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1

The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

2010-01-01

2

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the

Wayne Orchiston; A. Boischot; J. Delannoy; M. Kundu; J. Lequeux; M. Pick; J. Steinberg

2011-01-01

3

The Radio JOVE Project: Inexpensive Radio Astronomy for the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio astronomy observations of Jupiter and the sun. Students build a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive non-profit kit (about \\$125) and use it to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio telescopes connected to the Web. The project is a useful adjunct to activities in optical astronomy since students should recognize that we learn about the Universe through more than just the optical spectrum. In addition to supplementing knowledge of Jupiter and the sun, the project teaches about charged particles and magnetic fields. Building of the kit is also a mini-course in electronics. The Radio JOVE website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) contains science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, software, and education resources for students and teachers.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.; Pine, W.

2000-12-01

4

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

1991-01-01

5

South African SKA Project Postgraduate Scholarship Programme Postgraduate Projects for 2013 1. Radio Astronomy Science  

E-print Network

. Radio Astronomy Science 1.2. Radio Astronomy Science - PhD topics Project Title Project Description Title Project Description Qualifications and Skills Required Link to MeerKAT and/ or SKA Science. This project is related to the MeerKAT continuum survey science and the SKA science theme `Magnetic fields

Jarrett, Thomas H.

6

The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

2012-09-01

7

CRAF Handbook for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

CRAF Handbook for Radio Astronomy EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION Committee on Radio Astronomy forum for science. The ESF Expert Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies, CRAF, was established Astronomy Service and other passive applications. Cover: The 76-m diameter Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank

Rodriguez, Luis F.

8

Early Cambridge radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy started in Cambridge immediately after the hostilities of the World War II have ceased. Martin Ryle was the inspiring leader of a small group that started to develop interferometry techniques at the Cavendish Laboratory. From this development came the numerous Cambridge radio source surveys culminating in the Nobel prize awarded to Martin Ryle for invention of aperture synthesis.

F. G. Smith

2007-01-01

9

Early Cambridge radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy started in Cambridge immediately after the hostilities of the World War II have ceased. Martin Ryle was the inspiring leader of a small group that started to develop interferometry techniques at the Cavendish Laboratory. From this development came the numerous Cambridge radio source surveys culminating in the Nobel prize awarded to Martin Ryle for invention of aperture synthesis. The history of this early development is the subject of the present paper.

Smith, F. G.

2007-06-01

10

Division X: Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been important advances in radio astronomy in the last three years. New discoveries both at the galactic and extragalactic scale have been reported over this period and we highlight here several of them. The outstanding results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, allowing an accurate determination of the main cosmological constants, are certainly among the most important.

Luis F. Rodríguez; Ren-Dong Nan; Philip J. Diamond; Gloria Dubner; Michael Garrett; Anne Green; Masato Ishiguro; W. Miller Goss; Russ Taylor; Lucia Padrielli; A. Pramesh Rao; José M. Torrelles; Jean L. Turner

2007-01-01

11

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom.

S. K. Dunn; J. Brown

2003-01-01

12

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti  

E-print Network

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti Spring 2012 Radio astronomy provides a very different view of the universe than optical astronomy. Radio astronomers and optical astronomers use astronomy. Radio astronomers talk about sources of radio emission. Cas A is a strong source, for example

Ellingson, Steven W.

13

Microwave instrumentation for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy is a branch of science that allows observation of natural radio signals from cosmic sources. Microwave techniques are employed in large radio telescope systems in diverse ways. Starting with early vacuum tube receivers at meter wavelengths, low-noise receivers have pushed the leading edge of technology, culminating in present-day receivers employing HFET amplifiers, superconducting tunnel junctions, and other advanced

John C. Webber; Marian W. Pospieszalski

2002-01-01

14

Short History of Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Short History of Radio Astronomy #12;Jansky ­ January 1932 Modified Bruce Array: Harald Friis Background: Penzias & Wilson 1965 · 20 ft Echo Horn (Sugar Scoop): · Harald Friis design #12;Pulsars: Bell

Shirley, Yancy

15

An Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

2014-02-01

16

Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1993-12-01

17

After the SKA - Radio Astronomy in 2049  

E-print Network

The concept of a Square Kilometre Array was developed to ensure that progress in Radio Astronomy in the early 21st Century continued at the same impressive pace as was achieved during the first 50 years. The SKA telescope is designed to pave that road to greater and greater sensitivity. So what technical challenges does the project face and what key innovations will drive the success of the SKA? What will the next Radio Astronomy mega-science project look like? In this article the author discusses the likely avenues of progress in the coming decades and comments on the status of radio astronomy in 2049 - the author's 70th (and presumably her retirement) year.

Harvey-Smith, Lisa

2012-01-01

18

The future for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

2013-12-01

19

Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy have been closely linked since the emergence of radio astronomy as a scientific discipline in the 1930s. Even before the official establishment of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, protection against contemporary and future radio noise levels was seen as crucial to ensure success of any new observatory. My talk will examine the various local, regional, national, and international efforts enacted to protect NRAO and other American radio astronomy sites from RFI.

Smith, Sierra

2014-01-01

20

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

21

Division x: Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division X provides a common theme for astronomers using radio techniques to study a vast range of phenomena in the Universe, from exploring the Earth's ionosphere or making radar measurements in the Solar System, via mapping the distribution of gas and molecules in our own Galaxy and in other galaxies, to study the vast explosive processes in radio galaxies and

Luis F. Rodriguez; Ren-Dong Nan; Lucia Padrielli; Philip J. Diamond; Gloria M. Dubner; Michael Garrett; W. Miller Goss; Anne Green; Masato Ishiguro; A. Pramesh Rao; Russell A. Taylor; Jose M. Torrelles; Jean L. Turner

2007-01-01

22

Broadcasting Astronomy: The Stars Meet on the Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe our project Tutti Dentro — Le Stelle si incontrano in Radio (Come in everybody! — The Stars meet on the Radio), an Italian radio show about astronomy and space. The format involved celebrities, young astronomers and a network of 95 FM and web radio stations during the period July 2007 - January 2009. We will explore its structure, the language and the strategies adopted, along with the technical equipment and the software for recording sessions and editing. Finally we will describe the response from celebrities, radio stations and listeners. Our results could be a useful reference for those wishing to create similar radio programmes to deliver astronomy to a wider audience.

Nobili, L.; Masiero, S.

2010-06-01

23

Three Radio Astronomy Futures: ALMA, EVLA, SKA  

E-print Network

for digital correlation of very wideband signals from a radio interferometer WIDAR was invented by BrentThree Radio Astronomy Futures: ALMA, EVLA, SKA Charlottesville Astronomical Society 6 February 2008 Mark T. Adams Assistant Director, EPO National Radio Astronomy Observatory #12;Presentation Overview

Groppi, Christopher

24

Multichannel Interference Mitigation Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interference, and on-line detection and filtering algorithms are becoming essential. To facilitate the introduction of such techniques into radio astronomy, we formulate the astronomical problem in an array signal processing language and give an introduction to some elementary algorithms from that field. We consider two topics in detail: interference detection by rank estimation of short-term covariance matrices and spatial filtering by subspace estimation and projection. We discuss experimental data collected at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and illustrate the effectiveness of the spacetime detection and blanking process on the recovery of a 3C 48 absorption line in the presence of GSM mobile telephony interference.

Leshem, Amir; van der Veen, Alle-Jan; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2000-11-01

25

Industrial interference and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

Jessner, A.

2013-07-01

26

Very low frequency radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very low frequency (VLF) radio astronomy covers the frequency range below about 30 MHz (or the wavelength range above 10 m). This is the last window of the electromagnetic spectrum never to have been observed with spatial resolution. This is a range over which the Earth's ionosphere transmits either poorly or not at all. In this paper, we describe some means to observe this frequency range and we review what can be expected from exploring the astrophysics of the universe at very low radio frequencies. We present the scientific case for a large array to be set up on the far side of the Moon. This would open an entirely new field of remote probing of astrophysical plasmas in the Universe.

Bougeret, J.-L.

27

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation

Pierre Encrenaz; Jesús Góomez González; James Lequeux; Wayne Orchiston

2011-01-01

28

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

29

The Radio Jove Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

Thieman, J. R.

2010-01-01

30

Sketches on the history of radio astronomy in the USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of papers is presented on the history of radio astronomy in the USSR, dealing with such aspects as the founding of radio-astronomy centers and the main stages in the development of radio-astronomical research. Particular consideration is given to achievements in metagalactic, galactic, and solar radio astronomy; studies of lunar and planetary radio emission; and astronomical observations at radar

A. E. Salomonovich

1985-01-01

31

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy presented at the Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004), Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy, Radio Sci

Ellingson, Steven W.

32

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

33

The Astronomy Genealogy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

Tenn, Joseph S.

2014-01-01

34

Technology Advances for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of radio astronomy continues to provide fundamental contributions to the understanding of the evolution, and inner workings of, our universe. It has done so from its humble beginnings, where single antennas and receivers were used for observation, to today's focal plane arrays and interferometers. The number of receiving elements (pixels) in these instruments is quickly growing, currently approaching one hundred. For the instruments of tomorrow, the number of receiving elements will be in the thousands. Such instruments will enable researchers to peer deeper into the fabric of our universe and do so at faster survey speeds. They will provide enormous capability, both for unraveling today's mysteries as well as for the discovery of new phenomena. Among other challenges, producing the large numbers of low-noise amplifiers required for these instruments will be no easy task. The work described in this thesis advances the state of the art in three critical areas, technological advancements necessary for the future design and manufacturing of thousands of low-noise amplifiers. These areas being: the automated, cryogenic, probing of diameter100 mm indium phosphide wafers; a system for measuring the noise parameters of devices at cryogenic temperatures; and the development of low-noise, silicon germanium amplifiers for terahertz mixer receivers. The four chapters that comprise the body of this work detail the background, design, assembly, and testing involved in these contributions. Also included is a brief survey of noise parameters, the knowledge of which is fundamental to the design of low-noise amplifiers and the optimization of the system noise temperature for large, dense, interferometers.

Russell, Damon Stuart

35

Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

2014-01-01

36

Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

Joshi, Bhal Chandra

37

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

38

A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

2000-12-01

39

Huug & history: Rambling through early radio astronomy in the  

E-print Network

Huug & history: Rambling through early radio astronomy in the Netherlands Richard Strom Astron & University of Amsterdam #12;The Americans Jansky & Reber were the radio astronomy pioneers Karl Jansky ­ Grote Reber #12;Dutch awareness of radio astronomy comes from Reber's work (1940) Grote Reber (left

Peletier, Reynier

40

Techniques of Radio Astronomy T. L. Wilson1  

E-print Network

#12;2 T. L. Wilson The origins of optical astronomy are lost in pre-history. In contrast radioTechniques of Radio Astronomy T. L. Wilson1 Code 7210, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cos- mos

Masci, Frank

41

Using Many-Core Hardware to Correlate Radio Astronomy Signals  

E-print Network

Using Many-Core Hardware to Correlate Radio Astronomy Signals Rob V. van Nieuwpoort nieuwpoort@astron.nl John W. Romein romein@astron.nl ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands ABSTRACT A recent development in radio astronomy is to replace traditional dishes with many small

van Nieuwpoort, Rob V.

42

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801 EVLA Memorandum 41 Lightning Protection protection. A major concern of this type of installation is the susceptibility of the cable to lightning reliable indication of the need for lightning protection on a particular cable route is a history

Groppi, Christopher

43

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, VA  

E-print Network

. 320 ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-CONVERSION, ANALOG/DIGITAL SIDEBAND-SEPARATING MIXER PROTOTYPE J. R. Fisher & M. A. Morgan June 16, 2008 #12;Analysis of a Single-Conversion, Analog/Digital Sideband, and complexity of radio astronomy receivers and to place the conversion from analog to digital signals as close

Groppi, Christopher

44

Radio astronomy - The next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discoveries made over the past several decades by radio astronomers include radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, energetic bursts from the sun and Jupiter, the greenhouse effect on Venus, the rotation of Mercury, giant molecular clouds, violent activity in galactic nuclei, and cosmic background radiation. This paper discusses the development of ever more powerful radio telescopes, which include the VLA operated by NRAO near Socorro (New Mexico); the new NRAO's 100-m Green Bank Telescope being constructed in Green Bank (West Virginia); and the proposed Millimeter Array, which will consist of 40 antennas, each 8-m across, arranged in any of four different ways depending on the size of the region under study. Consideration is also given to methods for increasing the resolving power and image quality of radio telescopes, with special attention given to very-long-baseline interferometry.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.

1991-09-01

45

Curriculum Vitae Casey J. Law Radio Astronomy Lab  

E-print Network

Curriculum Vitae ­ Casey J. Law Radio Astronomy Lab University of California Hearst Field Annex ­ B://astro.berkeley.edu/claw 1 Education Northwestern University, Ph.D., Astrophysics (2007) Boston University, M.A., Astronomy: Radio Astronomy Lab Postdoctoral Fellow at UC Berkeley. Worked with Geoff Bower, Don Backer, and Carl

Militzer, Burkhard

46

Tools for teaching radio-astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the worldwide radiotelescope ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) has started preliminary operations. Radio-astronomy is thus entering a new golden age, a fantastic opportunity for widening formal and informal educational training and public involvement, for making a science impact on young people. The EU-HOU consortium has developed a small radiotelescope network (6 antenna) spread over Europe and directly accessible from the web via a remote control interface. These antenna are mostly dedicated to high school teachers in the context of the COMENIUS European commission Lifelong Learning Program: ``Connecting classrooms to the Milky-Way''. However, such small antenna can also be used to teach at University and introduce students to radio-astronomy principles.

Salomé, P.; Radiguet, A.; Albert, B.; Batrung, M.; Caillat, M.; Gheudin, M.; Libert, Y.; Ferlet, R.; Maestrini, A.; Melchior, A.-L.; Munier, J.-M.; Rudolph, A.

2012-12-01

47

Advances in solar radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

Kundu, M. R.

1982-01-01

48

Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and\\u000adevelopment of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong\\u000acost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science\\u000arequirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal\\u000aof shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be\\u000acounterproductive. Instrument optimization is

J. R. Fisher; R. F. Bradley; W. F. Brisken; W. D. Cotton; D. T. Emerson; A. R. Kerr; R. J. Lacasse; M. A. Morgan; P. J. Napier; R. D. Norrod; J. M. Payne; M. W. Pospieszalski; A. Symmes; A. R. Thompson; J. C. Webber

2009-01-01

49

The early history of Radio Astronomy in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy developed in several European countries on the initiative and with the expertise of scientists who had been involved in radar research during World War II. This paper traces the influence of various radar techniques on the design of early radio telescopes, covering the period 1945-1955, after which time radio had become accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

F. Graham-Smith

2005-01-01

50

Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of the MIT Haystack Observatory, and has a 30-year background in observational radio astronomy and interferometric imaging. His email is [cjl at haystack dot mit dot edu].

Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

2014-04-01

51

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

52

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank West Virginia  

E-print Network

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank West Virginia ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT sensitivity, however, has not been thoroughly discussed. The Switching scheme was invented by Dicke (1946

Groppi, Christopher

53

The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

2014-10-01

54

Radio astronomy and spectrum management - The impact of WARC-79  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of radio astronomy are considered, taking into account broad-band and narrow-band cosmic radiation, the evolution of equipment and techniques of the radio astronomer toward better sensitivity and better angular resolution, and the three general classes into which radio telescopes can be divided. Attention is given to the extraordinary interference problems faced by radio astronomers, the location of radio-astronomy observatories in secluded locations, the preparation by radio astronomers and space scientists for WARC-79, the actions taken at WARC-79, and the WARC impact. It is pointed out that radio astronomy has emerged from WARC-79 in a better position in the International Radio Regulations than it has ever enjoyed in the past. Radio astronomers can be satisfied that the requirements of their radio service are generally being given serious consideration. Most of the requests for allocations have been granted at frequencies above 20 GHz.

Pankonin, V.; Price, R. M.

1981-08-01

55

Astronomy 4194 Group Studies Essential Radio Astronomy Syllabus for May Term 2014 Prof. Martini Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

Astronomy 4194 ­ Group Studies ­ Essential Radio Astronomy ­ Syllabus for May Term 2014 ­ Prof. Martini Page 1 of 2 Astronomy 4194 ­ Group Studies ­ Essential Radio Astronomy Syllabus for May Term 2014. Paul Martini, Dept. of Astronomy Office: 4021 McPherson Lab (4th floor), mailbox in 4055 McPherson Lab

Martini, Paul

56

Explorations in Radio Astronomy for High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few educational resources in Radio Astronomy are aimed at a high school audience. This rich field, however, utilizes several areas of physics studied at the secondary level, from interference and electromagnetism to relativity and geometry. During the summer, J. Bridger developed a series of web-based projects and hands-on explorations specifically targeted at secondary students. In addition, these projects were adapted into designs for exhibits for a modern visitor center at the Very Large Array. The projects developed emphasize interactive, exploratory investigation as a means to conceptual understanding. Multi-antenna interferometry is modeled using microphones and parabolic dishes, and many astronomical phenomena (AGN and Gravitational Lensing) are simulated using simple inexpensive classroom materials. In addition, many projects were developed that enable students to use sky survey data to develop long-term original research projects, emphasizing the value of multi-wavelength observation. The final project, developed as a web page, also includes sections on history, modern research and interferometry theory. The site will be accessible from the NRAO site and can serve as a general secondary resource for teachers wishing to incorporate a Radio Astronomy unit into their science curriculum.

Bridger, J.

2002-12-01

57

JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously generate images or video to display those features. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

2014-04-01

58

Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guangdong province is an active area in China for astronomy education and popularization. The current status and problems of astronomy education in high schools are reviewed. To tackle these problems, an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated by Guangzhou University in 2013. The purpose and key points of the projects are introduced in this paper.

Pi, F. P.; Guan, K. Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, H. G.; Liu, Y.; Fan, J. H.

2014-11-01

59

Radio Astronomy Studies at the Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of radio astronomy studies at FIAN is described, beginning with the first theoretical (1946) and experimental (1947) studies of the solar radio emission. Information about the development of the Crimean station of FIAN, then the establishment and development of the Radio Astronomy Station in Pushchino is presented. Work on the construction of large radio telescopes, including the FIAN 22-m, DKR-1000 and BSA telescopes, is described, together with important results obtained during observations of the Sun (including the discovery of its "supercorona"), planets, line radio emission and studies of pulsars and other discrete sources.

Dogel', B. A.; Ilyasov, Y. P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.; Kokurin, Y. L.; Kuz'min, A. D.; Salomonovich, A. E.; Sorochenko, R. L.; Udal'tsov, V. A.

60

Rapid Development of Radio Astronomy Instrumentation  

E-print Network

Recorder - Haystack, NRAO Transient Searches - Fly's Eye at ATA - UC Berkeley and Cornell Beamfo's Eye A Search for Highly Energetic Dispersed Radio Transients using the Allen Telescope Array #12;Fly November 19, 2007 - Dan Werthimer and Geoff Bower have lunch to discuss transient search projects using

California at Berkeley, University of

61

Fifty years of radio astronomy - Progress, discoveries, and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of radio astronomy and radio astronomers is outlined for the observation of celestial events at EM frequencies between 3,000,000-300 billion Hz. Noting that more information about the composition of events and objects can be gained at radio frequencies than at optical frequencies, the history begins with Jansky (1932) and an experiment to discover the source of static in

J. P. Vallee

1982-01-01

62

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by `amateur' scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was `a character', and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was

V. Radhakrishnan

2006-01-01

63

Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

Paulikas, G. A.

1974-01-01

64

Highlighting the history of French Radio Astronomy. 5: The Nançay Large Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radio telescope (Le Grand Radiotélescope) at the Nançay radio astronomy field station of Paris Observatory was built between 1958 and 1966 on the model of the Ohio State University radio telescope, with which a large collecting area was obtained at low cost. The Nançay radio telescope, with a surface area of 7,OOO m², is a meridian instrument which

James Lequeux; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Wayne Orchiston

2010-01-01

65

A Sustainable approach to large ICT Science based infrastructures; the case for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Large sensor-based infrastructures for radio astronomy will be among the most intensive data-driven projects in the world, facing very high power demands. The geographically wide distribution of these infrastructures and their associated processing High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities require Green Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). A combination is needed of low power computing, efficient data storage, local data services, Smart Grid power management, and inclusion of Renewable Energies. Here we outline the major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science.

Barbosa, Domingos; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Aguiar, Rui; van Ardenne, Arnold; de Santander-Vela, Juande; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes

2014-01-01

66

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank Science Center  

E-print Network

are welcome. If your group is traveling by car, we will incorporate your group into the regularly scheduled the telescopes. Digital cameras and other electronics create radio pollution which can ruin astronomers' data. We that makes it difficult to do radio astronomy. Find out more! Find out how bad light pollution is in your

Groppi, Christopher

67

Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

Varano, S.

2008-06-01

68

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out

M. L. Kaiser; K. W. Weiler

2000-01-01

69

The Student as Scientist: Secondary Student Research Projects in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student research projects are becoming either integral or optional components of Science curricula in several countries. They provide a valuable opportunity for high school students to experience many of the joys and frustrations that make up the intellectual challenge of Science. Astronomy is one branch of Science that lends itself to student projects. Student Research Projects (SRPs) can be individual, group or collaborative between groups in other schools or countries and may involve professional mentors. Use of the Internet and remote access telescopes allow students to undertake challenging research and make worthwhile contributions to professional programs. This paper presents case studies of student projects in optical and radio astronomy from Australian and overseas schools and details both the benefits and problems faced in conducting such projects. Student responses to involvement in projects are discussed. Potential areas for future collaboration and development are highlighted together with the need for more research as to the most effective ways to implement projects and develop student skills.

Hollow, R. P.

2000-08-01

70

Figure 1: ATA 42 antenna array at Hat Creek ********ADAPTIVE REAL TIME IMAGING FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY*******  

E-print Network

Figure 1: ATA 42 antenna array at Hat Creek ********ADAPTIVE REAL TIME IMAGING FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY --------------------------­ · Astronomers primarily interested in astronomy. ­ Data reduction preoccupies radio astronomy specialists,f,p Bandpass( )f PolCal( )f,p Gains( )s,f,p S Beam Imager Astronomy Solver I2 ( ) )^(^, 2sVpfV - å ¹kj X Solver

Militzer, Burkhard

71

A Mathematical Review of Polyphase Filterbank Implementations for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of polyphase filterbanks is commonly used for signal processing in radio astronomy. The rapid and ongoing evolution of parallel hardware architectures requires optimised implementations of such techniques to be redeveloped. However, much of the published research regarding polyphase filterbanks refers the reader to signal processing books with a more general scope. Furthermore, these references tend to focus on the design of filters, rather than their implementation. For this reason, this work presents a mathematical background for the implementation of a polyphase filterbank specific to radio astronomy. It also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of polyphase filterbanks in comparison with more commonly used techniques.

Harris, Christopher; Haines, Karen

2011-10-01

72

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

73

Radio Astronomy Transformed: Aperture Arrays - Past, Present & Future  

E-print Network

I review the early development of Aperture Arrays and their role in radio astronomy. The demise of this technology at the end of the 1960's, and the reasons for the rise of parabolic dishes is also considered. The parallels with the Antikythera mechanism (see these proceedings) as a lost technology are briefly presented. Aperture Arrays re-entered the world of radio astronomy as the idea to build a huge radio telescope with a collecting area of one square kilometre (the Square Kilometre Array, SKA) arose. Huge ICT technology advances had transformed Aperture Arrays in terms of their capability, flexibility and reliability. In the mid-1990s, ASTRON started to develop and experiment with the first high frequency aperture array tiles for radio astronomy - AAD, OSMA, THEA & EMBRACE. In the slipstream of these efforts, Phased Array Feeds (PAFs) for radio astronomy were invented and LOFAR itself emerged as a next generation telescope and a major pathfinder for the SKA. Meanwhile, the same advantages that apertu...

Garrett, Michael A

2012-01-01

74

IAU DIVISION X, XII / COMMISSION 40, 41 / WORKING GROUP on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

IAU DIVISION X, XII / COMMISSION 40, 41 / WORKING GROUP on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History

Groppi, Christopher

75

A KALMANTRACKERBASED BAYESIAN DETECTOR FOR RADAR INTERFERENCE IN RADIO ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

the noise floor, impulsive aircraft echoes weak enough to make detection difficult may still cause sig observatories . However, the induced pollution is impulsive and transient, so for radio astronomy observation they can be blanked. Aircraft hundreds of kilometers from the telescope cause troublesome echoes. A window

Wirthlin, Michael J.

76

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

read by the counter in the ULO rack. (This counter measures the output of the multiplier.) An OCP 1XX 8NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT ........ .......· · 5 5 ULO Counter Control and Storage ..................... .... 7 6 IF Processor Counter and Control

Groppi, Christopher

77

Effects of gaps among panels in radio astronomy reflector antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main reflector of antennas used for radio astronomy consists of hundreds of panels among which, for various reasons, small gaps are left. The effects of these gaps on the field scattered by the reflector are analyzed by means of an hybrid numerical technique which combines the finite element method (FEM) and the method of moments (MoM). Numerical results pertaining

G. Pelosi; R. Coccioli; A. Gaggelli

1998-01-01

78

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

79

Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

2013-01-01

80

Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) in Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

purpose computing on GPUs (GPGPU): History, motivations, device characteristics. How GPUs fit into radio exist for NVIDIA, AMD, Intel, Apple. First release Dec 2008, currently at v1.2 #12;CUDA vs OpenCL CUDA

Groppi, Christopher

81

The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

2013-05-01

82

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 7: 53-56 (2004) The IAU Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 7: 53-56 (2004) The IAU Historic Radio Astronomy of publications on the history of radio astronomy; (4) monitoring other developments relating to the history of radio astronomy. This was a joint initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History

Groppi, Christopher

83

Problems and Projects from Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities to stimulate school astronomy programs. Topics include: counting stars; the Earth's centripetal force; defining astronomical time; three types of sundials; perceptions of star brightness; sunspots and solar radiation; stellar spectroscopy; number-crunching and the molecular structure of the atmosphere; the Earth-Moon common…

Mills, H. R.

1991-01-01

84

Explore. Learn. Inspire. National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

E-print Network

of Education endorses HOU as a means of integrating relevant technology into the science curriculum Size: 20 Suitable for all ages. Duration: 40 minutes per group. · Students search the Science Center for sources of man-made radio waves ­ fun! Exploring Our Solar System Group Size: 20 Suitable for all ages

Groppi, Christopher

85

Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries,

T. J. Cornwell; K. Golap; S. Bhatnagar

2005-01-01

86

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

87

Astronomy at the Molonglo radio observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general description of astronomical observation programs at the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) in Australia, is presented. Emphasis is given to completed surveys of HII content and SNR in the Magellanic Clouds. The SNR observations have so far identified 55 remnants which do not conform to conventional theories of SNR evolution. Cataloging and analysis of the HII regions and planetary nebulae data has been completed in the SMC but has only recently been started in the LMC. Other observing programs at MOST include mapping of southern radio and 'normal' galaxies, observations of variable radio sources, 'deep mapping' of a selection of far southern fields for cosmological studies, and studies of the Galactic center. Consideration is also given to advantages of using real-time beams for pulsar studies and for the development of a 'transient event recorder' to search for pulsed or rapidly varying radio phenomena during normal map synthesis. A facsimile of the working map for a standard 70 degree galactic field is given in order to illustrate the observational capabilities of the MOST system.

Mills, B. Y.

88

Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

1974-01-01

89

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomy Observatory (in Sardinia,) and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. Funding agencies are the Italian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the Sardinia Regional Government, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI,) that has recently rejoined the project. The telescope site is about 35 km North of Cagliari. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 7.9 m diameter secondary mirror and supplementary Beam-WaveGuide (BWG) mirrors. With four possible focal positions (primary, Gregorian, and two BWGs), SRT will be able to allocate up to 20 remotely controllable receivers. One of the most advanced technical features of the SRT is the active surface: the primary mirror will be composed by 1008 panels supported by electromechanical actuators digitally controlled to compensate for gravitational deformations. With the completion of the foundation on spring 2006 the SRT project entered its final construction phase. This paper reports on the latest advances on the SRT project.

Tofani, Gianni; Alvito, Gianni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Bortolotti, Claudio; Bruca, Loredana; Buffa, Franco; Cattani, Alessandro; Comoretto, Gianni; Cremonini, Andrea; Cresci, Luca; D'Amico, Nichi; Deiana, Gian Luigi; Fara, Antonietta; Feretti, Luigina; Fiocchi, Franco; Flamini, Enrico; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Grueff, Gavril; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Maccaferri, Andrea; Mantovani, Franco; Mariotti, Sergio; Migoni, Carlo; Messina, Filippo; Monari, Jader; Morsiani, Marco; Murgia, Matteo; Musmeci, José; Nanni, Mauro; Natale, Vincenzo; Navarrini, Alessandro; Negusini, Monia; Nesti, Renzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Palla, Francesco; Panella, Dario; Pernechele, Claudio; Pilloni, Salvatore; Pisanu, Tonino; Poddighe, Antonio; Poloni, Marco; Poma, Angelo; Poppi, Sergio; Porceddu, Ignazio; Prandoni, Isabella; Roda, Juri; Roma, Mauro; Sarti, Pierguido; Scalambra, Alessandro; Schillirò, Francesco; Tarchi, Andrea; Vargiu, Gian Paolo; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo

2008-07-01

90

Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

Kaiser, M. L.

1990-01-01

91

A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications.

Mena, J.; Bandura, K.; Cliche, J.-F.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Tang, Q. Y.

2013-10-01

92

Automating Radio Astronomy in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy observations with the DSN are being automated to simplify operations for DSN personnel, enable remote directing and monitoring by investigators, allow the use of short blocks of antenna time, and use of unanticipated antenna availability on very short notice. The key elements of the system are the Equipment Activity Controller (EAC), which performs the same functions as a DSN operator's console but with additional capabilities, the Radio Astronomy Controller (RAC), which controls radio astronomy and other R&D equipment, and the PC Field System (PCFS), which controls the VLBI recorders. Normally, the EAC is client to both the RAC and the PCFS. The EAC graphical user interface (GUI) normally runs on the EAC, but need not, allowing for remote operation. Messages between the client and servers are Extended Tcl (TclX) commands and are passed using a simple TCP/IP protocol called Net Services. The Tcl command set has been augmented with Net Services commands. The EAC will accept commands from both the PCFS and RAC, enabling either of those to be the focus of the experiment, with the EAC acting effectively as a client providing access to DSN antennas and receivers. The design also allows a user developed program (e.g. a Tk script) on a remote computer (e.g. at JPL) to be the focus of the experiment. All communications and the DSN's operational network are secured through the use of hardware encryption units. This poster describes primarily the RAC and the design of its server software. Each connection to the server is assigned its own Tcl interpreter. All have access to specific commonly shared data. While only certain tasks can control resources, a large number of monitoring connections can be accepted. In addition, the server executes specific Tcl scripts at predefined intervals. These timed scripts can be edited in real-time for greater experiment flexibility.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Leflang, J. G.; Trinh, T.

1996-12-01

93

Goniopolarimetry: Space-borne radio astronomy with imaging capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of space-based low-frequency radio astronomy (below 50 MHz) are briefly introduced. As the wavelength range considered does not allow the use of focusing systems, goniopolarimetric (or direction-finding) techniques have been developed. These inversion techniques provide the direction of the wave vector, the polarization state and the flux of the observed electromagnetic wave. In case of spatially extended sources, we can also infer an order of magnitude of the apparent source size. These techniques are presented, and their limitations are discussed. An example from a recent study illustrates the techniques and capabilities.

Cecconi, Baptiste

2014-05-01

94

Radio Astronomy transformed: Aperture Arrays - Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

Aperture Arrays have played a major role in radio astronomy since the field emerged from the results of long-distance communication tests performed by Karl Jansky in the early 1930's. The roots of this technology extend back beyond Marconi, although the first electronically scanned instrument only appeared in the run-up to World War II. After the war, phased arrays had a major impact in many walks of life, including astronomy and astrophysics. Major progress was made in understanding the nature of the radio sky, including the discovery of Pulsars. Despite these early successes, parabolic dishes largely replaced aperture arrays through the 1960's, and right up until the end of the 20th century. Technological advances in areas such as signal processing, digital electronics, low-power/high performance super-computing and large capacity data storage systems have recently led to a substantial revival in the use of aperture arrays - especially at frequencies below 300 MHz. Composed of simple antennas with commercia...

Garrett, M A

2013-01-01

95

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

96

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe  

E-print Network

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe #12;The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation

Groppi, Christopher

97

Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 3: Early solar radio research at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio astronomy group at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1948 immediately after WWII, and decided to put its main research efforts into solar radio astronomy. The first radio telescope was completed in 1949 and started routine observations at 200 MHz. Since then, the group has placed its emphasis on observations at meter and decimeter wavelengths, and has constructed various kinds of radio telescopes and arrays operating at frequencies ranging from 60 to 800 MHz. In addition, radio telescopes operating at 3, 9.5 and 17 GMHz were constructed. In parallel with the observationally-based research, theoretical research on solar radio emission also was pursued. In this paper, we review the instrumental, observational and theoretical developments in solar radio astronomy at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in the important period from 1949 through to the 1960s.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Enome, Shinzo; Hayashi, Masa; Kaifu, Norio; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuchiya, Atsushi

2014-03-01

98

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(3), 249-253 (2009). THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(3), 249-253 (2009). 249 THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: · assemble of these instruments; · maintain an on-going bibliography of public- cations on the history of radio astronomy

Groppi, Christopher

99

Tonantzintla's Observatory Astronomy Teaching Laboratory project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two years the National Observatory at Tonantzintla Puebla, México (OAN Tonantzintla), has been undergoing several facilities upgrades in order to bring to the observatory suitable conditions to operate as a modern Observational Astronomy Teaching Laboratory. In this paper, we present the management, requirement definition and project advances. We made a quantitative diagnosis about of the functionality of the Tonantzintla Observatory (mainly based in the 1m f/15 telescope) to take aim to educational objectives. Through this project we are taking the steps to correct, to actualize and to optimize the observatory astronomical instrumentation according to modern techniques of observation. We present the design and the first actions in order to get a better and efficient use of the main astronomical instrumentation, as well as, the telescope itself, for the undergraduate, postgraduate levels Observacional Astronomy students and outreach publics programs for elementary school. The project includes the development of software and hardware components based in as a common framework for the project management. The Observatory is located at 150 km away from the headquarters at the Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IAUNAM), and one of the goals is use this infrastructure for a Remote Observatory System.

Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Martínez, L. A.; Sánchez, L.; Hernández, H.; Langarica, R.; Iriarte, A.; Peña, J. H.; Tinoco, S.; Ángeles, F.

2008-07-01

100

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference: The Quiet Skies Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quiet Skies Project is a result of the Research Experience for Teacher (RET) program during the summer of 2004. Teachers were involved in discovering the relationship between radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy observations. S. Rapp participated in astronomy observations with the Green Bank Telescope in order to characterize RFI issues at radio observatories and worked closely with the Green Bank Interference Protection Group. This work included such tasks as mitigation of locally-generated RFI from power poles and running radiation propagation studies for transmitters within the National Radio Quiet Zone. A curriculum was created to allow high school students to participate in a research effort to determine RFI levels in their communities. The aim of the project is to promote student awareness of radio astronomy and radio frequency interference through an inquiry-based science curriculum. It is hoped that the project will go national by 2007. A prototype RFI detector was created and tested at four wavelengths; 850, 900, 1425, and 1675 MHz. High school students used a beta version of the RFI detector to explore the occurrence of RFI at their schools and in their communities. The student goals of the Quiet Skies Project are to: Measure interference levels at their schools and in their communities; Reduce and transmit their data to an NRAO data base; Use online spectrum allocation data, and local information to determine possible causes of interference in their area; Analyze the complex trade-offs between radio astronomy's need for quiet skies, and other commercial, and non-commercial uses of the spectrum and share their insights with others. This work was funded by the NSF-RET program and a grant from the NASA-IDEAS program

Rapp, S.; Gear, C.; Maddalena, R. J.; Heatherly, S. A.

2004-12-01

101

Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

Hsu, Eddie

2000-01-01

102

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

103

U.S.-Canadian Partnership in Radio Astronomy Valuable for Science, NRAO Director Says  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States and Canada intend to collaborate on two of the most important radio astronomy projects of the new century - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), astronomers from both countries announced today. "This cooperative program - the North American Partnership in Radio Astronomy - involves the key projects that will dominate radio astronomy world-wide," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This partnership will multiply the efforts of both nations' astronomers for the benefit of science. It builds on a long tradition of cooperative efforts in radio astronomy, and will ensure that we continue that tradition into the new millennium," Vanden Bout said. The U.S.-Canada radio astronomy partnership is outlined in two letters of intent signed recently. The first, between the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), states that both agencies will use their best efforts to obtain the necessary funding for construction and operation of ALMA. The second, between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the NSF, and the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, funded by the NRC, forms a partnership in the EVLA. The VLA Expansion Project is a two-phase program designed to improve the scientific capabilities of the VLA tenfold by replacing 1970s-vintage equipment with modern technologies and adding new radio-telescope antennas to the existing 27-antenna array. Dedicated in 1980, the VLA has been used for more than 10,000 observing projects covering nearly every area of astrophysics. It is the most powerful, flexible and widely-used radio telescope in the world. The Expanded VLA will provide the improved observational capabilities needed to meet the research challenges of the coming years. In addition to the participation by Canada, funds have been pledged by Mexico. Both Mexico and Germany have funded VLA improvements in the past. A proposal to the NSF requesting U.S. funds for the EVLA is currently under review by the National Science Foundation. The agreement between the NRAO and the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) calls for HIA to build a new correlator - the digital "heart" that combines the received signals from multiple antennas to make those antennas work as a single, powerful telescope - for the EVLA. The new correlator will represent a contribution of 10 million (US). The full EVLA project will cost about 150 million, to be done in two phases, the first costing 75 million. "Canada has a strong program of radio astronomy, and in particular a skilled team of specialists in designing correlators, and we are pleased to have their talents directed toward building a new machine for the VLA," Vanden Bout said. ALMA will consist of 64 12-meter-diameter dish antennas comprising a single imaging telescope to study the universe at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths - the region between radio waves and infrared waves. An international project being designed and developed by the U.S. and European nations, ALMA will be located on a high-altitude site in the Atacama desert of Chile. "ALMA will give scientists an unprecedented look at the structure of the early universe and revolutionary insights on how stars and planets form, among many other contributions," Vanden Bout said. "The EVLA will bring unmatched power and versatility to the study of objects as close as the Sun and planets and as far as primeval galaxies at the edge of the observable universe. Together, these two instruments will be at the forefront of 21st Century astrophysics," he added. "ALMA has been a bilateral project involving the United States and Europe. These new agreements with Canada turn ALMA into a partnership between Europe and North America," Vanden Bout said. Design and development work on ALMA has been ongoing since 1998, funded by the NSF and European organizations. Canadians already have participated in this work. ALMA is pla

2001-10-01

104

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

105

Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

2006-08-01

106

An Overview of W.N. Christiansen's Contribution to Australian Radio Astronomy, 1948-1960  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1948, an accomplished industrial physicist who had harboured a long-term ambition to become an astronomer joined the newly-formed Radio Astronomy Group in the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia. Thus, W.N. (`Chris') Christiansen (1913-2007) began a new career in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. This paper reviews Christiansen's contribution to both instrumentation development and scientific research during the first phase of his career in radio astronomy, covering his work at the Potts Hill and Fleurs field stations prior to his resignation from the Division of Radiophysics in 1960.

Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

107

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 15(3), 255-257 (2012). IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 15(3), 255-257 (2012). Page 255 IAU HISTORIC RADIO of publications on the history of radio astronomy; and d) monitor other develop- ments relating to the history-deceased radio astronomers, and links to various sources of material on the history of radio astronomy. 3

Groppi, Christopher

108

PARTNeR, a Radio Astronomy experience for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR is the acronym for Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo. The 34-m antenna in Robledo de Chavela is used by high schools, universities and amateur astronomers to learn about radioastronomy, physics and to get interested in science. The main project we develop is the observations of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries. The high-school teachers joining our program take a training course to learn the basis of radioastronomy. Some practical lessons to teach the children the physical fundamentals of radioastronomy are also given to them. The operational phase of the project started in 2004, and 25 high schools, 5 universities and 4 societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project.

Suárez, O.; Blasco, C.; Gómez, J. F.; Herranz, M.; Montesinos, B.; García, J.

109

Very low frequency radio astronomy from lunar orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of very low frequency aperture synthesis as a probe of astrophysical phenomena. Specifically, the science achievable with the Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE) is discussed. The density distribution and the degree of turbulence of the galactic plasma can be determined from its effect on background radio sources. These same absorption phenomena can be used to determine magnetic field strengths within astrophysical plasmas. Detection of unabsorbed synchrotron emission can provide information on the relativistic plasma component. The detection of new pulsars may prove feasible because of their steep spectra. Observations of planets in the solar system will be used to study their interaction with the solar wind. VLF studies of the sun will provide new information on the outer layers of its atmosphere and magnetic field as well as provide insight on the propagation of MHD disturbances through the corona. The plasma in the earth's magnetic field can be observed in detail and as a function of time. This will prove invaluable in understanding auroral phenomena end reconnection events.

Duric, Nebojsa

110

Jansky and Reber: Two Remarkable Stories in Early Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraterrestrial radio waves were first detected in 1931-32 by Karl Jansky at the Bell Telephone Labs in New Jersey while he was investigating sources of interference to recently opened, trans-Atlantic shortwave (20 MHz) radiotelephone circuits. At this time Jansky was only a few years beyond his physics degree from the University of Wisconsin, where his father was a professor of engineering. Jansky studied this "star noise" off and on until 1935, establishing that the emission came from the direction of the Milky Way and the galactic center, but did not pursue it in any further detail. The only other person to make a significant contribution to the nascent subject before World War II was Grote Reber, an electrical engineer who worked for several different radio firms in Chicago. After reading Jansky's articles, in 1937 Reber decided to build a 30-ft diameter dish antenna in the backyard of his suburban home in Wheaton, Illinois. By 1939 he had detected the Jansky radiation, which he called "cosmic noise", at 160 MHz and he comenced a long term program of mapping it in detail (with a 12 degree beam). Reber became a well-known figure to the astronomers at the University of Chicago and Yerkes Observatory (Struve, Greenstein, Kuiper, Henyey, Keenan) as he sought to learn astronomy and convince the staff that this cosmic noise was of importance. Struve, editor of the "Astrophysical Journal", was finally persuaded to publish Reber's articles. During and just after the war Reber extended his work to 480 MHz. He then sought funds to move his dish to a quieter locale and to build a second, much larger dish, but neither of these plans came to fruition. It is ironic that the remarkable contributions of these two pioneers to the field that would eventually become known as "radio astronomy" (a term only introduced in the late 1940s) had little influence on the spectacular growth of the field in the decade after World War II. The great bulk of the important work was done in England and Australia, where it grew wholly independently out of wartime radar labs. Reasons for the lag in the US, largely due to the effects of military funding and the strong community of (optical) astronomers, will be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1996-05-01

111

Radio frequency interference measurements in Indonesia. A survey to establish a radio astronomy observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of radio frequency spectrum occupancy performed at sites aimed to host the future radio astronomy observatory in Indonesia. The survey is intended to obtain the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment in a spectral range from low frequency 10 MHz up to 8 GHz. The measurements permit the identification of the spectral occupancy over those selected sites in reference to the allocated radio spectrum in Indonesia. The sites are in close proximity to Australia, the future host of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) at low frequency. Therefore, the survey was deliberately made to approximately adhere the SKA protocol for RFI measurements, but with lower sensitivity. The RFI environment at Bosscha Observatory in Lembang was also measured for comparison. Within the sensitivity limit of the measurement equipment, it is found that a location called Fatumonas in the surrounding of Mount Timau in West Timor has very low level of RFI, with a total spectrum occupancy in this measured frequency range being about 1 %, mostly found at low frequency below 20 MHz. More detailed measurements as well as a strategy for a radio quiet zone must be implemented in the near future.

Hidayat, Taufiq; Munir, Achmad; Dermawan, Budi; Jaelani, Anton Timur; Léon, Stéphane; Nugroho, Dading Hadi; Suksmono, Andriyan Bayu; Mahasena, Putra; Premadi, Premana Wardayanti; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Kunjaya, Chatief; Dupe, Zadrach Ledoufij; Brahmantyo, Budi; Mandey, Denny; Yusuf, Muhammad; Tri Wulandari, Hesti Retno; Arief, Falahuddin; Irfan, Muhammad; Puri Jatmiko, Agus Triono; Akbar, Evan Irawan; Sianturi, Hery Leo; Tanesib, Jehunias Leonidas; Warsito, Ali; Utama, Judhistira Aria

2014-02-01

112

Radio Astronomy in Holland Before 1960: Just a Bit More than HI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early radio astronomy in the Netherlands is explored, especially that which did not involve neutral hydrogen studies. Although little of this early—mainly solar—work was published in professional journals, there is some information in a popular Dutch astronomy magazine. From this it is clear that the early radio observations of the Sun were driven as much by the needs of radio communication as by solar physics. The important role which A.H. de Voogt, Head of the PTT's radio service, played in both Dutch and international radio astronomy is described. A brief sketch is given of the history of the two PTT stations where the early observations were made.

Strom, Richard

2005-01-01

113

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

1981-01-01

114

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 9(2), 203-205 (2006). IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 9(2), 203-205 (2006). 203 IAU HISTORIC RADIO Assembly of the IAU as a joint initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy achievements of these instruments; · maintain an on-going bibliography of publications on the history of radio

Groppi, Christopher

115

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8(1), 65-69 (2005). THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8(1), 65-69 (2005). 65 THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO of publications on the history of radio astronomy; and · monitor other developments relating to the history Further Publications on the History of Radio Astronomy Balick, B., 2005. The discovery of Sagittarius A

Groppi, Christopher

116

SYSTEM NOISE ANALYSIS OF AN ULTRA WIDE BAND APERTURE ARRAY ELEMENT FOR LOW FREQUENCY RADIO ASTRONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest challenges in radio astronomy for the 21st century is the SKA telescope, the newest radio telescope in the world to be built as a Square Kilometre Array of antennas distributed in hundreds of stations to form an interferometric image of the sky. Below 1 GHz, these stations will be composed of thousands of inexpensive elements in

E. Garcia; P. Alexander

117

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest. Due to ionospheric scintillation (below 30MHz) and its opaqueness (below 15MHz), earth-bound radio astronomy observations in these bands are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. A radio telescope in space obviously would not be hampered by the Earth's ionosphere. In the past, several (limited) studies have been conducted to explore possibilities for such an array in space. These studies considered aperture synthesis arrays in space, at the back-side of the Moon, or a satellite constellation operating in a coherent mode. In 2009 an ESA project, Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space (DARIS), set out to investigate the space-based radio telescope concept. The focus of this feasibility study is on a moderate size three-dimensional satellite constellation operating as a coherent large aperture synthesis array. This aperture synthesis array would consist of 5 to 50 antennas (satellites) having a maximum separation of 100 km. This study considers the main aspects of such a distributed system in more detail than previous studies. This conference contribution aims at presenting an overview of the DARIS project and at discussing the main results. The project selected extra-galactic surveys and the search for transient radio sources as the best suited science cases within the DARIS concept, and it investigated the scientific and technical requirements for such an array. Several antenna concepts were considered and simulated. An active antenna dipole array concept would be well suited, and a moderate 5 m tip-tip antenna system would lead to a sky noise limited system. Multiple digital signal processing scenarios were considered. Ultimately, although a distributed signal processing approach would be fa-vorable in terms of reliability and scalability, for complexity reasons the project has chosen to have several (5 to 50) identical receiving nodes, and one centralized processing node i.e. the correlator. Analysis has shown that with current technologies, one MHz bandwidth can be processed with full duty cycle. The limiting factor is the inter-satellite link bandwidth. Several deployment locations, such as Moon orbit, Earth-Moon L2, and dynamic Solar orbits were investigated. Each of those locations has its pro's and con's such as interference levels from the Earth (which drive the number of sampling bits), relative speed-vectors of the satellite nodes (influencing maximum correlator integration times, and the need for orbit maintenance), and achievable down-link bandwidth to Earth. Two preferred deployment location were selected: Moon orbit and dynamic Solar orbit. The main advantage of the Moon orbit is that the syn-thetic aperture is filled more rapidly, making it more suitable for transient science than the dynamic Solar orbit. The project also studied the relation between the three-dimensional satellite configuration, the deployment location and the quality of the sky maps. The conclusion is that for the science cases under consideration, sufficient independent aperture sampling points can be obtained in a 1 MHz limited band (with 1 kHz channels) by using bandwidth synthesis. It is expected that, as a result, up to about one million astronomical sources can be detected in a five year duration mission.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Saks, Noah; Falcke, Heino; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Bentum, Ark; Thilak Rajan, Raj; Wijnholds, Ir. Stefan J.; Arts, Michel; van-T Klooster, Kees; Belien, Frederik

118

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-01-01

119

In memoriam: Grote Reber 1911-2002 founder of radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, amateur radio operator W9GFZ, died December 20, 2002 in Tasmania. He would have been 91 years old on December 22nd. Reber is acknowledged as the Father of Radio Astronomy and the inventor of the first true radio telescope. With the advent of space satellites, his greatest legacy may well be his invention of the parabolic dish, designed to receive nonterrestrial electromagnetic radiation, a concept that has revolutionized worldwide communication.

Peratt, A. L.

2003-12-01

120

Origins of Radio Astronomy at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Role of J.L. Pawsey  

E-print Network

I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scienti...

Goss, W M

2014-01-01

121

New Astronomy from the Moon: a Lunar Based Very-Low Frequency Radio Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the universe, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. Such a project will utilize the same transportation, communication, and power systems required for further exploration of the Moon. The lunar surface provides unique advantages for astronomy, even compared to orbits or Lagrange points. It is a large and stable platform that can shield unwanted radiation and that will be easily accessible once a lunar base is established. Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s. The most seriously investigated concept has always been a very-low- frequency (VLF) array on the lunar far side for mainly three reasons. First, the very low frequencies below ~30 MHz is the last window in the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy, giving us good reasons to anticipate unexpected discoveries. Second, because of E a r t h ' s significant radio interference, the lunar far side may well be the only site accessible that enables sensitive galactic / extra-galactic VLF observations. Finally, an array of short dipole antennas is one the most technologically feasible observatories to be placed and operated on the Moon. The motivations for a lunar based VLF array is detailed in the first section. The second section provides a review of the foregoing effort and a summary of the consensus to date. To make this dream into a reality, we identify the next required steps in the third section. We must f i r s t address any unresolved issues, especially concerning the lunar environmental factors like the ionosphere density. We should make the most out of the upcoming lunar missions by proposing relevant measurements. Most importantly, we should begin proposing our first array now. C o n s i d e r i n g the limited budget, the first realistic surface array will be deployed as a piggyback payload to early landers on the lunar south pole. The side of the Malapert Mountain that is facing away from Earth may be a good radio-quiet site. To address issues relevant to the lunar VLF array project, we have developed a general tool to simulate the propagation of radio waves in the lunar environment. In this study, we investigated (1) how well the Moon shields long-wavelength radio interference, (2) how the Malapert Mountain at the lunar south pole shields terrestrial radio interference, and (3) how the lunar surface environment i n f l u e n c e interferometric observations. These radio wave simulation studies and their results are presented in the fourth section. Finally, in the last section, we make recommendations for future missions and propose the first surface array to be deployed on the far side of the Malapert Mountain near the lunar south pole. To finalize the site and the design of the observatory, recommendations are presented for specific m e a s u r e m e n t s to be made by upcoming missions including SMART-1, LunarSat, and SELENE. It is especially critical to obtain detailed topology at candidate sites and to determine the electron d e n s i t y profile above the lunar surface at various times of the lunar month. Suggestions are given for a precursor orbiting array around 2010, a surface array on the lunar south pole around 2015, and ultimately a far side array around 2020. To realize the dream of gaining new views of the universe f r o m the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these missions.

Takahashi, Yuki D.

2002-01-01

122

Molecular Clouds in the Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) is a new survey of 13CO (1--0) emission covering Galactic longitudes 18 deg < l < 55.7 deg and Galactic latitudes |b| < 1 deg. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46 arcsec angular resolution on a 22 arcsec grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 kms-1. By using 13CO, a better column density tracer than the more commonly used 12CO, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. Thus, the GRS detects many new structures and cloud cores previously missed by the older 12CO surveys. With this homogeneous, fully-sampled survey of 13 CO emission, we can identify and catalog molecular clouds throughout the inner Galaxy. To select molecular clouds, we use the CLUMPFIND algorithm, which uses a method of closed contours to search for contiguous emission features without assuming an a priori shape. The molecular cloud catalog will allow us to characterize the masses, sizes, line-widths, and densities of molecular clouds in a range of Galactic environments. This will also allow us to determine clump mass spectra for many molecular complexes and study its relation to the initial mass function. In addition, the internal structure of molecular clouds, which traces the influence of turbulence in the interstellar medium, can also be studied in a wide range of star-forming environments. Here we present a preliminary list and analysis of the characteristics of a sample of molecular clouds identified within the GRS. The GRS is a joint project of Boston University and Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-9800334, AST-0098562, & AST-0100793

Johnson, A. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2005-12-01

123

Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurements provide unique information on turbulence in the ISM as well as the mean plasma properties such as density and magnetic field strength. Radio propagation observations can provide input to the major contemporary questions on the nature of ISM turbulence, such as its dissipation mechanisms and the processes responsible for generating the turbulence on large spatial scales. Measurements of the large scale Galactic magnetic field via Faraday rotation provide unique observational input to theories of the generation of the Galactic field.

Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

124

Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

Warwick, J. W.

1972-01-01

125

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Measurements of Copper Heat Straps Near 4 K  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory EDTN 204 Measurements of Copper Heat Straps Near 4 K measurements of the thermal resistance of heat straps used in the ALMA Band 6 cartridges. The results suggest cartridge was measured. The heat straps include Sn/Pb/Ag 62/36/2 solder joints and bolted connections

Groppi, Christopher

126

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Cryogenic (4K) Measurements of Some Resistors and Capacitors  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory EDTN 205 Cryogenic (4K) Measurements of Some Resistors capacitors and thin-film resistors at 4.2 K. The capacitors have the following dielectrics: SiO2, ATC types CA and CC, and ATC type 700A. The resistors are TaN and nichrome thin film made by Mini-Systems, Inc

Groppi, Christopher

127

Improving long time stability of a radio astronomy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical radio receivers used to observe weak radio sources often suffer from instabilities in the output signal due to ambient temperature changes, which make it impossible to detect even strong celestial sources. Here, I report about a cheap and successful solution based on a wine cooler to keep operating temperature stable within ± 0.1 °C.

Monstein, C.

2014-03-01

128

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT NO. 321  

E-print Network

-10 GHz range of the loss of some machined and plated conductors at room temperature and in liquid helium Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors R. Finger and A. R. Kerr July 3, 2008 #12;NATIONAL RADIO Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors R. Finger and A. R. Kerr July 3, 2008 #12;1 National Radio

Groppi, Christopher

129

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

130

Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation has funded a five-year High Performance Computing and Communications project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) for the direct implementation of several of the computing recommendations of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the "Bahcall report"). This paper is a summary of the project goals and a progress report. The project will implement a prototype of the next generation of astronomical telescope systems - remotely located telescopes connected by high-speed networks to very high performance, scalable architecture computers and on-line data archives, which are accessed by astronomers over Gbit/sec networks. Specifically, a data link has been installed between the BIMA millimeter-wave synthesis array at Hat Creek, California and NCSA at Urbana, Illinois for real-time transmission of data to NCSA. Data are automatically archived, and may be browsed and retrieved by astronomers using the NCSA Mosaic software. In addition, an on-line digital library of processed images will be established. BIMA data will be processed on a very high performance distributed computing system, with I/O, user interface, and most of the software system running on the NCSA Convex C3880 supercomputer or Silicon Graphics Onyx workstations connected by HiPPI to the high performance, massively parallel Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5. The very computationally intensive algorithms for calibration and imaging of radio synthesis array observations will be optimized for the CM-5 and new algorithms which utilize the massively parallel architecture will be developed. Code running simultaneously on the distributed computers will communicate using the Data Transport Mechanism developed by NCSA. The project will also use the BLANCA Gbit/s testbed network between Urbana and Madison, Wisconsin to connect an Onyx workstation in the University of Wisconsin Astronomy Department to the NCSA CM-5, for development of long-distance distributed computing. Finally, the project is developing 2D and 3D visualization software as part of the international AIPS++ project. This research and development project is being carried out by a team of experts in radio astronomy, algorithm development for massively parallel architectures, high-speed networking, database management, and Thinking Machines Corporation personnel. The development of this complete software, distributed computing, and data archive and library solution to the radio astronomy computing problem will advance our expertise in high performance computing and communications technology and the application of these techniques to astronomical data processing.

Crutcher, Richard M.

131

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Extrasolar Planets Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module introduces the search for planets outside of our solar system using both the Doppler and transit methods. It includes simulations of the observed radial velocities of singular planetary systems and introduces the concept of noise and detection. Users can control the stellar and planetary properties and the system orientation, and then observe how the graph is affected. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

132

Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

1979-01-01

133

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) ?V on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) ?V on average).

Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

2010-07-01

134

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to one pagers on historical instruments of astronomy with photos of the following : Astronomy Slides, Celestial Globe, Cometarium, Globe, Gregorian Telescope, Kepler's Laws Demonstration, Orrery, Planetarium, Planisphere, Stereoscopic Pictures of the Moon, Tellurian, and Transit.

2000-01-01

135

Supporting the Outdoor Classroom: An Archaeo-Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field trips and the outdoor classroom are a vital part of many areas of education. Ideally, the content should be taught within a realistic environment rather than just by providing a single field trip at the end of a course. The archaeo-astronomy project located at Nottingham Trent University envisages the development of a virtual environment…

Brown, Daniel; Francis, Robert; Alder, Andy

2013-01-01

136

SOFIA Project: SOFIA-Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the SOFIA project is shown. The topics include: 1) Aircraft Information; 2) Major Components of SOFIA; 3) Aircraft External View; 4) Airborne Observatory Layout; 5) Telescope Assembly; 6) Uncoated Primary Mirror; 7) Airborne Astronomy; 8) Requirements & Specifications; 9) Technical Challenges; 10) Observatory Operation; and 11) SOFIA Flight Test.

Tseng, Ting

2007-01-01

137

Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit: Final Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about habitable planets. Learners will discuss what they know about the astronomical conditions of the planets they have found in earlier lessons and what they still need to know in order to determine if they are habitable to humans. They research possible methods for answering these questions and write a proposal on how and why their planet should be further researched. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 14, the concluding lesson, in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

138

Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation of the RAE-2 spacecraft is described. The instruments include a pair of long travelling-wave antennas, a 37-m dipole, two radiometers making one frequency scan every 144 sec, and two rapid-sampling total-power burst receivers which cover the range from 0.025 to 13.1 MHz in 32 discrete steps. Effects of terrestrial noise on RAE-1 and RAE-2 observations are discussed, and it is noted that RAE-2 is uniquely capable of observing repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies. Some observational programs are briefly noted, including observations of the galactic background distribution, measurements of lunar occultations of solar radio bursts, and searches for more radio sources among the planets, galactic objects, and extragalactic sources.

Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

1975-01-01

139

Design, Environmental and Sustainability Constraints of new African Observatories: The example of the Mozambique Radio Astronomy Observatory  

E-print Network

The Mozambique Radio Astronomy Observatory (MRAO) will be a first milestone towards development of radioastronomy in Mozambique. Development of MRAO will constitute a preparation step towards participation in the upcoming Africa VLBI Network and the Square Kilometer Array project. The MRAO first antenna is planned to serve as a capacitation and training facility and will be installed after the conversion of a 7-meter telecom dish in South Africa. Therefore, this first radiotelescope design has to comply with local spectral and environmental constraints. Furthermore, power availability and long term sustainability with potential inclusion of solar power and control of Radio Frequency Interference are analyzed. Here we outline some of the design, environmental and power sustainability constraints.

Barbosa, Domingos; Ribeiro, Valerio A R M; Loots, Anita; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L; Gaylard, Michael; van Ardenne, Arnold; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Bergano, Miguel; Amador, Jose Carlos; Maia, Rodrigo; Melo, Rui

2013-01-01

140

New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater size. The book reprints internal memos, reports, and recollections of astronomers who were there, as the initial elation turned to frustration when the 140 Foot Telescope project became mired in technical difficulties, plans for larger dishes were put on hold, and the scientific staff of the fledgling Observatory struggled to create a National Observatory with inadequate equipment in a very remote location. Articles by David Heeschen and John Findlay tell the story of the creation of the 300 Foot Telescope, at that time the largest in the world, which went from initial concept to full operation in only 23 months, and began a rich life of research that put the NRAO on the world scientific map. The 300 Foot Telescope was originally intended to be an interim instrument, but as documented in the book, demand for its use was so high that it was kept in operation long after its initial planned retirement, with regular upgrades and new generations of electronics. The sudden collapse of the 300 Foot Telescope on a calm evening after 26 years of operation shocked the astronomical community. But it was Fun... features dramatic first-hand accounts by the people who were there that night: the telescope operator who found himself under a falling structure; the Observatory staff who at first could not believe what happened, and those who worked during the night and into the next day to secure the area, preserve information on what happened, and deal with the rush of publicity. The book includes extensive photographs and the Executive Summary Report of the panel which was commissioned to investigate the collapse and its implication for the design of other large radio telescopes. But it was Fun... will appeal to a variety of audiences. Historians of science will be interested in the articles by David Heeschen, Gerald Tape, and Hugh van Horn, on the evolution of the concept of a National Observatory, and the difficulties of putting the concepts into practice in Green Bank. Those interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal a

2007-07-01

141

Virtual reality and project management for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the years astronomical instrumentation projects are becoming increasingly complex making necessary to find efficient ways for project communication management. While all projects share the need to communicate project information, the required information and the methods of distribution vary widely between projects and project staff. A particular problem experienced on many projects regardless of their size, is related to the amount of design, planning information and how that is distributed among the project stakeholders. One way to improve project communications management is to use a workflow that offers a predefined way to share information in a project. Virtual Reality (VR) offers the possibility to get a visual feedback of designed components without the expenses of prototype building, giving an experience that mimics real life situations using a computer. In this contribution we explore VR as a communication technology that helps to manage instrumentation projects by means of a workflow implemented on a software package called Discut designed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM). The workflow can integrate VR environments generated as CAD models.

Martínez, L. A.; Villarreal, J. L.; Angeles, F.; Bernal, A.; Bribiesca, E.; Flores, R.

2010-07-01

142

Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

2006-01-01

143

A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution to grow is alarming. Preventive measures to eliminate interference through FCC legislation and ITU agreements can be effective; however, many times this approach is inadequate and interference excision at the receiver is necessary. Conventional techniques such as RF filters, RF shielding, and postprocessing of data have been only somewhat successful, but none has been sufficient. Adaptive interference cancellation is a real-time approach to interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy. We describe here, for the first time, adaptive interference cancellation in the context of radio astronomy instrumentation, and we present initial results for our prototype receiver. In the 1960s, analog adaptive interference cancelers were developed that obtain a high degree of cancellation in problems of radio communications and radar. However, analog systems lack the dynamic range, noised performance, and versatility required by radio astronomy. The concept of digital adaptive interference cancellation was introduced in the mid-1960s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low-frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartments of automobiles. These audio-frequency applications require bandwidths of only a few tens of kilohertz. Only recently has high-speed digital filter technology made high dynamic range adaptive canceling possible in a bandwidth as large as a few megahertz, finally opening the door to application in radio astronomy. We have built a prototype adaptive canceler that consists of two receivers: the primary channel (input from the main beam of the telescope) and a separate reference channel. The primary channel receives the desired astronomical signal corrupted by RFI (radio-frequency interference) coming in the sidelobes of the main beam. A separate reference antenna is designed to receive only the RFI. The reference channel input is processed using a digital adaptive filter and then subtracted from the primary channel input, producing the system output. The weighting coefficients of the digital filter are adjusted by way of an algorithm that minimizes, in a least-squares sense, the power output of the system. Through an adaptive-iterative process, the canceler locks onto the RFI, and the filter adjusts itself to minimize the effect of the RFI at the system output. We have designed the adaptive canceler with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 40 MHz. This prototype system will ultimately be functional with a variety of radio astronomy receivers in the microwave band. We have also built a prototype receiver centered at 100 MHz (in the FM broadcast band) to test the adaptive canceler with actual interferers, which are well characterized. The initial laboratory tests of the adaptive canceler are encouraging, with attenuation of strong frequency-modulated (FM) interference to 72 dB (a factor of more than 10 million), which is at the performance limit of our measurements. We also consider requirements of the system and the RFI environment for effective adaptive canceling.

Barnbaum, Cecilia; Bradley, Richard F.

1998-11-01

144

Application of Lossless Data Compression Techniques to Radio Astronomy Data flows  

E-print Network

The modern practice of Radio Astronomy is characterized by extremes of data volume and rates, principally because of the direct relationship between the signal to noise ratio that can be achieved and the need to Nyquist sample the RF bandwidth necessary by way of support. The transport of these data flows is costly. By examining the statistical nature of typical data flows and applying well known techniques from the field of Information Theory the following work shows that lossless compression of typical radio astronomy data flows is in theory possible. The key parameter in determining the degree of compression possible is the standard deviation of the data. The practical application of compression could prove beneficial in reducing the costs of data transport and (arguably) storage for new generation instruments such as the Square Kilometer Array.

Natusch, Tim

2014-01-01

145

Cosmic rays in the Galaxy and their implications for VLF radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observations of the local galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and of the distribution of GCR nuclei in the Galaxy are described together with the results of modeling of the GCR radial profiles and the application of these results. Special attention is given to the studies of energetic cosmic rays observable with VLF radio astronomy, emphasizing the importance of higer angular resolution studies in the frequency range 1-30 MHz, with 1-2 deg resolution at 1 MHz. Examples of studies that can benefit from using such resolution include studies of H II regions, the spectral dependence of absorption and emissivity related to SNRs and giant molecular clouds, the emission and absorption related to nearby galaxies and AGN, and the determination of the detailed fine structure of interstellar absorption. In addition, the VLF radio astronomy can be used for studies of all types of energetic particle populations in different galaxies.

Webber, W. R.

146

A very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of terrestrial ionospheric absorption, very little is known of the radio sky beyond 10 m wavelength. An extremely simple, low cost very low frequency radio telescope is proposed, consisting of a large array of short wires laid on the lunar surface, each wire equipped with an amplifier and a digitizer, and connected to a common computer. The telescope could do simultaneous multifrequency observations of much of the visible sky with high resolution in the 10 to 100 m wavelength range, and with lower resolution in the 100 to 1000 m range. It would explore structure and spectra of galactic and extragalactic point sources, objects, and clouds, and would produce detailed quasi-three-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs of the Sun.

Douglas, James N.; Smith, Harlan J.

1988-01-01

147

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were

Wayne Orchiston; James Lequeux; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Jean Delannoy

2007-01-01

148

The Radiophysics Field Stations and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1946–1961 Australia was one of the world’s leading nations in radio astronomy and played a key role in its\\u000a development. Much of the research was carried out at a number of different field stations and associated remote sites situated\\u000a in or near Sydney which were maintained by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s Division of\\u000a Radiophysics.

Wayne Orchiston; Bruce Slee

2005-01-01

149

Radio Astronomy at the Centre for High Performance Computing in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present results on galaxy evolution and cosmology which we obtained using the supercomputing facilities at the CHPC. These include cosmological-scale N-body simulations modelling neutral hydrogen as well as the study of the clustering of radio galaxies to probe the relationship between dark and luminous matter in the universe. I will also discuss the various roles that the CHPC is playing in Astronomy in SA, including the provision of HPC for a variety of Astronomical applications, the provision of storage for radio data, our educational programs and our participation in planning for the SKA.

Catherine Cress; UWC Simulation Team

2014-04-01

150

Planetary Radio Astronomy: The 60 Years from Burke and Franklin to ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly 60 years, radio astronomy has played a major role in the characterization and monitoring of thermal structure, composition, and temporal changes of the planets and small bodies in our solar system. At this, the 60th anniversary of the initial detection of radio emission by a planet, the role radio astronomy has played in the early characterization of solar system objects, in raising basic scientific questions and motivating planetary exploration missions, and in providing insight into the structure and temporal variations of planets is explored. The evolution of the instrumentation capabilities from crude total-power, or bolometric measurements averaged over an entire planetary disk to today's instrumentation providing radio images of planets and comets with high spectral resolution is also discussed. Major developments such as precise total-power calibration, ultra-large apertures, microwave and millimeter-wave array technology, and supporting laboratory spectroscopy have played major roles in enhancing the effectiveness of radio astronomical observations. The newest generation instruments such as the upgraded Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Altacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now usher in a whole new level of capability in observation of solar system objects.

Steffes, Paul G.

2014-11-01

151

Future Trends in Solar Radio Astronomy and Coronal Magnetic-Field Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radio astronomy has an amazingly rich, but yet largely unexploited, potential for probing the solar corona and chromosphere. Radio emission offers multiple ways of detecting and tracking electron beams, studying chromospheric and coronal thermal structure, plasma processes, particle acceleration, and measuring magnetic fields. To turn the mentioned potential into real routine diagnostics, two major components are needed: (1) well-calibrated observations with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions and (2) accurate and reliable theoretical models and fast numerical tools capable of recovering the emission source parameters from the radio data. This report gives a brief overview of the new, expanded, and planned radio facilities, such as Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA), Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), Chinese Solar Radio Heliograph (CSRH), Upgraded Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (USSRT), and Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) with the emphasis on their ability to measure the coronal magnetic fields in active regions and flares. In particular, we emphasize the new tools for 3D modeling of the radio emission and forward fitting tools in development needed to derive the magnetic field data from the radio measurements.

Fleishman, Gregory; Nita, Gelu; Gary, Dale

152

The ALMA/EVLA project data model: steps toward a common project description for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Project Data Model" (PDM) is a model of the information that describes an astronomical observing project. In this paper we consider the PDM to cover the Proposal and Observing Preparation phases (also often called Phase 1 and Phase 2), and also the intermediate phase of reviewing and approving the project. At the back end of observing, the production of calibrated or partially calibrated science data, such models or data structures have been common for some time, albeit evolving (FITS, Measurement Set, etc.), but modelling the front end of observing is a relatively recent phenomenon, with most observatories creating their own versions of the "PDM". This paper describes work towards a common PDM for two radio observatories that are in development, ALMA and the EVLA. It goes further to explore the prospect of a wider common PDM that could be shared across astronomy. Is there a case to produce such a common PDM? And is it feasible? It is likely that a common model for Phase 1, an observing proposal, is possible. However, for a number of reasons a common model for Phase 2 is a much tougher challenge.

Bridger, Alan; Butler, Bryan

2008-08-01

153

HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

Kadooka, M. M.; Armstrong, J. D.

2010-04-01

154

Management and Operations of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), provides instrumentation for research in radio astronomy ... observing capabilities in radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and atmospheric sciences, and observing ...

155

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Solar System Models Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based module illustrates the universe as envisioned by early thinkers, culminating in a detailed look at the geocentric and heliocentric models. The models demonstrate the paths of the planets and the sun during their orbits, and also trace planetary and solar paths through the zodiac. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This resource is part of a larger collection of packaged curriculum materials by the Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-09-19

156

100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour

M. Simmons

2008-01-01

157

PARTNeR: Radio astromony for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.

Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

2008-06-01

158

Building information models for astronomy projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Building Information Model is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building. BIMs represent the geometrical characteristics of the Building, but also properties like bills of quantities, definition of COTS components, status of material in the different stages of the project, project economic data, etc. The BIM methodology, which is well established in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain for conventional buildings, has been brought one step forward in its application for Astronomical/Scientific facilities. In these facilities steel/concrete structures have high dynamic and seismic requirements, M&E installations are complex and there is a large amount of special equipment and mechanisms involved as a fundamental part of the facility. The detail design definition is typically implemented by different design teams in specialized design software packages. In order to allow the coordinated work of different engineering teams, the overall model, and its associated engineering database, is progressively integrated using a coordination and roaming software which can be used before starting construction phase for checking interferences, planning the construction sequence, studying maintenance operation, reporting to the project office, etc. This integrated design & construction approach will allow to efficiently plan construction sequence (4D). This is a powerful tool to study and analyze in detail alternative construction sequences and ideally coordinate the work of different construction teams. In addition engineering, construction and operational database can be linked to the virtual model (6D), what gives to the end users a invaluable tool for the lifecycle management, as all the facility information can be easily accessed, added or replaced. This paper presents the BIM methodology as implemented by IDOM with the E-ELT and ATST Enclosures as application examples.

Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Campo, Ramón; Eletxigerra, Iñigo; Ampuero, Pedro

2012-09-01

159

New Antennas and Methods for the Low Frequency Stellar and Planetary Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the special Program of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, creation of the new giant Ukrainian radio telescope (GURT) was started a few years ago on the UTR-2 radio telescope observatory. The main goal is to reach maximum band at the lowest frequencies (10-70 MHz), effective area (step-by-step up to 100,000 sq.m), and high interference immunity for resolving many astrophysical tasks when the sensitivity is less limited by the confusion effects. These tasks include stellar radio astronomy (the Sun, solar wind, flare stars, pulsars, transients) and planetary one (Jupiter, planetary lightnings, Earth ionosphere, the Moon, exoplanets). This array should be complementary to the LOFAR, E-LOFAR systems. The first stages of the GURT (6 x 25 cross dipole active elements) and broad-band digital registration of the impulsive and sporadic events were tested in comparison with the existing largest decameter array UTR-2.

Konovalenko, A. A.; Falkovich, I. S.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Koliadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Gridin, A. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Reznik, A. P.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Stepkin, S. V.; Mukha, D. V.; Nikolajenko, V. S.; Karlsson, R.; Thide, B.

160

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Electronics Division Technical Note No. 219  

E-print Network

.Hildebrandt (Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany, 79 GHz Project Lead) and Alan Rogers (Haystack Observatory, M.I.T.) December, they are expected to #12;2 be placed within a vehicle's bumper. The transmitters were first located at a nearby car

Groppi, Christopher

161

Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in astronomy and other sciences and are now faculty members, a current Hubble Fellow, the PI of a facility class instrument on an 11-meter telescope (SALT), etc.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2013-01-01

162

Radio astronomy with the European Lunar Lander: Opening up the last unexplored frequency regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is a unique location in our solar system and provides important information regarding the exposure to free space that is essential for future human space exploration to mars and beyond. The active broadband (100 kHz-100 MHz) tripole antenna now envisaged to be placed on the European Lunar Lander located at the Lunar South Pole allows for sensitive measurements of the exosphere and ionosphere, and their interaction with the Earths magnetosphere, solar particles, wind and CMEs and studies of radio communication on the Moon, that are essential for future lunar human and science exploration. In addition, the Lunar South Pole provides an excellent opportunity for radio astronomy. Placing a single radio antenna in an eternally dark crater or behind a mountain at the South (or North) pole would potentially provide perfect shielding from man-made radio interference (RFI), absence of ionospheric distortions, and high temperature and antenna gain stability that allows detection of the 21 cm wave emission from pristine hydrogen formed after the Big Bang and into the period where the first stars formed. A detection of the 21 cm line from the Moon at these frequencies would allow for the first time a clue on the distribution and evolution on mass in the early universe between the Epoch of Recombination and Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Next to providing a cosmological breakthrough, a single lunar radio antenna would allow for studies of the effect of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the solar wind at distances close to Earth (space weather) and would open up the study of low frequency radio events (flares and pulses) from planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, which are known to emit bright (kJy-MJy) radio emission below 30 MHz (Jester and Falcke, 2009). Finally, a single radio antenna on the lunar lander would pave the way for a future large lunar radio interferometer; not only will it demonstrate the possibilities for lunar radio science and open up the last unexplored radio regime, but it will also allow a determination of the limitations of lunar radio science by measuring the local radio background noise.

Klein Wolt, Marc; Aminaei, Amin; Zarka, Philippe; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Falcke, Heino

2012-12-01

163

Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

1973-01-01

164

Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2000 and 2001, the validity and reliability of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) were formally investigated through the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project. The ADT 2.0 was administered as a pre-test to 5346 students and as a post-test to 3842 students. Student test results were collected from 97 classes that ranged in size from 4 to 320 students with 30 states represented. The 68 professors participating in the ADT National Project taught classes at universities (54%), 4-year colleges (27%), and 2-year colleges (19%). The database was analyzed for reliability at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. A pre-test value for Cronbach's alpha of 0.65 and post-test value of 0.76 demonstrate an acceptable degree of internal consistency. The average score for the 44 participating professors who completed the ADT as experts was 98%. Face and content validity were established by combining results from the experts with feedback from 60 student interviews. Student results from the National Project yielded an average score of 32.4% for the pre-test and 47.3% for the post-test. There is a gender discrepancy in favor of males that persists in both the pre-test (11% points) and the post-test (12% points) scores. The variations across geographic distribution and institution types were not significant. In addition to the 21 content items, the ADT 2.0 has 12 student background questions enabling instructors to have a better understanding of who takes introductory astronomy. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 (GD) and DGE-9714489 (BH).

Deming, G. L.

2001-12-01

165

The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000’s lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

Peters, S. M.; Kitaeff, V. V.

2014-10-01

166

The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery  

E-print Network

The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000's lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

Peters, Sean M

2014-01-01

167

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

E-print Network

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

Welch, Jack; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Forster, James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jorgensen, Susanne; Keating, Garrett; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; Milgrome, Oren; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter H; Tarter, Melvin Wright Jill; Ackermann, Robert; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Barott, William; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Michael; DeBoer, Dave; Dreher, John; Harp, Gerry; Jordan, Jane; Kilsdonk, Tom; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Fleming, Seth Shostak Matt; Cork, Chris; Wadefalk, Artyom Vitouchkine Niklas; Weinreb, Sander

2009-01-01

168

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

Welch, J.; Backer, D.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bower, G. C.; Cheng, C.; Croft, S.; Dexter, M.; Engargiola, G.; Fields, E.; Forster, J.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, C.; Heiles, C.; Helfer, T.; Jorgensen, S.; Keating, G.; Lugten, J.; MacMahon, D.; Milgrome, O.; Thornton, D.; Urry, L.; van Leeuwen, J.; Werthimer, D.; Williams, P. H.; Wright, M.; Tarter, J.; Ackermann, R.; Atkinson, S.; Backus, P.; Barott, W.; Bradford, T.; Davis, M.; Deboer, D.; Dreher, J.; Harp, G.; Jordan, J.; Kilsdonk, T.; Pierson, T.; Randall, K.; Ross, J.; Shostak, S.; Fleming, M.; Cork, C.; Vitouchkine, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Weinreb, S.

2009-08-01

169

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO(1--0) emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l = 18 deg -- 55.7 deg and a latitude range of |b| < 1 deg, a total of 75.4 square degrees. We achieved an angular sampling of 22 arcsec, better than half of the telescope's 46 arcsec angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l < 40 deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l > 40 deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is sigma(TA*) ˜ 0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We present the integrated intensity image (zeroth moment map), channel maps, and position-velocity diagram. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community at www.bu.edu/galacticring or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M.

2005-12-01

170

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO J=1-->0 emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA multipixel array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l=18deg-55.7d and a latitude range of |b|<1deg, a total of 75.4 deg2. Using both position-switching and On-The-Fly mapping modes, we achieved an angular sampling of 22", better than half of the telescope's 46" angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l<=40deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l>40deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is ?(T*A)~0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We show integrated intensity images (zeroth moment maps), channel maps, position-velocity diagrams, and an average spectrum of the completed survey data set. We also discuss the telescope and instrumental parameters, the observing modes, the data reduction processes, and the emission and noise characteristics of the data set. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community online or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M. H.

2006-03-01

171

Improved Multi-octave 3 dB IF Hybrid for Radio Astronomy Cryogenic Receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern mm and sub-mm ultra low noise receivers used for Radio Astronomy have evolved to provide very wide instantaneous bandwidth. Some of the configurations used in present cryogenic front-ends, like sideband separating mixers and balanced amplifiers, need 90° 3 dB hybrids at the IF, typically in the 4-12 GHz band. There are commercially available devices covering this band with good ambient temperature characteristics, but poor cryogenic performance. We describe the design, construction and measurement of a multioctave stripline hybrid for the 4-12 GHz band specially conceived to perform reliably when cooled to 15 K. The coupling and reflection show very little temperature dependence. A balanced cryogenic amplifier was assembled with two 3 dB hybrid units and available amplifiers (~4.5 K noise temperature) designed and built in-house for ALMA. This device is critically compared with a single ended amplifier and with an amplifier with an input isolator. The latter is the typical arrangement of the IF of radio astronomy receivers. The balanced option shows an advantage of 2.8 K in noise with less sensitivity to input mismatches.

Malo, I.; Gallego, J.; Diez, C.; López-Fernández, I.; Briso, C.

2009-04-01

172

DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS Special Astronomy Seminar  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS Special Astronomy Seminar October 13, 2011 Speaker : Mayukh) Abstract Black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) are widely observed sources in the X-ray and radio astronomy

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

173

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces students to some general concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-10-07

174

Radio frequency overview of the high explosive radio telemetry project  

SciTech Connect

High explosive radio telemetry (HERT) is a project that is being developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies. The ultimate goal is to develop a small, modular telemetry system capable of high-speed detection of explosive events, with an accuracy on the order of 10 nanoseconds. The reliable telemetry of this data, from a high-speed missile trajectory, is a very challenging opportunity. All captured data must be transmitted in less than 20 microseconds of time duration. This requires a high bits/Hertz microwave telemetry modulation code to insure transmission of the data with the limited time interval available.

Bracht, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dimsdle, J.; Rich, D.; Smith, F. [AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1998-12-31

175

Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs that were part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) Cornerstone Project have been successfully implemented around the world to promote social awareness of the effects of light pollution on public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, nightscape aesthetics and especially astronomy. In developing the programs, DSA Cornerstone Project found

C. E. Walker; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

176

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tenpla project is a Japanese unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy, young astronomers, and social education facilities such as science museums (see also poster by M. Hiramatsu). In this paper, we report our individual activities for public in detail. Our aim is to provide bridges between astronomy and public, especially people who are unfamiliar with astronomy, directly by students and young astronomers at many scene of life such as in schools, cafés, or hospitals. Examples of our activities are as follows (1) Learning astronomy with local people, by local people, for local people. (2) Science cafés about astronomy at book stores, small restaurants and local airport. (3) Traveling lecture of astronomy for hospitalized children.

Kamegai, K.; Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Tsukada, K.

2006-08-01

177

Canadian Astronomy Education: A Project by the Canadian Astronomical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Astronomical Society offers educational astronomy materials for teachers, students, youth organizations, and professional and amateur astronomers. Educators can find astronomy curriculum expectations for Canada, a list of science centers and observatories, activity ideas, lesson plans, star charts, and much more. The website features an informative biography of the astronomer of the month. Students can find an interactive tour of the universe and great tips to help them learn astronomy as well as information about astronomy careers, clubs, and science fairs. Novice astronomers can obtain guides about buying telescopes and observing. This high-quality site is sure to have appealing materials for all individuals interested in astronomy.

178

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

2009-12-01

179

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in

Wayne Orchiston; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Mukul Kundu; Jacques Arsac; Émile-Jacques Blum; André Boischot

2009-01-01

180

The Radio Properties of the dMe Flare Star Proxima Centauri Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,  

E-print Network

.sinica.edu.tw Stephen M. White Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA email: white on its radio luminosity at 6 and 3.5 cm, the lowest detection threshold yet reached for a star other than a filling factor of Ÿ 13%. Loops at temperatures ¸3 \\Theta 10 6 K, similar in temperature to the non

White, Stephen

181

Coherence theory applied to space radio astronomy: Cassini/RPWS, a practical implementation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar and planetary, space radio astronomy has taken advantage of several technical and methodological improvements, from the first age - when simple wire antennas and analogue filters were used (RAE, IMP, Voyager) -, later - when spacecraft spin (ISEE, Ulysses) could be exploited for source direction retrieval, and up to now - with the current use of on board digital correlators analyzing multiple wire antennas (Cassini, Stereo). Indeed, correlation analysis from multiple sensors allows, in principle, the full second order statistics of the analyzed signal to be retrieved, thus providing, with respect to simple antenna system, some extra information on the received radio waves (mainly the spatial brightness distribution and intrinsic polarisation of the observed radio source). In the real case of experiments aboard interplanetary spacecraft, one has to take into account a number of undesirable instrumental effects, for instance the perturbation of the antenna response by the spacecraft conductive body or the limitation of the signal to noise ratio by the available telemetry rate. In this talk, taking as a working example the Cassini/RPWS data, we develop a consistent statistical model of such a correlator, which allows actual measurements to be easily characterized and reliably inverted. Some results from observations of Jovian and Saturnian radiating sources are provided as illustrative examples.

Lecacheux, A.

2009-04-01

182

Unformatted Digital Fiber-Optic Data Transmission for Radio Astronomy Front-Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a prototype integrated receiver front-end that combines all conversions from RF to baseband, from analog to digital, and from copper to fiber into one compact assembly, with the necessary gain and stability suitable for radio astronomy applications. The emphasis in this article is on a novel digital data link over optical fiber which requires no formatting in the front-end, greatly reducing the complexity, bulk, and power consumption of digital electronics inside the antenna, facilitating its integration with the analog components, and minimizing the self-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI) which could leak into the signal path. Management of the serial data link is performed entirely in the back-end based on the statistical properties of signals with a strong random noise component. In this way, the full benefits of precision and stability afforded by conventional digital data transmission are realized with far less overhead at the focal plane of a radio telescope.

Morgan, Matthew A.; Fisher, J. Richard; Castro, Jason J.

2013-06-01

183

100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

Simmons, M.

2008-11-01

184

Bringing science into schools through astronomy. Project ASTRO, Tucson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our experience in bringing science into US and French classrooms. We participated in the US scientific educational program Project ASTRO. It is based on a partnership between a school teacher and an astronomer. They together design and realize simple and interesting scientific activities for the children to learn and enjoy science. We present four hands-on activities we realized in a 4th-grade class (10 yr-old kids) in Tucson (USA) in 2002-2003. Among the covered topics were: the Solar System, the Sun (helioseismology) and the Galaxies. We also present a similar experience done in two classrooms in 2005, in Chatenay-Malabry (France) in partnership with an amateur astronomy association (Aphélie), and discuss future activities. This is a pleasant and rewarding activity, extremely well appreciated by the children and the school teachers. It furthermore promotes already at a young age the excitement of science, and provides concrete examples of the scientific methodology.

Barban, C.; Dole, H.

2005-11-01

185

Probing Strongly-Scattered Compact Objects Using Ultra-High-Resolution Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores fundamental limits in radio astronomy and develops techniques that utilize the scintillation of compact objects to probe detailed properties of their emission regions and of the scattering material. I develop a statistical framework for observations with spectral resolution at or near the Nyquist limit, suitable for describing the observed statistics of strongly-scattered sources. I demonstrate that these statistics can effectively isolate the signature of an extended emission region, requiring no assumptions about the nature or distribution of the scattering material. Then, using observations of the Vela pulsar at 760 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope, I thereby achieve a spatial resolution of 4 km at the pulsar. Finally, I explore the signature of refractive scintillation on the interferometric visibility measured on long baselines, and I derive optimal correlation estimators for quantized data.

Johnson, Michael Douglas

186

Engaging students in astronomy and spectroscopy through Project SPECTRA!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations for minds-on learning with "Project Spectra!" How do we gain information about the Sun? How do we know Mars has CO2 or that Enceladus has H2O geysers? How do we use light in astronomy? These concepts are something students and educators struggle with because they are abstract. Using simulations and computer interactives (games) where students experience and manipulate the information makes concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge and is completely unlike its paper-and-pencil counterpart. Visualizations also enable teachers to forgo purchasing expensive laboratory equipment. "Project Spectra!" is a science and engineering program that uses computer-based Flash interactives to expose students to astronomical spectroscopy and actual data in a way that is not possible with traditional in-class activities. To engage students in "Project Spectra!", students are given a mission, which connects them with the research at hand. Missions range from exploring remote planetary atmospheres and surfaces, experimenting with the Sun using different filters, or analyzing the soil of a remote planet. Additionally, students have an opportunity to learn about NASA missions, view movies, and see images connected with their mission, which is something that is not practical to do during a typical paper-and-pencil activity. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. These interactives complement in-class Project SPECTRA! activities exploring applications of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Wood, E. L.

2011-12-01

187

Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

2012-01-01

188

Applicability of radio astronomy techniques to the processing and interpretation of aperture synthesis passive millimetre-wave applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD programme is contributing to the development of Passive Millimetre-Wave Imagers (PMMWI) using the principles of interferometric aperture synthesis and digital signal processing. The principal applications are security screening, all-weather flight aids and earth observation. To enhance the cost-effectiveness of PMMWI systems the number of collecting elements must be minimised whilst maintaining adequate image fidelity. A wide range of techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community for improving the fidelity of sparse interferometric array imagery. This paper brings to the attention of readers these techniques and discusses how they may be applied to imaging using software packages publicly available from the radio astronomy community. The intention of future work is to adapt these algorithms to process experimental data from a range of realistic simulations and real-world targets.

Taylor, Christopher T.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Salmon, Neil A.; Cameron, Colin D.

2012-06-01

189

Popularization of Astronomy under Cooperation between Students and Educators in Japan: the TENPLA project (1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the concepts and products of the Tenpla project, a unique activity in popularization of astronomy under cooperation between students of astronomy and educators in Japan. The goal of the project is to show the true, latest and exciting results of astronomy, and to let more people be familiar with and find pleasure in astronomy, as they enjoy sports and fine arts. Our mailing list has about 200 participants, including 80 university students. The members share information and exchange views on various educational activities. Derived from the discussions, we have proposed some innovative materials for popularization of astronomy. Our "Astronomical Toilet Paper (ATP)" is a novel tool which enables public people to get close to astronomy. We have also developed a typing game "Sora-Uchi" and a Japanese card game "Astro-Karuta". These products have won a lot of coverage in the mass media and this helps to awake people's interest in astronomy. In this paper, we show the details of our projects and responses of the public.

Hiramatsu, M.; Takanashi, N.; Kamegai, K.; Tsukada, K.

2006-08-01

190

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-01-01

191

Adapting the RBSEU Nova Search Project for Use in Intro Astronomy at Truckee Meadows Community College: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster summary describes how the RBSEU Nova Search project was adapted for use in the introductory astronomy course at Truckee Meadows Community College. The summary discusses what the RBSEU Nova Search project is, motivations for including undergraduate research experiences in a non-majors astronomy course, and "lessons learned" in successfully implementing this project.

Loranz, D.

2011-09-01

192

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted

Wayne Orchiston; Jean-Louis Steinberg

2007-01-01

193

COMPUTER USE AUTHORIZATION ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

COMPUTER USE AUTHORIZATION ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT RADIO ASTRONOMY LABORATORY THEORETICALASTROPHYSICS authorized to support charges for the computer account. Please give the completed form to Bill Boyd in 401: ____________________________ User I.D.: ________________________ CONDITIONS OF USE The Astronomy Department provides computing

Militzer, Burkhard

194

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Basic Coordinates and Seasons Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based teaching module illustrates three different, but related concepts. Terrestrial coordinates and the celestial equatorial coordinate system are covered and are used to explore the motion of the sun and how it relates to seasons. There are interactive maps that display terrestrial and celestial equatorial coordinates. Users can change the point location on the map and view coordinates from different reference points. The third component of this package explores Earth's seasons and the ecliptic as the earth orbits the sun. This module is part of a larger collection of simulation-based labs for introductory astronomy.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-09-19

195

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Motions of the Sun Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation reviews some of the material from Basic Coordinates and Seasons Module and The Rotating Sky Module and adds information to put all the pieces together for a more complete description of the motions of the sun culminating in the the Paths of the Sun Simulator. Computation of meridional altitude and stellar visibility are also introduced. The user can change the date, latitude and speed of the orbit. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

196

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Eclipsing Binary Stars Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation demonstrates how information about stars which can not be directly observed can be inferred from a special class of binary stars â eclipsing binaries. The simulation shows two stars orbiting each other. As one star is eclipsed the corresponding decrease in flux is displayed on a graph. The user can control the system orientation, stellar properties and the speed of the simulation. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

197

Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

Melnick, Gary J.

1990-01-01

198

Learning Approaches, Course Experience, and Astronomy Understanding in The Oklahoma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project designed to bolster the quality of astronomy education through teacher workshops. Workshop topics include the solar system, stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, and cosmology. The Learning Approach Questionnaire (LAQ) is used to determine the effects of the workshops. (DDR)

Mann, Jennifer; Williams, Karen; Rutledge, Carl

1998-01-01

199

WSClean: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy  

E-print Network

Astronomical widefield imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new widefield interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependencies of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarisation correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square-Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that...

Offringa, A R; Hurley-Walker, N; Briggs, F H; Wayth, R B; Kaplan, D L; Bell, M E; Feng, L; Neben, A R; Hughes, J D; Rhee, J; Murphy, T; Bhat, N D R; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Jacobs, D C; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Procopio, P; Prabu, T; Riding, J; Roshi, D A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L

2014-01-01

200

WSCLEAN: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical wide-field imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new wide-field interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependences of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarization correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that combining w-stacking with the w-snapshot algorithm does not significantly improve computing requirements over pure w-stacking. The source code of our new imager is publicly released.

Offringa, A. R.; McKinley, B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Briggs, F. H.; Wayth, R. B.; Kaplan, D. L.; Bell, M. E.; Feng, L.; Neben, A. R.; Hughes, J. D.; Rhee, J.; Murphy, T.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, D. C.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Roshi, D. A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

2014-10-01

201

Smart Images in a Web 2.0 World: The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality astronomical images, accompanied by rich caption and background information, abound on the web and yet are notoriously difficult to locate efficiently using common search engines. ``Flat'' searches can return dozens of hits for a single popular image but miss equally important related images from other observatories. The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) is developing the architecture for an online index of astronomical imagery and video that will simplify access and provide a service around which innovative applications can be developed (e.g. digital planetariums). Current progress includes design prototyping around existing Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standards. Growing VAMP partnerships include a cross-section of observatories, data centers, and planetariums.

Hurt, R. L.; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Wyatt, R.

2008-06-01

202

Using an Observatory Project to Develop Professional Communication in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive project using the Highland Road Park Observatory camera. This project encompasses the formal portions for both written and spoken communication, and carries 55% of the course credit.

Dr. Robert Hynes, Assistant Professor, Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University

203

Radio stars; Proceedings of the Workshop on Stellar Continuum Radio Astronomy, Boulder, CO, August 8-10, 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented on radio-observable processes in stars, stochastic electron acceleration in stellar coronae, corotating interaction regions in stellar winds, damping of the magnetoionic Z mode, and electron-cyclotron maser emission during solar and stellar flares. Also considered are radio emission from the winds of single stars, as well as from circumstellar envelopes, AG Pegasi, L1551 IRS5, premain sequence stars and associated structures, P Cygni, Cyg OB2 No. 5, Theta(1)A Orionis, Gamma(2) Vel, symbiotic stars, and VV Cephei-type binaries. Papers are also presented on emission from flare stars and RS CVn systems, early-type stars, AM Herculis, the late-type dwarf stars UV Ceti and YZ CMi, AU Mic, dMe stars, solar-type stars, A and B stars, active late-type giants in binary systems, RS CVn binaries, W UMa Systems, and from strong X-ray sources. Also considered are parameters of the SS433 accretion disk, the confirmation of Cygnus X-3 radio periodicity, a variable Rho P Ophiuchi cloud radio star, microwave spectroscopic deduction of coronal magnetic fields, and a technique for removing confusion sources from VLA data. Other topics include stellar radio emission theoretical problems, high-angular resolution studies, and the time-resolution domain.

Hjellming, R. M.; Gibson, D. M.

204

Discovering astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

Chapman, R. D.

1978-01-01

205

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center describes: the discovery of infrared waves; what infrared waves are and how they are used in astronomy; atmospheric windows; near, middle, and far infrared; the infrared universe; and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. It also provides an IR astronomy timeline; history and development of IR detector technology; information on projects, news and discoveries; an IR gallery; classroom activities; and links for getting involved in astronomy.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

206

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 1: Nordmann's attempt to observe solar radio emission in 1901  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after the discovery of radio waves by Hertz in 1886 the idea that the Sun must emit this radiation was suggested. A number of scientists from different nations then attempted to detect this emission, and one of these was the French astronomer, Charles Nordmann. This paper provides biographical Information an Nordmann before discussing his attempt to detect solar emisson

Suzanne Débarbat; James Lequeux; Wayne Orchiston

2007-01-01

207

Strategies for Creating Cornerstone Education Projects for the International Year of Astronomy 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Assembly of the United Nations has designated 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), a year-long global education program to commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first astronomical observations through a telescope. IYA2009 has an importance well beyond what can be accomplished in just one year. The main goal is to use this year to build sustainable, long-term education programs for measurable changes in science literacy in school children and in the public at large. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) with headquarters in Tucson and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) with headquarters in Washington D.C. are leading the coordination of IYA2009 activities in the United States under a grant from the National Science Foundation. NASA is also playing a large role. NOAO and AAS are working closely with United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Astronomical Union (IAU), Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA), and other trusted astronomy partners worldwide. Through collaboration and coordination, the participating partners will convey the excitement of personal discovery, the merits of the scientific process, and the pleasure of sharing new and fundamental knowledge about the Universe. This talk will describe the goals of the major cornerstone projects led by the United States including the Galileoscope education kit, dark skies education, image exhibition, and Galileo teacher training project. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

2008-12-01

208

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

209

De-mystifying earned value management for ground based astronomy projects, large and small  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale and complexity of today's ground based astronomy projects have justifiably required Principal Investigator's and their project teams to adopt more disciplined management processes and tools in order to achieve timely and accurate quantification of the progress and relative health of their projects. Earned Value Management (EVM) is one such tool. Developed decades ago and used extensively in the defense and construction industries, and now a requirement of NASA projects greater than $20M; EVM has gained a foothold in ground-based astronomy projects. The intent of this paper is to de-mystify EVM by discussing the fundamentals of project management, explaining how EVM fits with existing principles, and describing key concepts every project can use to implement their own EVM system. This paper also discusses pitfalls to avoid during implementation and obstacles to its success. The authors report on their organization's most recent experience implementing EVM for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) project. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), planned for construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama Desert region.

Norton, Timothy; Brennan, Patricia; Mueller, Mark

2014-08-01

210

A 5 Giga Samples Per Second 8-Bit Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, manufactured, and characterized an 8-bit 5 Giga samples per second (Gsps) ADC printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). An e2v EV8AQ160 ADC chip was used in the design and the board is plug compatible with the field programmable gate array (FPGA) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) community. Astronomical interference fringes were demonstrated across a single baseline pair of antennas using two ADC boards on the Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) telescope. Several radio interferometers are using this board for bandwidth expansion, such as Submillimeter Array; also, several experimental telescopes are building new spectrometers using the same board. The ADC boards were attached directly to the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH-2) FPGA board for processing of the digital output signals. This ADC board provides the capability of digitizing radio frequency signals from DC to 2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth), and to an extended bandwidth of 2.5 GHz (5 dB) with derated performance. The following worst-case performance parameters were obtained over 2 GHz: spur free dynamic range (SFDR) of 44 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) of 35 dB, and effective number of bits (ENOB) of 5.5.

Jiang, Homin; Liu, Howard; Guzzino, Kim; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Chang, Ray; Chen, Ming-Tang

2014-09-01

211

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

212

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS On the meteor height from forward scatter radio observations  

E-print Network

Abstract. It is known from theory that, by means of a plasma physics approach, it is possible to obtain a simple formula to calculate the approximate height of a meteor (Foschini 1999). This formula can be used in case of forward scatter of radio waves and has the advantage that it does not depend on the diffusion coefficient. On the other hand, it is possible to apply the formula to a particular type of meteor only (overdense meteor type I), which is a small fraction of the total number observed. We have carried out a statistical analysis of several radio echoes from meteor showers recorded during last years by a radio observer located in Belgium. The results are compared and discussed with those obtained with other methods and available in literature. Key words: meteors, meteoroids – plasmas – scattering 1.

A. Carbognani; M. De Meyere; L. Foschini; C. Steyaert

213

Analysis of the Capability and Limitations of Relativistic Gravity Measurements Using Radio Astronomy Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uses of radar observations of planets and very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations of extragalactic objects to test theories of gravitation are described in detail with special emphasis on sources of error. The accuracy achievable in these tests with data already obtained, can be summarized in terms of: retardation of signal propagation (radar), deflection of radio waves (interferometry), advance of planetary perihelia (radar), gravitational quadrupole moment of sun (radar), and time variation of gravitational constant (radar). The analyses completed to date have yielded no significant disagreement with the predictions of general relativity.

Shapiro, I. I.; Counselman, C. C., III

1975-01-01

214

Scaling radio astronomy signal correlation on heterogeneous supercomputers using variousdata distribution methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation radio telescopes will require orders of magnitude more computing power to provide a view of the universe with greater sensitivity. In the initial stages of the signal processing flow of a radio telescope, signal correlation is one of the largest challenges in terms of handling huge data throughput and intensive computations. We implemented a GPU cluster based software correlator with various data distribution models and give a systematic comparison based on testing results obtained using the Fornax supercomputer. By analyzing the scalability and throughput of each model, optimal approaches are identified across a wide range of problem sizes, covering the scale of next generation telescopes.

Wang, Ruonan; Harris, Christopher

2013-12-01

215

Alternate Methods of Measuring Public Radio Audiences: A Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot project was undertaken to explore ways to profile public radio audiences inexpensively and simply. The major effort was through use of the station's monthly programing guide mailing list. Persons found in this list were interviewed and their listening habits compared with a general survey (baseline) group. The survey showed that public…

Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; LeRoy, David J.

216

The Harvard Radio Meteor Project Meteor Velocity Distribution Reappraised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative distribution of atmospheric encounter speeds at constant mass for observations made as part of the Harvard Radio Meteor Project synodic year observations has been recalculated using a cumulative mass index, ? = 1.1 ± 0.1, and the mass velocity relation from F. Verniani (1973, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8429-8462), ? = 4.23 ± 0.07. A discrepency in the

A. D. Taylor

1995-01-01

217

Effects of the Earth's Ionosphere on HF Radio Astronomy from Artificial Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the effects of the ionosphere on HF observations from satellite-borne radio telescopes is presented. The primary effect investigated is the focusing effect of the ionosphere on incoming cosmic noise. This effect was computed according to the Hamiltonian equations for a ray path in a general magnetoionic medium, assuming the ionosphere to be a nonhomogenous, nonisotropic, magnetoionic

M. D. Grossi; K. M. Strom; S. E. Strom

1961-01-01

218

Project CLEA - The Moons of Jupiter: Understanding the Kepler's Laws in Astronomy 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results on a study of impact of Project CLEA - Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy software on students’ understanding of the Kepler's Third Law. The study was conducted at the University of Missouri among 26 non-science major students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course. There were 16 female and 15 male students participants between age of 18 and 24. The study was designed to find out whether students had different attitudes toward the simulation: its visual design and its intuitiveness and easiness to use. The study tested whether these attitudes reflected on the students’ learning outcomes of the discussed astronomy topic. To measure students’ computer proficiency and how comfortable they were using computers they were given a computer attitude inventory. The participants took a pretest and a posttest designed by the Project CLEA developers for the Moons of Jupiter module. The students also filled out a questionnaire where they reflected on their experience of using the software. Two weeks later the research participants took a final astronomy course examination which included a question on the Kepler's Third Law. Our research shows that students who indicated that they liked the simulation performed better on the posttest.. At the same time, we found that there was no relationship between the students’ attitude towards the simulation and their performance on the final exam. Students, who used CLEA simulation regardless of their attitudes towards it, significantly outperformed their classmates during the final exam on the Kepler's third law question. It is also interesting to note that students performed better on five out of six posttest questions - there was no change on a question involved mathematical application of the Kepler's Third Law formula.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2008-05-01

219

The MARIACHI Project: Mixed Apparatus for Radio Investigation of Atmospheric Cosmic Rays of High Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays are nuclei that have been accelerated to kinetic energies in excess of 1020 eV. Where do they come from? How are they produced? Are they survivors of the early universe? Are they remnants of supernovas? MARIACHI, a unique collaboration between scientists, physics teachers and students, is an innovative technique that allows us to detect and study them. The Experiment MARIACHI is a unique research experiment that seeks the detection of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), with E >1020 eV. It is an exciting project with many aspects: Research: It investigates an unconventional way of detecting EECRs based upon a method successfully used to detect meteors entering the upper atmosphere. The method was developed by planetary astronomers listening to radio signals reflected off the ionization trail. MARIACHI seeks to listen to TV signals reflected off the ionization trail of an EECR. The unique experiment topology will also permit the study of meteors, exotic forms of lightning, and atmospheric science. Computing and Technology: It uses radio detection stations, along with mini shower arrays hooked up to GPS clocks. Teachers and students build the arrays. It implements the Internet and the GRID as means of communication, data transfer, data processing, and for hosting a public educational outreach web site. Outreach and Education: It is an open research project with the active participation of a wide audience of astronomers, physicists, college professors, high school teachers and students. Groups representing high schools, community colleges and universities all collaborate in the project. The excitement of a real experiment motivates the science and technology classroom, and incorporates several high school physical science topics along with material from other disciplines such as astronomy, electronics, radio, optics.

Inglis, M. D.; Takai, H.; Warasia, R.; Sundermier, J.

2005-12-01

220

LOFAR: A new radio telescope for low frequency radio observations: Science and project status  

E-print Network

LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a large radio telescope consisting about 100 soccer field sized antenna stations spread over a region of 400 km in diameter. It will operate in the frequency range from ~10 to 240 MHz, with a resolution at 240 MHz of better than an arcsecond. Its superb sensitivity will allow for a broad range of astrophysical studies. In this contribution we first discuss four major areas of astrophysical research in which LOFAR will undoubtedly make important contributions: reionisation, distant galaxies and AGNs, transient radio sources and cosmic rays. Subsequently, we will discuss the technical concept of the instrument and the status of the LOFAR project

H. Rottgering; A. G. de Bruyn; R. P. Fender; J. Kuijpers; M. P. van Haarlem; M. Johnston-Hollitt; G. K Miley

2003-07-11

221

Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented.

Gawande, R.; Bradley, R.; Langston, G.

2014-10-01

222

Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.  

PubMed

We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented. PMID:25362437

Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

2014-10-01

223

Highlighting the History of Frebch Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multielement Grating Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all

Monique Pick; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Wayne Orchiston; Andre Boischot

2011-01-01

224

The energy of electron beams near the Io footprint derived from radio-astronomy observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of Jupiter-Io auroral electrons can be inferred through the analysis of decametric radio emissions, especially that of millisecond bursts. Jovian millisecond (or S-)bursts are intense impulsive decametric radio bursts drifting in frequency in tens of milliseconds. Previous analyses suggest that S-bursts are cyclotron-maser emission in the flux tubes connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. Electrons are thought to be accelerated from Io to Jupiter. Near Jupiter, a loss cone appears in the magnetically mirrored electron population, which is able to amplify extraordinary (X) mode radio waves. Most of the theories about their origin include an interpretation of their frequency drift. We have analysed two sets of data collected at the DAM Nançay and Karkhov radio-telescopes; they are consistent with the above scenario. In addition, we confirm that the frequency drift df/dt(f) is negative on average and decreases in absolute value at high frequencies, consistent with the adiabatic theory of particles motion. We find a typical energy of 4 keV for the emitting electrons. In many cases, we find evidence of localized ~ 1 kV electric potential jumps at high latitudes along magnetic field lines connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. These potential jumps are stable over tens of minutes and propagate upward with a velocity of the order of the sound velocity. We will discuss the consistency of such ~ 4 keV electron populations with other energy estimates derived from observations of the UV Jupiter-Io auroras.

Mottez, F.; Hess, S.; Zarka, P.; Prangé, R.

2008-12-01

225

SkuareView: client-server framework for accessing extremely large radio astronomy image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new wide-field radio telescopes, such as: ASKAP, MWA, and SKA; will produce spectral-imaging data-cubes (SIDC) of unprecedented volume. This requires new approaches to managing and servicing the data to the end-user. We present a new integrated framework based on the JPEG2000\\/ISO\\/IEC 15444 standard to address the challenges of working with extremely large SIDC. We also present the developed j2k

Vyacheslav V. Kitaeff; Chen Wu; Andreas Wicenec; Andrew D. Cannon; Kevin Vinsen

2012-01-01

226

A Review of High School Level Astronomy Student Research Projects Over the Last Two Decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1990s with the arrival of a variety of new technologies, the capacity for authentic astronomical research at the high school level has skyrocketed. This potential, however, has not realised the bright-eyed hopes and dreams of the early pioneers who expected to revolutionise science education through the use of telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation in the classroom. In this paper, a general history and analysis of these attempts is presented. We define what we classify as an Astronomy Research in the Classroom (ARiC) project and note the major dimensions on which these projects differ before describing the 22 major student research projects active since the early 1990s. This is followed by a discussion of the major issues identified that affected the success of these projects and provide suggestions for similar attempts in the future.

Fitzgerald, M. T.; Hollow, R.; Rebull, L. M.; Danaia, L.; McKinnon, D. H.

2014-09-01

227

A Review of High School Level Astronomy Student Research Projects over the last two decades  

E-print Network

Since the early 1990s with the arrival of a variety of new technologies, the capacity for authentic astronomical research at the high school level has skyrocketed. This potential, however, has not realized the bright-eyed hopes and dreams of the early pioneers who expected to revolutionise science education through the use of telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation in the classroom. In this paper, a general history and analysis of these attempts is presented. We define what we classify as an Astronomy Research in the Classroom (ARiC) project and note the major dimensions on which these projects differ before describing the 22 major student research projects active since the early 1990s. This is followed by a discussion of the major issues identified that affected the success of these projects and provide suggestions for similar attempts in the future.

Fitzgerald, Michael T; Rebull, Luisa M; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H

2014-01-01

228

Molecular Clouds and Clumps in the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of 13CO J = 1 ? 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18° < ell < 55fdg7 and Galactic latitudes |b| <= 1°. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s-1. Because the GRS uses 13CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than 12CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of 13CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2009-05-01

229

M.S. Astronomy Program M.S. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

M.S. Astronomy Program M.S. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 for later reference. 1. understanding of a variety of fields of physics and astronomy at the graduate level 2*. performance of an astronomy research project suitable for a masters thesis 3*. ability

Hemmers, Oliver

230

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

231

A Kalman-tracker-based Bayesian detector for radar interference in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations of important L-band spectral lines must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215-1350 MHz band. Such pulsed interference must be dealt with at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other observatories by "blanking" to remove corrupted data. This paper presents a new algorithm which improves aircraft echo detection by using a Kalman tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes. This Bayesian method enables more sensitive weak echo detection. Track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of echoes in the next antenna sweep. A lower detection threshold is used in higher probability regions to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection.

Dong, Weizhen; Jeffs, Brian D.; Fisher, J. Richard

2005-03-01

232

VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

1979-01-01

233

Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications  

E-print Network

Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from $\\mathcal{O}(P^3)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(P^2)$, where $P$ is the number of receive paths to be calibrated. Aims. We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods. Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results. Our simu...

Salvini, Stefano

2014-01-01

234

Light Pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia: An Observational Project for Introductory Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term study of light pollution in Lowndes County, Georgia has been initiated as a collaborative project among students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses at Valdosta State University. A single honors student began the project in Spring 2000; during the Fall 2000 semester all students enrolled in ASTR 1020K (Stellar and Galactic Astronomy) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis. Students were provided with charts showing the appearance of the constellations Cygnus, Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Orion (as appropriate) at limiting magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 in 0.5-magnitude steps. On clear, moonless nights students compared the visual appearance of these constellations to the charts, allowing them to determine a limiting magnitude for their location. Preliminary results suggest that, even on the clearest nights, stars fainter than magnitude 5.0 are not visible from any location within Lowndes County. This limitation results largely from ambient light from Valdosta, the only urban area within the county, and also from atmospheric extinction in a region of high humidity. By participating in this exercise, students in a class traditionally populated by non-science majors gain an appreciation for the collaborative nature of modern science. They also become familiar more familiar with the night sky than they might were their exposure limited to the traditional two-hour weekly laboratory session. Most importantly, as young adults they experience first-hand the deleterious effects of light intrusion upon their enjoyment of the night sky!

Rumstay, K. S.; VSU Astronomy Students Team

2000-12-01

235

The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

Goldsmith, John

2014-07-01

236

Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

Werthimer, Dan

2014-04-01

237

Digital Signal Processing using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ~100MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ~58MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8Tops/s and 0.236 Tbit/s throughput in a 9kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260MB/s for 9 second time averaging of cross-power and 1 second averaging of total-power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneo...

Kocz, J; Barsdell, B R; Price, D; Bernardi, G; Bourke, S; Clark, M A; Craig, J; Dexter, M; Dowell, J; Eftekhari, T; Ellingson, S; Hallinan, G; Hartman, J; Jameson, A; MacMahon, D; Taylor, G; Schinzel, F; Werthimer, D

2014-01-01

238

Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from 𝒪(P3) to 𝒪(P2), where P is the number of receive paths to be calibrated Aims: We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods: Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results: Our simulations confirm the 𝒪(P2) complexity and excellent numerical and computational properties of the algorithm. They also confirm that the algorithm performs at or close to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB, lower bound on the variance of estimated parameters). We find that the algorithm is suitable for application in self-calibration and discuss how it can be included. We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude speed improvement in calibration over traditional methods on actual LOFAR data. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate that ADI methods are a valid and computationally more efficient alternative to traditional gain calibration methods and we report on its successful application in a number of actual data reduction pipelines.

Salvini, Stefano; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

2014-11-01

239

The Five-Hundred Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (fast) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, such as surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main reflector correcting for spherical aberration on the ground to achieve a full polarization and a wide band without involving complex feed systems; and the light-weight feed cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as a secondary adjustable system to move with high precision. The feasibility studies for FAST have been carried out for 14 years, supported by Chinese and world astronomical communities. Funding for FAST has been approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in July of 2007 with a capital budget ~ 700 million RMB. The project time is 5.5 years from the commencement of work in March of 2011 and the first light is expected to be in 2016. This review intends to introduce the project of FAST with emphasis on the recent progress since 2006. In this paper, the subsystems of FAST are described in modest details followed by discussions of the fundamental science goals and examples of early science projects.

Nan, Rendong; Li, Di; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

240

The UltraLightweight Technology for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collaborative focus of four academic departments (Univ. of Kansas Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Kansas Physics & Astronomy, San Diego State University Astronomy and Dartmouth College Astronomy) and a private industry partner (Composite Mirror Applications, Inc.-CMA, Inc.) is a three-year plan to develop and test UltraLightweight Technology for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA). The ULTRA technology, using graphite fiber composites to

B. A. Twarog; B. J. Anthony-Twarog; S. J. Shawl; R. Hale; R. Taghavi; R. Fesen; P. B. Etzel; R. Martin; R. Romeo

2004-01-01

241

Astronomy CATS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

2012-08-01

242

The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well as special efforts planned for IYA2009, strongly support many of the objectives of IYA. Some of these are: 1. Stimulate interest in astronomy and science, especially among young people and in audiences not normally reached. 2. Increase scientific awareness. 3. Support and improve formal and informal science education. 4. Provide a contemporary image of science and scientists. 5. Facilitate new astronomy education networks and strengthen existing ones. 6. Improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement of underrepresented groups. The Space Place program has cultivated a large network of community partners (Obj. 5), including museums, libraries, and planetariums, as well as a large network of avocational astronomy societies. We send the community partners monthly mailings of the latest NASA materials for their "NASA Space Place" display boards (Obj. 1, 2, 3, 5). The astronomy societies receive original articles with the latest "insider" news on NASA missions for publication in their newsletters or on their websites (Obj. 2, 5). Through these leveraged partnerships, we reach a large audience of children; parents; formal and informal educators; rural, minority, and otherwise underserved audiences (Obj. 1, 6); and avocational astronomers, many of whom work with children and the general public in the classroom or at special events (Obj. 2, 3). Supporting Obj. 4, are the "Space Place Live" cartoon "talk show" episodes, spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/live. For IYA 2009, we will specifically prepare our partners to plan and carry out activities to tie in with the IYA April topic, Galaxies and the Distant Universe. The infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, as well as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft are strongly represented on The Space Place web site, with interactive games, images, and crafts that explore the wonders of and latest discoveries about galaxies. In addition, in our mailings and other partner communications throughout the year, we will feature special activities and projects on spaceplace.nasa.gov, and suggest ways to use these resources in IYA-related events.

Leon, N. J.; Fisher, D. K.

2008-12-01

243

Education and Public Outreach activities in Radio astronomy with the SKA South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Human Capital Development (HCD) program is a crucial part of any large organisation, and especially for large new research facilities such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Africa. HCD provides a way of developing and channeling new minds into a very demanding field that ensures sustainability of the project and a multitude of spin-off benefits. Apart from educating learners at various levels, the HCD program must also inspire and educate the general public about the projects via an active outreach program. We highlight the various types of outreach activities that have been carried out in South Africa and the other SKA Africa partner countries. While there exist many teaching models we introduce and explore a novel concept of peer teaching for research known as the Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) and present some of its results. The JEDI workshops have resulted in a considerable number of learners embarking on advanced careers in science and research, and the demand is still growing.

Oozeer, N.; Bassett, B. A.; de Boer, K.

2014-10-01

244

How Are Students' Interests in Astronomy Affected by Doing Projects in ASTR 101 at a Two Year College?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We teach introductory astronomy to non-science majors at a two year college in suburban Chicago. In the Fall 2006 semester, to promote awareness of the transit of Mercury amongst the college community, about 175 students have been asked to do projects related to this event or to the solar system. Groups of 3 or 4 students work on one project. The projects are being presented as posters that will be on display for the entire college to view. In addition to creating the posters, students will individually report on a project other than their own. We are studying how doing such projects affects the non-science major students' interest in astronomical events and astronomy in general.

D'Cruz, Noella L.

2006-12-01

245

Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

2012-08-01

246

Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

2003-07-01

247

Managing a big ground-based astronomy project: the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TMT is a big science project and its scale is greater than previous ground-based optical/infrared telescope projects. This paper will describe the ideal "linear" project and how the TMT project departs from that ideal. The paper will describe the needed adaptations to successfully manage real world complexities. The progression from science requirements to a reference design, the development of a product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and an organization that parallels the WBS, the implementation of system engineering, requirements definition and the progression through Conceptual Design to Preliminary Design will be summarized. The development of a detailed cost estimate structured by the WBS, and the methodology of risk analysis to estimate contingency fund requirements will be summarized. Designing the project schedule defines the construction plan and, together with the cost model, provides the basis for executing the project guided by an earned value performance measurement system.

Sanders, Gary H.

2008-07-01

248

*** TITLE *** Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012  

E-print Network

*** TITLE *** Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012 ***NAME OF EDITORS*** c 2012 International on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth Kellermann VICE-CHAIR Wayne Orchiston BOARD Rod Davies Leonid TRIENNIAL REPORT 2009-2012 1. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA

Groppi, Christopher

249

Automated radio astronomy operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improvements in using a computer to drive a DSN 64-meter antenna are described. The development is used to simplify operation, improve antenna safety, reduce antenna wear, present the abuse of antenna by misoperation, increase quantity and quality of data gathered, and give users a greater choice of automatic operations.

Livermore, R. W.

1978-01-01

250

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY  

E-print Network

years at Berkeley [1] and Caltech [2], is to use a thin sheet of mylar (polyethylene terephthalate) as a vacuum window. Atmospheric pressure causes such a window to balloon alarmingly, but the great strength and flexibility of mylar are sufficient in many applications so long as no sharp object pricks the window (in

Groppi, Christopher

251

Functional restrictions on the orientation of onboard and ground methods in the RadioAstron project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, functional restrictions on the orientation of the onboard systems of the space radio telescope, stations of scientific data receiving and ground radio telescopes in the RadioAstron project are considered. Restrictions important for practical problems of scheduling observations with ground-space radio interferometer are discussed in detail. An algorithm for calculating the angles of the narrow-beam antenna drive, which takes into account technological restrictions on the capability of its spatial orientation, is presented.

Voinakov, S. M.; Filippova, E. N.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Yakimov, V. E.

2014-09-01

252

Research Projects and Undergraduate Retention at the University of Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona’s Astronomy Club utilizes its access to the many telescopes in and around Tucson, Arizona, to allow students to fully participate in a variety of research projects. Three current projects - the exoplanet project, the radio astronomy project, and the Kepler project - all work to give undergraduates who are interested in astronomy the opportunity to explore practical astronomy outside the classroom and in a peer-supported environment. The exoplanet project strives to teach students about the research process, including observing exoplanet transits on the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Tucson, AZ, reducing the data into lightcurves with the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), modeling the lightcurves using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and writing and publishing a professional paper, and does it all with no faculty involvement. The radio astronomy project is designed to provide students with an opportunity to work with a professor on a radio astronomy research project, and to learn about the research process, including observing molecules in molecular clouds using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter radio telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. The Kepler project is a new project designed in part to facilitate graduate-undergraduate interaction in the Astronomy Department, and in part to allow students (both graduate and undergraduate) to participate in star-spot cycle research using data from the Kepler Mission. All of these research projects and structures provide students with unique access to telescopes, peer mentoring, networking, and understanding the entire process of astronomical research.

Walker-LaFollette, Amanda; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Towner, A. P.; McGraw, A. M.; Biddle, L. I.; Robertson, A.; Turner, J.; Smith, C.

2013-06-01

253

Enabling technologies and constraints for software sharing in large astronomy projects  

E-print Network

.M. Keck Observatory f National Optical Astronomy Observatories, La Serena, Chile ABSTRACT The new Schumacher f , Steve Wamplerd a European Southern Observatory, Garching bei Muenchen, Germany b UK Astronomy Technology Centre, United Kingdom c Space Telescope Science Institute d National Solar Observatory e W

Liske, Jochen

254

The School Classroom and the Radio Classroom. Radio Language Arts Project Implementation. Field Notes 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes are presented on classroom organization, discipline, motivation, and teacher concern for use with instructional radio. Attributes of a regular classroom and a good radio classroom are compared, including teacher/radio positioning, materials organization and presentation, the use of sound and silence, cueing and voice use, demonstrations,…

de Fossard, Esta

255

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

Rapp, Steve

2010-01-01

256

Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

2006-08-01

257

Astronomy for African development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

Govender, Kevindran

2011-06-01

258

New Projects in Astronomy: Where do they come from and how do they get realized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observing facilities in astronomy today require very big investments, both on the ground and in space. The high priority scientific goals that the communities have identified and included in their "Vision" and "Roadmap" documents, lead to a push for increased sensitivity, meaning larger aperture telescopes and more efficient detectors, and a push for increased angular resolution, meaning again larger apertures or large interferometers, not only in one part of the electro-magnetic spectrum but at all wavelengths. The recent roadmap plans for astronomy, both in Europe and elsewhere reflect these high ambitions. What does it take to make them come true? In this contribution, which represents a personal point of view, we reflect on some of the structures, mechanisms and processes that have contributed to the very successful, dynamic evolution of European astronomy during the last few decades, and that provide the basis on which the even bigger scientific and technical challenges of the future can successfully be tackled.

Grewing, Michael; Debouzy, Genevieve

2013-01-01

259

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

260

ASTRONOMY 104: UNDERGRADUATE ASTRONOMY SEMINAR  

E-print Network

1 ASTRONOMY 104: UNDERGRADUATE ASTRONOMY SEMINAR SYLLABUS Unique Number 47750 Class Meetings together with fellow astronomy majors, and those in other majors who are keen on astronomy. We hope to discuss present and future pathways to success in and around astronomy, and to share with you some

261

Status of Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE)  

E-print Network

RICE is designed to detect ultrahigh energy (>100 TeV) neutrinos from astrophysical sources. It will consist of an array of compact radio (100 to 1000 MHz) receivers buried in ice at the South Pole. During the 1995-96 and 1996-97 austral summers, several receivers transmitters were deployed in bore holes drilled for the AMANDA project, at depths of 141 to 260 m. This was the first in situ test of radio receivers in deep ice for neutrino astronomy.

RICE Collaboration; C. Allen; A. Bean; D. Besson; G. Frichter; S. Kotov; I. Kravchenko; D. McKay; T. Miller; L. Piccirillo; J. Ralston; D. Seckel; S. Seunarine; G. Spiczak

1997-09-23

262

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

263

Learning Astronomy by Doing Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modern science curriculum, students should learn science knowledge or "facts"; they should develop science skills, strategies, and habits of mind; they should understand the applications of science to technology, society, and the environment; and they should cultivate appropriate attitudes toward science. While science knowledge may be taught through traditional lecture-and-textbook methods, theories of learning (and extensive experience) show that other aspects of the curriculum are best taught by doing science -- not just hands-on activities, but "minds-on" engagement. That means more than the usual "cookbook" activities in which students use a predetermined procedure to achieve a predetermined result. The activities should be "authentic"; they should mirror the actual scientific process. In this presentation, I will describe several ways to include science processes within astronomy courses at the middle school, high school, and introductory university level. Among other things, I will discuss: topics that reflect cultural diversity and "the nature of science"; strategies for developing science process skills through projects and other practical work; activities based on those developed and carried out by amateur astronomers; topics and activities suitable for technical-level courses (we refer to them as "applied" in my province); projects for astronomy clubs and science fairs; and topics that expose students to astronomy research within lecture courses.

Percy, J. R.

2006-08-01

264

Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

2013-12-01

265

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

2010-08-01

266

Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

2013-04-01

267

Antenna feed unit for the RadioAstron project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and parameters of the antenna feed unit in the ranges of 6, 18, and 92 cm are described. The unit was designed and manufactured for the RadioAstron space telescope with a diameter of 10 m. The parameters and test results are presented.

Turygin, M. S.

2014-09-01

268

Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1991-01-01

269

Stereoscopic 3D Projections with MITAKA An Important Tool to Get People Interested in Astronomy and Space Science in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan has developed space simulation software "Mitaka". By using Mitaka on two PCs and two projectors with polarizing filter, and look through polarized glasses, we can enjoy space travel in three dimensions. Any one can download Mitaka from anywhere in the world by Internet. But, it has been prepared only Japanese and English versions now. We improved a Mitaka Spanish version, and now we are making projections for local people. The experience of the universe in three dimensions is a very memorable for people, and it has become an opportunity to get interested in astronomy and space sciences. A 40 people capacity room, next o to our Planetarium, has been conditioned for 3D projections; also a portable system is available. Due to success of this new outreach system more 3D show rooms will be implemented within the country.

Shiomi, Nemoto; Shoichi, Itoh; Hidehiko, Agata; Mario, Zegarra; Jose, Ishitsuka; Edwin, Choque; Adita, Quispe; Tsunehiko, Kato

2014-02-01

270

Transactions IAU, Volume XXVIIIA Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012  

E-print Network

Transactions IAU, Volume XXVIIIA Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012 Ian Corbett, ed. c 2012 GROUP ON HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth Kellermann VICE-CHAIR Wayne Orchiston BOARD Rod Davies Woerden TRIENNIAL REPORT 2009-2012 1. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy

Groppi, Christopher

271

Astronomy for Development in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will look briefly at efforts to stimulate astronomy across Africa and will broadly summarize the current status of astronomy on the continent. It will also aim to address the question of how astronomy can be used for African development - something that has always been a key driver of efforts to grow the field in this region. The establishment of the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development, which has a global mandate, has provided additional support and opportunity for the many role players across the African continent. These individuals had already organised themselves in order to grow the field of astronomy across all areas from outreach to education to research. Some of these activities built on work done by the IAU's Commission 46 (Astronomy Education and Development) while other activities stemmed from the International Year of Astronomy 2009, specifically the "Developing Astronomy Globally" Cornerstone Project.

Mauduit, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

272

MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

2006-12-01

273

Astronomy 250  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of lecture notes discusses the fundamentals of astronomy. The lecture notes review the topics of celestial mechanics, light, matter, planets, telescopes, the sun, stellar astronomy, stellar evolution, life in the universe, galaxies, and cosmology.

Rieke, Marcia

2011-05-24

274

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bad Astronomy is a site dedicated to misconceptions and myths held regarding astronomy, and the popular culture that propogates them. Of particular note are the many reviews of movies and television from a scientific perspective

Plait, Phil

275

Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

Orchiston, Wayne

2005-01-01

276

Experimental Astronomy (2004) 17: 261267 C Springer 2005 RFI MITIGATION AND THE SKA  

E-print Network

Experimental Astronomy (2004) 17: 261­267 C Springer 2005 RFI MITIGATION AND THE SKA STEVEN W radio astronomy from its inception. The Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004) was held in Penticton, BC, Canada in July 2004 in order to consider

Ellingson, Steven W.

277

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project is a worldwide event consisting of a wide range of public outreach activities, live science center, research observatory webcasts and sidewalk astronomy events. One of the key goals of 100 Hours of Astronomy is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100 Hours of Astronomy will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. This presentation will report on this worldwide public outreach event, its successes and lessons learned, participation and possible follow-up projects and activities.

Simmons, Michael

2009-05-01

278

Engineering design of an unmanned lunar radio observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study derives principal technology challenges and requirements for unmanned lunar exploration missions on the basis of candidate missions to telerobotically place a radio observatory - Astronomy Lunar Low Frequency Array (ALLFA) - on the farside of the moon. Highlights of the detailed ALLFA engineering design are presented, including all phases of the project from launch to data retrieval. The

R. J. Drean; M. A. Caylor; D. U. Choi; C. R. Edelsohn; J. G. Gurley; F. A. Hagen; P. B. Landecker; G. W. Su; M. L. Tillman; C. R. Wassgren

1992-01-01

279

Multimessenger Astronomy  

E-print Network

Multimessenger astronomy incorporating gravitational radiation is a new and exciting field that will potentially provide significant results and exciting challenges in the near future. With advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LCGT, LIGO, Virgo) we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as electromagnetic (gamma-rays, x-rays, optical, radio) and/or neutrino emission. The LIGO-Virgo interferometer network has already been used for multimessenger searches for gravitational radiation that have produced insights on cosmic events. The simultaneous observation of electromagnetic and/or neutrino emission could be important evidence in the first direct detection of gravitational radiation. Knowledge of event time, source sky location, and the expected frequency range of the signal enhances our ability to search for the gravitational radiation signatures with an amplitude closer to the noise floor of the detector. Presented here is a summary of the status of LIGO-Virgo multimessenger detection efforts, along with a discussion of questions that might be resolved using the data from advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.

N. L. Christensen; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration

2011-05-30

280

Astronomy Education and Popularization Facilities at Guanajuato University in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Astronomy Department of Universidad de Guanajuato, 400 km NW of Mexico City, nine professional astronomers do research and teaching at both graduate and undergraduate level. In addition, in the last few years, this group has carried out astronomy popularization activities at three different sites. First, a rudimentary observatory named "La Azotea" (the roof) on the top of the main building of the University (at Guanajuato centre), which includes a 16-cm refractor in a dome, a couple of XIXth century astronomical instruments, and a classroom with capacity for 50 people. The refractor was out of use for about twelve years but will be fully operational before summer 2006. Second, the "Observatorio de La Luz", 20 kms away from Guanajuato centre, includes a professional 0.6m Cassegrain and a 2m radio telescope, with a 21cm receiver. Finally, on the roof of the Astronomy Department headquarters, an optical 0.4m Dobsonian is available. We also dispose of internet connection everywhere and 6 portable 8-inch telescopes (two at each site), devoted to regular astronomical observations for the general public, specially for scholars. Numerous repair works are currently carried out on the building of "La Azotea", and recently a project to establish there a Centre for Popularization of Astronomy has been approved by the Regional Science Council. The main activities, some of them currently developed at these sites are: (1) A permanent program of astronomical observations for a wide audience. (2) Training in Observational Astronomy for physics undergraduate students. (3) Regular talks on astronomy and other science domains. (4) Summer schools in Astronomy for elementary and high-school teachers. (5) In the near future, the foundation of an amateur society of astronomy.

Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Schroeder, K.-P.; Ramirez, L.

2006-08-01

281

Student Attitudes Towards Public Funding Of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in astronomy is strongly dependent on public (taxpayer) dollars. In this study we examine the attitudes of college students toward funding of astronomy projects. A survey was given to 269 college students prior to taking an introductory astronomy course. Students were given a short test designed to examine misconceptions about astronomy. They were then asked about their willingness to support public funding for astronomy projects. Students with fundamental misconceptions about mundane topics such as the cause of the seasons and phases of the moon were less than half as likely to support public funding of astronomy projects. Results are also reported showing the relationship between a willingness to fund projects and whether the students had experiences including reading books or magazines on astronomy, exposure to astronomy in high school, and using a telescope.

Stine, Peter

2009-01-01

282

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

... university-based radio facilities. A primary function of funded University Radio Observatories is to ... student access to state-of-the-art radio astronomy instrumentation. UROs also serve the general ...

283

Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds a distinguished doctorate and a Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Karlsruhe. Contact him at pankrat@mit.edu, victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius.

Pankratius, Victor

2014-06-01

284

Izera projects. With astronomy into a forest. T.Mrozek, S. Kolomaoski, P. Suchan,  

E-print Network

Izera Projects: overview Primary goals: -scaled model of the Solar System -gnomon and sundial ­ tourist of the Solar System View from Neptune View from Mercury 8 irregular stones with tablets #12;Scaled model

Mrozek, Tomasz

285

Astronomy and astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An historic review of astronomy and astrophysics is presented. Astronomy is principally the observation of stars and the estimation of their position and moving. Fixed stars are distinguishable from the Sun, the Moon and the planets. Before the seventeenth century, the study of astronomy and astrophysics established maps of the sky for navigation. Huyghens and Kepler improved the calculation of the movement of planets; during the nineteenth century, Herschel and Grauenhoffer improved observation instruments. The 1960's saw the advent of space programs. Later, new areas of research appeared: ultrahigh gamma-ray astronomy, neutrino astrophysics and gravity waves. German scientists have started projects in infrared, optical, ultraviolet and x ray areas. ESA is preparing an x ray observatory program for the year 2000. The Max Planck Institute is working with the Spanish on a telescope in Spain.

286

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip Plait, a professor at the physics and astronomy department at Sonoma State University, explores many popular myths and misconceptions about astronomy at this amusing and educational website. Students and educators can learn which ideas promoted by television, news, movies, and the general public are false and, more importantly, why they are false. Amateur astronomers can talk with others about an array of bad astronomy topics on the Bulletin Board. The website offers information about Philip Plait's public talks and about astronomical events.

Plait, Philip

287

Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

Muhs, Eric C.

2006-12-01

288

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks, one, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave

Baker, Andrew J.

289

Development status of a Laue lens project for gamma-ray astronomy  

E-print Network

We report the status of the HAXTEL project, devoted to perform a design study and the development of a Laue lens prototype. After a summary of the major results of the design study, the approach adopted to develop a Demonstration Model of a Laue lens is discussed, the set up described, and some results presented.

F. Frontera; G. Loffredo; A. Pisa; L. Milani; F. Nobili; N. Auricchio; V. Carassiti; F. Evangelisti; L. Landi; S. Squerzanti; K. H. Andersen; P. Courtois; L. Amati; E. Caroli; G. Landini; S. Silvestri; J. B. Stephen; J. M. Poulsen; B. Negri; G. Pareschi

2007-12-07

290

Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

1991-01-01

291

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book offers a unique collection -- the first of its kind -- of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, publication studies, research indicators, space science planning, research communication, public outreach, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable by readers not necessarily hyper-specialized in astronomy, while still providing specific detailed information. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, science sociologists, research planners and strategists, project managers, and public relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6671-9

Heck, André

2000-11-01

292

The MAGIC Telescope Project for Gamma Astronomy above 10 GeV  

E-print Network

A project to construct a 17 m diameter imaging air Cherenkov telescope, called the MAGIC Telescope, is described. The aim of the project is to close the observation gap in the gamma-ray sky extending from 10 GeV as the highest energy measurable by space-borne experiments to 300 GeV, the lowest energy measurable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The MAGIC Telescope will incorporate several new features in order to reach the very low energy threshold. At the same time the new technology will yield an improvement in sensitivity in the energy region where current Cherenkov telescopes are measuring by about an order of magnitude.

N. Magnussen

1998-05-14

293

Astronomy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exhibits, invited talks, discussions, and references of a Conference on Demonstrations for Classroom Use in Astronomy,'' and informs of the establishment of a Task Group on Education in Astronomy designed for the purpose of providing a focus for both college and high school teachers. (CC)

Hoff, Darrel; Wentzel, Donat G.

1973-01-01

294

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

295

SVOM: Chinese First Space Based Astronomy Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of small satellites in astronomy observation can get most valuable science data with low cost. Therefor, Tsinghua University is developing a small satellite for astronomy observation called Space multi-band Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) cooperated with National Astronomy Observatory of China and other institutions. This paper introduced the background of SVOM project briefly, and described the science goals, payloads, orbit

Zheng You; Jian Guo; Jinxin Hao; Jinyao Hu; Shuangnan Zhang

2002-01-01

296

System definition phase and acquisition phase project plan for Small Astronomy Satellite SAS-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the SAS-D project is to conduct spectral distribution studies of celestial ultraviolet sources using an Explorer-class spacecraft launched by a Delta vehicle into a geosynchronous orbit in the last half of 1975. The telescope system is intended for use by guest astronomers for a major portion of the total observing time. The concept of the overall system, designed to resemble functionally the operation of a ground-based observatory, should maximize the usefulness of the instrument to the astronomical community by limiting the amount of special instruction needed to use the spaceborne telescope. The SAS-D mission will obtain information on what stars, nebulae, and galaxies are and how they develop.

1971-01-01

297

Astronomy in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching and research. Joint supervision for postgraduate level research was organized between local and Iraqi expatriate astronomers. The IAU was among the first international organizations to offer assistance. Many observatories worldwide have also given support. Plans will be proposed for re-building the Observatory, supporting teaching and research, and establishing an institute for astronomy in Erbil, together with further suggestions on how the international astronomical community can assist Iraqi astronomers.

Alsabti, A. W.

2006-08-01

298

Astronomy Program for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of a teacher's experience in presenting astronomy to 12 to 15 year olds in a summer science program is presented. Observations of planets, meteors, and the sun are the major projects which are discussed. (SA)

Levy, David H.

1979-01-01

299

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

SciTech Connect

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

300

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather fine website is a must-visit for anyone involved in teaching college-level astronomy. The Astronomy Center is sponsored by the American Astronomical Society, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the National Science Foundation, among other distinguished organizations. Visitors can get started by looking over the Recent Additions area, which in the past has included features on the phases of the moon, interactive activities related to fossil stars, and a telescope primer for educators. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse By Topic area to find specific materials on 13 subjects, including galaxies, the solar system, and the Milky Way. Also, visitors can browse by document type, where the headings include Simulations, Projects, and Labs. The Cosmic Time and Distance area is a real delight, as it includes activities that will challenge students to explore the concepts of parallax and aberration of light as they apply to astronomy.

2012-06-08

301

Visualising Astronomy: "Other Worlds"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructures that are built and used for astronomical research are financed by - and therefore must be justified to - our society. Astronomy has an innate appeal for people of all ages, partly because it concerns the fascinating, great questions "of life, the Universe and everything" and partly because much of the data obtained with telescopes can be presented as objects of stunning beauty. These are key facts when considering communicating astronomy with the public. This native advantage that astronomy has over many other sciences does not, however, relieve us of the obligation to explain what we are doing to the public at large. There are many reasons for doing this. They range from attracting bright young people into the subject to fuel future research endeavours to convincing decision-takers to allocate large sums of money to finance increasingly expensive and ambitious projects.

Wyatt, R.

2009-02-01

302

Astronomy in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

Hearnshaw, John B.

2006-01-01

303

RadioAstron data processing at the MPIfR DiFX correlator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Max Planck Institute for RadioAstronomy (MPIfR) is actively participating in the processing and analysis of the RadioAstron mission data. During AO-1, more than 10 MPI-based projects will be observed, and correlated in Bonn. The in-house High Performance Cluster (HPC) is currently running a customized version of the DiFX, able to handle mission's data. I will give a review on the status of the correlator and data processing.

Bruni, Gabriele

304

Astronomy: Project Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents classroom activities and reading materials. The activities use a hands-on approach and address the standards. Each features both a student section and a teacher guide. Eleven activities include: (1) "It's Only a Paper Moon"; (2) "Time Traveler"; (3) "Solar System Scale"; (4) "Hello Out There!"; (5) "How Far to the Star?"; (6)…

Smith, P. Sean

305

New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

1995-12-01

306

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

Simmons, Mike

2009-01-01

307

John E. Hibbard National Radio  

E-print Network

John E. Hibbard National Radio Astronomy Observatory The Antennae Galaxies: Archetype for Colliding Galaxies #12;The Antennae: A Merger Prototype J. Hibbard, NRAO 203rd AAS Jan 9 2004 Talk Outline of radio galaxiesUsed to support collisional origin of radio galaxies (Baade & Minkowski 1954, ApJ, 119

Hibbard, John

308

IAU GENERAL ASSEMBLY: RIO 2009 REPORT OF THE IAU WORKING GROUP ON HISTORIC RADIO  

E-print Network

survive. During the Triennium research on the history of radio astronomy was carried out by more than 40 History and Heritage. Papers from the Science Meeting on European Radio Astronomy held at the Prague of a history of radio astronomy DVD and forthcoming books was announced, and Ken Kellermann reported that NRAO

Groppi, Christopher

309

Astronomy Adventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1986-01-01

310

Astronomy Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has 11 kid-friendly books on a wide range of astronomy topics. For each title, the publisher and publication date are included along with author name. The list includes engaging stories, field guides and other reference books.

311

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

312

Civic Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The founding of the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N.Y., in 1852 was a milestone in humanity's age-old quest to understand the heavens. As the best equipped astronomical observatory in the U.S. led by the first American to hold a Ph.D. in astronomy, Benjamin Apthorp Gould Jr., the observatory helped pioneer world-class astronomy in America. It also proclaimed Albany's status as a major national center of culture, knowledge and affluence. This book explores the story of the Dudley Observatory as a 150 year long episode in civic astronomy. The story ranges from a bitter civic controversy to a venture into space, from the banks of the Hudson River to the highlands of Argentina. It is a unique glimpse at a path not taken, a way of doing science once promising, now vanished. As discoveries by the Dudley Observatory's astronomers, especially its second director Lewis Boss, made significant contributions to the modern vision of our Milky Way galaxy as a rotating spiral of more than a million stars, the advance of astronomy left that little observatory behind.

Wise, George

2004-10-01

313

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

314

Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2010-01-01

315

PART 1: Astronomy and Society Monday, 10 June 2013  

E-print Network

PART 1: Astronomy and Society Monday, 10 June 2013 09h00 Registration 09h30 10' Welcome Session 1 and their importance for astronomy Ron Ekers 11h00 Tea/coffee Break Session 2: Why should society fund big science projects and big astronomy projects in particular? 11h30 30' The benefits of basic research in general

Galis, Frietson

316

NASE Training Courses in Astronomy for Teachers throughout the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Network for Astronomy School Education, NASE, is a project that is organizing courses for teachers throughout the entire world. The main objective of the project is to prepare secondary and primary school teachers in astronomy. Students love to know more about astronomy and teachers have the opportunity to observe the sky that every school has…

Ros, Rosa M.

2012-01-01

317

Astronomy 362: Observational Astronomy University of Montana  

E-print Network

Astronomy 362: Observational Astronomy University of Montana Fall 2010 T/Th 2:10 ­ 3:30 pm CHCB 227://www.physics.umt.edu/~nate/astr362/ Course Description Observational astronomy relies heavily on application of advanced technology astronomy is dominated by the CCD and related pixel array detectors: digital devices with unprecedented

Vonessen, Nikolaus

318

THE ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

THE ASTRONOMY MAJOR DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DARTMOUTH COLLEGE September 2013 #12;The Department of Physics and Astronomy website: http: //www.dartmouth.edu/~physics Upcoming, and Courses: http://dartmouth.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2013/orc If you are thinking of majoring in astronomy

319

THE ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

THE ASTRONOMY MAJOR DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DARTMOUTH COLLEGE September(2013(( #12;The Department of Physics and Astronomy website: http: //www.dartmouth.edu/~physics Upcoming colloquia://dartmouth.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2013/orc If you are thinking of majoring in astronomy, and have any questions, please contact any

320

Astronomy 135 ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY LABORATORY II  

E-print Network

Astronomy 135 ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY LABORATORY II Spring 2008 INSTRUCTOR: Diane Friend E-MAIL: diane.friend@umontana.edu PHONE: 243-4299 (Phys./Astr. dept. office: 243-2073) OFFICE: CHCB 129 (inside the Physics/Astronomy dept to observing sessions if you wish. The labs will usually expand on material presented in Astronomy 132, so

Vonessen, Nikolaus

321

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

322

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

323

Astronomy in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

Rosenzweig, Patricia

324

The Jailbreak Health Project--incorporating a unique radio programme for prisoners.  

PubMed

Several studies in NSW have identified prisoners to be at high risk for blood borne viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis C among men in NSW correctional centres is 40% and over 60% among women. It is even higher among those with histories of injecting drug use. As part of the state's strategy to minimise the spread of blood borne viruses and promote healthy lifestyles among prisoners, the Community Restorative Centre broadcasts a weekly half hour radio programme to prisoners and the community. The project is funded through the NSW Health Department and aims to provide support to prisoners, ex-prisoners and their families. Jailbreak's success hinges on the participation of the very people [prisoners] the show wishes to target. The radio show is aimed specifically at broadcasting health promotion and harm-minimisation messages to prisoners and their supporters although this is not obvious. When you tune in to Jailbreak you will hear a diverse range of opinion, music and poetry from people caught up in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless at the heart of this exciting and challenging project is the delivery of engaging, relevant and clear health messages to prison inmates, ex-inmates and families in relation to HIV, hepatitis and sexual health. Since 2002, valuable health information, often in the form of personal stories, vignettes and quiz questions, can be heard in and around Sydney on 2SER 107.3 FM or online at http://www.2ser.com. Jailbreak has not been without controversy and has to balance the security focus of correctional authorities and the illegality of substance use in correctional centres with the need to convey messages to prisoners in relation to harm-minimisation. PMID:17854735

Minc, Ariane; Butler, Tony; Gahan, Gary

2007-10-01

325

100 Hours of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years

Mike Simmons

2009-01-01

326

Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project  

SciTech Connect

This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

P. E. Klingsporn

2005-11-14

327

Astronomy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of astronomy lesson plans and experiments from across the internet was developed by Reach Out, a center linking University of Michigan and community mentors with children and teens. Topics covered include comets, the Sun, sunspots, the aurora, craters, galaxies, moons, star properties, Moon phases, and meteors. Each lesson plan gives credit to the developer, and contains all the information necessary for applying the lesson in a classroom setting.

328

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

329

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

330

The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

2011-10-01

331

Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

Rahe, Jurgen (editor)

1993-01-01

332

Humanising Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

Levin, S.

2008-06-01

333

Service Learning in Introductory Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Service learning is a method of instruction where the students in a course use the course's content in a service project. The service is included as a portion of the students' course grades. During the fall semester 2010, service learning was incorporated into the Introduction to Astronomy course at Misericordia University. The class had eight students and the service project centered on hosting astronomy observations for fifth- and sixth-grade students from two nearby elementary schools. The astronomy students operated telescopes, pointed out constellations, and spoke to the audience members about the objects they were observing. Since service learning requires a minimum number of hours the students must log over the course of fulfilling the service project, the students planned alternative activities in case the weather did not allow the observations to be held. A key part of service learning is for the students to reflect on the service experience and how it influenced their learning of the course material.

Orleski, Michael

2013-12-01

334

Popularising science through astronomy, an Algerian experience in grassroot activism and its academic spin-off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate the success story of an amateur astronomy association based at Constantine, which has spearheaded the efforts of spreading astronomy and scientific culture in Algeria. This association has organised throughout the past decade many activities from large national yearly gatherings to a weekly radio program, through public sighting campaigns. It has been instrumental in the establishment of a pluri-university graduate study program in astrophysics, the so called Ecole Doctorale d'Astrophysique (EDA), the first of its kind in Algeria. We describe in particular how astronomers from various parts of Algeria involved in amateur astronomy have known each other, and banded together to the point of constituting a critical size group able to set up such a national graduate program with plans for the establishment of the first observatory in our country, the Aurès Observatory in Eastern Algeria Aurès mountain range. A strong interest for the project has been shown by the astronomical community, some site testing undertaken, and international collaboration sought. With some dedicated support, its foundation could take place within the year 2009. Could IAY2009 be turned into an annus mirabilis for Algeria and a showcase for the astronomy community worldwide with behind it a textbook case of synergy between amateur astronomy and academic endeavor in the astronomical sciences?

Mimouni, Jamal

2011-06-01

335

The Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Study: Executive volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy.

1975-01-01

336

The effects of a satellite power system on ground-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of power transmission from the solar power satellite and of radiation from the ground based rectennas on radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and optical astronomy are discussed. Interference sources, acceptable signal and noise levels, and conflicting site requirements for observatories and rectennas are considered.

Thompson, A. R.

1980-01-01

337

THE COMPLEX CORE OF ABELL 2199: THE XRAY and RADIO INTERACTION  

E-print Network

the jet flow, which has led to dynamical history very different from the usual radio galaxyTHE COMPLEX CORE OF ABELL 2199: THE X­RAY and RADIO INTERACTION F. N OWEN National Radio Astronomy Center New Mexico Tech, Socorro NM 87801, USA 1 The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is operated

Eilek, Jean

338

Multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 19-22, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present volume on multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography discusses AXAF grazing incidence mirrors, the theory and high throughput optics of grazing incidence optics, multilayer mirror fabrication and characterization, and multilayer optics for X-ray projection lithography. Attention is given to the VETA-I X-ray detection system, a motion detection system for AXAF X-ray ground testing, image analysis of the AXAF VETA-I X-ray mirror, and optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons. Topics discussed include the application of aberration theory to calculate encircled energy of Wolter I-II telescopes, W/C multilayers deposited on plastic films, nonspecular X-ray scattering from Si/Mo multilayers, and multilayer thin-film design as FUV polarizers. Also discussed are thin-film filter lifetesting results in the EUV, chromospheric and coronal observations with multilayer optics, present and future requirements of soft X-ray projection lithography, and the imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope.

Hoover, Richard B. (editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (editor)

1993-01-01

339

GEM 1506 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS: HIGHLIGHTS OF CULTURAL ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

GEM 1506 ­ HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS: HIGHLIGHTS OF CULTURAL ASTRONOMY TERM PROJECT THE NEW YEAR AND THE AUSPICIOUS HOURS......17 3.1 TERMS USED IN THE ASTRONOMY OF SRI LANKA signs (though, in reality the sun does not move). With a rich history behind the astronomy of Sri Lanka

Aslaksen, Helmer

340

TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

2013-06-01

341

Islamic AstronomyIslamic Astronomy Topics covered  

E-print Network

in September 622 C.E. which led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in IslamicIslamic AstronomyIslamic Astronomy #12;Topics covered ·· Islamic calendarIslamic calendar ·· types importance in the structure ofof kaabakaaba ·· problems in Islamic astronomyproblems in Islamic astronomy

Aslaksen, Helmer

342

INSA Scientific Activities in the Space Astronomy Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to astronomy operations is an important and long-lived activity within INSA. Probably the best known (and traditional) INSA activities are those related with real-time spacecraft operations: ground station maintenance and operation (ground station engineers and operators); spacecraft and payload real-time operation (spacecraft and instruments controllers); computing infrastructure maintenance (operators, analysts), and general site services. In this paper, we'll show a different perspective, probably not so well-known, presenting some INSA recent activities at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) and NASA Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) directly related to scientific operations. Basic lines of activity involved include: operations support for science operations; system and software support for real time systems; technical administration and IT support; R&D activities, radioastronomy (at MDSCC and ESAC), and scientific research projects. This paper is structured as follows: first, INSA activities in two ESA cornerstone astrophysics missions, XMM-Newton and Herschel, will be outlined. Then, our activities related to scientific infrastructure services, represented by the Virtual Observatory (VO) framework and the Science Archives development facilities, are briefly shown. Radio astronomy activities will be described afterwards, and, finally, a few research topics in which INSA scientists are involved will also be described.

Martínez, Ricardo Pérez; Portal, Miguel Sánchez

343

INSA Scientific Activities in the Space Astronomy Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to astronomy operations is an important and long-lived activity within INSA. Probably the best known (and traditional) INSA activities are those related with real-time spacecraft operations: ground station maintenance and operation (ground station engineers and operators); spacecraft and payload real-time operation (spacecraft and instruments controllers); computing infrastructure maintenance (operators, analysts), and general site services. In this paper, we’ll show a different perspective, probably not so well-known, presenting some INSA recent activities at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) and NASA Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) directly related to scientific operations. Basic lines of activity involved include: operations support for science operations; system and software support for real time systems; technical administration and IT support; R&D activities, radioastronomy (at MDSCC and ESAC), and scientific research projects. This paper is structured as follows: first, INSA activities in two ESA cornerstone astrophysics missions, XMM-Newton and Herschel, will be outlined. Then, our activities related to scientific infrastructure services, represented by the Virtual Observatory (VO) framework and the Science Archives development facilities, are briefly shown. Radio astronomy activities will be described afterwards, and, finally, a few research topics in which INSA scientists are involved will also be described.

Pérez Martínez, Ricardo; Sánchez Portal, Miguel

344

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

345

The Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has been conducted on the topic of entertainment-education (EE), the method of using entertainment platforms such as popular music, radio, and television programming to diffuse information, attitudes, and behaviors via role modeling. A significant portion of the recently published EE literature has used the case of the Radio

Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

2008-01-01

346

Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 2, book 1: Astronomy sortie program technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed to arrive at a baseline astronomy sortie mission concept is summarized. The material includes: (1) definition of the telescopes and arrays; (2) preliminary definition of mission and systems; (3) identification, definition, and evaluation of alternative sortie programs; (4) the recommended astronomy sortie program; and (5) the astronomy sortie program concept that was approved as a baseline for the remainder of the project.

1972-01-01

347

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

348

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

349

The General History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. The Birth of Astrophysics and Other Late Nineteenth-Century Trends (c.1850-c.1920); 1. The origins of astrophysics A. J. Meadows; 2. The impact of photography on astronomy John Lankford; 3. Telescope building, 1850-1900 Albert Van Helden; 4. The new astronomy A. J. Meadows; 5. Variable stars Helen Sawyer Hogg; 6. Stellar evolution and the origin of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram David DeVorkin; Part II. Observatories and Instrumentation: 7. Astronomical institutions. Introduction Owen Gingerich, Greenwich Observatory Philip S. Laurie, Paris Observatory Jacques Lévy, Pulkovo Observatory Aleksandr A. Mikhailov, Harvard College Observatory Howard Plotkin, United States Naval Observatory Deborah Warner, Lick Observatory Trudy E. Bell, Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory Dieter B. Herrmann; 8. Building large telescopes, 1900-1950 Albert Van Helden; 9. Astronomical institutions in the southern hemisphere, 1850-1950 David S. Evans; 10. Twentieth-century instrumentation Charles Fehrenbach, with a section on 'Early rockets in astronomy' Herbert Friedman; 11. Early radio astronomy Woodruff T. Sullivan III; Appendix: The world's largest telescopes, 1850-1950 Barbara L. Welther; Illustrations: acknowledgements and sources; Index.

Gingerich, Owen

2010-04-01

350

Media Log: A Guide to Film, Television, and Radio Programs Supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, Division of Public Programs, Humanities Projects in Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes more than 800 film, television, and radio productions developed with the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). NEH supports projects that convey significant scholarship to the general public and engage citizens in critical interpretation and analysis of the humanities. Film, video, and radio programs are…

National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

351

The Beginning of Modern Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I came to the attention of astronomers through inventing the low temperature bolometer at Texas Instruments. I was quickly drawn into pioneering infrared (IR) astronomy. I soon transferred to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and then to the University of Arizona to make astronomy my focus. Parallel programs were getting under way at the California Institute of Technology, Cornell, the Universities of Minnesota and of California, San Diego. Although our methods were crude, discoveries were easy and exciting. I was involved in many of them because I could supply good detectors and invented a number of new techniques. Eventually, I supplied detector systems and instruments through founding of a small company. By the early 1970s, systematic IR astronomy was under way on many important problems that are still active research topics. This rapid success led to investments in large new telescopes and in the IRAS survey satellite.

Low, Frank J.; Rieke, G. H.; Gehrz, R. D.

2007-09-01

352

Astronomy Mission Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about finding habitable planets. Learners will use an online, multimedia module to simulate the techniques that scientists might use to find a star system and planet that meet the astronomical conditions required for human habitability. Students then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 13 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

353

High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy  

E-print Network

Kilometer-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube are discovery instruments covering nuclear and particle physics, cosmology and astronomy. Examples of their multidisciplinary missions include the search for the particle nature of dark matter and for additional small dimensions of space. In the end, their conceptual design is very much anchored to the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of 10^{20} and 10^{13} eV, respectively. The cosmic ray connection sets the scale of cosmic neutrino fluxes. In this context, we discuss the first results of the completed AMANDA detector and the reach of its extension, IceCube. Similar experiments are under construction in the Mediterranean. Neutrino astronomy is also expanding in new directions with efforts to detect air showers, acoustic and radio signals initiated by neutrinos with energies similar to those of the highest energy cosmic rays.

F. Halzen

2005-01-26

354

Apollo-Soyuz test project. Volume 1: Astronomy, earth atmosphere and gravity field, life sciences, and materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The joint U.S.-USSR experiments and the U.S. conducted unilateral experiments performed during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are described. Scientific concepts and experiment design and operation are discussed along with scientific results of postflight analysis.

1977-01-01

355

Radio and Optical Telescopes for School Students and Professional Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!

Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.

2013-01-01

356

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century - a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

2005-12-01

357

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century - a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

2009-07-01

358

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy  

E-print Network

1 Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy Ray P. Norris CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science, NSW, Australia Warawara Dept. The International year of Astronomy seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider

Norris, Ray

359

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

360

Community Participation, Cultural Discourse, and Health Education Projects in Developing Areas: The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author comments on the article by Dutta and Basnyat (see EJ802883) that provides an insightful and comprehensive critique of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) entertainment-education program, The Radio Communication Program (RCP) in Nepal, which has been reported to be highly participatory. Despite…

Linn, J. Gary

2008-01-01

361

GAVRT and Radio Jove: Partners in K-12 Science Teacher Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio Jove Project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) have a recent partnership to train K-14 teachers to use radio astronomy telescopes as vehicles for science education. The partnership is part of the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) education and outreach program. Teachers attend training workshops to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build or operate their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. Corresponding lesson plans and curriculum material are available on the websites. Three teacher training workshops for the GAVRT/Jove program were held in 2010 and the results of the training and usage in the classroom will be reviewed. We plan to expand teacher opportunities in 2011 by offering web-based training programs.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Nakamura, B.; Dorcey, R.

2010-12-01

362

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

363

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy activities at these events which were attended by approximately 50,000 people.

Lubowich, D.

2010-08-01

364

PROPOSED PORTHOLE FOR ASTRONOMY MAJORS Information for Astronomy Majors  

E-print Network

PROPOSED PORTHOLE FOR ASTRONOMY MAJORS Information for Astronomy Majors The Astronomy Major sciences such as Astronomy, Physics, or Engineering. (Link to details on Astrophysics Concentration) The General Astronomy Concentration is intended for students who do not plan on research careers in astronomy

Richardson Jr., James E.

365

The history of radio telescopes, 1945-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using ``radio telescopes'' that looked

Woodruff T. Sullivan

2009-01-01

366

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Vol. 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This volume will be most usefully read by researchers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space sciences.

Heck, Andre

2006-12-01

367

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, volume 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the fourth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, society activities, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, environmental constraints, educational policies, public outreach, journal and magazine profiles, publication studies, electronic-media problematics, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national policies and specificities, expertise sharing, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening 'lessons learned' sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1526-7

Heck, A.

2003-10-01

368

The ALMA Phasing Project: New Frontiers in Ultra-High Resolution Astronomy Enabled by a Beamformed ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Phasing Project (APP) is an ongoing ALMA Development Project that will provide the means to coherently sum all of the individual ALMA antennas, allowing them to effectively function as a single aperture. This capability will allow ALMA to participate in global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks operating in the millimeter and submillimeter, offering a dramatic improvement in sensitivity. This will in turn afford a wide range of new ultra-high angular resolution science applications. This poster will provide an overview of the APP design and implementation plan and highlight examples of new science enabled by a beamformed ALMA (including the study of black holes on Event Horizon scales, the detailed investigation of the launch and collimation of astrophysical jets, and astrometry of astrophysical masers with unprecedented precision). Commissioning and Science Verification of the APP is slated to begin in early 2014.

Matthews, Lynn D.; Alef, W.; Anderson, J.; Barkats, D.; Crew, G. B.; Doeleman, S. S.; Fish, V. L.; Greenberg, J.; Hecht, M. H.; Hiriart, R.; Honma, M.; Impellizzeri, C.; Inoue, M.; Lacasse, R.; Lopez, B.; Mora-Klein, M.; Nagar, N.; Pankratius, V.; Pradel, N.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A.; Ruszczyk, C.; Saez, A.; Shillue, B.; Treacy, R.; ALMA Phasing Project Team

2014-01-01

369

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

370

Introductory Astronomy Clearinghouse: Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides introductory astronomy activities on topics such as: fundamentals of astronomy, observing the sky, the sun, stars, stellar evolution, the H-R diagram, the Milky Way Galaxy, galaxies, and cosmology.

2005-04-27

371

Big data challenges for large radio arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a \\

Dayton L. Jones; Kiri Wagstaff; David R. Thompson; Larry D'Addario; Robert Navarro; Chris Mattmann; Walid Majid; Joseph Lazio; Robert Preston; Umaa Rebbapragada

2012-01-01

372

THE COMPACT, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO SOURCE PROJECTED INSIDE W3(OH): EVIDENCE FOR A PHOTOEVAPORATED DISK?  

SciTech Connect

We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the compact ({approx}0.''05), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.3 (S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source ({approx}6500 K) suggest that we are most likely detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk.

Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodriguez-Garza, Carolina B.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana, E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico)

2013-08-01

373

Astronomy outreach, amateur astronomy and exoplanet  

E-print Network

Astronomy outreach, amateur astronomy and exoplanet research Olivier Guyon (Subaru Telescope, Univ and amateur astronomers are at the reason astronomical research is possible #12;#12;Exoplanets discoveries (confirmed exoplanets only) Olivier Guyon (Subaru Telescope, Univ. of Arizona) Jupiter Earth Mass #12

Guyon, Olivier

374

Neutrino Astronomy Scott Wilbur  

E-print Network

Neutrino Astronomy Ph 135 Scott Wilbur #12;Why do Astronomy with Neutrinos? Stars, active galacticV protons, which should be created with neutrinos, have been seen Can be used to observe possible dark with Neutrinos? Three main areas of research: Astronomy More information about high-energy protons and rays

Golwala, Sunil

375

Challenges in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

De Greve, Jean-Pierre

2010-11-01

376

Astronomy Education in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

Metaxa, M.

377

From Giza to the Pantheon: astronomy as a key to the architectural projects of the ancient past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many of the ``wonders'' of our past, information about their meaning and scope has been encoded in the form of astronomical alignments to celestial bodies. Therefore, in many cases, understanding the ideas of the ancient architects turns out to be connected with the study of the relationship of their cultures with the sky. This is the aim of archaeoastronomy, a discipline which is a quite efficacious tool in unraveling the original projects of many monuments. This issue is briefly discussed here by means of three examples taken from three completely different cultures and historical periods: the so-called ``air shafts'' of the Great Pyramid, the urban layout of the capital of the Incas, and the design of the Pantheon.

Magli, Giulio

2011-06-01

378

Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy  

E-print Network

We review the relatively new, internet-enabled, and rapidly-evolving field of citizen science, focusing on research projects in stellar, extragalactic and solar system astronomy that have benefited from the participation of members of the public, often in large numbers. We find these volunteers making contributions to astronomy in a variety of ways: making and analyzing new observations, visually classifying features in images and light curves, exploring models constrained by astronomical datasets, and initiating new scientific enquiries. The most productive citizen astronomy projects involve close collaboration between the professionals and amateurs involved, and occupy scientific niches not easily filled by great observatories or machine learning methods: citizen astronomers are most strongly motivated by being of service to science. In the coming years we expect participation and productivity in citizen astronomy to increase, as survey datasets get larger and citizen science platforms become more efficient...

Marshall, Philip J; Fletcher, Leigh N

2014-01-01

379

Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechanisms and propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes results obtained through the support of NASA Grant NAGW-2412. The objective of this project is to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as if flew by Neptune. This study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, ray tracing, and modeling to determine the possible source mechanism(s) and locations of the Neptune radio emissions. We have completed four papers, which are included in the appendix. The paper 'Modeling of Whistler Ray Paths in the Magnetosphere of Neptune' investigated the propagation and dispersion of lighting-generated whistler in the magnetosphere of Neptune by using three dimensional ray tracing. The two papers 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Radio Emissions from Planetary Magnetospheres' and 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Planetary Radio Emissions' employed numerical simulations to investigate an alternate source mechanism of bursty radio emissions in addition to the cyclotron maser instability. We have also studied the possible generation of Z and whistler mode waves by the temperature anisotropic beam instability and the result was published in 'Electron Cyclotron Wave Generation by Relativistic Electrons.' Besides the aforementioned studies, we have also collaborated with members of the PRA team to investigate various aspects of the radio wave data. Two papers have been submitted for publication and the abstracts of these papers are also listed in the appendix.

Wong, H. K.

1994-01-01

380

Astropy: Community Python Software for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astropy Project is a community effort to develop an open source Python package of common data structures and routines for use by other, more specialized astronomy software in Python in order to foster software interoperability in the astronomical community. The project encompasses Astropy's ”core” and ”affiliated" packages that adopt Astropy’s coding, testing and documentation standards. By doing so we aim to improve interoperability with other Python packages in astronomy, and help a broader community implement more Pythonic solutions to astronomy computing problems while minimizing duplication of effort. The project provides a template for other projects that use Astropy to reuse much of Astropy’s development framework without reinventing the wheel. Here we present an overview of the key features of the core package (existing and upcoming), current and planned affiliated packages, and how we manage a large open source project with a diverse community of contributors.

Greenfield, Perry; Tollerud, E. J.; Robitaille, T.; Developers, Astropy

2014-01-01

381

The Moon as a calibrator of linearly polarized radio emission for the SPOrt project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon could be the best external calibrator for the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) experiment, providing the highest polarized signal at large angular scales (>=7 °) in the 22-90 GHz range. Maps of linearly polarized lunar radio emission have been realized at 8.3 GHz with the 32-m radiotelescope of IRA-CNR (Medicina-Italy) at full Moon, new Moon, first and last quarter. We derived estimates of spectral and time properties of both the intensity and the linear polarization of the Moon radio emission, taking into account the radiative transfer of heat in lunar soil and the surface roughness. A comparison between predictions of the theory and observations is presented. .

Poppi, S.; Carretti, E.; Cortiglioni, S.; Krotikov, V. D.; Vinyajkin, E. N.

2002-03-01

382

History of infrared telescopes and astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first attempts to measure the infrared outputs of stars preceded by nearly a century the permanent establishment of infrared astronomy as an important aspect of the field. There were a number of false starts in that century, significant efforts that had little impact on the astronomical community at large. Why did these efforts fizzle out? What was different in the start that did not fizzle, in the 1960s? I suggest that the most important advances were the success of radio astronomy in demonstrating interesting phenomena outside of the optical regime, and the establishment virtually simultaneously in the United States of a number of research groups that could support each other and compete against one another in their approach to infrared astronomy.

Rieke, G. H.

2009-08-01

383

Neutrino Astronomy with ANTARES  

E-print Network

ANTARES is a project aiming at the operation of an underwater detector at a depth of 2.5 km close to Toulon in the South of France. The detector is expected to be completed at the beginning of 2007. The main purpose of the experiment is the detection of high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical sources. Being weakly interacting, neutrinos could potentially be more powerful messengers of the universe compared to photons, but their detection is challenging. The technique employs phototubes to detect the arrival time and the amplitude of photons emitted by neutrino charged secondaries due to the Cherenkov effect. ANTARES will contribute significantly in the field of neutrino astronomy, observing the Galactic Centre with unprecedented pointing capabilities.

Teresa Montaruli; for the ANTARES Collaboration

2004-10-26

384

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

provides the hot and cold loads for the mixer and logic signals with which to control the other two loss. III. Present Test Set Hardware A. The first section consists of a chopped hot/cold load, photo- detectors and the digital logic to generate the synchronizing control signals (Figure #2). The chopper wheel

Groppi, Christopher

385

NP Stokes fields for radio astronomy  

E-print Network

The spin weighted spherical harmonic (SWSH) description of angular functions typically is associated with the Newman-Penrose (NP) null tetrad formalism. Recently the SWSH description, but not the NP formalism, has been used in the study of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Here we relate this application of SWSHs to a description of electromagnetic radiation and polarization in the NP formalism. In particular we introduce NP Stokes fields that are the NP equivalent of the Stokes parameters. In addition to giving a more coherent foundation for the recent cosmological SWSH application, the NP formalism aids in the computation of the Lorentz transformation properties of polarization.

Ezra T. Newman; Richard H. Price

2010-07-25

386

(Astro)Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Lectures: Serin 401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks telescopes, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic

Baker, Andrew J.

387

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

to be required to turn on the indicator lights is not necessary. Instead, use the following: POKE 49342,237 : REM SET "CALL" BIT POKE 49342,229 : REM CLEAR "CALL" BIT POKE 49342,235 : REM SET "MISS" BIT POKE 49342

Groppi, Christopher

388

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

to support new commercial and military ventures. Advances in both very large scale integration (VLSI is being cluttered with earth- orbiting satellites supporting direct broadcast television, global personal as a function of time. A glance at Fig. 1 reveals that it is impossible to observe in this band without highly

Groppi, Christopher

389

Ionospheric refraction correction in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Snell's law in polar coordinates, the ionospheric refraction effects on the declination and right ascension determination are discussed in this paper. A ray tracing method is also given. With the ionospheric data observed in Beijing, the correction of ionospheric refraction is estimated and some useful conclusions are drawn.

Chai, Yan; Han, Wen-Jun

1986-10-01

390

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

of the board. Short lengths of #22 tinned-copper wire must be inserted through the seven .031" diameter holes in the circuit board. Solder both sides of the board and remove excess wire. It is important throughout construction of this amplifier to use good quality silver-bearing solder along with appropriate flux (see Parts

Groppi, Christopher

391

Radio Astronomy Antennas by the Thousands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large number of microwave antennas of size and surface accuracy appropriate for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) have not been manufactured previously. To minimize total cost, the design needs to be much more carefully considered and optimized than would be affordable for a small number of antennas. The required surface area requires new methods of manufacture and production-line type assembly to be considered. A blend of past antenna construction technology, creativity, and new technology is needed to provide the best possible telescope for the proposed SKA science goals. The following key concepts will be discussed with respect to reflector antennas and many supporting photographs, figures and drawings will be included. Surface and supporting structure comparison of panels with a one-piece shell as produced by hydroforming.

Schultz, Roger

2004-06-01

392

RADIO ASTRONOMY OB8ERVATORYNATIONA VLA Library  

E-print Network

stainless steel cap covering the orifice, and the detector background was checked (back- ground /sec). The test fixture was covered with a plastic bag, and the bag pumped full of helium. No response, the background was pumped to a level less than 10- 9 cm3 /sec, the plastic bag was pumped full of helium

Groppi, Christopher

393

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

leakage, and possible long-term contamination of refrigerator helium supplies. A He leak detector No. 166 Title: ELIMINATION OF ELECTRICAL GROUND LOOPS CAUSED BY HELIUM SUPPLY LINES IN CRYOGENIC LOOPS CAUSED BY HELIUM SUPPLY LINES IN CRYOGENIC RECEIVER SYSTEMS A. R. Kerr, N. Horner, and S.-K. Pan 9

Groppi, Christopher

394

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

Affecting Mixer Performance ········· 5 a) Proximity Effect . . · · . · · · · · · · . · · · · · 5 b) Excess Series Resistance . · · · · · · · · . · · . · 6 c) Self Heating Effect on SIS mixers using Nb/Al-Al203 /Nb junctions fabricated by Hypres Inc. Operated at 2.5 K, the mixer

Groppi, Christopher

395

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be

G. Chin; D. Buhl; J. M. Florez

1980-01-01

396

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1980-08-01

397

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

(2) Standard rochelle salt cyanide copper strike bath4 Nickel: (1) Sel-Rex Corporation, Lectro-Nic 10..00.00.001.0.0.0 .. · .... 4 2 5 BATH DECONTAMINATION .... · ······ ················· 5 2.6 AGITATION ······.0·· ····· .... ·at in the baths listed below: Gold: (1) American Chemical and Refining Company, C-27 acid gold plate process

Groppi, Christopher

398

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801  

E-print Network

be organized by Antenna Pad ID. 4. The binders should be kept and maintained in the Fiber Optic Field Lab in a sub-folder named after the antenna pad that the fiber serves. 5. Files names should have a logical be a location code such as ASP (Array Splice Panel), DW7 (Manhole at DW7), etc. 8. All files and folders should

Groppi, Christopher

399

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

Figure 2 Block Diagram of NRAO Implementation . . · · · . · 12 Figure 3 Measurements of Sliding Load . · · · . 18 Tables Table 1 Capacitance of Hewlett-Packard Shielded Open Circuits · . · · · · · . 10 Table II

Groppi, Christopher

400

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

. . . . . . 6 Figure it Heat Shield Mounting Arrangement . . . . · · ·. . . . . 9 Figure 5 Block Diagram of RF · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . . 32 Appendices Appendix 1 SIS Receiver Wiring Diagram · · · · · · · . · · . 33 Appendix 2 315 Receiver

Groppi, Christopher

401

Starsat: A space astronomy facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary design and analyses of a versatile telescope for Spacelab missions are presented. The system is an all-reflective Korsch three-mirror telescope with excellent performance characteristics over a wide field and a broad spectral range, making it particularly suited for ultraviolet observations. The system concept is evolved around the utilization of existing hardware and designs which were developed for other astronomy space projects.

Hamilton, E. C.; Mundie, C. E.; Korsch, D.; Love, R. A.; Fuller, F. S.; Parker, J. R.; Fritz, C. G.; White, R. E.; Giudici, R. J.

1976-01-01

402

Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

2014-10-01

403

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

Hemmers, Oliver

404

David Tsiklauri, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy  

E-print Network

David Tsiklauri, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy astro.qmul.ac.uk/~tsiklauri 19 Sep oscillations, waves in magnetised plasmas, elements of plasma kinetics. David Tsiklauri Astronomy Unit Queen, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy astro.qmul.ac.uk/~tsiklauri 19 Sep 2012 STFC summer school

405

Astronomy 111 Introduction to Astronomy  

E-print Network

, and Energy) and the processes that govern them; and · Understand how science works, and how we know what we in the physical Universe, and you'll also get to enjoy the tremendous beauty of the cosmos. Prerequisite: Math 111 week; in-class tutorial exercises; readings from the text; and homework and project assignments (see

Lowenthal, James D.

406

Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith, Tony Orlando, and Ronan Tynan have performed at these concerts. MAUS attracts large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in this family learning experience - often the first time these children looked through a telescope.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2013-01-01

407

Astronomers Win Protection for Key Part of Radio Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the millimeter-wave region of the radio spectrum have won crucial protection for their science. Dedicated allocations for radio astronomy have been given final approval by the 2,500 delegates to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-00), which recently concluded a month of deliberations in Istanbul, Turkey. Radio services can transmit in these parts of the spectrum as long as they don't hinder astronomers' attempts to catch faint signals from the cosmos. The new allocations represent the culmination of more than three years of cooperative planning by radio astronomers in many countries. Millimeter waves -- high-frequency radio waves -- have come of age as an astronomical tool in the last ten years. They are one of the last technological frontiers for astronomers. WRC-00 has protected for science all the frequencies between 71 and 275 Gigahertz (GHz) that radio astronomers currently use, adding more than 90 GHz of spectrum to the 44 GHz already set aside in this frequency range. As a result, radio astronomy is now allocated most of the frequencies between 71 and 275 GHz that can get through the Earth's atmosphere. "We have formal access to all three atmospheric 'windows', apart from their very edges," said Dr. Tom Gergely of the National Science Foundation, one of the U.S. delegates to WRC-00. The WRC also changed most of the frequencies allocated to satellite downlinks within the 71-275 GHz range to frequencies not used for science. Since no satellites yet operate at these high frequencies, no equipment needs to be altered. "Commercial technologies are just starting to develop above 50 GHz," said Dr. Klaus Ruf, Chairman of the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies. "The WRC's actions mean that, when they are, radio astronomers should be able to share this part of the spectrum with most terrestrial services." The World Radiocommunication Conference is held every two or three years. Here member countries of the International Telecommunication Union meet to painstakingly parcel out the radio frequency spectrum between radio-based applications such as personal communications, satellite broadcasting, GPS and amateur radio, and the sciences of radio astronomy, earth exploration and deep space research. The WRC also coordinates sharing between services in the same radio bands. WRC decisions are incorporated into the Radio Regulations that govern radio services worldwide. The new spectrum allocations for radio astronomy are the first since 1979. Millimeter-wave astronomy was then in its infancy and many of its needs were not yet known. As astronomers began to explore this region of the spectrum they found spectral lines from many interesting molecules in space. Many of those lines had not fallen into the areas originally set aside for astronomy, but most will be under the new allocations. "It's a win for millimeter-wave science," said Dr. John Whiteoak of the Australia Telescope National Facility, Australian delegate to WRC-00. "This secures its future." The protection is a significant step for both existing millimeter-wave telescopes and new ones such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now being planned by a U.S.-European consortium. Even at its isolated site in Chile's Atacama desert, ALMA would be vulnerable to interference from satellite emissions. Sensitive radio astronomy receivers are blinded by these emissions, just as an optical telescope would be by a searchlight. "There is more energy at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths washing through the Universe than there is of light or any other kind of radiation," said ALMA Project Scientist, Dr. Al Wootten of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "Imaging the sources of this energy can tell us a great deal about the formation of stars and galaxies, and even planets." "But the Earth's atmosphere isn't very kind to us - it has only a few windows at these frequencies, and not very transparent ones at that. They are easily clogged up. It's ve

2000-06-01

408

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY IN THE  

E-print Network

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY IN THE WORKS OF CHAUCER Done By: Ameerah Bte Po'ad Mattar Chew Yoke Wah in astronomy albeit the astronomy incorporated in his works are concealed in a way that it is difficult to extract his full knowledge of astronomy. Astronomy was not the key topic in Chaucer's works although his

Aslaksen, Helmer

409

Trends in Space Astronomy and Cosmic Vision 2015-2025  

E-print Network

As a short introduction to the astronomy session, the response of the community to the Call for Themes issued by ESA and the specific themes selected by the Astronomy Working Group are briefly presented in connection with the four grand themes finally selected for the ESA Science Programme. They are placed in the context of the main discoveries of the past decade and the astronomy projects currently in their development or definition phase. Finally, possible strategies for their implementation are summarised.

Catherine Turon; Chris Done; Andreas Quirrenbach; Peter Schneider; Conny Aerts; Angela Bazzano; Jose Cernicharo; Paolo De Bernardis; Ariel Goobar; Thomas Henning; Rob J. Ivison; Jean-Paul Kneib; Evert Meurs; Michiel Van Der Klis; Pedro Viana; Sergio Volonte; Werner W. Zeilinger

2005-10-28

410

VOEventNet: Event Messaging for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time domain remains one of the the least explored areas in modern astronomy. In the near future the next generation of large synoptic sky surveys (Pan-STARRs, Skymapper, LSST) will probe the time dependent nature of the sky by detecting hundreds of thousands of astronomical transients (variable stars, asteroids, GRBs, lensing events). A global event distribution and follow-up network is required to characterize the nature of these transients. For over a year the VOEventNet project has been in the process of implementing a transient event follow-up network which distributes crafted structured data packets called VOEvents. These packets have been designed to be general enough to contain metadata for transients seen at all wavelengths, yet interpretable by robotic telescope systems (which are already automatically responding with follow-up observations). The VOEventNet project currently has transient event follow-up with the Palomar 60 and 200in (Caltech), RAPTOR (LANL), PARITEL and KAIT (UCB) as well as UK telescopes. VOEventNet transient event streams are publicly available. The subscription, publication and reception of VOEvents is implimented with a number of open source software clients. The software and details of how to receive streams of events are available from http://www.voeventnet.org. Current event streams include OGLE microlensing events, SDSS Supernovae, GCN GRBs, Raptor and Palomar-Quest optical transients. In the near future, many additional streams of VOEvents will be available, including optical transients from the ESSENCE, Planet and MOA projects, as well as those from UKIRT and JCMT telescopes. We also expect that transient event alerts will be available from Solar, X-ray and Radio telescopes.

Drake, Andrew J.; Djorgovski, G.; Graham, M.; Williams, R.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Glikman, E.; Bloom, J.; Vastrand, T.; White, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.

2006-12-01

411

Learning Exercises in Astronomy for Elementary Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers from the Tucson based National Optical Astronomy Observatories and students in grades K-3 at the Satori School are learning from each other about astronomy and science education. This project is partially funded by a NASA IDEA Grant (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy). NOAO astronomers are working with the students and teachers over a series of 12 weeks to present basic concepts in planetary and solar astronomy. Each presentation includes a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on active learning exercise. Topics presented include: The Living Solar System, Impacts and Hazards, Comets, Space Resources, The Natural Sun, The Sun as a Clock, Sunspots and Solar Rotation, and Solar Music - Helioseismology. Lessons learned, by students and astronomers, will be presented and printed lesson modules available for distribution.

Jacoby, Suzanne H.

1995-12-01

412

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY UNIVERSITY OF UTAH Fall 2012 Version 2012 .................................................................................... 11 3.1. Ph.D. in Physics 12 3.1.1. Astronomy & Astrophysics

Tipple, Brett

413

Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

2009-05-01

414

Color in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

Brecher, K.

2002-05-01

415

Early Physics and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Science before the Greeks; 2. The new concept of nature; 3. Plato and Greek mathematics; 4. Aristotle and the knowledge of Nature; 5. Practical astronomy; 6. Early Greek cosmology; 7. Mathematical astronomy; 8. The foundation of statics; 9. Dynamics in antiquity; 10. The conception of light and sound; 11. The structure of material substances; 12. Properties of matter and chemical change; 13. The transmission of Greek science; 14. Experimental physics in the Middle Ages; 15. The development of statics; 16. The establishment of kinematics; 17. Force and motion in the Middle Ages; 18. Mediaeval astronomy; 19. The change called Renaissance; 20. The reform of astronomy; Bibliography; Index.

Pedersen, Olaf

1993-03-01

416

High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

1972-01-01

417

Radio Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

Downes, Ann

1986-01-01

418

A New Resource for College Distance Education Astronomy Laboratory Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a set of distance education astronomy laboratory exercises for use by college students and instructors and discusses first usage results. This General Astronomy Education Source exercise set contains eight two-week projects designed to guide students through both core content and mathematical applications of general…

Vogt, Nicole P.; Cook, Stephen P.; Muise, Amy Smith

2013-01-01

419

Seminar in Physics, January 22, 2013 Physics & Astronomy Grad Program  

E-print Network

are called for Understand the underlying physics (and/or astronomy) A research project is not required in Physics, January 22, 2013 #12;Oral Exam The oral exam will test your understanding of the topicSeminar in Physics, January 22, 2013 1 Physics & Astronomy Grad Program and the Qualifier Process

Glashausser, Charles

420

A Master Plan for the Evaluation of the Radio Component of the Fifth Education Project for the Royal Government of Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The master plan for evaluation presented in this report was developed by a UNESCO consultant as part of an agreement between the Government of Thailand and the United Nations Development Program for a project providing technical assistance for strengthening educational radio for schools and out-of-school education. Although this plan is restricted…

Bates, Tony

421

Astronomy from the chair - the application of the Internet in promoting of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet and modern communication technologies are an indispensable part of modern life. The use of the Internet makes it possible to enhance the education and expand opportunities for acquiring new knowledge. One example is Astronomy, where today thanks to the Internet, we can control telescopes that are distant from us and listen to lectures from Universities in other countries. "Astronomy from the chair" is the name for a concept where amateur astronomers can deal with astronomy from their homes using the Internet. The concept can be divided into four sections depending on the content being offered: Robotic Observatory, Virtual Observatory, Online astronomy broadcasting and Online courses. Robotic observatory is defined as an astronomical instrument and detection system that enables efficient observation without the need of a person's physical intervention. Virtual Observatory is defined as a collection of databases and software tools that use the Internet as a platform for scientific research. Online astronomy broadcasting is part of concept "Astronomy from the chair" which gives users the opportunity to get directly involved in astronomical observation organized by an amateur astronomer from somewhere in the world. Online courses are groups of sites and organizations that provide the opportunity to amateur astronomers to attend lectures, save and watch video materials from lectures, do homework, communicate with other seminar participants and in that way become familiar with the various areas of Astronomy. This paper discusses a new concept that describes how the Internet can be applied in modern education. In this paper will be described projects that allows a large number of astronomy lovers to do their own research without the need to own a large and expensive set of astronomical equipment (Virtual Telescope from Italy, Observatory "Night Hawk" from Serbia and project "Astronomy from an armchair" at Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics in Nis), to help professional astronomers in research of galaxies, extrasolar systems, Moon etc. without the need of owning the official certificate in Astronomy (Planet Hunters, Moon Zoo) and the possibility to attend online courses in Astronomy (Introduction to Astronomy from the site Coursera). In the end, will be discussion about economic analysis of using robotic observatory in contemporary education and the implementation of research projects, rather than Institutions to invest huge amounts of funds in the purchase and maintenance of the same astronomical equipment.

Tomic, Zoran

2014-05-01

422

John E. Hibbard National Radio  

E-print Network

John E. Hibbard National Radio Astronomy Observatory The Antennae Galaxies: Archetype for Colliding Galaxies #12;The Antennae: A Merger Archetype J. Hibbard, NRAO 203rd AAS Jan 9 2004 Punch line:Punch line: We present a new model of the interactingWe present a new model of the interacting galaxy NGC 4038

Hibbard, John

423

Astronomy Without a Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section describes: the celestial sphere, coordinate systems, the motion of the stars. There are also sections describing: time, the seasons, time zones, the phases of the moon, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, and the motions of the planets.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

424

Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

Eckroth, Charles A.

425

A Basic Astronomy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

Fraknoi, Andrew

426

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

427

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

428

High Energy Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

1980-01-01

429

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

430

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

431

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

Green, Paul

432

Astronomy, Lund, 24 February, 2011 Twisting of Light around Spinning Black Holes  

E-print Network

Astronomy, Lund, 24 February, 2011 Twisting of Light around Spinning Black Holes and other uses with contributions from Fabrizio Tamburini Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, Italy and LOFAR/LOIS project members Uppsala and elsewhere #12;Astronomy, Lund, February, 2011 Very readable paper on POAM

433

Building on the International Year of Astronomy: The Dark Skies Awareness Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) offered opportunities to create exemplary educational programs in astronomy, such as those through the cornerstone project, Dark Skies Awareness (DSA). The preservation of dark skies is important for many reasons including astronomy, energy conservation, wildlife conservation, and even human health. Light pollution is a growing concern, yet it is one of the easiest global

C. E. Walker; R. T. Sparks; S. M. Pompea

2010-01-01

434

The Eratosthenes Project: the reproduction of a historical experiment as a resource for the inclusion of Astronomy concepts in High School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation was about an educational approach based on the History of Science and experimentation involving scientific concepts in the area of Astronomy, highlighting the reproduction of the original experiment performed by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C., designed to measure the Earth radius. It was found that the realized activities contributed significantly to the success of High School students from two public schools of Sergipe - the State College State Secretary Francisco Rosa Santos in Aracaju, Sergipe and the Federal Institute, campus of São Cristov - since these activities had aroused the students' interest for the construction of new scientific knowledge, and they improved their comprehension of some aspects related to Science and Astronomy in particular, as its empirical character and its historical development, therefore immersed in a specific social, economic and cultural context. The approach allowed for a greater involvement of participating students and it improved student-teacher relationship. The evaluations identified that a significant learning of the discussed concepts involving Physics and Astronomy had occurred, such as latitude, longitude, equinox, solstice, midday sun, among other concepts treated in an interdisciplinary manner with other disciplines such as Geography, History and Mathematics.

de Jesus Santos, Antônio José; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Teixeira de Araújo, Mauro Sérgio

2012-12-01

435

International Year of Astronomy: Join the yearlong astronomy party  

E-print Network

International Year of Astronomy: Join the yearlong astronomy party To mark the 400th anniversary are having a yearlong party.The InternationalYear of Astronomy is organized by the United Nations Educational!feature local and regional events such as public telescope viewings and public lectures, astronomy-themed plays

Pedersen, Tom

436

Worldviews of Introductory Astronomy Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a larger project to study introductory astronomy students’ worldviews and beliefs about the role of science in society, we examined students’ responses to a subset of questions designed to probe students’ worldviews and how they change after taking a general education, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101). Specifically, we looked at about 400 students’ choices for the top ten scientific discoveries in the past 150 years. We collected students’ rankings twice: Once at the start of their Astro 101 class and once at the end. We created a rubric that we used to categorize the responses and we established the inter-rater reliability of the rubric. Our results show that students preferentially answered with topics related to technology and health and medicine. The data also show that there was an increase, pre- to post-instruction, in the number of responses in the technology and health and medicine categories. We also saw a decrease in the number of responses in the science category. These results imply that an aspect of the course specifically implemented to broaden student’s views on science in relation to society was successful. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0847170, for the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Green, Chrystin; Wallace, C. S.; Brissenden, G.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

2014-01-01

437

Yale University Department of Astronomy  

E-print Network

Yale University Department of Astronomy Astronomy 110: Planets and Stars Course will be using selections from the following workbook: Lecture- Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy.93. It is available at the following website: http:// www.mypearsonstore.com/bookstore/lecture-tutorials-for-introductory-astronomy

438

Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

Naranjo, O. A.

2008-06-01

439

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-12-01

440

Astropy: Building Blocks for Astronomy Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astropy Project is a community effort to develop an open source Python package of common data structures and routines for use by other, more specialized astronomy software in order to foster interoperability. The project encompasses the “core” astropy Python package, “affiliated packages” that strive to implement Astropy's coding standards and interoperability with other affiliated packages, and a broader community aimed at implementing Pythonic solutions to astronomy computing problems while minimizing duplication of effort. The project also provides a template for other projects that use Astropy to reuse much of Astropy's development framework without reinventing the wheel. Here we present an overview of the key features of the core package (existing and upcoming), current and planned affiliated packages, and how we manage a large open source project with a diverse community of contributors.

Bray, E. M.

2014-05-01