatness problem? Intimidated by MACHOs? With the Cambridge Astronomy Dictionary you'll no longer be defeated by such astronomical jargon! These and 3,200 additional words, names, and abbreviations used in amateur and professional astronomy, are clearly and concisely defined. Entries include information from modern and classical astronomy, including: -- A comprehensive selection of

Jacqueline Mitton

2001-01-01

409

Astronomy in Modern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

2013-01-01

410

Challenges in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

De Greve, Jean-Pierre

2010-11-01

411

Music and Astronomy Under The Stars after 4 years and 50,000 People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events; 28parks). MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; live image projection; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe and Visions of the Universe); videos; and hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs(with info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith, Tony Orlando, and Ronan Tynan performed at these concerts. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multipletargets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to use, store, set-up, and take down; use hands-on astronomy activities; position the displays for maximum visibility (they became teachable moments); and have educator hand-outs. While < 50% of the participants attended a science museum or took part in astronomy programs in the previous year (based on our survey), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 4.6/5). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting scienceeducation! Sponsor: NASA grant NNX09AD53G

Lubowich, Donald A.

2013-01-01

412

Development and Use of Astronomy-Like Devices for UFO Monitoring: A Research Project for the Study of UFO Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research project aimed at studying unidentified atmospheric `nocturnal lights' in world areas of recurrence is presented. In such a context targets are considered and treated on a par with celestial and/or atmospheric objects having no fixed coordinates. Such a project involves the use of a battery of 20 mini-telescopes which can be interchangeable with wide-field lenses. Both types of light collectors, which are intended to work in the near-IR, optical and near-UV ranges, are planned to be connected to detectors for CCD imaging and fast photon-counting photometry, to objective-prisms for low-resolution spectroscopy and to grism-slit spectrographs for high-resolution spectroscopy. The overall measurement instrumental platform is intended to be guided simultaneously by a radar, by an IR alarm sensor and by a laser telemetric device in order to allow physical scientists to search, point and track a given bright flying object which is characterized supposedly by random motions. Finally, physical informations which are expected to come out from data analysis are presented and discussed in detail.

Teodorani, M.

413

Inter-Longitude Astronomy (ILA) Project: Current Highlights And Perspectives. I. Magnetic vs. Non-Magnetic Interacting Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types classical, asynchronous, intermedi ate polars with 25 timescales corresponding to differ ent physical mechanisms and their combinations (part "Polar"); negative and positive superhumpers in nova- like and dwarf novae stars ("Superhumper"); symbiotic ("Symbiosis"); eclipsing variables with and without ev idence for a current mass transfer ("Eclipser") with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainor star's atmosphere, which we propose to call "Impactors", or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other parts of the ILA project are "Stellar Bell" (pul sating variables of different types and periods - M, SR, RV Tau, RR Lyr, Delta Sct) and "New Variable".

Andronov, I. L.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Dubovsky, P. A.; Han, W.; Hegedus, T.; Henden, A.; Hric, L.; Chun-Hwey, Kim; Yonggi, Kim; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudzej, I.; Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P. G.; Oksanen, A.; Patkos, L.; Petrik, K.; Pit', N. V.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.; Virnina, N. A.; Yoon, J.; Zola, S.

2010-12-01

414

The Role of Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy Among Middle and High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to determine his or her ability to understand and work within the scientific community. An attitudinal survey was administered to all students nationwide who participated in the GAVRT program during the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 years and had 480 and 562 respondents respectively. The students completed a pre-survey prior to beginning the GAVRT program and then completed a follow-up survey immediately after working on the Jupiter Quest GAVRT program. Between the pre- and post- surveys, students received instruction in the GAVRT curriculum and participated in operation of the radio telescope. During the 2000-2001 school year, increases in students' scientific efficacy occurred in their feelings of efficacy associated with the value they placed on the work they produced in science. During the 2001-2002 school year, the following areas of efficacy increased: students' perceived ability to use scientific equipment, students' feelings about how other people valued their work and students' abilities to think scientifically.

Ibe, M.; Deutscher, R.

2004-12-01

415

THE COMPACT, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO SOURCE PROJECTED INSIDE W3(OH): EVIDENCE FOR A PHOTOEVAPORATED DISK?  

SciTech Connect

We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the compact ({approx}0.''05), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.3 (S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source ({approx}6500 K) suggest that we are most likely detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk.

Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodriguez-Garza, Carolina B.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana, E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico)

2013-08-01

416

Radio loud far-infrared galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first results are presented of a multiwavelength study of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies with excess radio emission. The sample was selected by cross correlating the IRAS Faint Source Survey, and the Point Source Catalogue with the Texas radio survey. Recent optical (imaging and spectroscopic) and radio (VLA) observations are discussed. These observations will be used to investigate possible connections between radio galaxy activity, star formation and galaxy interactions.

Dey, Arjun; Vanbreugel, Wil; Shields, Joseph C.

1990-01-01

417

NP Stokes fields for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin weighted spherical harmonic (SWSH) description of angular functions\\u000atypically is associated with the Newman-Penrose (NP) null tetrad formalism.\\u000aRecently the SWSH description, but not the NP formalism, has been used in the\\u000astudy of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Here\\u000awe relate this application of SWSHs to a description of electromagnetic\\u000aradiation and polarization in

Ezra T. Newman; Richard H. Price

2010-01-01

418

Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

2012-12-01

419

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

Lubowich, D.

2008-11-01

420

Machine Learning for Matching Astronomy Catalogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An emerging issue in the field of astronomy is the integration, management and utilization of databases from around the world\\u000a to facilitate scientific discovery. In this paper, we investigate application of the machine learning techniques of support\\u000a vector machines and neural networks to the problem of amalgamating catalogues of galaxies as objects from two disparate data\\u000a sources: radio and optical.

David Rohde; Michael Drinkwater; Marcus Gallagher; Tom Downs; Marianne Doyle

2004-01-01

421

Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith, Tony Orlando, and Ronan Tynan have performed at these concerts. MAUS attracts large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in this family learning experience - often the first time these children looked through a telescope.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2013-01-01

422

High-energy neutrino astronomy: detection methods and first achievements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last century, astronomy evolved from optical observation to the multi-wavelength study of celestial objects from radio waves up to x- and ?-rays, leading to a wealth of new discoveries and opening the way to high-energy astroparticle physics. In particular, the recent success of ground-based very-high-energy ?-ray telescopes has opened a new window on the most powerful and violent objects of the Universe, giving a new insight into the physical processes at work in such sources. In the context of high-energy astronomy, neutrinos constitute a unique probe since they escape from their sources, travel undisturbed on virtually cosmological distances and are produced in high-energy hadronic processes. In particular they would allow a direct detection and unambiguous identification of the sites of acceleration of high-energy baryonic cosmic rays, which remain unknown. This report discusses the physics potential of the domain and reviews the experimental techniques relevant for the detection of high-energy (>=TeV) neutrinos. The results obtained by the first generation of such detectors are presented, along with the perspectives opened by new projects and prototypes being currently developed.

Baret, B.; Van Elewyck, V.

2011-04-01

423

Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

2009-05-01

424

The Astronomy Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Sten Odenwald of the NASA Astronomer, this is a wide assortment of materials regarding astronomy and cosmology. Related to a book of the same title, this website includes astronomy FAQ's, images, and teacher resources. Odenwald provides additional links to some of his published books. He also links the page to other websites he has personally authored. This is a nice resource for a general overview of many different topics in astronomy.

Odenwald, Sten F.

2009-05-06

425

Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes includes the visiting Scientists and Professors from various Research Organizations located in and around Bangalore as well as the in-house Scientific staff. It is gratifying to note that several students, after going through one or more of these courses, have indeed made commitments to pursue Astronomy as their career, some of them even obtaining admissions in to the institutes and universities in India and abroad for further studies in this field.

Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

426

Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency and microwave signals is a ubiquitous challenge, crucial in radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation, and classical and quantum communication. Efficient up-conversion of radio-frequency signals to an optical carrier would enable their transmission through optical fibres instead of through copper wires, drastically reducing losses, and would give access to the set of established quantum optical techniques that are routinely used in quantum-limited signal detection. Research in cavity optomechanics has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple strongly to either microwave or optical fields. Here we demonstrate a room-temperature optoelectromechanical transducer with both these functionalities, following a recent proposal using a high-quality nanomembrane. A voltage bias of less than 10 V is sufficient to induce strong coupling between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane's displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its surface. The radio-frequency signals are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude less than that of standard optical modulators. The noise of the transducer--beyond the measured Johnson noise of the resonant circuit--consists of the quantum noise of light and thermal fluctuations of the membrane, dominating the noise floor in potential applications in radio astronomy and nuclear magnetic imaging. Each of these contributions is inferred to be when balanced by choosing an electromechanical cooperativity of with an optical power of 1 mW. The noise temperature of the membrane is divided by the cooperativity. For the highest observed cooperativity of , this leads to a projected noise temperature of 40 mK and a sensitivity limit of . Our approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals sets the stage for coherent up-conversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain.

Bagci, T.; Simonsen, A.; Schmid, S.; Villanueva, L. G.; Zeuthen, E.; Appel, J.; Taylor, J. M.; Sřrensen, A.; Usami, K.; Schliesser, A.; Polzik, E. S.

2014-03-01

427

Remote Sensing: Radio Frequency Detection for High School Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to give high school students experience in real world science applications, we have partnered with Loranger High School in Loranger, LA to mentor 9 senior physics students in radio frequency electromagnetic detection. The effort consists of two projects: Mapping of 60 Hz noise around the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), and the construction of a 20 MHz radio telescope for observations of the Sun and Jupiter (Radio Jove, NASA). The results of the LIGO mapping will aid in strategies to reduce the 60 Hz line noise in the LIGO noise spectrum. The Radio Jove project will introduce students to the field of radio astronomy and give them better insight into the dynamic nature of large solar system objects. Both groups will work together in the early stages as they learn the basics of electromagnetic transmission and detection. The groups will document and report their progress regularly. The students will work under the supervision of three undergraduate mentors. Our program is designed to give them theoretical and practical knowledge in radiation and electronics. The students will learn how to design and test receiver in the lab and field settings.

Huggett, Daniel; Jeandron, Michael; Maddox, Larry; Yoshida, Sanichiro

2011-10-01

428

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

429

Radio astronomical imaging and phase information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some basic concepts in use for making astronomical observations at radio wavelengths are introduced. In particular the importance of phase information for imaging in radio astronomy is highlighted. Using simple examples it is demonstrated how phase information is much more essential than that even of amplitude for an image reconstruction from its Fourier components.

Ashok K. Singal

2005-01-01

430

Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

431

Idea Bank: Astronomy for Students With Sensory Impairments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Exploration and Experience (SEE) Project and Yerkes Astrophysics Academy for Young Scientists (YAAYS)--both at the University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin--are designed to promote active learning in astronomy and physical science for all students, including those with vision or hearing impairments. Resources include the Hands-On Universe (HOU) facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Active Astronomy (AA) curriculum kits. This Idea Bank discusses these resources, which allow teachers to help all students--with and without sensory impairments--to participate in the 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA) experience.

Backman, Dana; Hoette, Vivian

2009-03-01

432

Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities, and for a stronger involvement of European high-tech industry in the deve

2008-11-01

433

Properties of 18286 SDSS radio galaxies (Best+, 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of 18286 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented, constructed by combining the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) VLA (Very Large Array) Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres (FIRST) survey. Using this sample, the differences between radio galaxies of "high-excitation" ("quasar-mode"; hereafter HERG) and "low-excitation" ("radio-mode"; LERG) are investigated. (1 data file).

Best, P. N.; Heckman, T. M.

2012-11-01

434

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

435

Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

Eckroth, Charles A.

436

Infrared upconversion for astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of infrared upconversion for astronomy is reviewed. The basic theory of upconversion is presented, along with a brief historical summary of upconversion techniques. Several investigators have employed upconverters in astronomical studies, but have met with only modest success. Upconversion will become a useful detection method for astronomy only if substantial but perhaps foreseeable improvements can be realized.

Boyd, R. W.

1977-01-01

437

Astronomy in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and

Patricia Rosenzweig

2001-01-01

438

Astronomy in the infrared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in three areas of infrared astronomy is reviewed. These are the IR spectrum of the sun, excess IR observations, and observations of stars in the process of formation. Attention is drawn to the advantages of using large telescopes for these realms of study. A discussion of the difficulties involved in ground-based IR astronomy and of the unique benefits

M. V. Migeotte

1974-01-01

439

Astronomy without astronomers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy in Romania has an old tradition. After half a century of privations and isolation from the rest of the world, we believed that the changes undergone by our country in 1989 (and by the neighbour countries, as well) will be benefit for the Romanian astronomy, too. Indeed, it was, but for a very short period. The young people left

Magdalena Stavinschi

2001-01-01

440

High Energy Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

1980-01-01

441

Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

Len, P. M.

2014-07-01

442

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

443

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.