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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

1991-01-01

2

Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory (MRAO) is operated by the Astrophysics Group of the Department of Physics at the Cavendish Laboratory. The observatory is located 8 km south-west of Cambridge at Lord's Bridge and was established in 1957 through the generosity of Mullard Limited with support from the Science Research Council. Current work is supported by the PARTICLE PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY R...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

3

Radio astronomy receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general survey of the principles of radio astronomy receivers is presented. System noise temperature, the sensitivity of different receiver types, and the calibration of receivers are studied. A total-power receiver is analyzed as a basic radio telescope receiver and the results are used to obtain the performance of other receiver types such as the Dicke receiver, Graham's receiver, correlation

M. Tiuri

1964-01-01

4

The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

2010-01-01

5

GLONASS and Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLONASS navigation satellites transmit one of their navigation signals in a frequency band that overlaps the frequency band 1610.6-1613.8 MHz used for radio astronomical observations of the spectral line of hydroxyl (OH) at 1612.231 MHz. Following growing levels of interference during the 1980s, IUCAF and GLONASS entered into negotiations. A joint experiment was conducted in November 1992 to verify the levels of interference to different types of radio astronomical measurements and to test possible interference mitigation methods that the GLONASS administration could employ without compromising the integrity of the navigation signal. Twelve radio observatories around the world participated. During the 2-day experiment the centre frequencies of navigation signals were removed from the radio astronomy band and some navigation signals were turned off. The results of the experiment are reviewed. These formed the basis for the GLONASS-IUCAF signed in November 1993, which has served as a model for coordination agreements between GLONASS and many administrations. The agreement sets out s step-by-step plan for interference reduction. The current status and future prospects are reviewed.

Cohen, R. J.

2004-06-01

6

Techniques of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques of radio astronomy. Thisstudy began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cosmos, but theperiod of rapid progress began 15 years later. From then to the present, thewavelength range has expanded from a few meters to the sub-millimeters, theangular resolution increased from degrees to finer than milli arc seconds,and the receiver sensitivities have improved by large factors. Today, thetechnique of aperture synthesis produces images comparable to or exceedingthose obtained with the best optical facilities. In addition to technicaladvances, the scientific discoveries made in the radio range have contributedmuch to opening new visions of our universe. There are numerous nationalradio facilities spread over the world. In the near future, a new era oftruly global radio observatories will begin. This chapter contains a shorthistory of the development of the field, details of calibration procedures,coherent/heterodyne and incoherent/bolometer receiver systems, observingmethods for single apertures and interferometers, and an overview of aperturesynthesis.

Wilson, T. L.

7

Division X: Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

2010-05-01

8

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and

Richard A. Perley; Frederic R. Schwab; Alan H. Bridle

1989-01-01

9

National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery presented by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory contains a large number of radio astronomy images and photographs of radio observatories. Each image is accompanied by descriptive text. Links provide further information.

2010-02-09

10

The future for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

2013-12-01

11

Origins of Canadian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar technology after World War II was rapidly applied to the radio astronomy founded by Jansky and Reber. The first post-war discoveries in various countries from 1945 to 1950 were made with instruments built from surplus parts, and quickly led to the design of specialized equipment. The development in Ottawa at the Laboratories of the National Research Council is outlined, initially for solar radio observations and then for the early galactic observations at the Goth Hill Radio Observatory, near Ottawa.

Covington, A. E.

1988-08-01

12

Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy have been closely linked since the emergence of radio astronomy as a scientific discipline in the 1930s. Even before the official establishment of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, protection against contemporary and future radio noise levels was seen as crucial to ensure success of any new observatory. My talk will examine the various local, regional, national, and international efforts enacted to protect NRAO and other American radio astronomy sites from RFI.

Smith, Sierra

2014-01-01

13

Simple instruments in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy has a major role in the study of the universe. The spiral structure of our Galaxy and the cosmic background radiation were first detected, and the dense component of interstellar gas is studied, at radio wavelengths. COBE revealed very weak temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, considered to be the seeds of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Most electromagnetic radiation from outer space is absorbed or reflected by the Earth's atmosphere, except in two narrow spectral windows: the visible-near-infrared and the radio, which are nearly transparent. Centimetre and longer radio waves propagate almost freely in space; observations of them are practically independent of weather. Turbulence in our atmosphere does not distort the wavefront, which simplifies the building of radio telescopes, because no devices are needed to correct for it. Observations at these wavelengths can be made in high atmospheric humidity, or where the sky is not clear enough for optical telescopes. Simple instruments operating at radio wavelengths can be built at low cost in tropical countries, to teach students and to familiarize them with radio astronomy. We describe a two-antennae radio interferometer and a single-dish radio telescope operating at centimetre wavelengths. The Sun and strong synchrotron radio-sources, like Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A, are potential targets.

Nguyen-Quang-Rieu

14

The threat to radio astronomy from radio pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference of man-made signals to radio astronomy is discussed and changes to the international radio regulations are proposed to protect the future of radio astronomy. The benefits of radio astronomy are outlined and the problem of shared frequency bands is described. The interference caused by the Soviet Glonass satellite is used to illustrate the problems caused by interference.

R. J. Cohen

1989-01-01

15

Radio frequency interference mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of radio telescopes is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current generation. Examples of such new telescopes are the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), currently under construction in the Netherlands, and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), currently in a concept study phase. Another trend is that technological advances in the fields of electronics and communications systems have led to a vast increase in radio communication applications and systems, and also to an increasing demand for radio spectrum. These two trends, more sensitive telescopes and a much denser spectrum use, imply that radio astronomy will become more vulnerable to interference from radio transmitters. Although protection criteria exist for radio astronomy, it becomes increasingly difficult to keep the radio astronomy frequency bands free from interference. In order to mitigate interference in radio astronomical data, filtering techniques can be used. In this thesis, modern array signal processing techniques have been applied to narrow-band multichannel interference detection and excision, and to narrow-band spatial interference filtering. By investigating the subspace structure of the telescope array output covariance matrices, new results were found, such as upper limits on interference residuals after excision and spatial filtering. The effect of bandwidth, extendedness of the interfering sources, and multipath effects on the detection and spatial filter effectiveness were studied as well. The advantage of a multichannel approach over a single telescope approach was demonstrated by using experimental data from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). As the performance of mitigation algorithms can be improved by calibration of the telescope gains and noise powers, calibration algorithms were developed. These algorithms were verified both for single and dual polarised arrays. Finally, a LOFAR interference mitigation strategy was developed.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2005-12-01

16

Basics of Radio Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workbook is used for training teachers and volunteers who wish to operate the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope. The students in this district operate the telescope from the Apple Valley location. Also, students and teachers across the country can register to operate the telescope from their own classrooms. This workbook can also be used as a resource for information on how radio telescopes work, the fundamentals of the electromagnetic spectrum, thermal and non-thermal radiation, 21-cm hydrogen line, Kirchhoff's laws of spectral analysis, the Doppler effect, coordinate systems, and the SETI project.

Fisher, Diane

2004-07-16

17

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2012-10-01

18

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2010-10-01

19

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2013-10-01

20

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2009-10-01

21

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2011-10-01

22

Submillimeter receivers for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of development of receivers for submillimeter-wave radio astronomy is reviewed. Bolometers for continuum observation, hot-electron mixer receivers for narrowband spectral line observation, and heterodyne receivers, both Schottky diode and superconducting tunnel junction, are presented. At the lower frequency end of the submillimeter band, standard waveguide techniques, scaled from millimeter wavelengths, prevail. At wavelengths shorter than about 0.5 mm,

Raymond Blundell; CHEUK-YU EDWARD TONG

1992-01-01

23

Industrial interference and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

Jessner, A.

2013-07-01

24

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2010-10-01

25

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2009-10-01

26

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2013-10-01

27

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2011-10-01

28

Expanding radio astronomy in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

Gaylard, M. J.

2013-04-01

29

Obit: Radio Astronomy Data Handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.

Cotton, Bill

2013-07-01

30

Python Ephemeris Module for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of the Python pyephem module was developed for Deep Space Network (DSN) radio astronomy. The class DSS( ) provides the geodetic coordinates of the DSN stations as well as other properties such as antenna diameter. The class Quasar( ) provides positional data for the sources in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array (NRAO VLA) Calibrator Handbook and flux estimates based the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) Database or the VLA Calibrator Handbook. Flux calibration data are also available for the bright planets. Class Pulsar( ) provides the data from the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue in Python format.

Kuiper, T. B.

2013-05-01

31

Multichannel Interference Mitigation Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interference, and on-line detection and filtering algorithms are becoming essential. To facilitate the introduction of such techniques into radio astronomy, we formulate the astronomical problem in an array signal processing language and give an introduction to some elementary algorithms from that field. We consider two topics in detail: interference detection by rank

Amir Leshem; Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

2000-01-01

32

Japanese radio astronomy - past, present, and future.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past, present and future of radio astronomy in Japan are described from the author's personal view point. The radio astronomy in Japan is quickly growing in terms of the telescope size, the budget scale, and the total number of researchers in the country. The status of the major future projects such as VSOP, VERA, LMSA, and the submillimeter-wave telescope at Mt.Fuji is reviewed.

Deguchi, S.

1995-06-01

33

Orbiting Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection below 10 MHz. OL- FAR is Orbiting Low Frequency ARray, a project whose aim is to develop

Raj Thilak Rajan; Steven Engelen; Mark Bentum; Chris Verhoeven

2011-01-01

34

Planetary radio astronomy experiment for Voyager missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planetary radio astronomy experiment will measure radio spectra of planetary emissions in the range 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. These emissions result from wave-particle-plasma interactions in the magnetospheres and ionospheres of the planets. At Jupiter, they are strongly modulated by the Galilean satellite Io.

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; R. G. Peltzer; A. C. Riddle

1977-01-01

35

Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1993-12-01

36

Technology Advances for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of radio astronomy continues to provide fundamental contributions to the understanding of the evolution, and inner workings of, our universe. It has done so from its humble beginnings, where single antennas and receivers were used for observation, to today's focal plane arrays and interferometers. The number of receiving elements (pixels) in these instruments is quickly growing, currently approaching one hundred. For the instruments of tomorrow, the number of receiving elements will be in the thousands. Such instruments will enable researchers to peer deeper into the fabric of our universe and do so at faster survey speeds. They will provide enormous capability, both for unraveling today's mysteries as well as for the discovery of new phenomena. Among other challenges, producing the large numbers of low-noise amplifiers required for these instruments will be no easy task. The work described in this thesis advances the state of the art in three critical areas, technological advancements necessary for the future design and manufacturing of thousands of low-noise amplifiers. These areas being: the automated, cryogenic, probing of diameter100 mm indium phosphide wafers; a system for measuring the noise parameters of devices at cryogenic temperatures; and the development of low-noise, silicon germanium amplifiers for terahertz mixer receivers. The four chapters that comprise the body of this work detail the background, design, assembly, and testing involved in these contributions. Also included is a brief survey of noise parameters, the knowledge of which is fundamental to the design of low-noise amplifiers and the optimization of the system noise temperature for large, dense, interferometers.

Russell, Damon Stuart

37

Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

Andernach, H.

38

The Radio JOVE Project: Inexpensive Radio Astronomy for the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio astronomy observations of Jupiter and the sun. Students build a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive non-profit kit (about \\$125) and use it to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio telescopes connected to the Web. The project is a useful adjunct to activities in optical astronomy since students should recognize that we learn about the Universe through more than just the optical spectrum. In addition to supplementing knowledge of Jupiter and the sun, the project teaches about charged particles and magnetic fields. Building of the kit is also a mini-course in electronics. The Radio JOVE website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) contains science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, software, and education resources for students and teachers.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.; Pine, W.

2000-12-01

39

Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation in Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next generation of radio telescopes is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current generation. Examples of such new telescopes are the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), currently under construction in the Netherlands, and ...

A. J. Boonstra

2005-01-01

40

Performance evaluation of sparse adaptive radio astronomy arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial filtering is a promising method of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation in radio interferometric systems, but there are no quantitative results concerning the performance of radio astronomy arrays using this technique. In this paper performance bounds are calculated for sparse arrays, typical in radio astronomy (VLA, WSRT, GMRT). Two parameters are proposed to characterize the benefits of spatial filtering:

Peter A. Fridman

2001-01-01

41

CLEA: Radio Astronomy of Pulsars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The software for this exercise presents students with a radio telescope whose default operating characteristics (beam width, receiver noise, steerability) can be set by the instructor. Students can point the telescope at a source in the sky, viewing the output of the radio receiver on a graphic display that resembles a digital oscilloscope. The student manual describes an exercise in which students first acquaint themselves with the operation of the radio telescope. They then measure the signals from several pulsars at various frequencies, learning about the appearance of pulsar signals, the strength and period of the signal as a function of frequency, and the relation between pulsar period and age of the pulsar. Finally they view the signal from a pulsar at three different frequencies, using the delay in arrival times due to interstellar dispersion to estimate the distance to the pulsar.

Marschall, Laurence; Snyder, Glenn; Cooper, P. R.; Hayden, Michael; Good, Rhonda

2005-11-03

42

The interferometer in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is developed for the response of a two-element radio interferometer to a partially coherent field, without restriction as to bandwidth or antenna properties. It is shown that for a completely incoherent source the narrow-band interferometer output is a component of the Fourier transform of the source brightness, which can therefore be mapped by repeated interferometer observations. A partially

N. C. Mathur

1968-01-01

43

GPU accelerated radio astronomy signal convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing array size of radio astronomy interferometers is causing the associated computation to scale quadratically\\u000a with the number of array signals. Consequently, efficient usage of alternate processing architectures should be explored in\\u000a order to meet this computational challenge. Affordable parallel processors have been made available to the general scientific\\u000a community in the form of the commodity graphics card. This

Chris Harris; Karen Haines; Lister Staveley-Smith

2008-01-01

44

Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of the MIT Haystack Observatory, and has a 30-year background in observational radio astronomy and interferometric imaging. His email is [cjl at haystack dot mit dot edu].

Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

2014-04-01

45

The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented.

Sullivan, Woodruff T.

2005-06-01

46

Development of cryogenic phased array feeds for Radio Astronomy antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory and Brigham Young University are jointly working to develop phased array feed systems for use on radio astronomy reflector antennas. This paper describes recent progress in development of a cryogenically cooled L-band PAF receiver. Noise test results for dipole elements and cryogenic low-noise amplifier assemblies are presented. The results indicate it will be possible to achieve PAF system noise temperature competitive with the best single-beam radio astronomy receivers.

Norrod, Roger D.; Fisher, J. R.; Jeffs, B. D.; Warnick, Karl F.

2010-10-01

47

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; D. R. Evans; T. D. Carr; J. J. Schauble; J. K. Alexander; M. L. Kaiser; M. D. Desch; M. Pedersen; A. Lecacheux; G. Daigne; A. Boischot; C. H. Barrow

1981-01-01

48

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2012-10-01

49

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2009-10-01

50

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2013-10-01

51

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2010-10-01

52

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2011-10-01

53

On post-SKA radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that the development of the SKA will drastically change the face of radio astronomy in the 21st Century. A FAST-style SKA would admit observations of low contrast features, and would be the best design for studying the `dark ages' of the Universe (x>> 1) where sub-arcmin total power instruments can usefully be employed. To date there have been no proposals for post-SKA, billion square-metra instruments; we speculate that mobile communication systems can be used. In the very distant future, SKA multi-beam systems could be used to collect signals reflected by Solar system bodies such as the asteroid belt.

Parijskij, Yuri; Chernenkov, Vladimir

54

The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

2004-12-01

55

Radio astronomy and spectrum management - The impact of WARC-79  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of radio astronomy are considered, taking into account broad-band and narrow-band cosmic radiation, the evolution of equipment and techniques of the radio astronomer toward better sensitivity and better angular resolution, and the three general classes into which radio telescopes can be divided. Attention is given to the extraordinary interference problems faced by radio astronomers, the location of radio-astronomy observatories in secluded locations, the preparation by radio astronomers and space scientists for WARC-79, the actions taken at WARC-79, and the WARC impact. It is pointed out that radio astronomy has emerged from WARC-79 in a better position in the International Radio Regulations than it has ever enjoyed in the past. Radio astronomers can be satisfied that the requirements of their radio service are generally being given serious consideration. Most of the requests for allocations have been granted at frequencies above 20 GHz.

Pankonin, V. (NSF, Washington, DC); Price, R.M. (New Mexico, University, Albuquerque, NM)

1981-08-01

56

Array Signal Processing for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy forms an interesting application area for array signal processing techniques. Current synthesis imaging telescopes consist of a small number of identical dishes, which track a fixed patch in the sky and produce estimates of the time-varying spatial covariance matrix. The observations sometimes are distorted by interference, e.g., from radio, TV, radar or satellite transmissions. We describe some of the tools that array signal processing offers to filter out the interference, based on eigenvalue decompositions and factor analysis, which is a more general technique applicable to partially calibrated arrays. We consider detection of interference, spatial filtering techniques using projections, and discuss how a reference antenna pointed at the interferer can improve the performance. We also consider image formation and its relation to beamforming.

Veen, Alle Jan; Leshem, Amir; Boonstra, Albert Jan

2004-06-01

57

Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Leech, Marcus [Shirleys Bay Radio Astronomy Consortium; Oxley, Paul [Retired; Flagg, Richard [Retired; Fields, David [ORNL

2011-01-01

58

Cubesat Missions for Low Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many concepts and several mission proposals for low frequency radio interferometers in space during the past two decades. Most of these idea are based on multiple small spacecraft, each acting as one antenna element in a three-dimensional array. The science goals for single cubesats or arrays operating at frequencies near and below Earth's ionosphere cutoff span a wide range research areas from solar and planetary observations to galactic and extragalactic astronomy to cosmological observations of large-scale structure evolution before the epoch of reionization. Recently several groups have realized that the rapid progress in the capabilities of cubesats make them a logical basis for such mission concepts. A workshop on cubesat-based low frequency radio astronomy missions was held at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at Caltech during July 2012. This paper will summarize the discussions and conclusions from that workshop. These include a number of future mission ideas based on cubesat technologies, as well as recommendations for near-term technology demonstrations that would reduce risk for many of the potential missions. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from the JPL Center for Academic Partnerships and KISS is gratefully acknowledged.

Jones, Dayton L.

2013-01-01

59

JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously generate images or video to display those features. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

2014-04-01

60

Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy: 1: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of a number of nations that made important contributions in the fledgling field of radio astronomy in the years immediately following WWII. In this paper we discuss the invention of the Yagi-Uda antenna and the detection of solar radio emission in 1938, before reviewing radio astronomical developments that occurred between 1948 and 1961 in Osaka, Nagoya, Tokyo and Hiraiso. In order to place these early Japanese experiments in a national and international context we briefly review the world-wide development of radio astronomy in the immediate post-War years before discussing the growth of optical astronomy in Japan at this time.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Kaifu, Norio; Hayashi, Masa; Nakamura, Tsuko; Stewart, Ronald; Yokoo, Hiromitsu

2012-11-01

61

Grote Reber (1911-2003): A Radio Astronomy Pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forceful personality and self-confidence led Grote Reber to a series of remarkable discoveries in radio astronomy, and later to a wide variety of research in many other fields of science and technology. Although he worked primarily as an amateur, independently of the scientific establishment, Reber was ultimately recognized with many of the major prizes in astronomy.

Kellermann, K. I.

2005-01-01

62

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The papers contained in this special section are extended versions of some of the papers presented at the Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004), held in Penticton, British Columbia, Canada, in July 2004.

Ellingson, Steven W.

2005-07-01

63

Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

Varano, S.

2008-06-01

64

Radio Astronomy's Debut at the American Astronomical Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of radio astronomy emerged in North America, on a very small scale, late in 1945. The first meeting of the AAS with a paper on the subject was in 1947 (by a Canadian team). Interest increased in 1948 and peaked the following year at the Ottawa meeting, where delegates visited two radio installations. Interest then waned until the

R. A. Jarrell

1999-01-01

65

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

66

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2012-10-01

67

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2013-10-01

68

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2009-10-01

69

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2010-10-01

70

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2011-10-01

71

Starting with Nothing: Archives at National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Founded in 1956, National Radio Astronomy Observatory had no Archivist or Archives program until mid-2003, when the new Archivist, working less than half time, began building the collection. Our institutional records were scattered between multiple storage areas at NRAO sites in four different states, and no one knew what we had. Personal papers of pioneers and participants in the development of US radio astronomy were also often scattered, unknown, and unindexed. This paper presents the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on our own institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history as a whole.

Bouton, E. N.

2007-10-01

72

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not limit themselves solely to visual light as a means of investigating the universe, most introductory astronomy laboratories do. This short coming can be remedied easily through the use of radio astronomy. With a bit of modification to equipment designed for television or FM radio purposes, the existing university laboratories can be modified in an economical way to have ``hands-on" access for the students into the field of radio astronomy. In that many of the exotic discoveries about the universe have been made through radio astronomy in the last thirty years, it can be used as a tool in furthering the student's understanding of our universe,

Scott, J. B.; Imholt, Timothy; Benge, Raymond; Roberts, James

2001-10-01

73

A Mathematical Review of Polyphase Filterbank Implementations for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of polyphase filterbanks is commonly used for signal processing in radio astronomy. The rapid and ongoing evolution of parallel hardware architectures requires optimised implementations of such techniques to be redeveloped. However, much of the published research regarding polyphase filterbanks refers the reader to signal processing books with a more general scope. Furthermore, these references tend to focus on the design of filters, rather than their implementation. For this reason, this work presents a mathematical background for the implementation of a polyphase filterbank specific to radio astronomy. It also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of polyphase filterbanks in comparison with more commonly used techniques.

Harris, Christopher; Haines, Karen

2011-10-01

74

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

2001-12-01

75

A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The

J. Davis; D. G. Finley

2000-01-01

76

Suggestions for some single dish radio astronomy standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the possibility of adopting standards within the context of radio astronomy and the benefits to be derived thereby. In particular we consider the application of standards within the three areas of the receiver hardware, the control and communication between different parts of the observing system, and the interface with the astronomer. The adoption of such

Anders J. G. Emrich; Nicholas D. Whyborn

1993-01-01

77

RADIONET: the EC Infrastructure Cooperation Network in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

RADIONET was established to provide a forum for the exchange of information amongst the infrastructures forming the European VLBI Network (EVN) and to monitor progress in the initiatives for the future large scale facilities in radio astronomy, ALMA and SKA. A brief review of the specific goals of RADIONET will be given as an introduction to later talks on the

R. T. Schilizzi

2001-01-01

78

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; A. C. Riddle; J. K. Alexander; M. D. Desch; M. L. Kaiser; J. R. Thieman; T. D. Carr; S. Gulkis; A. Boischot; Y. LEBLANC; B. M. PEDERSEN; D. H. STAELIN

1979-01-01

79

Radio Astronomy data transfer using KAREN network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and various international organizations involved in joint projects and VLBI observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate

Stuart Weston; Timothy Natusch; Sergei Gulyaev

2011-01-01

80

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

81

Combating Pulsed Radar Interference in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a small fraction of the radio spectrum can be reserved exclusively for passive scientific measurements, so radio astronomers must expect to observe some natural radiation at frequencies allocated to an increasing number of active users of the spectrum. This paper presents a scheme for removing pulsed transmissions of air surveillance radar from astronomical data based on the temporal and

Qing Zhang; Yibin Zheng; Stephen G. Wilson; J. Richard Fisher; Richard Bradley

2003-01-01

82

An outside view of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is in a golden age of discovery of the new, with a growing appreciation from astrophysics that physics has studied so far an almost insignificant fraction of reality. This golden age is enabled by technology, with next generation technologies approaching the Giga-euro/dollar investment level. This forces a strategic view of relative strengths in the past, and strategies for future developments. Some of these may transcend traditional wavelength classifications.

Gilmore, G.

83

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2011-07-01

84

High-School Solar Radio Astronomy Project in Mexico Based on Radio Jove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the RADIO JOVE project (http:radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) we propose a curse in solar radio astronomy for the high school system (CCH) at UNAM. The aim of this curse is to introduce solar radio astronomy to students and teachers, building their own radio telescope, and participating in radio astronomical measurements becoming familiar with the emissions of the Sun and Jupiter. The project is also based on the observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope(www.mexart.unam.mx) and the real time data from the Virtual Earth Sun Observatory (www.veso.unam.mx) at the Instituto de Geofisica-UNAM. The aim of this Project is to adapt the materials to the high school system in Mexico.

Garcia Cole, A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.

2007-05-01

85

Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the

James W. Warwick; David R. Evans; Gerard R. Peltzer; Robert G. Peltzer; Joseph H. Romig; Constance B. Sawyer; Anthony C. Riddle; Andrea E. Schweitzer; Michael D. Desch; Michael L. Kaiser; W. M. Farrell; T. D. Carr; I. de Pater; D. H. Staelin; S. Gulkis; R. L. Poynter; A. Boischot; F. Genova; Y. Leblanc; A. Lecacheux; B. M. Pedersen; P. Zarka

1989-01-01

86

Developments in Coherent Amplifiers and Miniaturized Receivers for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the development of InP HEMT amplifiers have produced a breakthrough in the cryogenic noise performance of these devices. Caltech's Cahill Radio Astronomy Lab (CRAL), JPL and Northrop Grumman (NGAS) are working to produce new amplifiers which can exploit this improved performance for radio astronomy. In parallel, these new amplifiers are being integrated into a family of miniaturized modular receivers which have wide application as focal plane arrays. Such arrays will have a major impact on a diverse range of scientific goals, such as measurement of integrated CO from the Epoch of Reionization, efficient spectroscopic and continuum mapping of Galactic emission and measurement of the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We report on these developments and prospects for the future.

Cleary, Kieran; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Gawande, R.; Kooi, J.; Gaier, T.; Lawrence, C. R.; Kangaslahti, P.; Samoska, L.; Varonen, M.; Lai, R.; Sarkozy, S.; Church, S. E.; Sieth, M.; Devaraj, K.; Voll, P.

2013-01-01

87

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

88

Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

2005-03-01

89

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

2009-12-01

90

Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

1974-01-01

91

RADIONET: the EC Infrastructure Cooperation Network in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RADIONET was established to provide a forum for the exchange of information amongst the infrastructures forming the European VLBI Network (EVN) and to monitor progress in the initiatives for the future large scale facilities in radio astronomy, ALMA and SKA. A brief review of the specific goals of RADIONET will be given as an introduction to later talks on the EVN, ALMA and SKA. In addition, mention will be made of the two new large diameter radio telescope projects: the 64 m telescope in Sardinia and the 40 m telescope at Yebes near Madrid.

Schilizzi, R. T.

92

Radio broadcasting: an attractive way of broadcasting astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is full of beautiful skyscapes, shining stars and huge planets. The vast majority of them can be transformed into tactile images and complemented by audio descriptions. These translations of visual information into raised lines, shapes and textures can be felt with the fingertips instead of viewed with the eyes. In this way, the beauties of the Universe enter the universe of blind and visually impaired people. Happily, we all have radio broadcasting as an important source of information and entertainment. Science radio programmes can bring the real music of the spheres (as Pythagoras once suggested) to the audience.

Mosoia, C.

2008-06-01

93

Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

1992-01-01

94

A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution

Cecilia Barnbaum; Richard F. Bradley

1998-01-01

95

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in acousto-optic techniques and in photodetector arrays have made feasible a new type of RF spectrometer, offering the advantages of wide bandwidth, high resolution, large number of channels in compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and relatively low cost systems. Such a system employs an acousto-optic diffraction cell which serves the key role of converting RF signals to ultrasonic traveling-waves modulating the optical index of the cell. The cell is illuminated across its aperture by a monochromatic laser beam. A fraction of the light is diffracted by the acoustic waves. A focusing lens follows the cell and essentially performs a Fourier transform of the RF signal into a far-field intensity pattern. CSIRO in Australia and the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Japan have taken the lead in using acousto-optic techniques in astronomical applications. The first practical device was successfully made at CSIRO for obtaining dynamical spectrographs of solar radio emission.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1980-01-01

96

Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

Kaiser, M. L.

1990-01-01

97

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

98

Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

1989-01-01

99

Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

1971-01-01

100

Dirichlet Methods for Bayesian Source Detection in Radio Astronomy Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sheer volume of data to be produced by the next generation of radio telescopes - exabytes of data on hundreds of millions of objects - makes automated methods for the detection of astronomical objects ("sources") essential. Of particular importance are low surface brightness objects, which are not well found by current automated methods. This thesis explores Bayesian methods for source detection that use Dirichlet or multinomial models for pixel intensity distributions in discretised radio astronomy images. A novel image discretisation method that incorporates uncertainty about how the image should be discretised is developed. Latent Dirichlet allocation - a method originally developed for inferring latent topics in document collections - is used to estimate source and background distributions in radio astronomy images. A new Dirichlet-multinomial ratio, indicating how well a region conforms to a well-specified model of background versus a loosely-specified model of foreground, is derived. Finally, latent Dirichlet allocation and the Dirichlet-multinomial ratio are combined for source detection in astronomical images. The methods developed in this thesis perform source detection well in comparison to two widely-used source detection packages and, importantly, find dim sources not well found by other algorithms.

Friedlander, A. M.

2014-02-01

101

Automating Radio Astronomy in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy observations with the DSN are being automated to simplify operations for DSN personnel, enable remote directing and monitoring by investigators, allow the use of short blocks of antenna time, and use of unanticipated antenna availability on very short notice. The key elements of the system are the Equipment Activity Controller (EAC), which performs the same functions as a DSN operator's console but with additional capabilities, the Radio Astronomy Controller (RAC), which controls radio astronomy and other R&D equipment, and the PC Field System (PCFS), which controls the VLBI recorders. Normally, the EAC is client to both the RAC and the PCFS. The EAC graphical user interface (GUI) normally runs on the EAC, but need not, allowing for remote operation. Messages between the client and servers are Extended Tcl (TclX) commands and are passed using a simple TCP/IP protocol called Net Services. The Tcl command set has been augmented with Net Services commands. The EAC will accept commands from both the PCFS and RAC, enabling either of those to be the focus of the experiment, with the EAC acting effectively as a client providing access to DSN antennas and receivers. The design also allows a user developed program (e.g. a Tk script) on a remote computer (e.g. at JPL) to be the focus of the experiment. All communications and the DSN's operational network are secured through the use of hardware encryption units. This poster describes primarily the RAC and the design of its server software. Each connection to the server is assigned its own Tcl interpreter. All have access to specific commonly shared data. While only certain tasks can control resources, a large number of monitoring connections can be accepted. In addition, the server executes specific Tcl scripts at predefined intervals. These timed scripts can be edited in real-time for greater experiment flexibility.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Leflang, J. G.; Trinh, T.

1996-12-01

102

Effects of a satellite power system on ground-based radio and radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that when the satellite power system (SPS) is in operation, the power signal and its harmonics, which fall close to radio astronomy bands, may cause overloading of input stages. Mitigation will require the development of cryogenically cooled filters. Radiation within radio astronomy bands can arise from transmitter-generated noise, thermal noise from the large solar cell arrays, and

A. R. Thompson

1981-01-01

103

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

104

The Advancement of Radio Astronomy at Brigham Young University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are presenting on the status and future plans of the radio astronomy project at Brigham Young University. The Physics and Astronomy department and the West Mountain Observatory already have optical facilities that offer students the opportunity to observe in the optical and NIR, but not at any other wavelengths. An array is being built to allow students to obtain data in the radio spectrum. The array is being built around the already operational 4 meter dish on top of the Eyring Science Center and will eventually contain baselines up to 8 km and a 10 m dish. We currently have selected the four sites for additional baselines. The array initially will be ready to observe HI at 1420 MHz and the OH MASER lines at 1665 MHz and 1667 MHz. We present preliminary spectra in L-band (21-18cm) with the 4 meter dish. The system will be using LNA's for signal amplification and will have digital correlation and spectral analysis through CASPER. The system is locked to a rubidium clock with a GPS master. In the future, we hope to extend the frequency coverage to C-band (5 GHz).

Honick, Charles; Migenes, V.; Blakley, D.

2014-01-01

105

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

106

Compressive Sensing: Analysis of Signals in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compressive sensing (CS) theory says that for some kind of signals there is no need to keep or transfer all the data acquired accordingly to the Nyquist criterion. In this work we investigate if the CS approach is applicable for recording and analysis of radio astronomy (RA) signals. Since CS methods are applicable for the signals with sparse (and compressible) representations, the compressibility of RA signals is verified. As a result, we identify which RA signals can be processed using CS, find the parameters which can improve or degrade CS application to RA results, describe the optimum way how to perform signal filtering in CS applications. Also, a range of virtual LabVIEW instruments are created for the signal analysis with the CS theory.

Gaigals, G.; Greit?ns, M.; Andziulis, A.

107

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

108

Radio Astronomy at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR and Other Armenian Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment and development of radio astronomy in Armenia is described in detail. Information about the radio telescopes of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) is summarised. The main results of radio-astronomy studies carried out by BAO staff are described, including a number that used large Soviet and foreign radio telescopes, primarily studies of active galaxies.

Sanamian, V. A.

109

Application of graphical interaction to the analysis of radio astronomy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly interactive computer graphics system has been implemented for the display and analysis of high-resolution radio images which are produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope being built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Some of the users of this system are in-house scientists who use the system routinely. However, many of the users are occasional visitors from

James M. Torson

1980-01-01

110

Gordon James Stanley and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy in Australia and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the end of the Second World War, the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory applied the expertise and surplus radar equipment acquired during the war to problems of astronomy. Gordon Stanley was among the first group of scientists and engineers to work in the exciting new field of radio astronomy. Like many of his contemporaries, he had a strong background in radio and electronics but none in astronomy. At the Radiophysics Laboratory, and later at Caltech, Stanley developed innovative new radio telescopes and sophisticated instrumentation which resulted in important new discoveries that changed, in a fundamental way, our understanding of the Universe. He was one of those who played a key role in the early development of radio astronomy both in Australia and the United States.

Kellermann, Ken I.; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

111

Network Development of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of ASC Lpi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All main changes in the network of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory has been related to introduction of the buffer data center in the recent years, upgrading internal and external communication channels and the exploitation of ip-telephony.

Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.

112

Statistically Stable Estimates of Variance in Radio-Astronomy Observations as Tools for Radio-Frequency Interference Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selection of statistically stable (robust) algorithms for data variance calculating has been made. Their properties have been analyzed via computer simulation. These algorithms would be useful if adopted in radio-astronomy observations in the presence of strong sporadic radio-frequency interference (RFI). Several observational results have been presented here to demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms in RFI mitigation.

Fridman, P. A.

2008-05-01

113

Measurement of a large deployable antenna for radio astronomy in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large radio astronomy antenna on Halca satellite was deployed in 1997 in space. The main reflector with the maximum diameter of 10 m is composed in a novel deployment scheme of tension truss as shown. The operating frequencies are 1.66 GHz (L-band), 4.85 GHz (C-band) and 22.15 GHz (Ka-band), all protected for radio astronomy use. If a mast is

T. Takano; S. Kuroda; H. Kobayashi; N. Kawaguch; E. Hanayama

2001-01-01

114

Thunderstorms and ground-based radio noise as observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) data were analyzed to determine the frequency dependence of HF terrestrial radio noise power. RAE observations of individual thunderstorms, mid-ocean areas, and specific geographic regions for which concommitant ground based measurements are available indicate that noise power is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency which conforms to expectations over the geographic locations and time periods investigated. In all cases investigated, active thunderstorm regions emit slightly higher power as contrasted to RAE observations of the region during meteorologically quiet periods. Noise levels are some 15 db higher than predicted values over mid-ocean, while in locations where ground based measurements are available a maximum deviation of 5 db occurs. Worldwide contour mapping of the noise power at 6000 km for five individual months and four observing frequencies, examples of which are given, indicate high noise levels over continental land masses with corresponding lower levels over ocean regions.

Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

1973-01-01

115

Development of the Radio Astronomy Data Centre (radc) at Prao ASC Lpi RAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) have been developed at PRAO ASC LPI during the recent years. It consists of: a) the database of the most important astronomical catalogues for radio astronomers; b) the database of the observational data of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. The database of astronomical catalogues http://astro.prao.ru/db/ contains few tens of the most important catalogues for the planning of the radio astronomy observations. Since 2011, the database of astronomical catalogues has been actively equipped with graphical tools for data visualization and cross-analysis of catalogues between each other. The observation database http://observations.prao.ru/ has collected observational data from the base observatory instruments and radio telescopes. That database provides access to the observation instruments and telescopes descriptions, techniques of making data samples per instruments, information about types of observations, observers and dates of observations, etc.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Ladeyshchikov, D. A.; Dumskiy, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Zaytsev, A. Y.; Logvinenko, S. V.

116

A Calibrated Digital Sideband Separating Spectrometer for Radio Astronomy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual sideband (2SB) receivers are well suited for the spectral observation of complex astronomical signals over a wide frequency range. They are extensively used in radio astronomy, their main advantages being to avoid spectral confusion and to diminish effective system temperature by a factor 2 with respect to double sideband (DSB) receivers. Using available millimeter-wave analog technology, wideband 2SB receivers generally obtain sideband rejection ratios (SRR) of 10--15 dB, insufficient for a number of astronomical applications. We report here the design and implementation of an FPGA-based sideband separating FFT spectrometer. A 4 GHz analog front end was built to test the design and measure sideband rejection. The setup uses a 2SB front end architecture, except that the mixer outputs are directly digitized before the IF hybrid, using two 8 bit ADCs sampling at 1 GSPS. The IF hybrid is implemented on the FPGA together with a set of calibration vectors that, properly chosen, compensate for the analog front end amplitude and phase imbalances. The calibrated receiver exhibits a sideband rejection ratio in excess of 40 dB for the entire 2 GHz RF bandwidth.

Finger, Ricardo; Mena, Patricio; Reyes, Nicolás; Rodriguez, Rafael; Bronfman, Leonardo

2013-03-01

117

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

1982-01-01

118

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-01-01

119

Personal recollections of W.N. Christiansen and the early days of Chinese radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1963 and 1998, Professor W.N. Christiansen visited China more than a dozen times, bringing valuable scientific information, expert guidance and all possible help to the young Chinese radio astronomy team. Here, the writer presents his memories of two typical, deeply-shared experiences, `The Shahe Experiment' and `The Making of the Miyun Meter Wave Aperture Synthesis Telescope;, as expressions of the kind thoughts of a whole generation of Chinese researchers in astronomy.

Wang, Shouguan

2009-03-01

120

Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ? 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

2013-09-01

121

Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1

J. W. Warwick; J. B. Pearce; A. C. Riddle; J. K. Alexander; M. D. Desch; M. L. Kaiser; J. R. Thieman; T. B. Carr; S. Gulkis; A. Boischot; C. C. Harvey; B. M. Pedersen

1979-01-01

122

Improved interference cancellation in synthesis array radio astronomy using auxiliary antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial filtering and subspace projection methods have been proposed for removing interference signals at radio astronomy (RA) imaging arrays. Given the fact that RA signal levels are usually below noise levels, and since high gain antennas significantly reduce the interference to noise level at antenna feeds, it is often difficult to form the accurate interference signal parameter estimates. By adding

Brian D. Jeffs; Karl Warnick; Lisha Li

2003-01-01

123

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest.

Albert-Jan Boonstra; Noah Saks; Heino Falcke; Marc Klein-Wolt; Ark Bentum; Raj Thilak Rajan; Ir. Stefan J. Wijnholds; Michel Arts; Kees van-T Klooster; Frederik Belien

2010-01-01

124

Fanatic: An SIS radiometer for radio astronomy from 660 to 695 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 695 GHz (?? 455 – 432 µm). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources duringFANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25hv\\/k).

A. I. Harris; K. F. Schuster; R. Genzel; B. Plathner; K.-H Gundlach

1994-01-01

125

Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Effects on Optical and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of the satellite solar power system on astronomy are concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit

G. M. Stokes; P. A. Ekstrom

1980-01-01

126

Improving long time stability of a radio astronomy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical radio receivers used to observe weak radio sources often suffer from instabilities in the output signal due to ambient temperature changes, which make it impossible to detect even strong celestial sources. Here, I report about a cheap and successful solution based on a wine cooler to keep operating temperature stable within ± 0.1 °C.

Monstein, C.

2014-03-01

127

The First Steps of Radio Astronomy in Czestochowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, technical documentation and the principle of operation is presented. "KLAUDIA" radio telescope was built in Rabka in 2007 and it is used to receive secondary radio waves, emitted by the Earth's ionosphere at frequency of 40 kHz.

Jarosik, M.; Starzy?ski, S.; Szcze?niak, M.; Szcze?niak, R.; Ceglarek, A.

2007-12-01

128

MITIGATION OF CONTINUOUS INTERFERENCE IN RADIO ASTRONOMY USING SPATIAL FILTERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of radio astronomical measurements by man-made Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is becoming an increasingly serious problem and therefore the application of interference mitigation techniques is essential. Most current techniques address impulsive or intermittent interference and are based on time-frequency detection and blanking. Contin- ually present interferers cannot be cut out in the time-frequency plane and have to be

Sebastiaan van der Tol; Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

129

Radio Astronomy and eVLBI using KAREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to\\u000atransfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the AUT Radio\\u000aAstronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and the international\\u000aorganisations with which we are collaborating and conducting observations. Here\\u000awe report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing\\u000adifferent data transfer protocols. We

Stuart Weston; Tim Natusch; Sergei Gulyaev

2010-01-01

130

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began part time work as NRAO's first archivist. With the completion of an addition to the headquarters building in Charlottesville in spring 2005, the fledgling NRAO Archives moved into a new 1400 sq ft space. In addition to NRAO materials, the Archives also collects papers of individuals. Grote Reber, who built the first radio telescope in his backyard in Wheaton IL in 1937, had in 1995, donated many of his personal papers to NRAO, and these papers have been indexed and are available to researchers. We continue to receive additional materials from his estate in Tasmania. The complete papers of John Kraus, author, researcher, and professor in radio astronomy and engineering at Ohio State University for many years, were donated to the NRAO Archives by his son and estate executor in spring 2005. The NRAO Archives has also mounted Web resources with texts written by Nan Dieter Conklin and by Doc Ewen describing their work in the developing years of US radio astronomy. This talk will present the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history.

Bouton, E. N.

2005-12-01

131

Maximum subarray algorithms for use in optical and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum sub-array algorithm has been implemented within a field programmable gate array as an efficient centroiding method for wavefront slope estimation. However, a convenient platform for this work is a graphics processor unit (GPU). Translation of the maximum subarray algorithm to a GPU has been performed and shows significant performance gains compared to a single-core CPU. Recently, this algorithm has been applied to radio telescope images acquired for the Australian square kilometer array pathfinder project. This paper provides an overview of the maximum subarray algorithm and shows how this can be utilized for optical and radio telescope applications.

Weddell, S. J.; Takaoka, T.; Read, T.; Candy, R.

2012-10-01

132

Radar interference blanking in radio astronomy using a Kalman tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical observations of highly Doppler shifted spectral lines of neutral hydrogen and the hydroxyl molecule must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215–1350 MHz frequency range. The Green Bank telescope (GBT) and many other observatories must deal with these terrestrial signals. Even when strong radar fixed clutter echoes are removed, there are

W. Dong; B. D. Jeffs; J. R. Fisher

2005-01-01

133

The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

2004-12-01

134

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TÃl’cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto

Juan A´ngel Vaquerizo

2010-01-01

135

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto

Juan Ángel Vaquerizo

2010-01-01

136

Broad-band antenna array with application to radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad-band antenna element and beam-forming matrix have been developed for reception of signals at 25-100 MHz. The element is a zig-zag log-periodic antenna with a nominal impedance of430Omegaand a VSWR of less than 1.9. The matrix utilizes time-delay gradients to obtain frequency-independent beam positions and also allows several different beam positions to be monitored simultaneously. Observations of natural radio

C. Rufenach; W. Cronyn; K. Neal

1973-01-01

137

New Skills of Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) at PRAO ASC LPI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now a day the task of comparative analysis of sample sources from different astronomical catalogs is becoming very topical for astronomers. It is useful both for the same spectral range data and for their cross-analysis for different spectral ranges. It is also important, that the real data from astronomical instruments is placed on-line. For the above purposes we are developing a website for the PRAO ASC LPI (www.prao.ru) and, based upon it, the Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC). The RADC is a system for storage and processing of radio astronomical data. Here you can find a collection of tools for preparing radio astronomical observations, which includes a base set of main astronomical catalogues useful to radio astronomers, as well as a database of observation results from the Observatory.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Dumsky, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. U.

138

Design of passive microwave components for radio astronomy applications using HFSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution the design of passive components for radio astronomy receiver front-end is presented. In particular three devices are shown: A 100GHz orthomode transducer, a 22GHz polarizer and a 22GHz circular waveguide coupler. The first device has been studied to demonstrate the potentiality of the electroformation for the fabrication of passive components at the higher frequencies of the microwave

R. Nesti; G. Pelosi; S. Selleri; G. Tofani

139

Computational Intelligence in Radio Astronomy: Using Computational Intelligence Techniques to Tune Geodesy Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a number of popular Computational Intelligence (CI) algorithms are used to tune Geodesy models, a radio astronomy\\u000a problem. Several single and multiple objective variations of the Geodesy problem are examined with good results obtained using\\u000a state-of-the-art CI algorithms. These novel applications are used to develop insights into methods for applying CI algorithms\\u000a to unknown problem domains and

Daniel Angus; Adam Deller

2008-01-01

140

Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

141

Radio Astronomy at the Centre for High Performance Computing in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present results on galaxy evolution and cosmology which we obtained using the supercomputing facilities at the CHPC. These include cosmological-scale N-body simulations modelling neutral hydrogen as well as the study of the clustering of radio galaxies to probe the relationship between dark and luminous matter in the universe. I will also discuss the various roles that the CHPC is playing in Astronomy in SA, including the provision of HPC for a variety of Astronomical applications, the provision of storage for radio data, our educational programs and our participation in planning for the SKA.

Catherine Cress; UWC Simulation Team

2014-04-01

142

Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

143

Scalable desktop visualisation of very large radio astronomy data cubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation data from radio telescopes is typically stored in three (or higher) dimensional data cubes, the resolution, coverage and size of which continues to grow as ever larger radio telescopes come online. The Square Kilometre Array, tabled to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will generate multi-terabyte data cubes - several orders of magnitude larger than the current norm. Despite this imminent data deluge, scalable approaches to file access in Astronomical visualisation software are rare: most current software packages cannot read astronomical data cubes that do not fit into computer system memory, or else provide access only at a serious performance cost. In addition, there is little support for interactive exploration of 3D data. We describe a scalable, hierarchical approach to 3D visualisation of very large spectral data cubes to enable rapid visualisation of large data files on standard desktop hardware. Our hierarchical approach, embodied in the AstroVis prototype, aims to provide a means of viewing large datasets that do not fit into system memory. The focus is on rapid initial response: our system initially rapidly presents a reduced, coarse-grained 3D view of the data cube selected, which is gradually refined. The user may select sub-regions of the cube to be explored in more detail, or extracted for use in applications that do not support large files. We thus shift the focus from data analysis informed by narrow slices of detailed information, to analysis informed by overview information, with details on demand. Our hierarchical solution to the rendering of large data cubes reduces the overall time to complete file reading, provides user feedback during file processing and is memory efficient. This solution does not require high performance computing hardware and can be implemented on any platform supporting the OpenGL rendering library.

Perkins, Simon; Questiaux, Jacques; Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Blyth, Sarah; Kuttel, Michelle M.

2014-07-01

144

A Fast Reduction Method of Survey Data in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fast reduction method of survey data obtained using a single-dish radio telescope. Along with a brief review of classical method, a new method of identification and elimination of negative and positive bad channels are introduced using cloud identification code and several IRAF(Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) tasks relating statistics. Removing of several ripple patterns using Fourier Transform is also discussed. It is found that BACKGROUND task within IRAF is very efficient for fitting and subtraction of baseline with varying functions. Cloud identification method along with the possibility of its application for analysis of cloud structure is described, and future data reduction method is discussed.

Lee, Youngung

2001-04-01

145

Fast pulsars, strange stars: An opportunity in radio astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit have been discovered suggesting that there may be even shorter ones. If pulsars with periods below 1/2 ms were found, the conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would be almost inescapable. The plausible ground state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter. From the QCD energy scale this is as likely a ground state as the confined phase. We show that strange matter as the ground state is not ruled out by any known fact, and most especially not by the fact that the universe is in the confined phase. 136 refs.

Glendenning, N.K.

1990-07-15

146

Effects of a satellite power system on ground-based radio and radar astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that when the satellite power system (SPS) is in operation, the power signal and its harmonics, which fall close to radio astronomy bands, may cause overloading of input stages. Mitigation will require the development of cryogenically cooled filters. Radiation within radio astronomy bands can arise from transmitter-generated noise, thermal noise from the large solar cell arrays, and possibly from intermodulation, component failures, and turn-on transients. It is noted that noise and harmonics can also be generated by the power-collecting rectennas, and that there may be propagation effects resulting from ionospheric heating. It is concluded that for any radio telescope, a zone of sky will be centered on the arc of satellites and observations here with high sensitivity will be precluded. It is estimated that the width of the zone, as determined by thermal radiation, will vary from about 30 deg for single-antenna telescopes to a few degrees for high-resolution arrays and interferometers. It is noted that since there will be some degradation in performance in bands close to the power signal and its second harmonic, adequate shielding by terrain between radio observatories and power receiving sites will be necessary.

Thompson, A. R.

1981-02-01

147

Astronomie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomie gibt eine ausgezeichnete, reich illustrierte Darstellung aller klassischen und modernen Teilgebiete dieser Wissenschaft. Dabei wird ebenso großer Wert auf die faszinierenden Beobachtungsergebnisse und die zugrundeliegenden physikalischen Vorgänge gelegt. Das Buch eignet sich damit gleichermaßen als Begleiter zur Astronomie-Vorlesung wie als Fundgrube und Nachschlagewerk für jede(n) Astronomiebegeisterte(n). "... ein so modernes Buch, wie es kaum ein einzelner Autor vorlegen könnte." #Sterne und Weltraum (2/89)(zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

Karttunen, Hannu; Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl J.; Marx, Siegfried A.; Lehmann, Holger H.

148

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

2011-03-01

149

The Contribution of an Experimental WWII Radar Antenna to Australian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division's short-lived Georges Heights field station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill field station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, Galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, H.

2011-01-01

150

PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

1992-06-01

151

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

152

PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

1992-01-01

153

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

1992-01-01

154

Acousto-optical correlation spectrometer for radio astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this thesis is to develop and construct a wide-band, high-resolution, two-channel prototype acousto-optic correlation spectrometer (AOCS) to analyze signals received by the three-element millimeter-wave interferometer at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), which may be used to study the distribution of carbon monoxide and other molecules in galaxies. The proposed correlation spectrometer has the main advantage of large time-bandwidth products and hence of low cost per frequency channel. Thus, it is suitable for many scientific objectives that require both large bandwidth and high resolution, such as mapping the distribution and temperature of the interstellar gases of galactic sources and extragalactic sources or studying the atmospheric conditions of planets in the solar system. Phase switching has been used to reduce the zero level variation of this instrument, and is found to be more effective than other schemes used by the single dish acousto-optical spectrometers. Both the frequency resolution and the frequency coverage of this instrument can be changed easily, and give it a flexibility not attainable by the filter-bank spectrometers.

Cheung, K.

1987-01-01

155

Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

2013-05-01

156

Bayesian detection of radar interference in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-Band observations at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other radio observatories are often made in frequency bands allocated to aviation pulsed radar transmissions. It is possible to mitigate radar contamination of the astronomical signal by time blanking data containing these pulses. However, even when strong direct path pulses and nearby fixed clutter echoes are removed there are still undetected weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. In a previous paper we presented an algorithm to improve real-time echo blanking by forming a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. The tracker builds a history which can be used to predict the location of upcoming echoes. We now present details of a new Bayesian detection algorithm which uses this prediction information to enable more sensitive weak pulse acquisition. The developed track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of the next echoes. Regions with higher probability are processed with a lower detection threshold to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection. The ultimate result is more complete removal, by blanking the detected pulse, of radar corruption in astronomical observations.

Jeffs, Brian D.; Lazarte, Weizhen; Fisher, J. Richard

2006-06-01

157

Albrecht Unsöld: his role in the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio emission and in the beginning of radio astronomy in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albrecht Unsöld's career spanned over 50 years at the beginning of the 20th century. In this period atomic physics made great advances and Unsöld applied this to astrophysical questions. He came in contact with the early radio astronomy observations and devoted part of his career to the interpretation of the origin of cosmic radio waves. Although hampered by the post-war situation, Unsöld's contributions to the interpretation of cosmic radio waves were important.

Wielebinski, Richard

2013-03-01

158

Comparison of two cyclostationary detectors for radio frequency interference mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation has become a significant issue for current and future radio telescopes. This paper presents a new scheme for removing radio frequency interference from astronomical data. It exploits a priori knowledge of the transmitters, namely, their cyclostationary statistical properties. Two real-time cyclostationary detectors are proposed and compared. Results on both synthetic and real data demonstrate the efficiency of this concept.

Bretteil, S.; Weber, R.

2005-07-01

159

Pulsars in a Box: A Radio Astronomy Exercise for Windows from PROJECT CLEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest astronomy laboratory exercise from PROJECT CLEA, "Radio Astronomy of Pulsars", is designed for use in introductory astronomy classes, but contains options and features that make it usable by upperclass astronomy students as well. The heart of the exercise is a simulated radio telescope, whose aperture, location, and beamwidth can be set by the instructor. It is steered by pushing buttons, but instead of seeing a star field on the field monitor,students see a projection of the sky showing, with a colored dot,where the beam is pointing. Large LED-like readouts display time and telescope coordinates. The telescope can be operated in either a tracking or transit mode. Using the telescope, students point to several pulsars suggested by the write-up (from an on-line catalog of over 500). Students can then use a multi-channel tunable receiver, with multiple oscilloscope displays, to view the incoming signal vs. time. The signal received is a combination of random receiver and background noise plus the pulsar signal (if it is in the beam) Receivers are tunable from 400 to 1400 MHz, and both the time and frequency behavior of signals can be studied. By measuring the dispersion delay at a number of different frequencies, students can determine the pulsar's distance. Data can be stored, displayed, and printed using a versatile measuring window. Though we provide a manual for a 2-3 hour lab exercise involving dispersion measures, the database and receivers can be used for a wide variety of other exercises, for instance the measurement of pulsar spin-down rates. We welcome suggestions for improvements and applications.

Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

1996-12-01

160

NASA IDEAS EPO Support of the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was awarded a STScI IDEAS Program grant to develop the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA). SGRA enhances education of science, mathematics, and technology of students in grades 8-12. The purpose of SGRA is to teach the basics of scientific inquiry, which includes methodology, critical thinking, and communication of the results. To facilitate the excitement of science and discovery, teachers and students use the PARI 4.6m ``Smiley" radio telescope via the Internet. The IDEAS grant supported the development of the science curriculum and labs that use the 4.6m radio telescope, teacher workshops, and high speed internet service necessary for remote access to the radio telescope. Partnerships with Brevard High School , Furman University, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville have proven important to the success of the program. In addition, the IDEAS grant was important in our success in acquiring grants from the foundations at Z. Smith Reynolds and Progress Energy, a AAS Small Grant, and a STScI HST/EPO award to further enhance and continue the SGRA Program. More than 100 teachers are now involved in SGRA. To increase awareness of SGRA, we have presented the program at meetings of the AAS, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, the North Carolina Science Museum, and Pisgah Forest Institute summer workshops. Our experience in writing and carrying out the program, along with the NASA components in the program, teachers' comments, and lessons learned, will be presented. We are extremely grateful to the IDEAS Grant Program for helping PARI initiate and develop an exciting program of hands-on Internet radio astronomy from high school classrooms.

Castelaz, M.; Daugherty, J.; Moffett, D.; Case, J.

2005-05-01

161

BYU Radio Astronomy System for Imaging Galactic H1 and OH MASERs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a radio astronomy system initially designed to image galactic H1 (Hydrogen Spin-Flip) [at 1.42 GHz] and OH MASERS [ 1.66 GHz ] in star forming regions. Initial system architecture includes one 4-meter dish antenna, 0.38dB noise figure LNA and conventional super-heterodyne block down-conversion. Enhancements underway include baseline extensions for these wavelengths, CASPER based digital correlation / spectrometer design activity including Linux server, additional imaging wavelengths, rubidium clocks, and lock-in amplifiers.

Blakley, Daniel; Migenes, Victor

2011-10-01

162

DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

Mulhall, B. D. L.

1977-01-01

163

A Wide-Band, Active Antenna System for Long Wavelength Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an ""active"" antenna system for HF/VHF (long wavelength) radio astronomy that has been successfully deployed 256-fold as the first station (LWA1) of the planned Long Wavelength Array. The antenna system, consisting of crossed dipoles, an active balun/preamp, a support structure, and a ground screen has been shown to successfully operate over at least the band from 20 MHz (15 m wavelength) to 80 MHz (3.75 m wavelength) with a noise figure that is at least 6 dB better than the Galactic background emission-noise temperature over that band. Thus, we met the goal to design and construct a compact, inexpensive, rugged, and easily assembled antenna system that can be deployed many-fold to form numerous large individual ""stations"" for the purpose of building a large, long wavelength synthesis array telescope for radio astronomical and ionospheric observations.

Hicks, Brian C.; Paravastu-Dalal, Nagini; Stewart, Kenneth P.; Erickson, William C.; Ray, Paul S.; Kassim, Namir E.; Burns, Steve; Clarke, Tracy; Schmitt, Henrique; Craig, Joe; Hartman, Jake; Weiler, Kurt W.

2012-10-01

164

Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

2012-06-01

165

Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session, problems of linking positions from one observing session to another can be avoided, the astronomers say. The result will be a much stronger, more precise, reference grid. Telescopes in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and in the Pacific will participate. Improving the celestial positional grid will allow astronomers better to pinpoint the locations and measure the motions of objects in the sky. As astronomers increasingly study objects using multiple telescopes observing at different wavelengths, such as visible light, radio, infrared, etc., the improved positional grid will allow more accurate overlaying of the different images. The improved celestial reference frame also strengthens a terrestrial reference frame used for radio-telescope measurements that contribute to geophysical research. The precise geodetic measurements help geophysicists understand phenomena such as plate tectonics, earth tides, and processes that affect our planet's orientation in space. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio telescope system with 10, 240-ton dish antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. Operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, the VLBA offers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in astronomy. The multi-telescope observation will be accompanied by public-outreach activities in celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. A public web page devoted to the observation will be hosted at Bordeaux Observatory, and some of the participating telescopes will have webcams available.

2009-11-01

166

Research on Haystack radiometer, 20-24 GHz maser, and radio astronomy programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first half of 1973, the Haystack antenna was utilized 76% of the time. Of this useful time, 72% was devoted to radio astronomy observing, 5% was spent on radar-related research and 23% went into maintenance and system improvements. Twenty-eight new radio astronomy programs were accepted, eight of which were completed during the period. One new radar program, topographic observations of Mars, was started in June and will be completed early in 1974. Fourteen programs continued from the previous period were also defined as complete. As of 1 July, 28 ratio observing programs were in a continuing status on the Haystack books. Four radar projects were also continuing. The 20-24 GHz maser development described in the preceding report progressed very well during an on-antenna test phase which began early in the year, but which terminated unfortunately in June with the complete loss of gain in the maser. Investigation of this problem is in progress. During this on-antenna test phase, the most sensitive water vapor observing capability which has yet become available was demonstrated.

1973-01-01

167

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A K-band reflected-wave ruby maser was used on the 64-meter (DSS-43) antenna at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra, Australia. Spectral line observations were carried out near 22 GHz for water vapor sources and near 24 GHz for ammonia sources. The water vapor observations were made in the direction of known southern OH and H2O maser sources. All of the previously detected water line sources examined were detected. In addition, two new water vapor maser sources were discovered, G301.1+1.1and G308.9+0.1. The spectrum of G301.0+1.1 is presented six ammonia sources were found: G291.3-0.7, G305.4+0.2, G322.2+0.6, G327.3-0.5, G333.6-0.2, and G268.4-0.8. Spectra of two of these sources, G291.3-0.7 (RCW 57) and G305.4+0.2, are presented. Both show clearly the presence of the quadrupole splitting satellite lines that will allow the determination of NH3 optical depths in these clouds.

Shaffer, R. D.; Mccluskey, J. T.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Kuiper, T.

1981-01-01

168

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's explore the universe together. First we'll be learning about stars: what they are and how they are formed. Then we'll explore different websites to learn about other parts of our solar system Write 5 new things you learn about stars from EACH of these sites: How Stars Work A Star s Story Now explore the rest of the universe. Write 3 new things you learn from EACH of these sites: Astronomy Kidastronomy NASA Planetary Tour StarChild Finished and unsure what to do? Go back to each of these websites and check out the games about ...

Cazier, Ms.

2009-10-09

169

Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for ionospheric plasma effects on Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ambient electron concentrations derived from observations with the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna capacitance probe have been compared with upper hybrid resonance measurements from the same spacecraft. From this comparison an empirical correction factor for the capacitance probe measurements has been derived. The differences between the two types of measurements is attributed to sheath effects.

Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

1975-01-01

170

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom.

S. K. Dunn; J. Brown

2003-01-01

171

Observations of noise bands associated with the upper hybrid resonance by the Imp 6 radio astronomy experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intense noise bands occurring near the upper hybrid resonanace ; frequency have been observed with the Imp 6 GSFC radio astronomy experiment in ; the plasmasphere. The identification of the upper hybrid resonance provides an ; accurate measure of the local electron density and allows the observed noise data ; to be fit to the scale of characteristic frequencies

Stephen R. Mosier; Michael L. Kaiser; L. W. Brown

1973-01-01

172

Unformatted Digital Fiber-Optic Data Transmission for Radio Astronomy Front-Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a prototype integrated receiver front-end that combines all conversions from RF to baseband, from analog to digital, and from copper to fiber into one compact assembly, with the necessary gain and stability suitable for radio astronomy applications. The emphasis in this article is on a novel digital data link over optical fiber which requires no formatting in the front-end, greatly reducing the complexity, bulk, and power consumption of digital electronics inside the antenna, facilitating its integration with the analog components, and minimizing the self-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI) which could leak into the signal path. Management of the serial data link is performed entirely in the back-end based on the statistical properties of signals with a strong random noise component. In this way, the full benefits of precision and stability afforded by conventional digital data transmission are realized with far less overhead at the focal plane of a radio telescope.

Morgan, Matthew A.; Fisher, J. Richard; Castro, Jason J.

2013-06-01

173

Analysis of Wind Influence to Radio Astronomy Observations at Irbene Radio-telescope Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of modelling wind-related deformations in an RT-16 radio telescope (located at Irbene, Latvia) mirror system are presented. The Finite Volume method is used for the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamic model of turbulent airflow around the telescope. An open sourced Computational Fluid Dynamic toolkit OpenFOAM is used for the solution of Partial Different Equations. Notable model difficulties arise due to the open nature of the air flow leading to unknown far field turbulence parameters. Our future plans are to create a unified, coupled, liquid-solid interaction model for RT-32/RT-16 antennas.

Upnere, Sabine; Jekabsons, Normunds; Joffe, Roberts; Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs

2011-01-01

174

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest. Due to ionospheric scintillation (below 30MHz) and its opaqueness (below 15MHz), earth-bound radio astronomy observations in these bands are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. A radio telescope in space obviously would not be hampered by the Earth's ionosphere. In the past, several (limited) studies have been conducted to explore possibilities for such an array in space. These studies considered aperture synthesis arrays in space, at the back-side of the Moon, or a satellite constellation operating in a coherent mode. In 2009 an ESA project, Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space (DARIS), set out to investigate the space-based radio telescope concept. The focus of this feasibility study is on a moderate size three-dimensional satellite constellation operating as a coherent large aperture synthesis array. This aperture synthesis array would consist of 5 to 50 antennas (satellites) having a maximum separation of 100 km. This study considers the main aspects of such a distributed system in more detail than previous studies. This conference contribution aims at presenting an overview of the DARIS project and at discussing the main results. The project selected extra-galactic surveys and the search for transient radio sources as the best suited science cases within the DARIS concept, and it investigated the scientific and technical requirements for such an array. Several antenna concepts were considered and simulated. An active antenna dipole array concept would be well suited, and a moderate 5 m tip-tip antenna system would lead to a sky noise limited system. Multiple digital signal processing scenarios were considered. Ultimately, although a distributed signal processing approach would be fa-vorable in terms of reliability and scalability, for complexity reasons the project has chosen to have several (5 to 50) identical receiving nodes, and one centralized processing node i.e. the correlator. Analysis has shown that with current technologies, one MHz bandwidth can be processed with full duty cycle. The limiting factor is the inter-satellite link bandwidth. Several deployment locations, such as Moon orbit, Earth-Moon L2, and dynamic Solar orbits were investigated. Each of those locations has its pro's and con's such as interference levels from the Earth (which drive the number of sampling bits), relative speed-vectors of the satellite nodes (influencing maximum correlator integration times, and the need for orbit maintenance), and achievable down-link bandwidth to Earth. Two preferred deployment location were selected: Moon orbit and dynamic Solar orbit. The main advantage of the Moon orbit is that the syn-thetic aperture is filled more rapidly, making it more suitable for transient science than the dynamic Solar orbit. The project also studied the relation between the three-dimensional satellite configuration, the deployment location and the quality of the sky maps. The conclusion is that for the science cases under consideration, sufficient independent aperture sampling points can be obtained in a 1 MHz limited band (with 1 kHz channels) by using bandwidth synthesis. It is expected that, as a result, up to about one million astronomical sources can be detected in a five year duration mission.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Saks, Noah; Falcke, Heino; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Bentum, Ark; Thilak Rajan, Raj; Wijnholds, Ir. Stefan J.; Arts, Michel; van-T Klooster, Kees; Belien, Frederik

175

New Astronomy from the Moon: a Lunar Based Very-Low Frequency Radio Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the universe, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. Such a project will utilize the same transportation, communication, and power systems required for further exploration of the Moon. The lunar surface provides unique advantages for astronomy, even compared to orbits or Lagrange points. It is a large and stable platform that can shield unwanted radiation and that will be easily accessible once a lunar base is established. Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s. The most seriously investigated concept has always been a very-low- frequency (VLF) array on the lunar far side for mainly three reasons. First, the very low frequencies below ~30 MHz is the last window in the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy, giving us good reasons to anticipate unexpected discoveries. Second, because of E a r t h ' s significant radio interference, the lunar far side may well be the only site accessible that enables sensitive galactic / extra-galactic VLF observations. Finally, an array of short dipole antennas is one the most technologically feasible observatories to be placed and operated on the Moon. The motivations for a lunar based VLF array is detailed in the first section. The second section provides a review of the foregoing effort and a summary of the consensus to date. To make this dream into a reality, we identify the next required steps in the third section. We must f i r s t address any unresolved issues, especially concerning the lunar environmental factors like the ionosphere density. We should make the most out of the upcoming lunar missions by proposing relevant measurements. Most importantly, we should begin proposing our first array now. C o n s i d e r i n g the limited budget, the first realistic surface array will be deployed as a piggyback payload to early landers on the lunar south pole. The side of the Malapert Mountain that is facing away from Earth may be a good radio-quiet site. To address issues relevant to the lunar VLF array project, we have developed a general tool to simulate the propagation of radio waves in the lunar environment. In this study, we investigated (1) how well the Moon shields long-wavelength radio interference, (2) how the Malapert Mountain at the lunar south pole shields terrestrial radio interference, and (3) how the lunar surface environment i n f l u e n c e interferometric observations. These radio wave simulation studies and their results are presented in the fourth section. Finally, in the last section, we make recommendations for future missions and propose the first surface array to be deployed on the far side of the Malapert Mountain near the lunar south pole. To finalize the site and the design of the observatory, recommendations are presented for specific m e a s u r e m e n t s to be made by upcoming missions including SMART-1, LunarSat, and SELENE. It is especially critical to obtain detailed topology at candidate sites and to determine the electron d e n s i t y profile above the lunar surface at various times of the lunar month. Suggestions are given for a precursor orbiting array around 2010, a surface array on the lunar south pole around 2015, and ultimately a far side array around 2020. To realize the dream of gaining new views of the universe f r o m the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these missions.

Takahashi, Yuki D.

2002-01-01

176

Probing Strongly-Scattered Compact Objects Using Ultra-High-Resolution Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores fundamental limits in radio astronomy and develops techniques that utilize the scintillation of compact objects to probe detailed properties of their emission regions and of the scattering material. I develop a statistical framework for observations with spectral resolution at or near the Nyquist limit, suitable for describing the observed statistics of strongly-scattered sources. I demonstrate that these statistics can effectively isolate the signature of an extended emission region, requiring no assumptions about the nature or distribution of the scattering material. Then, using observations of the Vela pulsar at 760 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope, I thereby achieve a spatial resolution of 4 km at the pulsar. Finally, I explore the signature of refractive scintillation on the interferometric visibility measured on long baselines, and I derive optimal correlation estimators for quantized data.

Johnson, Michael Douglas

177

The wideband backend for host country radio astronomy in the Spanish DSN Robledo complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Deep Space Network hosts three complexes worldwide for spacecrafts tracking. The Spanish complex, the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC), operates a set of highly sensitive antennas, which are used for Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) during a percentage of their operational time. We have designed, developed and built a wideband backend for HCRA in MDSCC, which greatly improves its available facilities, and opens new scientic cases to be tackled. The backend is able to sample up to 6 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth, in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz, using two dierent antennas. An intermediate-frequency (IF) processor downconverts the two-polarization signals to four base-band channels of 1.5 GHz width. Digitalisation is done through a set of FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which can provide spectral resolutions from 7 to 200 kHz, and spectral coverages from 100MHz to 1.5 GHz each. This new facility enables HCRA to aord new scientic projects, such as extragalactic radio astronomy and spectral surveys; at the same time, the available time for HC is greatly optimized. It was necessary the development of dedicated software for spectra acquisition and control of the equipment, and also the upgrading of the existing observing programs. Once end-to-end assembled, the whole backend was tested through a set of commissioning observations. In this contribution the main features of the new backend are described, including the IF processor, the FFT spectrometer and the developed software. Some astronomical results are also included.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; García Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.

2012-09-01

178

Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization. Results are given for simulated and experimental data, demonstrating deeper beampattern nulls by 6 to 30dB. To increase the system bandwidth toward the hundreds of MHz bandwidth required by astronomers for a fully science-ready instrument, an FPGA digital backend is introduced using a 64-input analog-to-digital converter running at 50 Msamp/sec and the ROACH processing board developed at the University of California, Berkeley. International efforts to develop digital back ends for large antenna arrays are considered, and a road map is proposed for development of a hardware correlator/beamformer at BYU using three ROACH boards communicating over 10 gigabit Ethernet.

Landon, Jonathan C.

179

The Development of Radio Astronomy at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides information about the emergence and development of radio astronomy at the Sternberg Astronmical Institute of Moscow State University (GAISH), and further at the Space Research Institute (IKI). The main results of theoretical studies of mechanisms for the Sun, Galactic and extragalactic radio emission and their relationship to physical processes in space are laid out in detail. The results of observations carried out at the initiative of and with the participation of radio astronomers from GAISH and IKI using many radio telescope in the Soviet Union and abroad are also considered, including methods for space radio astronomy.

Gindilis, L. M.

180

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

181

New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater size. The book reprints internal memos, reports, and recollections of astronomers who were there, as the initial elation turned to frustration when the 140 Foot Telescope project became mired in technical difficulties, plans for larger dishes were put on hold, and the scientific staff of the fledgling Observatory struggled to create a National Observatory with inadequate equipment in a very remote location. Articles by David Heeschen and John Findlay tell the story of the creation of the 300 Foot Telescope, at that time the largest in the world, which went from initial concept to full operation in only 23 months, and began a rich life of research that put the NRAO on the world scientific map. The 300 Foot Telescope was originally intended to be an interim instrument, but as documented in the book, demand for its use was so high that it was kept in operation long after its initial planned retirement, with regular upgrades and new generations of electronics. The sudden collapse of the 300 Foot Telescope on a calm evening after 26 years of operation shocked the astronomical community. But it was Fun... features dramatic first-hand accounts by the people who were there that night: the telescope operator who found himself under a falling structure; the Observatory staff who at first could not believe what happened, and those who worked during the night and into the next day to secure the area, preserve information on what happened, and deal with the rush of publicity. The book includes extensive photographs and the Executive Summary Report of the panel which was commissioned to investigate the collapse and its implication for the design of other large radio telescopes. But it was Fun... will appeal to a variety of audiences. Historians of science will be interested in the articles by David Heeschen, Gerald Tape, and Hugh van Horn, on the evolution of the concept of a National Observatory, and the difficulties of putting the concepts into practice in Green Bank. Those interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal a

2007-07-01

182

Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

2012-05-01

183

Ultra-low noise InP pHEMTs for cryogenic Deep-Space and Radio-Astronomy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

InP HEMTs provide the best available low-noise transistor performance. The availability of InP HEMTs for cryogenic front-ends is of paramount importance in ultra-low noise Deep-Space Network (DSN) and Radio-Astronomy (RA) applications. In DSN applications, cryo-cooled InP HEMT front-ends are at the heart of the ESA 34 m antennas used to detect data carrying signals and telemetry information from deep space

A. R. Alt; C. R. Bolognesi; J. D. Gallego; C. Diez; I. Lopez-Fernandez; A. Barcia

2011-01-01

184

News and Views: Bite the bullet; Radio astronomy lurking in your laptop; Want to find planets? Track the lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John O'Sullivan, a radio astronomer, has received the 2009 Australian Prime Minister's Prize for Science for technology that was devised to improve radio astronomy, but now allows fast and reliable wireless computing for all of us - genuine knowledge transfer in action. A spectrographic survey has found that stars with planets - like our Sun - tend to have a lot less lithium in their make-up than comparable stars without planetary systems. It is not yet clear how this comes about, but it points the way to a shortcut to finding new exoplanetary systems.

2009-12-01

185

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-01-01

186

Radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Astronomy is a new and growing branch of Astronomy. Although it seems that radio echo studies must be confined to the solar system, they can play an important part in developing our understanding of the Sun and the planets. At the present time these objects are barely detectable by radar techniques and much of the work has been concerned

J. V. Evans

1960-01-01

187

Discovering astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

Chapman, R. D.

1978-01-01

188

New Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elsevier Science began a fully electronic and refereed journal in astronomy and astrophysics in 1996. "New Astronomy" is available via the Web as well as in print. Elsevier states the journal will publish "articles in all fields of astronomy and astrophysics: theoretical, observational and instrumental. 'New Astronomy' includes full length research articles and letter articles. The journal covers solar, stellar, galactic and extragalactic astronomy and astrophysics. It reports on original research in all wavelength bands, ranging from radio to gamma-ray." The journal's Web site provides a listing of receiving editors, as well as a call for papers. It will be a scholarly journal of "rigorously refereed" papers and aims to provide a short publication time, with accepted articles being made immediately available electronically. Detailed instructions on submittal are at the site.

1996-01-01

189

Advances in Composite Reflectors: From X-Ray to Radio Wave Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) has made significant advances in the use of graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) materials for astronomical instrument applications. The inherent low density, high stiffness, and thermal stability makes GFRC a natural candidate for many astronomy applications. In order to reap these inherent benefits in astronomical applications, basic research has focused on material and

S. J. Connell; A. A. Abusafieh; G. V. Mehle; D. A. Sheikh; D. C. Giles

2000-01-01

190

The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

1999-01-01

191

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

192

Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

Doran, G.

2013-01-01

193

The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.03 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestrial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics. The ALFA interferometer will image and track transient disturbances in the solar corona and interplanetary medium - a new capability which is crucial for understanding many aspects of solar-terrestrial interaction and space weather. ALFA will also produce the first sensitive, high-angular-resolution radio surveys of the entire sky at low frequencies. The radio sky will look entirely different below about 30 MHz. As a result, ALFA will provide a fundamentally new view of the universe and an extraordinarily large and varied science return.

Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Blume, W.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Gopalswamy, N.; Howard, R.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

194

Radio Astronomy: A Revision of Chapter 22, Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey is a summary of available information on radiation environments at radio frequencies (about 10 m to 1 cm wavelength); the Moon, the Planets, and space beyond the solar system are described. The topics presented are refraction and absorption of ...

D. A. Guidice

1967-01-01

195

A cryostat for radio astronomy receivers using superconducting mixers at millimetre wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid cryostat using a commercial refrigerator and a bath of liquid helium has been built and tested. Its design and characteristics are consistent with operation in a radio telescope. The cryostat cools the superconducting mixer of a sensitive millimeter wave receiver to 2.7 K. The optical axis of the receiver is well defined mechanically, and the temperature of the

Emile-Jacques Blum

1986-01-01

196

Spatial filtering of RF interference in radio astronomy using a reference antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical observations are increasingly contaminated by RF interference. Assuming an array of telescopes, we have previously considered spatial filtering techniques based on projecting out the interferer array signature vector. In this paper, we consider extending the astronomical array with a reference antenna (or array), and develop spatial filtering algorithms for this situation. The information from the reference antenna improves

Alle-Jan van der Veen; Albert-Jan Boonstra

2004-01-01

197

Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10. 7-cm flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies made by means of high-resolution radio telescopes indicate that solar centrimetric emission contains contributions from many different sources and involves more than one radiation mechanism. Two emission components have been identified: bright, compact sources and weaker, diffuse emission which is distributed over the plage and surrounding areas of enhanced magnetic field. There is evidence for the occurrence of weaker

K. F. Tapping

1987-01-01

198

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...authorization which would change the frequency...effective radiated power (ERP) in the primary plane...miles) with 1 kW or more ERP in the primary plane...miles) with 25 kW or more ERP in the primary plane...with the Radio Frequency Management Coordinator,...

2012-10-01

199

Public Databases for Radio Astronomy: a joint venture between East and West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing astronomical data centers and databases of celestial objects show a notable lack in published information on sources of radio emission. Two western and two eastern research teams have spent independent efforts in the past both in collecting systematically old and newly published source lists in electronic form, and in building search tools to query these. This project joins the efforts of all teams and proposes to establish the first reasonably complete and publicly accessible database of radio sources. The organization of the database of astrophysical catalogs is described. This ``CATalog supporting System'' (CATS) runs under the UNIX/LINUX operating system and permits external users to process requests on the basis of various net protocols and via electronic mail.

Trushkin, S. A.; Andernach, H.; Micol, A.; Gubanov, A. G.; Verkhodanov, O.; Titov, V. B.; Chernenkov, V. N.

200

Broadband beamforming of dense aperture array (DAA) and focal plane array (FPA) signals using 3D spatio-temporal filters for applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that 3D spatio-temporal filters have potential applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy for the broadband-beamforming\\u000a of the array of signals that is received from dense aperture arrays (DAAs) and also from focal plane arrays (FPAs). In particular,\\u000a we consider possible applications for the planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project where broadband beamforming is required\\u000a at the front-end

Thushara K. Gunaratne; Len T. Bruton

2011-01-01

201

Application of Field System-FS9 and a PC to Antenna Control Unit interface in Radio Astronomy in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process to transform a 32m antenna in Peru, used for telecommunications, into a Radio Telescope to perform Radio Astronomy in Peru. The 32m antenna of Peru constructed by NEC was used for telecommunications with communications satellites at 6 GHz for transmission, and 4 GHz for reception. In collaboration of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Japan, and National Observatory of Japan we developed an Antenna Control System for the 32m antenna in Peru. It is based on the Field System FS9, software released by NASA for VLBI station, and an interface to link PC within FS9 software (PC-FS9) and Antenna Control Unit (ACU) of the 32 meters antenna. The PC-FS9 controls the antenna, commands are translated by interface into control signals compatibles with the ACU using: an I/O digital card with two 20bits ports to read azimuth and elevation angles, one 16bits port for reading status of ACU, one 24bits port to send pulses to start or stop operations of antenna, two channels are analogic outputs to drive the azimuth and elevation motors of the antenna, a LCD display to show the status of interface and error messages, and one serial port for communications with PC-FS9,. The first experiment of the control system was made with 11m parabolic antenna of Kashima Space Research Center (NICT), where we tested the right working of the routines implemented for de FS9 software, and simulations was made with looped data between output and input of the interface, both test were done successfully. With this scientific instrument we will be able to contribute with researching of astrophysics. We expect to into a near future to work at 6.7GHz to study Methanol masers, and higher frequencies with some improvements of the surface of the dish.

Vidal, E. V. S.; Ishitsuka, J. I. I.; Koyama, K. Y.

2006-08-01

202

Special purpose image display devices and techniques at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO has developed an image storage unit/control panel that greatly enhances the functionality and user-friendliness of its image display computers. Described here are the hardware design and capabilities of this system. In addition, a selection is presented from an image display software 'bag of tricks': various image display techniques that have been found to be extremely useful in the analysis of radio astronomical imaging data and may be of interest to those in other fields of the physical sciences.

Rots, Arnold H.

1989-12-01

203

Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.  

PubMed

We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data. PMID:17902962

Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

2007-09-01

204

Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

Woody, David P.; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L.; Lamb, James W.; Lawrence, Ronald P.; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J.; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H.; Cartwright, John K.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.

2007-09-01

205

Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

Maxwell, A.

1983-01-01

206

Monitoring and Control of EMBRACE: A 4608 Element Phased Array for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMBRACE is a technology demonstrator for the decimetre wavelength range of the Square Kilometre Array. As a demonstrator instrument, the primary goal is to test and verify its merits as an SKA candidate design. For this purpose, we have developed the control software for EMBRACE including the real-time control software, the data acquisition and the observation setup systems. We have reused and adapted the LOFAR C++ control software and implemented a similar architecture on the LCU (Local Control Unit) computer. Station Control Unit (SCU) software provides a Python interface to LCU for users to easily setup observation scripts for various types of observation and to capture integrated data. Tests with satellites and strong radio sources are in progress to validate the system and characterize the demonstrator.

Taffoureau, C.; Renaud, P.; Picard, P.; Borsenberger, J.; Torchinsky, S.; Olofsson, H.; Viallefond, F.

2012-09-01

207

Astronomy: A handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to astronomical literature and nomenclature is provided and a description of the observing instruments of the amateur astronomer is given. Optical radiation receivers are considered along with radio astronomy for amateur astronomers, the terrestrial atmosphere and its effects, fundamentals of spherical astronomy, modern sundials, applied mathematics for amateur astronomers, the sun, the observation of total solar eclipses, the

G. D. Roth

1975-01-01

208

Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

2012-08-01

209

Reorganization of the astronomy section of NSF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Section of the National Science Foundation has been reorganized to better reflect present directions of current interest in astronomy research. Robert Fleischer continues as Head of the section.The former programs for optical astronomy and radio astronomy have been abolished. Each of the new programs described below includes theoretical and laboratory studies, as well as observations in all spectral

Anonymous

1971-01-01

210

Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

Paulikas, G. A.

1974-01-01

211

Multiwavelength Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center explains how the universe can be observed using the entire electromagnetic spectrum. There is an introduction to using light in astronomy; information on and images taken from different areas of the electromagnetic spectrum of objects in the solar system, the Milky Way galaxy and beyond; and a table of radiation types, their characteristic temperatures, and objects emitting this type of radiation. The tutorial explains how observations are made using X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared wavelengths, and radio wavelengths. There is a section on why telescopes are sent to space and a multiwavelength gallery.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

212

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

213

A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

1989-01-01

214

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

2010-08-01

215

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http:\\/\\/www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band

A. Orfei; L. Carbonaro; A. Cattani; A. Cremonini; L. Cresci; F. Fiocchi; A. Maccaferri; G. Maccaferri; S. Mariotti; J. Monari; M. Morsiani; V. Natale; R. Nesti; D. Panella; M. Poloni; J. Roda; A. Scalambra; G. Tofani

2010-01-01

216

African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa

Gordon MacLeod

2010-01-01

217

Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1991-01-01

218

Comparison of site velocities derived from collocated GPS, VLBI and SLR techniques at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (Comparison of site velocities)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space geodetic techniques provide highly ac- curate methods for estimating bedrock stability at sub- centimetre level. We utilize data derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) techniques, collocated at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Obser- vatory, to characterise local plate motion and compare the solutions from the three techniques. Data from the GNSS station were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK (version 10.4) software, data from the SLR station (MOBLAS-6) were processed using the Satellite Laser Ranging Data Analy- sis Software (SDAS) and the VLBI data sets were processed using the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) software. Results show that there is a good agreement between horizontal and vertical velocity components with a maximum devia- tion of 1.7 mm/yr, 0.7 mm/yr and 1.3 mm/yr between the North, East and Up velocity components respectively for the different techniques. At HartRAO there is no significant trend in the vertical component and all the techniques used are consistent with the a-priori velocities when com- pared with each other. This information is crucial in mon- itoring the local motion variations since geodetic instru- ments require a very stable base to minimise measurement errors. These findings demonstrate that station coordinate time-series derived with different techniques and analysis strategies provide comparable results

Munghemezulu, C.; Combrinck, L.; Mayer, D.; Botai, O. J.

2014-02-01

219

Sustainable Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently \\

C. Blaha; J. Goetz; T. Johnson

2011-01-01

220

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bad Astronomy is a site dedicated to misconceptions and myths held regarding astronomy, and the popular culture that propogates them. Of particular note are the many reviews of movies and television from a scientific perspective

Plait, Phil

221

Astronomy 250  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of lecture notes discusses the fundamentals of astronomy. The lecture notes review the topics of celestial mechanics, light, matter, planets, telescopes, the sun, stellar astronomy, stellar evolution, life in the universe, galaxies, and cosmology.

Rieke, Marcia

2011-05-24

222

Advanced Amateur Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is for amateur astronomers and telescope users who want to move beyond elementary stargazing to more challenging projects. Written by an accomplished amateur astronomer, this indispensable guide to more advanced work is packed with information and lucid explanations. The first section of the book sets out the fundamental principles of practical astronomy, with chapters on telescope optics, the atmosphere, telescope hardware, astrophotography, and electronic imaging. This knowledge is then applied to the full range of celestial bodies accessible by telescope: the solar system, stars and galaxies. For those users who want to move to even greater challenges, chapters on photometry, spectroscopy and radio astronomy bring observational astronomy to a level where data of real scientific value can be acquired.

North, Gerald

223

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center describes: the discovery of infrared waves; what infrared waves are and how they are used in astronomy; atmospheric windows; near, middle, and far infrared; the infrared universe; and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. It also provides an IR astronomy timeline; history and development of IR detector technology; information on projects, news and discoveries; an IR gallery; classroom activities; and links for getting involved in astronomy.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

224

Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy

B. V. Sreekantan

2002-01-01

225

Aperture Synthesis in Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper analyzes certain general characteristics of the Ryle system, the Mills and Christiansen crosses, variable-base interferometers, of compound and multi-element interferometers, representing specific cases of aperture synthesis. The main attention ...

N. M. Tseitlin

1970-01-01

226

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

227

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an extensive set of online resources for Astronomy Today, an introductory astronomy textbook. The website provides learning goals, practice problems, labeling exercises, images, and animations for each of the 20 chapters. A mechanism is provided so students may submit scores on the online quizzes to their instructors through the website.

Chaisson, Eric; Mcmillan, Steve

2005-04-25

228

Primary Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

229

Intermediate Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

230

Sustainable Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently "retire" observing equipment to local schools. While public evenings continue to be popular, the donated equipment was underutilized due to a lack of trained student observing assistants. With sponsorship from NASA's IYA Student Ambassador program, the sustainable astronomy project began in 2009 to generate greater interest in astronomy and train middle school and high school students as observing assistants. Carleton physics majors developed curricular materials and instituted regular outreach programs for grades 6-12. The Northfield High School Astronomy Club was created, and Carleton undergraduates taught high school students how to use telescopes and do CCD imaging. During the summer of 2009, Carleton students began the Young Astronomers Summer Experience (YASE) program for middle school students and offered a two-week, astronomy-rich observing and imaging experience at Goodsell Observatory. In concert with NASA's Summer of Innovation initiative, the YASE program was offered again in 2010 and engaged a new group of local middle school students in hands-on scientific experiments and observing opportunities. Members of the high school astronomy club now volunteer as observing assistants in the community and graduates of the YASE programs are eager to continue observing as members of a public service astronomy club when they enter the Northfield High School. These projects are training future scientists and will sustain the public's interest in astronomy long after the end of IYA 2009.

Blaha, C.; Goetz, J.; Johnson, T.

2011-09-01

231

Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

2012-05-01

232

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) provides the Infrared Astronomy Website as one of its outreach programs. Infrared Astronomy, or "the detection and study of the infrared radiation (heat energy) emitted from objects in the Universe," is described and placed in context in the sections Discovery of Infrared, What is Infrared, Infrared Astronomy, Background, and the Infrared Universe. For current information, see the News & Discoveries, Active/ Future Projects, and Activities sections; past and current projects supported by IPAC are featured in the Infrared Gallery. The site targets a broad audience and is geared towards many learning levels.

233

Submillimeter Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the advantages of using submillimeter astronomy in the study of astronomical questions where other wavelengths are not useful. The problems involved in the use of submillimeter waves and a description of the instruments used are includ...

A. E. Salomonovich

1969-01-01

234

The 64 m Sardinia radio telescope optics design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sardinia radio telescope (SRT) is a project proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA, in Bologna, Italy). The SRT with a diameter of 64 m will be the third and largest Italian radio telescope. Designed to accommodate several instruments with a frequency coverage from 0.30 GHz to 100 GHz. In addition to the radio astronomy science applications, this

G. Cortes-Medellin

2002-01-01

235

The Astronomy Encyclopedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more than 3,000 alphabetically arranged entries and 500 stunning color and black-and-white photographs, star maps, and diagrams, The Astronomy Encyclopedia covers everything that the general enthusiast--and the more serious researcher--would want to know about planets, stars, galaxies, and our universe. Here is concise, reliable information on the whole field of astronomy, ranging from adaptive optics and cold dark matter, to Islamic astronomy and the lens defect known as vignetting. It includes a host of major articles on the cornerstones of astronomical investigation, such as the Milky Way, the sun and the planets, optical and radio telescopes, stars, black holes, astrophysics, observatories, astronomical photography, space programs, the constellations, and famous astronomers. And there are concise entries on planetary features and satellites, asteroids, observational techniques, comets, satellite launchers, meteors, and subjects as diverse as life in the Universe and the structure of meteorites. Scores of tables list the brightest stars in the major constellations, annual meteor showers, major variable stars, dwarf stars, energy production processes in the Sun, and other relevant data. More than 100 astronomers from leading universities and observatories around the world, each an expert in their own particular field, wrote and reviewed the entries to ensure their authority. Readers can thus be assured that the Encyclopedia provides the most up-to-date and reliable information available. Under the general editorship of Patrick Moore, one of the world's best-known and most trusted voices on astronomy, The Astronomy Encyclopedia is an authoritative and strikingly attractive roadmap for exploring the last great frontier of the world in which we live.

Moore, Patrick

2002-11-01

236

Diagnostics of Energy Release and Magnetic Fields on the Sun by Radio Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of radio astronomy on the knowledge of energy release processes and magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere is reviewed. Solar radio astronomy takes advantage of a richness of spectral and morphological features containing information about all...

A. Krueger

1989-01-01

237

Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

Caballero, J. A.

2012-05-01

238

US Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the 19th century ended, astronomy underwent a period of rapid growth in the United States, a growth that was fueled by both the expansion of the university system and private philanthropy and which also paralleled the growth in astrophysical research. For the first half of the 20th century, the US government took little interest in the funding of astronomical

K. Marvel; R. Milkey

2000-01-01

239

Radar Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general review of radar astronomy is given. Typical radar systems are described and results cited. Methods of determining elements of orbits and rotation rates of planets are discussed. A proposed test of the Einstein theory of general relativity is des...

G. H. Pettengill I. I. Shapiro

1965-01-01

240

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

241

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of references, images, and information for general astronomy. This work covers topics from the basics of science and observation through the solar system, stars, cosmology, and astrobiology. The material is clearly organized by topic using links to reference materials on the web.

Murphy, Ricky L.

2007-12-28

242

Astronomy Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a collection of quizzes from a wide range of topics. Subjects covered include historical astronomy, astronomical units and scales, telescopes, planetary geology, the sun, stellar evolution, cosmology, and life in the universe. These quizzes have five to ten multiple choice questions each. Quizzes are graded automatically and the student is told which answers are correct and incorrect.

Arny, Thomas

2010-01-26

243

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

244

National Radio Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) "operates powerful, advanced radio telescopes spanning the western hemisphere." The website is nicely divided into information for the general public, astronomers, and teachers and students. Users can learn all about NRAO's many telescopes located throughout the United States. Researchers can find out about meetings, conferences, software resources, and surveys. Amateur radio astronomers can find links describing how to build antennas and interferometers. Everyone will enjoy the numerous images of astronomical phenomena and NRAO's telescopes and facilities.

245

Conveying astronomy to the public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy offers us a unique chance to carry out outreach projects in great scale and, to think about new ways to improve our efforts. In this paper I present a few considerations on my activity as a popularisation person. I address its importance and I will emphasize on radio, television and public lectures. I also stress certain ingredients I believe popularisation must include; it must be interesting, diverse, simple, pertinent, and be peer reviewed.

Fierro, Julieta

2011-06-01

246

On gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Photons in the visible range form the basis of astronomy. They move in straight lines, which preserves source information,\\u000a but they arise only very indirectly from nuclear or high-energy processes. Cosmic-ray particles, on the other hand, arise\\u000a directly from high-energy processes in astronomical objects of various classes, but carry no information about source direction.\\u000a Radio emissions are still more complex

P. Morrison

1958-01-01

247

Astronomy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of astronomy lesson plans and experiments from across the internet was developed by Reach Out, a center linking University of Michigan and community mentors with children and teens. Topics covered include comets, the Sun, sunspots, the aurora, craters, galaxies, moons, star properties, Moon phases, and meteors. Each lesson plan gives credit to the developer, and contains all the information necessary for applying the lesson in a classroom setting.

248

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

249

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

250

Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

2004-01-01

251

National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center: Arecibo Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 305m radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory "is the largest single-dish radio telescope on our planet and is available to the global scientific community for astronomical observation at wavelengths between 6 m and 3 m." Researchers can search WAPP data and information about past, present, and future projects at the Observatory. The extensive website provides numerous data reduction packages and file formats. Users can find extensive materials on the planetary studies, space and atmospheric science, and astronomy occurring at the observatory. Students and educators can learn about Arecibo's summer program. The News link is filled with fascinating new accomplishments, employment opportunities, and upcoming astronomy talks and seminars.

252

The Smiley Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational

R. M. Blake; M. W. Castelaz; J. Daugherty; L. Owen

2004-01-01

253

ASTRONET: Towards a Strategic Plan for European Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a comprehensive long-term plan for the development of European astronomy - optical and radio, ground and space - has been discussed for many years, but still waits to be done. Also, European astronomy would benefit much from better-coordinated actions among countries. A consortium of European funding agencies is now launching ASTRONET, a four-year ERANET initiative to achieve these goals.

A.-M. Lagrange

2005-01-01

254

Reports on Astronomy 2010-2012 (IAU XXVIIIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Fundamental astronomy; 2. Sun and heliosphere; 3. Planetary systems science; 4. Stars; 5. Variable stars; 6. Interstellar matter; 7. Galactic system; 8. Galaxies and the Universe; 9. Optical and infrared techniques; 10. Radio astronomy; 11. Space and high energy astrophysics; 12. Union-wide activities; 13. Executive committee; Index.

Corbett, Ian F.

2012-04-01

255

Planetary astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

1991-01-01

256

Infrared astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

1991-01-01

257

The Smiley Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational astronomy. To fill in this resource gap, PARI has developed the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy and the Smiley 4.6 m Radio Telescope to provide high schools access to a state-of-the-art, internet accessable radio observatory for class projects and activities. We describe here the development of the Smiley radio telescope, its control systems and give examples of several class activities which have been developed for use by high school students. We describe the future development of Smiley and plans to upgrade its performance. The SGRA has been supported by grants from Progress Energy, Z. Smith Reynolds, STScI IDEAS, and the AAS Small Research Grant Program which is supported by NASA.

Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Daugherty, J.; Owen, L.

2004-12-01

258

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

259

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

260

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

261

Lunar Interferometric Radio Array: LIRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Interferometric Radio Array (LIRA) is a performance driven design, with emphasis on utilizing the unique attributes of the far-side of the moon as a platform for radio astronomy. LIRA consists of three independent Lunar Telescope Units (LTUs), autonomously landed on the moon, and a communications relay satellite orbiting at libration point two (L2). Each LTU deploys a large

John Abbott; Shane Pixton; Christopher J. Roberts; Mahmut Reyhanoglu

2000-01-01

262

Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA.

Gavril Grueff; Giovanni Alvito; Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Andrea Maccaferri; Giuseppe Maccaferri; Marco Morsiani; Leonardo Mureddu; Vincenzo Natale; Luca Olmi; Alessandro Orfei; Claudio Pernechele; Angelo Poma; Ignazio Porceddu; Lucio Rossi; Gianpaolo Zacchiroli

2004-01-01

263

Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

Jones, Richard C.

1994-01-01

264

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

265

Astronomy Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some links to Astronomy applets, animations, and movies. Celestial and Terrestrial Motions Sky and telescope Interactive Sky Chart Rotating Sky Explorer Ecliptic (Zodiac) Simulator Seasonal Solar Motions Antarctica Time Lapse: A Year on Ice Aurora Australis: The Southern Lights [Daylight Hours Explorer Season as viewed from Space Animation Sun Position and Season animation Paths of the Sun Seasons and Ecliptic Simulator Sun s Rays Simulator Sun Motions Simulator Time-Lapse Seasons Simulator Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Kepler s 1st and 2nd laws Applet Orbit Applet Planetary Orbit Simulator Gravity Simulator Moon Phases and Satellite Motions Lunar and Solar Eclipse Information Moon Phase Animation What Causes Tides Lunar Phase Quizzer Eclipse Shadow Simulator Moon Phases and the Horizon Diagram Synodic Lag The Solar System Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Images Planetary Photo Journal Planetary Configuration Simulator Geocentric Retrograde Motion Animation Epicycle / Orbit Applet Gravity Simulator Ptolemaic Orbit of Mars The Universe Virtual Reality Milky Way Panorama Interactive H-R Diagram Element Absorption and Emision Lines Doppler Shift Demonstrator Lookback Time Simulator Other: SpaceWeather.com ...

Teitelbaum, Mr.

2010-11-18

266

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

267

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2008-07-01

268

Encyclopedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Astronomy: 1. Ancient (pre-telescopy) astronomy; 2. Period overviews; 3. International Astronomical Union; Part II. The Solar System: 4. Overview - the Solar System; 5. Sun, Earth, and Moon; 6. Inner Solar System; 7. Giant planets; 8. Smaller objects; 9. Exoplanets; Part III. Stars: 10. Stars considered individually; 11. Stars considered as a group; 12. Types of stars; Part IV. Galaxies and Cosmology: 13. Milky Way; 14. Other galaxies and cosmology; Part V. General Astronomical Tools and Techniques (After 1600); Part VI. Optical Telescopes and Observatories: 15. Overview - optical telescopes and observatories; 16. Optical observatories; Part VII. Radio Telescopes, Observatories and Radar: 17. Overview - radio telescopes and observatories; 18. Early radio astronomy and observatories; 19. Later radio observatories; Part VIII. Other Ground-Based Observatories; Part IX. Solar System Exploration Spacecraft: 20. Overview - Solar System exploration spacecraft; 21. Individual Solar System spacecraft; Part X. Selected Observatory Spacecraft: 22. Overview - spacecraft observatories; 23. Individual spacecraft observatories; Name index; Subject index.

Leverington, David

2013-06-01

269

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

270

Neutrino Astronomy with Underwater km3 Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations by modern telescopes provided a bright picture of close and far Universe, yielding important details on what lies beyond our Solar System. These data also confirmed to some extent the predicted limits of optical and radio astronomy. A new kind of probe is requested in order to both investigate those regions of the Universe which are hardly to be studied with photon and proton astronomy, and to obtain more insights on the processes going on in well-known sources: here come the high-energy neutrino era and km3 under-water(-ice) C?erenkov neutrino telescopes.

Lattuada, D.

2010-03-01

271

Introductory Astronomy Clearinghouse: Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides introductory astronomy activities on topics such as: fundamentals of astronomy, observing the sky, the sun, stars, stellar evolution, the H-R diagram, the Milky Way Galaxy, galaxies, and cosmology.

2005-04-27

272

Astronomy for African development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as

Kevindran Govender

2011-01-01

273

Cambridge Dictionary of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Held up by the heliopause? Floored by the flatness problem? Intimidated by MACHOs? With the Cambridge Astronomy Dictionary you'll no longer be defeated by such astronomical jargon! These and 3,200 additional words, names, and abbreviations used in amateur and professional astronomy, are clearly and concisely defined. Entries include information from modern and classical astronomy, including: -- A comprehensive selection of

Jacqueline Mitton

2001-01-01

274

Astronomy in Modern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

2013-01-01

275

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the teaching and learning of astronomy, in elementary and secondary school, colleges and universities, and for the public through astronomy outreach and communication. I describe International Year of Astronomy 2009, and some of the national and personal projects in which I am involved.

Percy, John R.

2010-10-01

276

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

277

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

278

Radio loud far-infrared galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first results are presented of a multiwavelength study of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies with excess radio emission. The sample was selected by cross correlating the IRAS Faint Source Survey, and the Point Source Catalogue with the Texas radio survey. Recent optical (imaging and spectroscopic) and radio (VLA) observations are discussed. These observations will be used to investigate possible connections between radio galaxy activity, star formation and galaxy interactions.

Dey, Arjun; Vanbreugel, Wil; Shields, Joseph C.

1990-01-01

279

NP Stokes fields for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin weighted spherical harmonic (SWSH) description of angular functions\\u000atypically is associated with the Newman-Penrose (NP) null tetrad formalism.\\u000aRecently the SWSH description, but not the NP formalism, has been used in the\\u000astudy of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Here\\u000awe relate this application of SWSHs to a description of electromagnetic\\u000aradiation and polarization in

Ezra T. Newman; Richard H. Price

2010-01-01

280

Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

2012-12-01

281

Machine Learning for Matching Astronomy Catalogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An emerging issue in the field of astronomy is the integration, management and utilization of databases from around the world\\u000a to facilitate scientific discovery. In this paper, we investigate application of the machine learning techniques of support\\u000a vector machines and neural networks to the problem of amalgamating catalogues of galaxies as objects from two disparate data\\u000a sources: radio and optical.

David Rohde; Michael Drinkwater; Marcus Gallagher; Tom Downs; Marianne Doyle

2004-01-01

282

Parameters of a forward scatter radio meteor set-up: Preliminary calculations for the MSR radio meteor project in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MSR set-up was developed considering several parameters related to radio astronomy calculations for the observing system, neighborhood environmental characteristics, and many conditions related to the placement of the instrument. In the present work a forward scatter radio meteor link is analyzed to obtain the required parameters for a meteor radio astronomy dedicated set-up. The analysis is illustrated by calculating the parameters for the MSRV2 system employed at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronoma (IAR).

Semegone, Juan Martin; Sanz, Juan A.

2006-08-01

283

The Astronomy Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Sten Odenwald of the NASA Astronomer, this is a wide assortment of materials regarding astronomy and cosmology. Related to a book of the same title, this website includes astronomy FAQ's, images, and teacher resources. Odenwald provides additional links to some of his published books. He also links the page to other websites he has personally authored. This is a nice resource for a general overview of many different topics in astronomy.

Odenwald, Sten F.

2009-05-06

284

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

285

Advances in Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The editors of the third Special Issue on Radio Telescopes, which appeared in the Proceedings of the IEEE in May 1994, surmised in their introduction that "perhaps yet a future issue is merited, one devoted to those new telescopes that are still on the drawing boards." Now, 15 years later, such an issue lies in front of you, featuring 16 papers describing both the realization of new instruments and the status of several giant radio telescopes, most of which are moving from the drawing board to different stages of construction. The development of astronomy over this period has led radio astronomers to concentrate on both the highest and the lowest ranges of the radio spectrum. The technological advance in the millimeter wavelength domain has enabled an enormous improvement in observing capabilities. In the low frequency range, roughly 10 - 2000 MHz, new telescopes are being planned that combine a large instantaneous field of view with a large number of high- resolution antenna beams. In addition to these developments, this issue features papers on several new single aperture telescopes. We also have three papers covering advances in technologies that are applicable to multiple projects, namely, antenna metrology, imaging techniques, and the use of phased array techniques. The issue begins with a short paper by the guest editors on "Radio Astronomy in the Early Twenty-First Century." There we attempt to put the topics of the following papers in historical perspective and to provide background information for readers whose expertise lies outside astronomy. The remaining papers are organized into three broad categories: single antenna telescopes, synthesis array telescopes, and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Although the last is also a synthesis array, the intensity of SKA-related work now under way around the world justifies a separate set of papers devoted to it. This issue features new single-aperture and synthesis array radio telescopes and covers advances in antenna metrology, imaging techniques, and the use of phased array technology.

Baars, Jacob W. M.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Thompson, A. Richard

2009-08-01

286

Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes includes the visiting Scientists and Professors from various Research Organizations located in and around Bangalore as well as the in-house Scientific staff. It is gratifying to note that several students, after going through one or more of these courses, have indeed made commitments to pursue Astronomy as their career, some of them even obtaining admissions in to the institutes and universities in India and abroad for further studies in this field.

Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

287

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

288

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

289

Radio astronomical imaging and phase information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some basic concepts in use for making astronomical observations at radio wavelengths are introduced. In particular the importance of phase information for imaging in radio astronomy is highlighted. Using simple examples it is demonstrated how phase information is much more essential than that even of amplitude for an image reconstruction from its Fourier components.

Ashok K. Singal

2005-01-01

290

Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

291

Properties of 18286 SDSS radio galaxies (Best+, 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of 18286 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented, constructed by combining the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) VLA (Very Large Array) Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres (FIRST) survey. Using this sample, the differences between radio galaxies of "high-excitation" ("quasar-mode"; hereafter HERG) and "low-excitation" ("radio-mode"; LERG) are investigated. (1 data file).

Best, P. N.; Heckman, T. M.

2012-11-01

292

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

293

Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

Eckroth, Charles A.

294

Infrared upconversion for astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of infrared upconversion for astronomy is reviewed. The basic theory of upconversion is presented, along with a brief historical summary of upconversion techniques. Several investigators have employed upconverters in astronomical studies, but have met with only modest success. Upconversion will become a useful detection method for astronomy only if substantial but perhaps foreseeable improvements can be realized.

Boyd, R. W.

1977-01-01

295

Astronomy in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and

Patricia Rosenzweig

2001-01-01

296

Astronomy in the infrared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in three areas of infrared astronomy is reviewed. These are the IR spectrum of the sun, excess IR observations, and observations of stars in the process of formation. Attention is drawn to the advantages of using large telescopes for these realms of study. A discussion of the difficulties involved in ground-based IR astronomy and of the unique benefits

M. V. Migeotte

1974-01-01

297

Astronomy without astronomers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy in Romania has an old tradition. After half a century of privations and isolation from the rest of the world, we believed that the changes undergone by our country in 1989 (and by the neighbour countries, as well) will be benefit for the Romanian astronomy, too. Indeed, it was, but for a very short period. The young people left

Magdalena Stavinschi

2001-01-01

298

High Energy Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

1980-01-01

299

Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

Len, P. M.

2014-07-01

300

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

301

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

302

Junior High Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

303

High energy particle astronomy.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

1972-01-01

304

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

Green, Paul

305

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

306

Compendium of Practical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

Roth, Günter D.; Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.

307

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a fact sheet describing the GAVRT program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. The GAVRT Project introduces students in elementary through high school grades to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2011-04-06

308

Discovery of Radio Pulses from SGR 0418+5729  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio emission of PSR J0418+5732 associated with the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729 at the frequency of 111 MHz has been discovered with the Large Phased Array at the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. The dispersion measure, radio emission flux density, and spectral index have been measured.

Glushak, A. P.; Dumsky, D. V.; Losovsky, B. Ya.

2014-03-01

309

The Future of Space Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

Field, George B.

1984-01-01

310

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

311

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-12-01

312

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: ANIMATED ORBITS OF PLANETS AND MOONS: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. SOLAR SYSTEM COLLISIONS: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. ORBITAL SIMULATIONS: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. ASTRONOMY WORKSHOP BULLETIN BOARD: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

2000-05-01

313

A cosmic ray muon detector for astronomy teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical astronomy is usually taught using optical telescopes or, more rarely, radio telescopes. For a similar cost, complementary studies may be made of astrophysical particles through the use of a modestly sized muon detector. Such a detector records the arrival of cosmic ray particles that have traversed the heliosphere and the rate of muon detections reflects the flux of those

R. W. Clay; Z. Kurban; A. H. Maghrabi; N. R. Wild

2000-01-01

314

Astronomy Java Applets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive astronomy java applets were created for astronomy students at the University of British Columbia. They cover topics dealing with the solar system and demonstrate the phases of the inner planets, retrograde motion, Kepler's Laws, cratering and solar eclipses. Applets on stellar astronomy include: fusion in the sun, the Big Bang, extrasolar planets, black holes, the H-R diagram, binary stars, parallax, the Doppler Effect, and black body radiation. The last set of simulations deal with telescopes. They demonstrate Snell's Law, electrostatics, and properties of lenses and mirrors.

Scharein, Robert Glenn, 1959-

2010-05-04

315

Robert Gendler's Astronomy Pictures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Gendler is an amateur astronomer with an extensive online gallery of his astronomy images. His pictures are available in high resolution on the web and for purchase in print form through his website. The author also provides links to additional resources which include: astronomical objects, an astronomy primer for beginners, an image gallery and external links. This is a nice resource for those interested in visual aspects of astronomy. Most of the resources are available free of charge, but the author does provide high resolution prints for sale.

Gendler, Robert

2009-05-18

316

Solar radio observations in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the "Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence", a Belgian research effort dedicated to Sun-Earth relationship studies, the Royal Observatory of Belgium is refurbishing several radio telescopes and setting up new solar monitoring radio instruments from the metric to the microwave domain, in its radio astronomy station of Humain, in the south of Belgium. We will present the current status of the instruments already on site, as well as the ongoing developments, and give examples on how the data are used for the scientific studies and operational space weather activities of the solar physics department of the Observatory.

Marqué, Christophe; Bourgoignie, Bram; Dufond, Jean-Luc; Ergen, Aydin; Magdalenic, Jasmina

2013-04-01

317

To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground-based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1996-01-01

318

People in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biographical index provides short descriptions of the lives and achievements of prominent astronomers, physicists, mathematicians, and other persons who have made contributions to astronomy. Links to related persons and topics are embedded in the text.

319

Astronomy On-line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the options for teaching basic physics that utilize the vast array of teaching resources now available. Claims that astronomy is an interesting and effective vehicle for teaching physics. (DDR)

Webster, Rachel

1998-01-01

320

Women in Astronomy 2009  

NASA Video Gallery

Space science research institutions have traditionally been populated by a strong male workforce, but this structure is rapidly changing. To help meet these challenges, the "Women in Astronomy and ...

321

Updating GCSE Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julien King, Chair of the RAS Education Committee, brings news of changes to the GCSE Astronomy syllabus, mainly additions aimed at making the content more relevant to recent developments in research.

King, Julien

2009-08-01

322

Overview of lunar-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

Smith, Harlan J.

1988-01-01

323

Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

2012-01-01

324

Tips for Astronomy TA's  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the University of Washington offers great hints to help beginner astronomy teaching assistants (TAs) become better instructors. The site addresses preparation for classroom teaching, questioning style, classroom strategies, increasing student motivation, and many other topics of interest to teachers. For first-time teachers, the section describing the first day of class may be the most important. While designed for astronomy TAs, anyone involved in the teaching profession can hone their skills by following the suggestions presented.

325

Kepler's physical astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of Johannes Kepler to astronomy and celestial mechanics are examined in a historical and analytical study. The 'Astronomia nova' is treated as a single argument, in an effort to show how Kepler laid the foundations of physical astronomy, and individual chapters are devoted to the 'Mysterium cosmographicum,' the 'Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae,' and Kepler and the development of modern science. Extensive diagrams, a glossary of terms, and an index to the 'Astronomia nova' are provided.

Stephenson, Bruce

326

Popularising astronomy in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

Tafreshi, Babak A.

2011-06-01

327

The Astronomy Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more than 3,000 alphabetically arranged entries and 500 stunning color and black-and-white photographs, star maps, and diagrams, The Astronomy Encyclopedia covers everything that the general enthusiast--and the more serious researcher--would want to know about planets, stars, galaxies, and our universe. Here is concise, reliable information on the whole field of astronomy, ranging from adaptive optics and cold dark matter,

Patrick Moore

2002-01-01

328

Astronomy in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

Lee, William H.

2013-01-01

329

NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

1988-01-01

330

Astronomy and Mathematics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

Ros, Rosa M.

331

Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds a distinguished doctorate and a Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Karlsruhe. Contact him at pankrat@mit.edu, victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius.

Pankratius, Victor

2014-06-01

332

The history of radio telescopes, 1945–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the\\u000a war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources\\u000a of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using “radio\\u000a telescopes” that looked

Woodruff T. Sullivan

2009-01-01

333

Astronomy and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of teaching of astronomy in the schools of the former communist countries has been disccused in the connection with the genealogical (family names) of the Presidents of the Countries and scientists astronomers and other Country leaders. Particularly the recent decision of the Russian authorities to reduce the hours for the course of astronomy in the Russian secondary schools is supposed to critics. Some improvements of the situation has been reported. The hours for the astronomy teaching in Russia varry, according with the will of Ministers of Education of the Countries, Prime ministers and Presidents. Similar news came from the Romania. In conclusion, there is no a stable curriculum for astronomy (physics) in some countries. This reffer especially to the number of hours. The influence of presidents of the Countries is so great, that the fate of the astronomy teaching (probably of science teaching in general), that it is difficult to have a scientific education in a country without an elementary scientific education of the Leaders of the Countries, particularly of the persons above. An incomplete list of political leaders and scientists (astronomers and physicists) with the same family names is given. Since the number of persons with decision power in the area is about 3 per country in 4 years, the modern astronomy is taught during about 200 years, the total number of family names responsible for the area of astronomy teaching throughout the world during the last 200 years is about 10000. A similar calculation could be made for physics teaching. Another aspect of the problem is the relation of the number of publications with the GDP/capita of the country. The relation between science and policy is mediated by the number of papers /population which "grosso modo" is proportional to the GDP/capita for the country given. Subsequently the GDP/capita corellates strongly with the policy. The SPIRES database ilustrates this with evidence, but with taking in account of some historical traditions of the country.

Gaina, Alex

2009-10-01

334

Astronomy Students Learn to Think Big.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information related to astronomy for high school students. Discusses the differences between astronomy and astrophysics, and the employment of the astronomy graduates. Lists degree programs in astronomy and related subjects in an appendix. (YP)

Somerville, W. B.

1989-01-01

335

Easy PC Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Duffett-Smith, Peter

1996-11-01

336

Rescuing Middle School Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

2010-12-01

337

Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope: Algorithms, Test Observations, and System Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of radio astronomical stations is often limited by man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) due to a variety of terrestrial activities. An RFI mitigation subsystem (RFIMS) based on real-time digital signal-processing is proposed here for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope based on a powerful field programmable gate array processor. In this system the radio astronomy signals polluted by RFI are ``cleaned'' with the RFIMS before routine back-end correlation processing takes place. The high temporal and frequency resolution of RFIMS allows the detection and excision of RFI better than do standard radio telescope back-end configurations.

Baan, W. A.; Fridman, P. A.; Millenaar, R. P.

2004-08-01

338

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of technical and non-technical astronomy books. Topic areas of non-technical books include general astronomy, amateur astronomy, computers and astronomy, history of astronomy, pseudoscience, space exploration, physics and astronomy, and textbooks. Each entry includes author, title, description, source, and current cost.…

Fraknoi, Andrew

1984-01-01

339

Peer Instruction in Physics & Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a supplement to the Peer Instruction for Astronomy book and provides information about Peer Instruction resources for astronomy classes. Instructions and sample collections of concept test (ConcepTest) questions are available.

Green, Paul

2004-07-17

340

Radio emission from the sun and stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy of the sun has reached a high level of maturity, while radio astronomy of the stars is now a burgeoning new field of study. The present review is mainly concerned with radiation which is emitted by 'normal' stars, defined here to include those appearing on classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. The mechanisms for both steady, quiescent emission and intense, strongly varying outbursts are discussed. Included are discussions of bremsstrahlung, gyrosynchrotron emission, electron-cyclotron masers, and plasma radiation. The manifestation of these mechanisms in various kinds of solar radiation are considered along with stellar manifestations.

Dulk, G. A.

341

Astronomy.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The publishers of Astronomy magazine (originally reviewed in the August 8, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970808.html#10 ) recently announced the release of their updated and expanded Website. The site has the look and feel of a commercial site (and a few ads), but all content is free. Designed for Astronomy hobbyists, the site contains the latest space news, feature articles, a nice beginners section, tips and tools for parents and teachers, a photo gallery, and star charts. Users can also participate in discussion forums, search for astronomy organizations, and subscribe to a free bulletin service. Please note that registration is required for access to some parts of the site.

342

Teaching Astronomy Online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and equal access to college by such groups as the military, the handicapped, full-time employees, and rural and senior citizens. Teaching the sciences online--especially astronomy--gives students more time to think critically about new information. This article also includes tools, checklists, and resources helpful for introducing faculty to online course development in astronomy.

Radnofsky, Mary L.; Bobrowsky, Matthew

343

Astronomy Education Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy Education Review (AER) is a web-based journal for "everyone who works in astronomy and space science education." AER is published by the American Astronomical Society, and each edition contains papers, reviews of research, and short articles on innovative work in the field. The journal began in 2001, and visitors can search through the past articles by keyword or volume. On the homepage, it's a great idea to start by scanning through the 10 Most Recent Additions to AER area. Here, users will find pieces like "Astronomy Apps for Mobile Devices" and "Using Smartphone Camera Technology to Explore Stellar Parallax: Method, Results, and Reactions." Along the top of the homepage, visitors can use the Browse tab, look over the About section, or read throughout the Features. This last area contains links to their RSS feed and a place to subscribe for alerts about new items from the AER.

2012-03-09

344

Visualising Astronomy: "Other Worlds"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructures that are built and used for astronomical research are financed by - and therefore must be justified to - our society. Astronomy has an innate appeal for people of all ages, partly because it concerns the fascinating, great questions "of life, the Universe and everything" and partly because much of the data obtained with telescopes can be presented as objects of stunning beauty. These are key facts when considering communicating astronomy with the public. This native advantage that astronomy has over many other sciences does not, however, relieve us of the obligation to explain what we are doing to the public at large. There are many reasons for doing this. They range from attracting bright young people into the subject to fuel future research endeavours to convincing decision-takers to allocate large sums of money to finance increasingly expensive and ambitious projects.

Wyatt, R.

2009-02-01

345

Astronomy behind the Headlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Behind the Headlines is a web-based monthly periodical that features short interviews about the latest discoveries in astronomy and space science. Episodes are available as a podcast or a pdf document, and include supplemental activities and background information. Recent episodes include ground-breaking techniques for measuring a black hole, water on the moon, an exploration of cosmic debris, and a recent comet collision on Jupiter. All episodes are narrated by renowned scientists, who explain the phenomena and why its discovery is significant. This periodical is published and maintained by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

2010-02-26

346

Meta Research: Astronomy Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meta Research, headed by astronomer Tom Van Flandern, fosters "research into ideas not otherwise supported solely because they conflict with mainstream theories in Astronomy." The website offers papers on alternative explanations in the fields of cosmology, solar systems, and gravity. Individuals can find out about upcoming solar eclipse expeditions and view images from past trips. Students and educators can find links to numerous astronomy-related animations including the Face on Mars, Fission Model, and Leonids meteor storm. Interested visitors can learn about membership opportunities and Meta Research publications.

347

Is astronomy useful for societies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly review various aspects related to the usefulness of astronomy to societies. Astronomy constitutes an important part of human culture, all over different countries and all over the entire history of humankind. Because of its intrinsic interest, astronomy is able to attract young generations towards technical and scientific careers. Moreover, it is also an indirect trigger of innovation and

Jean Audouze

2011-01-01

348

School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

Stanger, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

349

Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

2012-01-01

350

The Profile of Astronomy Amateurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentation of questionnaires carried out on Polish Astronomy Portal websites. There was over 80 questionnaires during 2 years period. As most part of users visiting this website are astronomy amateurs, we can assume questionnaires give a picture of astronomy amateurs community. Questionnaires can be divided into four main thematical groups: profile of users (age, sex, activities), what do they think

K. Czart

2005-01-01

351

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

Rapp, Steve

2010-01-01

352

The International Astronomy Olympiad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an annual scientific-educating event for students of the junior high-school classes, aged 14-18 years. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society founded the IAO in 1996. The Olympiad includes an intellectual competition between these students. The style of the problems is aimed at developping the imagination, creativity and independent thinking.

Gavrilov, Michael G.

2011-06-01

353

Teaching Astronomy Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and

Mary L. Radnofsky; Matthew Bobrowsky

2004-01-01

354

Astronomy from the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A return to the Moon will confer scientific benefits in several different fields. Although the principal beneficiary is likely to be planetary science, the lunar surface also offers advantages for observational astronomy and future plans for lunar exploration should take these into account.

Ian A. Crawford; John Zarnecki

2008-01-01

355

Astronomy 150: The Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains lab activities on planetary astronomy and the solar system. The labs cover: the earth-moon system, atmospheric escape, craters, meteorites, comets, lunar mapping, Mars, volcanoes on Io, Europa, Neptune, satellites of giant planets, and extra-solar planets.

Palen, Stacy

2004-07-16

356

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

357

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

358

Resources for Teaching Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources that are available for teachers presenting astronomy in the National Curriculum are listed. Included are societies and organizations, resource centers and places to visit, planetaria, telescopes and binoculars, planispheres, star charts, night sky diaries, equipment, audiovisual materials, computer software, books, and magazines. (KR)

Grafton, Teresa; Suggett, Martin

1991-01-01

359

Infrared upconversion for astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic theory of upconversion is presented, along with a brief historical summary of upconversion techniques. Upconverters were used in astronomical studies, but have met with only modest success. Upconversion will become a useful detection method for astronomy only if substantial but perhaps forseeable, improvements can be realized.

Boyd, R. W.

1977-01-01

360

Planetary astronomy research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final technical report for the research in planetary astronomy is presented. Topics covered include: (1) ring systems in the outer solar system; (2) Pluto - Charon mutual occultations; (3) instrumentation; (4) planetary imaging with the Palomer Cassegrain near infrared camera; and (5) solar system survey.

1991-01-01

361

Determining Misconceptions about Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure for ascertaining secondary students' misconceptions about concepts relating to astronomy. Summarizes results that indicate the usefulness of the approach and the range and extent of the misconceptions which could be revealed. Makes suggestions about how to use the technique in such a way that the findings will challenge the…

Skam, Keith

1994-01-01

362

Rescuing Middle School Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught

L. A. Mayo; D. Janney

2010-01-01

363

T. Arny's Astronomy Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas Arny's collection of online tutorials at the University of Massachusetts span a range of astronomy-related topics. Tutorial subjects include gravity, escape velocity, seasons, orbits, the properties of stars, and galaxies. Each tutorial has questions interspersed to allow students to assess their learning about the presented subject.

Arny, Thomas. T.

2005-04-27

364

Adaptive Optics in Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of adaptive optics (AO) has developed as a means to correct for the phase disturbances of an optical signal by understanding the medium through which it passes. This paper is intended to be a brief introduction to the field of adaptive optics with an emphasis the role of AO in astronomy. T e l e s c o

Jay J. McCarthy

365

Das Weltbild der Astronomie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhalt: 1. Das geozentrische Weltbild der Antike und des Mittelalters. 2. Zum heliozentrischen Weltbild. 3. Astronomie und Astrologie. 4. Vom heliozentrischen zum heutigen Weltbild. 5. Die Geburt der Astrophysik. 6. Sterne und Planeten: Das Erschaffen von Neuem. 7. Das Sonnensystem. 8. Galaxien, intergalaktische Materie und die Dunkle Materie. 9. Die Evolution des Universums. 10. Ein spekulativer Blick in den Kosmos.

Nussbaumer, Harry

366

Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2013-01-01

367

Colonial American Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-12-01

368

Observational Molecular Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. Spectra and excitation of molecules; 2. Astrochemical processes; 3. Physical processes in different astronomical environments; 4. Molecular tracers in the Milky Way galaxy; 5. Molecular tracers in external galaxies; 6. The Early Universe and the first galaxies; 7. Recipes for molecular submillimetre astronomy; 8. Chemical and radiative transfer models; 9. Observations: which molecule, which transition?

Williams, David A.; Viti, Serena

2014-01-01

369

Astronomy and Public Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is an unusual science in that almost all of what we study can only be passively observed. We enjoy tremendous public support for our research and education, both domestically and abroad. Our discoveries in cosmology and exoplanets have captured world-wide attention, as have stunning images from the Great Observatories of NASA, and ground based telescopes. Despite the passive nature of our science, it touches humanity profoundly. There are groups of amateur astronomers in every conceivable country who meet to look at the sky. Almost one billion people from 150 countries participated in The International Year of Astronomy 2009. No other science reaches humanity as ours does. In a recent poll, it was found that the among all the things the US does abroad, US science is seen by the world as our most positive face. We as astronomers can use this good will to affect positive changes in the world through public policy. I would like to explore how astronomy has impacted public policy, especially foreign policy, and what more we can do in the future. I also hope to encourage astronomers that a career path into public policy is an excellent use of a Ph.D. in astronomy.

Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

2014-01-01

370

International Year of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA) is a year long celebration of astronomical and scientific milestones. The U.S. website of the IYA offers a host of information about the learning opportunities, community events, and celebrations planned for the IYA in the U.S. Visitors interested in the IYA outside of the U.S. can click on the link "International Homepage" on the right side of the homepage. The cornerstone of the IYA is the 100 Hours of Astronomy project that is touted on the website as the largest science public outreach program. For numerous links to websites dedicated to the program, visitors should scroll down to the heading "100 Hours is Coming!" Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Get Involved" tab at the top of the page to find information about how to participate in the events of IYA. The ways to participate are divided up by who wants to get involved, such as an Astronomy Enthusiast, Amateur Astronomer, Teacher, Homeschooler, Parent or Grandparent, Professor, or Planetarium. Each category has a pdf of a printable flyer that has all the resources and tips on it to make the most of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

2011-09-19

371

Observational Molecular Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. Spectra and excitation of molecules; 2. Astrochemical processes; 3. Physical processes in different astronomical environments; 4. Molecular tracers in the Milky Way galaxy; 5. Molecular tracers in external galaxies; 6. The Early Universe and the first galaxies; 7. Recipes for molecular submillimetre astronomy; 8. Chemical and radiative transfer models; 9. Observations: which molecule, which transition?

Williams, David A.; Viti, Serena

2013-12-01

372

High-energy neutrino astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino astronomy, conceptually conceived four decades ago, has entered an exciting phase for providing results on the quest for the sources of the observed highest energy particles. IceCube and ANTARES are now completed and are scanning in space and time possible signals of high energy neutrinos indicating the existence of such sources. DeepCore, inside IceCube, is a playground for vetoed neutrino measurement with better potential below 1 TeV. A larger and denser detector is now being discussed. ARA, now in test phase, will be composed by radio stations that could cover up to ~ 100 km2 and aims at the highest energy region of cosmogenic neutrinos. The non observation of cosmic events is on one side a source of disappointment, on the other it represents by itself an important result. If seen in the context of a multi-messenger science, the combination of photon and cosmic ray experiment results brings invaluable information. The experimental upper bounds of the cubic-kilometer telescope IceCube are now below the theoretical upper bounds for extragalactic fluxes of neutrinos from optically thin sources. These are responsible for accelerating the extragalactic cosmic rays. Such limits constrain the role of gamma-ray bursts, described by the fireball picture, as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Neutrino telescopes are exciting running multi-task experiments that produce astrophysics and particle physics results some of which have been illustrated at this conference and are summarized in this report.

Montaruli, Teresa

2012-07-01

373

Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy enabled us to study celestial environments characterised by the dominance of high energy particles and their interactions with matter, magnetic and electric fields in the neighbourhood of these special environments. While neutrino astronomy is still in its infancy, it has the potential of becoming the most exciting field of study in the current century. Gamma-ray astronomy has had a chequered career. In the early part of the 20th century, Millikan proposed that cosmic rays are merely gamma rays. This was disproved by Compton, through the establishment of the latitude effect. The soviet astrophysicist Shklovskii pointed out at the III International conference on cosmic rays held at Guanjuato, Mexico, the possibility of supernova remants like the Crab Nebula being sources of TeV gamma rays. This was based on his realisation that the high degree of polarized light from the Crab could be due to Synchrotron emission by TeV energy electrons spiralling round the filamentary magnetic fields of the nebula. He argued that the same mechanism that accelerated electrons could also accelerate the protons which through their interaction with the surrounding matter generate pi-zero measons that would immediately decay into gamma rays. However, the efforts by the soviet experimentalists, who used the night air cerenkov technique for detection of the TeV gamma rays, proved negative; only upper limits could be set on the fluxew of TeV gamma rays from several of the SN-remnants; the negative results were first reported at the 7th ICRC held at Jaipur, India in 1963. High energy gamma ray astronomy had a remarkable revival with the discovery of Pulsars in 1967 and their identification with Neutron stars. The field has thrived since then has been extended even to the PeV range. Beginning with 1965, gamma ray astronomy in the energy range MeV to tens of GeV has also been successfully pursued with ballons, and satellites. The most perplexing in this energy range has been the discovery of the Gamma ray bursts. In the keynote address the historical aspects of this field will be covered with some references to the work in India.

Sreekantan, B. V.

2002-03-01

374

Strategies for Teaching Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

Bennett, J.

2000-12-01

375

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

376

Instrument for Setting Radio Telescope Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) [1] is a 100-meter radio telescope under construction by The National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV. The GBT incorporates a first-of-its-kind active surface that will be adjusted under a closed-loop laser metrology system [2] to correct surface deflections. The goal is to maintain a reflector surface accuracy of 0.220-mm rms in order to

David H. Parker; John M. Payne; John W. Shelton; Timothy Lee Weadon

2000-01-01

377

Performance of the SRAO 6Meter Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and describe performance of the 6-meter telescope of Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory (SRAO). All the softwares and instruments except the antenna structure and its driving system are developed for ourselves. The SIS mixer type receiver resulted in the receiver noise temperature less than 50 K (DSB) over the whole 3-mm radio window. An autocorrelation spectrometer, developed first in

Bon-Chul Koo; Yong-Sun Park; Seung Soo Hong; Hong-Sik Yun; Sang-Gak Lee; Do-Young Byun; Jung-Won Lee; Han-Kyu Choi; Sang-Sung Lee; Young-Zoo Yoon; Kee-Tae Kim; Hyun Woo Kang; Jung-Eun Lee

2003-01-01

378

Using the Teach Astronomy Website to Enrich Introductory Astronomy Classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year we implemented Teach Astronomy as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive astronomy content of the website includes: an introductory text book, encyclopedia articles, images, two to three minute topical video clips, podcasts, and news articles. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. We will present an overview of how Teach Astronomy works and how instructors can use it as an effective teaching tool in the classroom. Additionally, we will gather feedback from science instructors on how to improve the features and functionality of the website, as well as develop new assignment ideas using Teach Astronomy.

Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.; Austin, C. L.

2013-04-01

379

Light Bucket Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light bucket astronomy uses low optical quality, low-cost telescopes advantageously in those situations where the noise contributed by the sky background is a small or nearly negligible source of noise. This situation can occur with bright objects, short integration times, narrow bandwidths, or high detector noise. Science programs well suited to light bucket astronomy include lunar and asteroid occultations, fast cadence/high precision photometry, near infrared diaphragm-limiting photometry, low to medium-resolution spectroscopy, and polarimetry. With an array of a half-dozen light bucket telescopes equipped with very high speed photometers, images of the surfaces of nearby stars could be obtained via intensity interferometry, a quantum-mechanical effect that occurs at sub-nanosecond timescales.

Genet, Russell M.; Henden, Arne A.; Holenstein, Bruce D.

380

Astronomy Training Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the survival of humans in space. Learners will predict how human survival requirements are met by characteristics of our solar system and planet. They engage in an online Astronomy Training module in which they make changes to the astronomical conditions of our solar system and observe the effects of these changes on Earth. They then draw conclusions about which astronomical conditions are necessary to support human survival. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 2 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

381

Astronomy in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica provides a unique environment for astronomers to practice their trade. The cold, dry and stable air found above the high Antarctic plateau, as well as the pure ice below, offers new opportunities for the conduct of observational astronomy across both the photon and the particle spectrum. The summits of the Antarctic plateau provide the best seeing conditions, the darkest skies and the most transparent atmosphere of any earth-based observing site. Astronomical activities are now underway at four plateau sites: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Concordia Station at Dome C, Kunlun Station at Dome A and Fuji Station at Dome F, in addition to long duration ballooning from the coastal station of McMurdo, at stations run by the USA, France/Italy, China, Japan and the USA, respectively. The astronomy conducted from Antarctica includes optical, infrared, terahertz and sub-millimetre astronomy, measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, solar astronomy, as well as high energy astrophysics involving the measurement of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos. Antarctica is also the richest source of meteorites on our planet. An extensive range of site testing measurements have been made over the high plateau sites. In this article, we summarise the facets of Antarctica that are driving developments in astronomy there, and review the results of the site testing experiments undertaken to quantify those characteristics of the Antarctic plateau relevant for astronomical observation. We also outline the historical development of the astronomy on the continent, and then review the principal scientific results to have emerged over the past three decades of activity in the discipline. These range from determination of the dominant frequencies of the 5 min solar oscillation in 1979 to the highest angular scale measurements yet made of the power spectrum of the CMBR anisotropies in 2010. They span through infrared views of the galactic ecology in star formation complexes in 1999, the first clear demonstration that the Universe was flat in 2000, the first detection of polarization in the CMBR in 2002, the mapping of the warm molecular gas across the ~ 300 pc extent of the Central Molecular Zone of our Galaxy in 2003, the measurement of cosmic neutrinos in 2005, and imaging of the thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect in galaxy clusters in 2008. This review also discusses how science is conducted in Antarctica, and in particular the difficulties, as well as the advantages, faced by astronomers seeking to bring their experiments there. It also reviews some of the political issues that will be encountered, both at national and international level. Finally, the review discusses where Antarctic astronomy may be heading in the coming decade, in particular plans for infrared and terahertz astronomy, including the new facilities being considered for these wavebands at the high plateau stations.

Burton, Michael G.

2010-10-01

382

Astronomy and astrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

Zarka, Philippe

2011-06-01

383

Public Outreach in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I will address ways in which astronomy can be conveyed to the general public. I believe that the workings of the cosmos are an effective way to interest the public in science due to their multidisciplinary nature and appeal. This paper is based on the idea that outreach is part of informal education and therefore must be encouraged since it is the way adults learn throughout their lives. We must take advantage of year 2009 to address astronomy in Galileo's honor. I think that outreach should be carried out in the way we enjoy learning about subjects outside our field of expertise. It must be done with passion and for the joy of giving; the gift that outreach conveys is knowledge.

Fierro, J.

2009-05-01

384

Applications of correlator chips in radio science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral line observations in radio astronomy require simultaneous power estimation in many (often hundreds to thousands) frequency bins. Digital autocorrelation spectrometers, which appeared thirty years ago, are now being implemented in VLSI. The same architecture can be used to implement transversal digital filters. This was done at the Arecibo Observatory for pulse compression in radar observations of Venus.

Hagen, John B.

1992-01-01

385

Astronomy in Romanian universities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

Barbosu, Mihail

386

Stellar Coronal Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronal astronomy is by now a fairly mature discipline, with a quarter century having gone by since the detection of the first\\u000a stellar X-ray coronal source (Capella), and having benefitted from a series of major orbiting observing facilities. Serveral\\u000a observational characteristics of coronal X-ray and EUV emission have been solidly established through extensive observations,\\u000a and are by now common, almost

Fabio Favata; Giuseppina Micela

2003-01-01

387

High energy neutrino Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysical candidate sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays inevitably produce high-energy neutrinos in and/or around them. While cosmic rays are scattered in the inter-galactic magnetic fields, neutrinos point back to their origin. Hence neutrinos can be used to probe astrophysical sources just like in usual photon astronomy. Here we present the expected neutrino signals from different astrophysical objects and discuss their possible applications to study these intriguing sources.

Razzaque, Soebur

2011-12-01

388

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-09-01

389

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-05-01

390

Interactive Astronomy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two interactive astronomy games, 'Small and Large' and 'Near and Far', help to introduce important basic concepts about the size of the Universe. In 'Small and Large', students examine pictures of various astronomical objects and arrange them numerically by size. In 'Near and Far, they arrange pictures of objects by their distance from Earth. The games serve as motivators for further discussion and learning and may be used with large groups, a few students or with just one other person.

Morrow, Cherilynn

391

Radio evidence for shock acceleration of electrons in the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the new class of kilometer-wavelength solar radio bursts observed with the ISEE-3 Radio Astronomy Experiment occurs at the reported times of type II events, which are indicative of a shock wave. An examination of records from the Culgoora Radio Observatory reveals that the associated type II bursts have fast drift elements emanating from them; that

H. V. Cane; R. G. Stone; J. Fainberg; J. L. Steinberg; S. Hoang; R. T. Stewart

1981-01-01

392

New Az\\/El mount for Haystack Observatory's Small Radio Telescope kit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Small Radio Telescope (SRT) kit was designed by Haystack Observatory as part of their educational outreach effort. The SRT uses a custom designed FFT based radio spectrometer receiver with a controller to position a 2.3m dish to make various radio astronomy observations including the 21 cm spin flip line of atomic hydrogen. Because there is no sizable commercial market

M. L. Cobb

2005-01-01

393

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by a NASA EPO grant.

Hamilton, D. P.

2005-05-01

394

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Malayeri, M. L.; Pahlevan, K. M. A.; Jacobson, W. C.

2004-05-01

395

Resources for College Libraries: Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of us have built library collections of books to serve researchers -- graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in astronomy and astrophysics, and the Core List of Astronomy Books project, coordinated by Liz Bryson, exemplifies our collaborative efforts to identify the best books available at the research level. As the editor of the astronomy section of the Resources for College Libraries: A Core List for the Undergraduate Curriculum project, I have tried to ascertain what books college-age students of astronomy are actually reading (or should be reading!). To aid in this endeavor, I have obtained astronomy course reserve lists from colleagues at several U.S. colleges and universities, and regularly obtain lists of the astronomy books currently charged out to undergraduates at Princeton. I shall describe the RCL project, some of the book usage data I collected, and finally, give a brief update on the status of the Astrophysics Library at Princeton.

Holmquist, J. E.

2007-10-01

396

Highlights of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next-generation facilities Nicholas A. Walton, Andrew Lawrence & Roy Williams; SpS 5. Astronomy for the developing world John B. Hearnshaw and Peter Martinez; SpS 6. Astronomical data management Raymond P. Norris; SpS 7. Astronomy in Antarctica Michael G. Burton; Author index.

van der Hucht, Karel

2008-02-01

397

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

398

Observational Neutrino Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments to be performed in 1965 involving neutrinos from the sun, from the decay of cosmic-ray secondaries, and from strong radio sources are discussed. The foundations of the theoretical predictions and the significance of the experiments are emphasi...

J. N. Bahcall

1964-01-01

399

Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1980's. Volume 1 - Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee. Volume 2 - Reports of the Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommended priorities for astronomy and astrophysics in the 1980s are considered along with the frontiers of astrophysics, taking into account large-scale structure in the universe, the evolution of galaxies, violent events, the formation of stars and planets, solar and stellar activity, astronomy and the forces of nature, and planets, life, and intelligence. Approved, continuing, and previously recommended programs are related to the Space Telescope and the associated Space Telescope Science Institute, second-generation instrumentation for the Space Telescope, and Gamma Ray Observatory, facilities for the detection of solar neutrinos, and the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Attention is given to the prerequisites for new research initiatives, new programs, programs for study and development, high-energy astrophysics, radio astronomy, theoretical and laboratory astrophysics, data processing and computational facilities, organization and education, and ultraviolet, optical, and infrared astronomy.

400

The history of radio telescopes, 1945-1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using “radio telescopes” that looked nothing like traditional (optical) telescopes, radio astronomers were a very different breed from traditional (optical) astronomers. This pathbreaking of radio astronomy also made it much easier for later “astronomies” and their “telescopes” (X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma-ray) to become integrated into astronomy after the launch of the space age in the 1960s. This paper traces the history of radio telescopes from 1945 through about 1990, from the era of converted small-sized, military radar antennas to that of large interferometric arrays connected by complex electronics and computers; from the era of strip-chart recordings measured by rulers to powerful computers and display graphics; from the era of individuals and small groups building their own equipment to that of Big Science, large collaborations and national observatories.

Sullivan, Woodruff T.

2009-08-01

401

Dyslexia and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

2007-12-01

402

Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2010-01-01

403

Astronomy Mission Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about finding habitable planets. Learners will use an online, multimedia module to simulate the techniques that scientists might use to find a star system and planet that meet the astronomical conditions required for human habitability. Students then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 13 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

404

Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.

Losurdo, Giovanni

405

Gravitational-Wave Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

Kelly, Bernard J.

2010-01-01

406

Misconceptions in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.

Comins, Neil

2009-05-27

407

A Fortunate Life in Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have had a very fortunate career in astronomy, benefiting greatly from numerous accidents of fate. I grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio, served in the US Army Air Force in World War II, and had all my further education at the University of Chicago, from PhB in the College to PhD in astronomy and astrophysics. There, as a postdoc at

Donald E. Osterbrock

2000-01-01

408

Do developing countries need astronomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy can help, directly or indirectly, in the acquisition and creation of new technologies, in attracting young people to scientific careers, in providing a scientific education to the general public and in fostering international collaborations. These and other benefits of professional astronomy are critically reviewed in the context of countries which are facing urgent, basic needs. Several criteria are suggested

Philippe Eenens

2001-01-01

409

Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes basic misconceptions about the origin of elements and forms of matter found in chemistry texts that need modification in light of modern observational data and interpretations given in astronomy. Notes that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. Confounding examples from astronomy include white dwarfs, neutron…

Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

1996-01-01

410

Animations for Physics and Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

Gallis, Michael R.

411

Astronomy Education: A Selective Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief list of books and articles about astronomy and space science education that would be useful for teachers in various levels (from K-12 through graduate school). There are general reports on astronomy education, government and organizational reports, articles on K-12 science education reform, teaching resources and more.

Fraknoi, Andrew

2011-01-27

412

Science and Mathematics in Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

Woolack, Edward

2009-01-01

413

Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

1991-01-01

414

A high data rate recorder for astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic tape recorder developed for the special requirements of radio astronomy and geodesy is described. These requirements include a high bit packing density and long record times. The current version of this longitudinal recorder used by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) records 5.5 Terabits on a 14-in diameter reel of inch-wide tape. A maximum record rate of 256 Mb/s is achieved in the VLBA configuration with one recorder operating at 4 ms and utilizing 32 of the heads in a single stack. The VLBA recorders have been tested using a longitudinal density of 2.25 fr/micron; 448 data + 56 system tracks are recorded in 14 passes, each lasting 50 min, for a total record time (at 128 Mb/s) of 12 h on 14-in diameter reel of inch-wide 13-microns-thick D1-equivalent tape.

Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Cappallo, R. J.; Webber, J. C.; Petrachenko, W. T.

1991-01-01

415

The LOFAR radio environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations. Methods: We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz/1 s resolution. Results: We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linearly when decreasing the data frequency resolution. Conclusions: Currently, by using an automated RFI detection strategy, the LOFAR radio environment poses no perceivable problems for sensitive observing. It remains to be seen if this is still true for very deep observations that integrate over tens of nights, but the situation looks promising. Reasons for the low impact of RFI are the high spectral and time resolution of LOFAR; accurate detection methods; strong filters and high receiver linearity; and the proximity of the antennas to the ground. We discuss some strategies that can be used once low-level RFI starts to become apparent. It is important that the frequency range of LOFAR remains free of broadband interference, such as DAB stations and windmills.

Offringa, A. R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Zaroubi, S.; van Diepen, G.; Martinez-Ruby, O.; Labropoulos, P.; Brentjens, M. A.; Ciardi, B.; Daiboo, S.; Harker, G.; Jeli?, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mellema, G.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R. F.; Schaye, J.; Vedantham, H.; Veligatla, V.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Birzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H.; Conway, J.; de Vos, M.; Dettmar, R. J.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Gerbers, M.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Koopman, Y.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McKean, J.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Mol, J. D.; Nijboer, R.; Noordam, J.; Norden, M.; Paas, H.; Pandey, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Rafferty, D.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Schoenmakers, A. P.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; van Ardenne, A.; van Cappellen, W.; van Duin, A. P.; van Haarlem, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Weeren, R. J.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M.; Wucknitz, O.

2013-01-01

416

The Nançay Radio Telescope Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nançay radio telescope (NRT) is a national facility, the fourth single-dish instrument in the world for its collecting area. It provides spectral and/or continuum data in the frequency range 1.06 to 3.5 GHz, and covers various scientific fields in solar system astronomy (comets, planets...), galactic astronomy (pulsars, late type stars, star forming regions, microquasars...) and extragalactic astronomy (HI in galaxies, large scale structure of the universe, quasars...). Two on-line databases {http://klun.obs-nancay.fr} and a general archive are being designed to fullfill the VO standards: HIG (HI profiles of Galaxies) contains reduced 1-D 21-cm spectra for ˜4500 galaxies; NAP (Nançay Archive of Pulsars) provides a few thousand pulse profiles from regular timing observations of ˜40 pulsars; NRTA (Nançay Radio Telescope Archive) will host all NRT data from the backends (correlator, digital spectrometer and pulsar dedispersors). Most of the data consist of dynamical spectra (time-frequency domain). The package which is used for the database management and for the data-processing pipeline is the Pleinpot software, which has been developed for the hyperleda database {http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr/install/mirror.html}.

Theureau, G.; Martin, J.-M.; Cognard, I.; Borsenberger, J.

2006-07-01

417

Challenges in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

De Greve, Jean-Pierre

2010-11-01

418

Stellar Coronal Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal astronomy is by now a fairly mature discipline, with a quarter century having gone by since the detection of the first stellar X-ray coronal source (Capella), and having benefitted from a series of major orbiting observing facilities. Serveral observational characteristics of coronal X-ray and EUV emission have been solidly established through extensive observations, and are by now common, almost text-book, knowledge. At the same time the implications of coronal astronomy for broader astrophysical questions (e.g.Galactic structure, stellar formation, stellar structure, etc.) have become appreciated. The interpretation of stellar coronal properties is however still often open to debate, and will need qualitatively new observational data to book further progress. In the present review we try to recapitulate our view on the status of the field at the beginning of a new era, in which the high sensitivity and the high spectral resolution provided by Chandra and SMM-Newton will address new questions which were not accessible before.

Favata, Fabio; Micela, Giuseppina

2003-10-01

419

Making Astronomy Accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

Grice, Noreen A.

2011-05-01

420

The Slacker Astronomy Podcast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Slacker Astronomy podcast is a weekly audio show about astronomy. Available in MP3 format, it is syndicated using RSS and XML feeds that make downloading snap. Each show presents a recent astronomical news item in an entertaining, humorous, and easy-to-understand manner that informs yet respects the intelligence of the listener. First launched on 05 Feb 14, the show has grown to over 5,000 weekly subscribers as of 05 April 01 without any formal publicity. Response has been over overwhelmingly positive, with strong reviews coming from other popular podcasts and coverage on the front page of the MSNBC.com science section. Our only consistent negative feedback is that the show is too short and too infrequent. This demonstrates a strong need to add content. We believe podcasting provides a unique mechanism to extend astronomical outreach to the younger generations and to those who lead busy lifestyles. Our formula is proving successful and we are looking for ways to quantify our impact and measure our demographic so that we can serve them better.

Price, A.; Gay, P.; Searle, T.

2005-05-01

421

Astronomy books in Spanish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

Fierro, Julieta

422

The Astronomy Genealogy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

Tenn, Joseph S.

2014-01-01

423

Astronomy Science Fair Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Extrasolar Planet Transit", ``Lightcurve of a Variable Star", and ``Retrograde Motion of Mars" are some of the titles of high school students' projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teachers who participated in the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy summer outreach program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech mentored their students. After attending the 3-week National Science Foundation Institute for several summers since 1999, these teachers in the summer of 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain images from telescopes, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software ``Astrometrica" to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year. These students made observing plans for images from the 31inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and/or from the 2.2m University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. Learning about filters, exposure time, magnitude, frequency of taking CCD images, and ephemeris required many iterations between students, teachers, and astronomers and graduate students who were assisting. Poor weather conditions and other frustrations exposed the students to the realities of research. However, they were rewarded with projects that impressed the judges and that will be described.

Pittichová, J.; Kadooka, M.-A.; Meech, K. J.

2004-12-01

424

Report Of The Cospar WG On "Future Of Space Astronomy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COSPAR President on April 20, 2010 appointed the "Future of Space Astronomy” Working Group under the aegis of Commission E, with the aim to analyze the difficult situation of space astronomy over the next two decades and recommend ways to improve the prospects. Having assessed the scientific needs and the current plans of the main space agencies worldwide, the WG has identified some major concerns about the lack of a secured future for Space Astronomy. In fact, astronomers today have access to an impressive set of space missions and ground-based observatories that gives them nearly continuous coverage of the electromagnetic spectrum from the gamma-ray to the radio regions. But the picture becomes concerning and critical in the next 10 - 15 years, when current space astronomy missions will have ended and new missions will be much less numerous. Astronomy is a difficult observational science requiring continuous and simultaneous access to the full electromagnetic spectrum to explore our complex Universe and to pursue answers to fundamental scientific questions. The history of space astronomy, especially the past three decades, has demonstrated clearly the importance and benefits of access to the gamma-ray, X-ray, UV-optical, near IR and far-IR spectrum from space. So far the only planned observatory class missions, proposed to NASA-ESA-JAXA are JWST (2018), WFIRST/EUCLID (2018-2020), Athena (ex IXO, 2022) and LISA. The latter two under re-scope in an ESA alone scenario with a cost <1B€. We will present the main WG outcome with a number of recommendations and, finally, suggest a road map for the next decades. *WG membership: Pietro Ubertini (Chair), Italy, Neil Gehrels (Co-Chair), USA, Ian Corbett (IAU liason), UK, Paolo De Bernardis, Italy, Marcos Machado, Argentina, Matt Griffin, UK, Michael Hauser, USA, Ravinder K. Manchanda, India, Nobuyuki Kawai, Japan, Shuang-Nan Zhang, China, Mikhail Pavlinsky, Russia

Ubertini, Pietro; Space Astronomy*, Cospar WG on Future of

2011-09-01

425

Astronomy Olympiads in Russia and Their Position in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy olympiads started to be organised in Russia more than 60 years ago (then it was still USSR). In 1994, on the basis of several regional astronomy olympiads, appeared the All-Russian Astronomy Olympiad (Vserossijskaya astronomicheskaya olimpiada) or ARAO. It has been organised under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and pupils attending higher forms have taken part in it. The main objective of ARAO is to find and support talented pupils. Leading universities of the country (Russia) have also organised their own astronomy olympiads. In this way there are Astronomy Olympiads of Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kazan. Among them the largest is that of Saint Petersburg. The main characteristic of these olympiads is that they have also included pupils of younger forms and have prepared their own tasks. The main objective of these olympiads is to find and support future students of astronomy classes at those universities. All astronomy Olympiads have played an important role in preparing future astronomers. This work is supported by Leading Scientific Schools Grant No. NSH-3290.2010.2.

Eskin, B.; Tarakanov, P.; Kostina, M.

2012-12-01

426

Pioneering a new astronomy; John G. Bolton Memorial Symposium, Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, Dec. 9-10, 1993  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conference in memory of John Bolton produced papers in the field of radio astronomy from a biographical and historial perspective of Bolton's contributions. These papers focused especially on extragalactic radio sources such as quasars and radio galaxies; ground stations Bolton worked at, and the Yagi antennas and sea-interferometers used there; and the early sky surveys made with optical telescopes. There is also mention of COSMOS, the astronomical catalog or data base Bolton developed. In addition, papers covered radio jets and discussed classifications of radio sources. For individual titles, see A95-84037 through A95-84049.

Goddard, Dorothy; Haynes, Raymond

427

Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars. This comprehensive book brings together key observational techniques, background information and a review of the latest results, including the recent discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided to analyze example data, made available on a related website. The work will be of great value to graduate students

D. R. Lorimer; M. Kramer

2005-01-01

428

NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its report that the VLBA now is poised to become even more scientifically productive. We will aggressively pursue international assistance in keeping this world-class research tool operational, and are optimistic that we will succeed," Lo said. The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, termed by the committee a "new and highly promising telescope," already has taken the lead in some important research fields. While the committee recommended reductions in the operational costs of the GBT, the NRAO already has been taking steps to make the operations as efficient as possible, commensurate with adequate support for productive science operations. "We look forward to an independent cost analysis by specialists in telescope operations and business administration," Lo said, adding that, "In the meantime, we will redouble efforts to explore alternative modes of operation while continuing to enhance scientific capabilities." The scientific staff of NRAO, composed of Ph.D astronomers, provides scientific guidance for the development and operations of the telescopes, assistance and mentoring to scientists using the telescopes and to students, and serves in key management and operational roles. The expertise embodied in NRAO's staff is a unique resource for planning the next generation of radio astronomy facilities. "As astronomy becomes more reliant on multi-wavelength investigations and NRAO telescopes are used more by researchers unfamiliar with radio observational techniques, the support provided by an excellent scientific staff will become even more important," Lo said. "Throughout this whole process, the NRAO will continue to carry out its mission of enabling cutting-edge research, attracting and training future scientists and engineers, and stimulating public interest in science," Lo said. The NRAO will work closely with the NSF in the coming months as the NSF considers the Senior Review recommendations. "The future of the NRAO is extremely bright," Lo said. "Our sci

2006-11-01

429

Productivity and Impact of Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001, 836 papers appearing in 15 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based radio, millimeter, and submillimeter telescopes, plus the HALCA, COBE, and SWAS satellites and a few balloon-borne detectors. More than 80 telescopes were represented, including 36 that were each responsible for five or more papers. These papers were cited 11,332 times in 2002, 2003, and 2004, for a mean rate of 13.56 citations per paper, or 4.52 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor, and compared to 5.40 citations per paper per year for optical astronomy papers in the same period and 6.42 for space-based papers). We examine here the distributions of papers, citations, and impact factors among subject areas and telescopes and make some comparisons with the 2100 optical and infrared and 1200 space-based papers published and cited in the same years. The single largest item in the optical inventory was, naturally, the Hubble Space Telescope, with 16% of the papers and 19% of the citations. Radio astronomy houses an even more dominant entity, the Very Large Array (VLA), responsible for 22% of the papers and 27% of the citations. The VLA is, therefore, proportionately even more influential in world radio astronomy than HST is in world optical astronomy. A third paper in this series looks at papers and citations in the area of infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray space-based astronomy and planetary missions. Of the ``radio'' papers, 149 were also optical papers and 76 were also ``space'' papers, in the sense of reporting or analyzing data in both bands. Their impact factors were 5.71 and 7.51 citations per paper per year, respectively, slightly above the averages for the individual bands. Thus, slightly more than half of observational astronomy is still optical astronomy, but multiwavelength papers are somewhat more influential than average. No radio+optical paper went completely uncited during the triennium.

Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul

2006-06-01

430

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

431

Frequency allocations for passive use of the radio spectrum to make scientific studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines the legal implications of frequency allocations for passive use of the radio spectrum, which refer to receive-only radio services. Such receive-only services refer to the reception of radio signals generated by nonhuman agencies as in radio astronomy or in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Juridical interpretations of the public interest and of necessity are applied to these passive services.

Stull, M. A.; Alexander, G.

1976-01-01

432

College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

2003-12-01

433

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet

Scott Miller; M. Parrish; P. L. Gay

2008-01-01

434

Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

Berendsen, Margaret L.

2005-01-01

435

Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…

Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

2003-01-01

436

Superconducting detectors in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

Rahman, F.

2006-08-01

437

Astronomy for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website takes the complex ideas of astronomy and makes them fun and easy for younger children to understand. The Planets Section highlights each planet in our solar system by answering the following questions: where is it?, how big is it?, can I see it?, how did it get its name?, what is it made of?, what's it like on the surface?, and does it have moons?. An image is included for each planet as well as planetary information for the current month with sky maps. A puzzle section has word games about astronauts, missions, and moons. The Sky Facts section gives general information about eclipses, meteors, and red shift. Links are provided for additional information.

438

Misconceptions in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Italy) and the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia (Spain), we analyse some common misconceptions in astronomy. In particular we explored the evolution of these misconceptions (if any) depending on age and socio-educational factors, from a cognitive structures point of view. Cognitive structures interact with learnt contents and produce resistant conceptual schemes that are almost completely unknown and ignored by teachers and educators. We carried out an extensive survey (more than 2000 tests in the two countries) and we studied the spontaneous schemes and concepts used by youngsters when facing some basic astronomical ideas, in order to focus efforts on helping to change the above schemes by inducing a "clash of ideas" for the students. In that way, students could acquire a dynamic mental model consistent with the scientific model.

Gallego-Calvente, A. T.; Sandrelli, S.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

2008-06-01

439

Astronomy and political theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

Campion, Nicholas

2011-06-01

440

AstronomyDaily.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

441

SOFA: Standards of Fundamental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOFA (Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy) is a collection of subprograms, in source-code form, that implement official IAU algorithms for fundamental astronomy computations. SOFA offers more than 160 routines for fundamental astronomy, including time scales (including dealing with leap seconds), Earth rotation, sidereal time, precession, nutation, polar motion, astrometry and transforms between various reference systems (e.g. BCRS, ICRS, GCRS, CIRS, TIRS, ITRS). The subprograms are supported by 55 vector/matrix routines, and are available in both Fortran77 and C implementations.

IAU SOFA Center

2014-03-01

442

The National Computational Science Institute: Computational Astronomy for Astronomy Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the National Computational Science Institute is to improve science, math, engineering, and technology education at all levels by training undergraduate faculty in the use of computational science as a means of increasing inquiry based learning in their classrooms. Formed in the summer of 2001, NCSI plans to sponsor faculty workshops and produce online material to assist educators in all areas of SMET, including astronomy. NCSI is an extension of a National Science Foundation Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement program, the Shodor Computational Science Institute, which ran summer workshops in North Carolina for educators in the southeastern United States from 1998-2001. NCSI is currently seeking NSF funding to increase its efforts throughout the US. One program in development by NCSI is an online course entitled Computational Astronomy for Astronomy Educators, which will focus on the needs of introductory undergraduate and pre-college astronomy courses.

Joiner, D. A.; Panoff, R. M.

2001-12-01

443

Mathematical Models for Geodetic Astronomy Mathematische Modelle der Geodaetischen Astronomie.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods used in geodetic astronomy, and the significance of their results in the solution of geodetic problems, are discussed. The mechanical fundamentals of astrometric and geodetic coordinate systems are described. The definition and transformation of a...

S. Heitz

1976-01-01

444

Applied Historical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of rotation -- as revealed by both timed and untimed eclipse observations -- and (ii) historical supernovae. These subjects will form the main theme of his AAS lecture.

Stephenson, F. Richard

2014-01-01

445

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe the tools most relevant for the Professional Dynamical Astronomer. Solar Systems Visualizer: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. Orbital Integrators: Determine the orbital evolution of your initial conditions for a number of different scenarios including motions subject to general central forces, the classic three-body problem, and satellites of planets and exoplanets. Zero velocity curves are calculated and automatically included on relevant plots. Orbital Elements: Convert quickly and easily between state vectors and orbital elements with Changing the Elements. Use other routines to visualize your three-dimensional orbit and to convert between the different commonly used sets of orbital elements including the true, mean, and eccentric anomalies. Solar System Calculators: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed.

Hamilton, Douglas P.

2013-05-01

446

Scientific Visualization in Astronomy: Towards the Petascale Astronomy Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy is entering a new era of discovery, coincident with the\\u000aestablishment of new facilities for observation and simulation that will\\u000aroutinely generate petabytes of data. While an increasing reliance on automated\\u000adata analysis is anticipated, a critical role will remain for\\u000avisualization-based knowledge discovery. We have investigated scientific\\u000avisualization applications in astronomy through an examination of the\\u000aliterature published

Amr Hassan; Christopher J. Fluke

2011-01-01

447

Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These introductory astronomy tutorials are student-centered activities designed to promote conceptual understanding. Topics consist include understanding the celestial sphere, measuring distance by using parallax, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, and the H-R diagram.

Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Tim P.; Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brissenden, Gina; Research, Conceptual A.

2005-06-13

448

Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in Babylonia during the first millennium BC developed out of a long tradition of observing and interpreting the sky into a science that was both observational and theoretical. It is well established that these developments influenced the practice of astronomy in neighbouring cultures in the Indus valley, Egypt and the Greco-Roman world. However, it is less clear whether there was any significant input from foreign cultures into the development of Babylonian astronomy. In this paper I examine the evidence for possible traces of Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy during the late first millennium BC. In particular, I discuss two possible cases of Greek influence that have been proposed in recent years: the naming of certain zodiacal signs and a value for the length of the year found on a Babylonian text that may be based upon Greek observations of summer solstices.

Steele, J. M.

449

Daytime Astronomy: A Sundial Contest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sundial contest used to generate interest and enthusiasm in astronomy class. Presents diagrams of three basic types of sundials, a sundial time correction form, and guidelines for a successful contest. (MA)

Harber, Hubert E.

1979-01-01

450

Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

Ulvestad, James S.

2011-05-01

451

Astronomy Program for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of a teacher's experience in presenting astronomy to 12 to 15 year olds in a summer science program is presented. Observations of planets, meteors, and the sun are the major projects which are discussed. (SA)

Levy, David H.

1979-01-01

452

Communicating Astronomy Beyond IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy 2009, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first look at the night sky through a telescope, was arguably the most successful public-outreach event in the history of science. Thousands of professional and amateur astronomers, public-information officers, writers, publishers, teachers, and informal educators from 148 countries worked tirelessly to share the wonders of astronomy with millions of people, from rural schoolchildren to the President of the United States. How to build on IYA2009 was the theme of "Communicating Astronomy with the Public 2010," a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa, in March 2010. I report some of the highlights from CAP2010 and consider the extent to which the IYA2009 helped us address global challenges in astronomy communication.

Fienberg, Richard Tresch

453

The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

2011-10-01

454

Vision for Astronomy in South Africa and partnership with the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2002 National Research and Development Strategy identified astronomy as a national geographic advantage. This identification was based on the historical investments in optical and, to a lesser extent, radio astronomy up to that point and the realisation that the conditions prevailing in Sutherland were among the best in the world. Since then a number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the HESS, SKA and the AVN. Currently, investments in astronomy are by far the biggest investments being made by the Department of Science and Technology (DST). South Africa’s involvement in modern astronomy dates back to 1685 when a French Astronomer, Guy Tachard, setup an observatory at the southern tip of Africa to decipher the star charts of the extreme southern sky. In 1820, a permanent observatory - the Royal Observatory - was established outside of Cape Town and astronomy has been practised continuously since then. By the late 1980s, it became clear that for South African astronomers and astrophysicists to continue conducting first class research, the acquisition of a much larger, powerful and sophisticated telescope would be necessary. This provided the impetus for a new vision to construct the largest single optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, eventually known as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Within the last decade, the African appetite for radio astronomy initiatives has increased exponentially. This has largely been spurred by the African bid to host the SKA project and the need for African countries to work in close partnership that consequently resulted in a successful bid to co-host the SKA project and the subsequent need to ensure its effective implementation. This partnership, and the interactions related thereto, has effectively enhanced awareness around the requirements for hosting radio astronomy instrumentation and the associated benefits that could be derived in making such commitments. Consequently, there have been concerted efforts in support of various radio astronomy initiatives that sit at the cusp of the continents ambitions for the hosting of the SKA.

Nemaungani, Takalani

2014-01-01

455

Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

2013-04-01

456

Radio sociology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A work was conducted, using radio telemetry, to locate a migrating, radio-tagged, sharp-shinned hawk. The hawk was monitored through the noise radiation it created. The hawk was found. During this study, it was found that the concentration of population corresponds with areas of increased noise temperature. Through this study, a bigger study was planned. The study would involved the relationship between a place's radiation signature and its other attributes, such as economic type, population, geographic concentration. The method of radio sociology would be used to track the sources of radio noise.

Swenson, George W., Jr.

1996-04-01

457

Solar radio observations and radio interference monitoring in Roztoky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of a planned measurement campaign in which spectrum measurements were carried out at different locations worldwide within potential locations of the e-Callisto network. The results of measurements at the Callisto observing station in Roztoky, which took place at the beginning of May 2013, are presented. Measurements were made out with a special low cost broadband logarithmic periodic antenna connected to a Callisto spectrometer designed and built at ETH Zurich (Benz, 2004). This study provides the technical basis to decide whether it is possible to make solar spectroscopic measurements below 1 GHz (?>30 cm) at the observing station. In terms of electromagnetic interference, Roztoky is not perfect for broadband spectroscopic solar radio astronomy observations due to non negligible radio interference level from the nearby FM-transmitters. Nevertheless, low frequency observations below 80 MHz, as well as observations in some small bands above 116 MHz can be done.

Monstein, C.; Balu?anský, D.

2013-10-01

458

New prospects for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and prospects for astronomical activities conducted by the Royal Greenwich Observatory are outlined. The confirmation of the uniform rotation of the earth and the preparation of almanacs for use in navigation are discussed as the earliest activities of the Observatory, which was founded in 1675. The initiation of a program in astrophysics in 1934 with the acquisition of the 36-in. Yapp reflector is noted, along with the construction of the 100-in. Isaac Newton telescope at Herstmonceux, a location unfortunately characterized by suitable observing conditions only on about a quarter of the nights. The subsequent establishment of observing facilities overseas, including the South African Astronomical Observatory and the Anglo-Australian Telescope in the Southern Hemisphere and the observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands in the Northern Hemisphere are considered, with particular attention given to the designs of the proposed 4.2-m and 1-m telescopes and the modification of the Isaac Newton telescope which has been removed from Herstmonceux. Prospects for further activities within the Observatory along the lines of new instrumentation and telescopes and of research astronomy are then indicated.

Smith, F. G.

1981-10-01

459

Large Databases in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next-generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The archives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. The intensive use of advanced data archives will enable astronomers to explore their data interactively. Data access will be aided by multidimensional spatial and attribute indices. The data will be partitioned in many ways. Small tag indices consisting of the most popular attributes will accelerate frequent searches. Splitting the data among multiple servers will allow parallel, scalable I/O and parallel data analysis. Hashing techniques will allow efficient clustering, and pair-wise comparison algorithms that should parallelize nicely. Randomly sampled subsets will allow debugging otherwise large queries at the desktop. Central servers will operate a data pump to support sweep searches touching most of the data. The anticipated queries will require special operators related to angular distances and complex similarity tests of object properties, like shapes, colors, velocity vectors, or temporal behaviors. These issues pose interesting data management challenges.

Szalay, Alexander S.; Gray, Jim; Kunszt, Peter; Thakar, Anirudha; Slutz, Don

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The Concise Knowledge Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Section I. History Agnes M. Clerke: 1. From Hipparchus to Laplace; 2. A century of progress; Section II. Geometrical Astronomy and Astronomical Instruments A. Fowler: 1. The Earth and its rotation; 2. The Earth's revolution round the Sun; 3. How the positions of the heavenly bodies are defined; 4. The Earth's orbit; 5. Mean solar time; 6. The movements of the Moon; 7. Movements of planets, satellites, and comets; 8. Eclipses and occultations; 9. How to find our situation on the Earth; 10. The exact size and shape of the earth; 11. The distances and dimensions of the heavenly bodies; 12. The masses of celestial bodies; 13. Gravitational effects of Sun and moon upon the Earth; 14. Instrumental measurement of angles and time; 15. Telescopes; 16. Instruments of precision; 17. Astrophysical instruments; Section III. The Solar System Agnes M. Clerke: 1. The solar system as a whole; 2. The Sun; 3. The Sun's surroundings; 4. The interior planets; 5. The Earth and Moon; 6. The planet Mars; 7. The asteroids; 8. The planet Jupiter; 9. The Saturnian system; 10. Uranus and Neptune; 11. Famous comets; 12. Nature and origin of comets; 13. Meteorites and shooting stars; Section IV. The Sidereal Heavens J.E. Gore: 1. The stars and constellations; 2. Double, multiple, and coloured stars; 3. The distances and motions of the stars; 4. Binary stars; 5. Variable and temporary stars; 6. Clusters and nebulae; 7. The construction of the heavens; Index.

Clerke, Agnes Mary; Fowler, Alfred; Ellard Gore, John

2011-01-01