Note: This page contains sample records for the topic radio astronomy from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Radio Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and com...

K. I. Kellermann D. Heeschen D. C. Backer M. H. Cohen M. Davis

1991-01-01

2

Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general description of the nature of radio astronomy, its differences from optical astronomy, a review of the earliest beginnings of galactic and solar radio astronomy, and a listing of other important observational discoveries is given. A nearly complete bibliography of these early publications and of the principal review books and papers on Radio Astronomy is given. Some practical aspects

F. T. Haddock

1958-01-01

3

Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

2011-11-01

4

Radio Astronomy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio astronomy research has been carried out in the fields of high resolution interferometry, radio polarimetry, solar activity, and galactic and extragalactic radio sources, details of which are given in a bibliography of references to scientific journa...

R. N. Bracewell

1968-01-01

5

What is Radio Astronomy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains information on radio astronomy, the NRAO, how telescopes work, the history and discovery of radio astronomy, and the radio communication process. This website has activites like "Make your own Radio Image", and visual aids on topics such as: free-free emission, spectral lines, synchrotron emission, masers, and how radio communication works. The site is also a resource for blackbody radiation, the Cosmic Microwave Backround, and the mechanisms of radio wave emission.

2004-07-14

6

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays.

Perley, Richard A.; Schwab, Frederic R.; Bridle, Alan H.

7

Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) is a research organization within the University of Massachusetts which aims to conduct astronomical research, to develop state of the art microwave instrumentation, and to train both graduate and undergraduate students with support from the National Science Foundation and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

8

Tools of radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental physics of radio emission from astronomical objects and the principles of radio-telescope operation are reviewed in a textbook intended for graduate physics students. Topics examined include EM-wave propagation, wave polarization, antenna theory, filled-aperture antennas, interferometers and aperture synthesis, and receivers. Consideration is given to emission mechanisms of continuous radiation, thermal and nonthermal sources, the physics of line radiation,

Kristen Rohlfs

1986-01-01

9

Basics of Radio Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workbook is used for training teachers and volunteers who wish to operate the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope. The students in this district operate the telescope from the Apple Valley location. Also, students and teachers across the country can register to operate the telescope from their own classrooms. This workbook can also be used as a resource for information on how radio telescopes work, the fundamentals of the electromagnetic spectrum, thermal and non-thermal radiation, 21-cm hydrogen line, Kirchhoff's laws of spectral analysis, the Doppler effect, coordinate systems, and the SETI project.

Fisher, Diane

2004-07-16

10

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2010-10-01

11

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2009-10-01

12

Radio Frequency Interference: Radio Astronomy's Biggest Enemy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technology progresses, the demand for the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum increases with it. The development is so fast and prolific that clean band space for passive users such as Radio Astronomy is becoming ever so scarce. Even though, several spectral bands have been protected for Radio Astronomy by Federal Communication Commission (in the USA) under the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pressure for making more spectral space commercially usable is extreme. Although these commercial usages make our modern living at all possible, often the extreme vulnerability of passive users are are not fully appreciated, resulting in unwanted emissions (RFI) in the Radio Astronomy Bands. Another source of RFI is the fact that many of the electronic devices used in the observatories themselves generate radio waves. If proper precautions are not taken, these can be received back through the Radio Telescope itself. This problem is referred to as internal RFI. The focus of this paper is the search and diminution of internal RFI in the Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Using a simple setup of a log-periodic antenna and a Spectrum Analyzer, spectra spanning a frequency range of 100 - 1800 MHZ were recorded in some areas of the Observatory and the new Visitor Center (AOVEF). The measurements disclosed sources of radio emission among some of the digital electronic equipment in the Equipment room and a few displays in the AOVEF. Most prominent of these was a 2.5 MHz comb spanning the entire range of the measurements emitted from the SRENDIP and AOFTM machines. The respective groups were informed and corrective shielding & isolations were implemented immediately. In AOVEF, three displays, some audio-visual equipment, and video/digital cameras used by the visitors were found to be "leaky". In future, the use of such cameras will be prohibited and the exhibits will be screened appropriately.

Acevedo, F.; Ghosh, Tapasi

1997-12-01

13

Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of radio astronomy plays a key role in increasing our understanding of the environment and the universe in which we live. By its nature it is a passive service, so it never causes interference to other users of radio. On the other hand, it is becoming increasingly difficult to protect radio astronomy operations from radio interference as use of the spectrum increases for both terrestrial and space-borne communications.

Monstein, Chr.

2013-06-01

14

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the

Wayne Orchiston; A. Boischot; J. Delannoy; M. Kundu; J. Lequeux; M. Pick; J. Steinberg

2011-01-01

15

RFI Mitigation Researches and Implements in Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a serious problem for researches in modern radio astronomy. Various techniques to excise RFI from signals data are being tried out. In this paper, various methods of RFI excision at radio astronomy are described. RFI mitigation researches and implements in radio astronomy society are also presented. Especially, RFI mitigation researches in China radio astronomy

Shi-Yuan Li; Esamdin Ali; Zheng-Wen Sun

2008-01-01

16

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2010-10-01

17

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research...

2009-10-01

18

Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

1993-12-01

19

Submillimeter receivers for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of development of receivers for submillimeter-wave radio astronomy is reviewed. Bolometers for continuum observation, hot-electron mixer receivers for narrow-band spectral line observation, and heterodyne receivers, both Schottky diode and superconducting tunnel junction, are presented. At the lower frequency end of the submillimeter band, standard waveguide techniques, scaled from millimeter wavelengths, prevail. At wavelengths shorter than about 0.5 mm quasioptical designs are preferred: in the case of Schottky diode receivers, corner cube designs are used almost exclusively, whereas integrated mixer designs are the focal point of research for SIS receivers at these wavelengths. Although such designs are extensively reviewed, it is nevertheless the Schottky diode mixer remains the element of choice at the shortest submillimeter wavelengths.

Blundell, Raymond; Tong, Cheuk-Yu E.

1992-11-01

20

Communications techniques in radio physics and astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Techniques used at the Arecibo Observatory's giant radio telescope in the areas of planetary radar astronomy, passive radio astronomy, and radar studies of the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere are described. Pulse compression, range-Doppler processing, and digital decoding in planetary studies are examined. Spectral line observations and the use of computerized Fourier analysis in passive radio astronomy are reviewed. The investigation of scatter in ionospheric studies, including the determination of the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal, is described, as is the use of the code pulse technique for measuring electron density profiles.

Hagen, J.B.

1986-10-01

21

Radio Astronomy Research at Leningrad State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main directions of radio-astronomical studies at Leningrad State University are described. These studies began in 1947, and have included research on solar active regions, as well as methods for measuring the absolute radio flux of the Sun and the statistical properties of the solar radio emission. Studies of solar-terrestrial connections using radio-astronomy methods are considered in some detail.

Molchanov, A. P.

22

Orbiting Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection below 10 MHz. OL- FAR is Orbiting Low Frequency ARray, a project whose aim is to develop

Raj Thilak Rajan; Steven Engelen; Mark Bentum; Chris Verhoeven

2011-01-01

23

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

24

"Radio Astronomy, Whatever That May Be." The Marginalization of Early Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today we see radio astronomy as a fully-integrated part of astronomy; it is now just one of several available wavelength regimes and many astrophysicists who use radio data are not radio astronomers themselves. At the beginning, it was very different. Between 1946 and 1960, radio astronomy emerged as an important speciality but it was an area little understood by mainstream astronomers. Radio astronomers rarely published in astronomical journals, gave papers at astronomical conferences or were accorded much notice. The pioneers in the field were not astronomers themselves and had little in common with astronomers. In this paper I note the various ways in which radio astronomy was alienated from the mainstream in its first decade and some of the reasons this alienation occurred. I will also speculate on when and how the integration began to occur.

Jarrell, Richard

2005-01-01

25

Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.

2007-12-01

26

Genesis of Radio Astronomy at BYU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are beginning a new program in state-of-the-art radio astronomy at BYU. Our first effort consists of a 4-meter radio antenna designed to image hydrogen spin-flip and maser lines within our galaxy where frequencies of interest include 1.4GHz -- 1.6GHz. We employ a unique spectrometer/correllator that may be used both independently as well as in conjunction with a 5-antenna array for imaging. Our correlator/spectrometer is based upon CASPER hardware/firmware, as used at leading edge radio astronomy sites at JPL, Harvard, Deep Space Network, et al. This instrument system, to be followed by others, establishes a foundation for physics and astronomy research and teaching using state-of-the-art methods.

Blakley, Daniel

2010-10-01

27

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

2011-01-01

28

Radio quiet, please! - protecting radio astronomy from interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio spectrum is a finite and increasingly precious resource for astronomical research, as well as for other spectrum users. Keeping the frequency bands used for radio astronomy as free as possible of unwanted Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is crucial. The aim of spectrum management, one of the tools used towards achieving this goal, includes setting regulatory limits on RFI levels emitted by other spectrum users into the radio astronomy frequency bands. This involves discussions with regulatory bodies and other spectrum users at several levels - national, regional and worldwide. The global framework for spectrum management is set by the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union, which has defined that interference is detrimental to radio astronomy if it increases the uncertainty of a measurement by 10%. The Radio Regulations are revised every three to four years, a process in which four organisations representing the interests of the radio astronomical community in matters of spectrum management (IUCAF, CORF, CRAF and RAFCAP) participate actively. The current interests and activities of these four organisations range from preserving what has been achieved through regulatory measures, to looking far into the future of high frequency use and giant radio telescope use.

van Driel, W.

2011-06-01

29

Radio Astronomy Software Defined Reciever Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz...

B. Vacaliuc D. Fields M. Leech P. Oxley R. Flagg

2013-01-01

30

The big ears of radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special value of radio astronomy lies in the probing of extreme conditions in the universe, including the highest energies and the lowest temperatures. Radio waves can penetrate clouds of gas and dust to reveal objects in the universe and, in particular, in our Galaxy that cannot be seen by visible light. To achieve the highest resolution, radio telescopes in widely separate parts of our globe combine their reception to produce a synthesized image. This is a splendid example of international collaboration. Among the images visualized are pulsars, derived from the remnants of supernovae explosions, and quasar sources powered by black holes.

Graham-Smith, Francis

2002-05-01

31

Radio astronomy research in Malaysia: Past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will report on the progress in the research field of radio astronomy in Malaysia and also in South-East Asia. Radio astronomy research can be said to have only started being done actively in Malaysia in 2005. Fundamental setup and some basic research were done in the early parts. Jupiter radio bursts as well as radio meteor counting were

Z. Z. Abidin; Z. A. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

32

Tools for teaching radio-astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the worldwide radiotelescope ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) has started preliminary operations. Radio-astronomy is thus entering a new golden age, a fantastic opportunity for widening formal and informal educational training and public involvement, for making a science impact on young people. The EU-HOU consortium has developed a small radiotelescope network (6 antenna) spread over Europe and directly accessible from the web via a remote control interface. These antenna are mostly dedicated to high school teachers in the context of the COMENIUS European commission Lifelong Learning Program: ``Connecting classrooms to the Milky-Way''. However, such small antenna can also be used to teach at University and introduce students to radio-astronomy principles.

Salomé, P.; Radiguet, A.; Albert, B.; Batrung, M.; Caillat, M.; Gheudin, M.; Libert, Y.; Ferlet, R.; Maestrini, A.; Melchior, A.-L.; Munier, J.-M.; Rudolph, A.

2012-12-01

33

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what radio astronomy is all about. This ever-present radiation provides astronomers with an alternate, non-optical window to the universe, revealing exotic and unfamiliar phenomena previously undetected by even the most powerful optical telescopes. For physics teachers, a classroom discussion of these radio discoveries, however brief, offers an opportunity for igniting interest (and possibly a career option) in even the most apathetic of students. This paper describes, first, the background of some of these events, and second (in the appendixes), a selection of numerical problems so that students can derive for themselves the truly mind-stretching features of these celestial objects.

Derman, Samuel

2010-04-01

34

Radio Astronomy in the Undergraduate Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the results of a three year program to incorporate radio astronomy into undergraduate research and coursework at South Carolina State University (SCSU). A series of small and inexpensive radio telescopes have been constructed by faculty members with undergraduate student assistance. The telescopes range from a Radio Jove dipole antenna, to a dual frequency alt-az mount solar antenna to a 4.6 meter commercially-built radio telescope operated at 1.42 GHz. SCSU students and faculty have access to larger radio telescopes through a partnership with the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) near Rosman, North Carolina. Projects to date include three years of monitoring solar activity, participation in coordinated observing sessions of Jovian radio bursts and mapping the distribution of galactic neutral hydrogen. Future work will include combined optical and radio observations of stellar radio sources such as RS CVn stars and Algol-type binaries. Support for this work has been provided to SCSU through NASA's PAIR program under NCC 5-454.

Payne, J. E.; Brown, J. L.; Walter, D. K.

2003-12-01

35

RadioNet: Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RadioNet, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3), has brought together 20 of "Europe's leading astronomy facilities to produce a focused, coherent and integrated project that will significantly enhance the quality and quantity of science performed by European astronomers." After learning about the Initiative's many objectives, users can find brief summaries of the program's integration of astronomy pursuits in the areas of transnational access, joint research activities, and networking activities. The website presents press releases, upcoming and past events, and information on engineering, software, and Atacama Large (sub)-Millimeter Array (ALMA) forums. Users can also find out about the individual collaborators research activities through the external links.

36

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2010-10-01

37

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 5.91 Section 5... Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize...harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at...

2009-10-01

38

The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion

Benjamin Kevin Malphrus

1990-01-01

39

Early years of Radio Astronomy in the U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).

Burke, B. F.

40

The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

2004-12-01

41

Cubesat Missions for Low Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many concepts and several mission proposals for low frequency radio interferometers in space during the past two decades. Most of these idea are based on multiple small spacecraft, each acting as one antenna element in a three-dimensional array. The science goals for single cubesats or arrays operating at frequencies near and below Earth's ionosphere cutoff span a wide range research areas from solar and planetary observations to galactic and extragalactic astronomy to cosmological observations of large-scale structure evolution before the epoch of reionization. Recently several groups have realized that the rapid progress in the capabilities of cubesats make them a logical basis for such mission concepts. A workshop on cubesat-based low frequency radio astronomy missions was held at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at Caltech during July 2012. This paper will summarize the discussions and conclusions from that workshop. These include a number of future mission ideas based on cubesat technologies, as well as recommendations for near-term technology demonstrations that would reduce risk for many of the potential missions. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from the JPL Center for Academic Partnerships and KISS is gratefully acknowledged.

Jones, Dayton L.

2013-01-01

42

Broadcasting Astronomy: The Stars Meet on the Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe our project Tutti Dentro — Le Stelle si incontrano in Radio (Come in everybody! — The Stars meet on the Radio), an Italian radio show about astronomy and space. The format involved celebrities, young astronomers and a network of 95 FM and web radio stations during the period July 2007 - January 2009. We will explore its structure, the language and the strategies adopted, along with the technical equipment and the software for recording sessions and editing. Finally we will describe the response from celebrities, radio stations and listeners. Our results could be a useful reference for those wishing to create similar radio programmes to deliver astronomy to a wider audience.

Nobili, L.; Masiero, S.

2010-06-01

43

Radio Astronomy Studies at the Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of radio astronomy studies at FIAN is described, beginning with the first theoretical (1946) and experimental (1947) studies of the solar radio emission. Information about the development of the Crimean station of FIAN, then the establishment and development of the Radio Astronomy Station in Pushchino is presented. Work on the construction of large radio telescopes, including the FIAN 22-m, DKR-1000 and BSA telescopes, is described, together with important results obtained during observations of the Sun (including the discovery of its "supercorona"), planets, line radio emission and studies of pulsars and other discrete sources.

Dogel', B. A.; Ilyasov, Y. P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.; Kokurin, Y. L.; Kuz'min, A. D.; Salomonovich, A. E.; Sorochenko, R. L.; Udal'tsov, V. A.

44

Grote Reber (1911-2003): A Radio Astronomy Pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forceful personality and self-confidence led Grote Reber to a series of remarkable discoveries in radio astronomy, and later to a wide variety of research in many other fields of science and technology. Although he worked primarily as an amateur, independently of the scientific establishment, Reber was ultimately recognized with many of the major prizes in astronomy.

Kellermann, K. I.

2005-01-01

45

Division X Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Rio General Assembly we held the following meetings of the Working Group: a Business Meeting, a Science Meeting on “The Development of Aperture Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy”, and a Science Meeting on “Recent Research”.

Orchiston, Wayne; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Davies, Rodney D.; Débarbat, Suzanne V.; Morimoto, Masaki; Slysh, Slava; Swarup, Govind; van Woerden, Hugo; Wall, Jasper V.; Wielebinski, Richard

2010-05-01

46

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program entitled 'Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program' with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the...

W. A. Traub

2000-01-01

47

Radio Astronomy Imagery for Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has initiated an Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program to improve its capability to process radio-wavelength astronomical data into compelling visual imagery and to make such imagery readily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, the media, and EPO professionals. This imagery initiative is exploring radio data visualization techniques and developing recipes to assist NRAO users and scientific staff with the creation of composite imagery that incorporates astronomical data acquired at multiple wavelengths. Through this effort, the NRAO Image Gallery is being populated with high-quality images, and its information content, organization, and accessibility are being substantially improved. The Observatory is accelerating these Image Gallery improvements and fostering the widest possible dissemination of new results and images by inviting the astronomical user community to participate in a radio astronomy image contest. This contest is planned to be an annual event and should result in the generation and submission of numerous high-quality radio images to the NRAO that will supplement those already produced by the Observatory's scientific staff and the astronomical community. Our EPO image program's long-term goal is to establish the NRAO Image Gallery as the international location of choice for persons seeking radio astronomy imagery and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and objects. The revitalized NRAO Image Gallery and in-house radio astronomy image production capability that we are creating promotes a clear understanding of the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, astronomers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

Adams, M. T.; Finley, D. G.; Gianopoulos, A.; Smiley, P.; Saxton, W.; Uson, J. M.

2005-05-01

48

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

49

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2010-10-01

50

47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations...Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

2009-10-01

51

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not limit themselves solely to visual light as a means of investigating the universe, most introductory astronomy laboratories do. This short coming can be remedied easily through the use of radio astronomy. With a bit of modification to equipment designed for television or FM radio purposes, the existing university laboratories can be modified in an economical way to have ``hands-on" access for the students into the field of radio astronomy. In that many of the exotic discoveries about the universe have been made through radio astronomy in the last thirty years, it can be used as a tool in furthering the student's understanding of our universe,

Scott, J. B.; Imholt, Timothy; Benge, Raymond; Roberts, James

2001-10-01

52

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy: An Internet Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA) takes its name from the source SGR-A, the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. SGRA is based at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) as an experience-based school room for use by middle and high school teachers and their students. Their scientific educational experience at SGRA relies on Internet access to PARI's remote-controlled 4.6-m radio telescope which is equipped with a 1420 MHz receiver. The 1420 MHz signal may either be recorded as a spectrum over a 4 MHz bandpass, or mapped over extended regions. Teachers, classes, and Independent Study students access the 4.6-m radio telescope via the SGRA webpage. The SGRA webpage has four components: Radio Astronomy Basics, Observing, Guides, and Logbook. The Radio Astronomy Basics section summarizes the concepts of electromagnetic waves, detection of electromagnetic waves, sources of astronomical radio waves, and how astronomers use radio telescopes. The Observing section is the link to controlling the radio telescope and receiver. The Observing page is designed in the same way a control room at an observatory is designed. Controls include options of source selection, coordinate entry, slew, set, and guide selection, and tracking. Also within the Observing section is the curriculum which presents eight modules based on relevant radio astronomy topics and objects. The Guides webpage contains atlases of the astronomical sky, catalogs, examples of observing sessions, and data reduction software that can be downloaded for analysis offline. The LOGBOOK page is primarily a guestbook, and evaluation form. We acknowledge support from the Space Telescope Science Institute IDEAS Program, and the South Carolina State University PAIR Program.

Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Osborne, C. S.; Moffett, D. A.; Case, J.

2001-12-01

53

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

54

Methods and problems in radio astronomy data analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of interferometry in radio astronomy had a dramatic impact on the whole astronomical research. The difficulty in imaging the radio-sky from interferometric data remains an important issue in the radio data processing. An interferometric array is equivalent to a diffraction grating for the electromagnetic waves coming from a radio source. After a short introduction on the fundamentals of interferometry (geometry of earth rotation, field of view, image formation) some methods for the image analysis are reviewed with particular emphasis on the CLEAN and RESTORE procedure. The new techniques for large field mapping (MOSAIC) and the extreme case of VLBI (Very long Baseline Interferometry) are also discussed.

Padrielli, L.

55

Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important

V. Minier

1998-01-01

56

The Radio JOVE Project: An Interactive, Hands-on, Radio Astronomy Experience for Students or the General Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE Project is an effort to provide low cost hands-on radio astronomy experience for students or anyone interested in amateur astronomy. This can be done either by building a kit or using remote radio telescopes through the internet. The kit costs \\\\$125 and includes the parts and instructions for building a radio telescope capable of receiving emissions from

J. Thieman

2002-01-01

57

The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

2012-09-01

58

User Friendly Database for Neptune Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to ...

D. R. Evans

1993-01-01

59

Deep Space Network: An Instrument for Radio Astronomy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communication link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy research. Three perce...

N. A. Renzetti G. S. Levy T. B. H. Kuiper P. R. Wolken R. C. Chandlee

1988-01-01

60

A history of radio astronomy polarisation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While intensity of electromagnetic radiation (radio, infrared, light, or X-ray) gives us primary information about the distribution of the baryonic matter in the Universe, polarisation is a parameter that enables us to investigate many additional details. Polarisation at radio frequencies gives us details of emission processes since the non-thermal synchrotron process dominates at low radio frequencies in emission regions. In addition, polarised radio sources can be used as probes of the intervening interstellar medium through which the radio waves are propagated. Faraday rotation effects are observed and in conjunction with known thermal emission can be used to determine magnetic fields. The Zeeman effect, a direct method of determining magnetic fields, depends on the observation of the circularpolarisation components of a spectral line. In this paper I describe the early polarisation observations of radio sources, but in addition I follow the developments through to the present day.

Wielebinski, Richard

2012-07-01

61

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

62

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

63

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

64

Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques  

SciTech Connect

The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references.

Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

1988-06-01

65

PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105 radio astronomical remote observations have been performed with users. Until now, more than 2,000 students have been involved in radio astronomical observations.

Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

2010-10-01

66

The genesis of solar radio astronomy in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 1945, O.B. Slee at RAAF Radar Station 59 near Darwin and staff from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney were involved in Australia's first investigation of radio emission from the Sun. After WWII, the Sydney radio astronomers were joined by small independent groups based at the Commonwealth Observatory, Mt Stromlo, and in the Physics Department at the University of Western Australia, in Perth. Between 1946 and 1948, these young scientists made an important contribution to international astronomy, heightening our understanding of solar physics and the relationship between sunspots and solar radio emission.

Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Burman, Ron

2006-06-01

67

An outside view of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is in a golden age of discovery of the new, with a growing appreciation from astrophysics that physics has studied so far an almost insignificant fraction of reality. This golden age is enabled by technology, with next generation technologies approaching the Giga-euro/dollar investment level. This forces a strategic view of relative strengths in the past, and strategies for future developments. Some of these may transcend traditional wavelength classifications.

Gilmore, G.

68

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope: Construction and Forty Years of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Effelsberg 100-m dish represents a major breakthrough in the technology of radio telescope construction. Using new methods of computation a big step in the direction of improved surface accuracy for large structures was achieved. In conjunction with the decision to build the 100-m radio telescope the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) founded the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn. The MPIfR grew out of the Bonn University Astronomy Department to become one of the leading institutes for radio astronomy in the world. This new institute received strong support from the MPG in the form of new positions and operating funds. As a result, the 100-m radio telescope could be quickly opened up for astronomical observations. The technical divisions provided state-of-the-art receivers and astronomical software. Teams of astronomical researchers made inroads in several important directions of astronomical research. Over the years virtually all the observing methods of radio astronomy were implemented at Effelsberg. In later years the MPIfR became involved in mm, sub-mm and infrared astronomy research. However, the 100-m radio telescope remained the `work horse' of the Institute. The Effelsberg Radio Telescope will celebrate its 40th anniversary of operations in May 2011 and is still going strong. The observations with the 100-m radio telescope have resulted in thousands of publications. It has served several generations of radio astronomers and has given hundreds of students the opportunity to complete doctoral degrees. The 100-m radio telescope has been upgraded continuously, is in excellent condition and can look to a further period as an important research instrument.

Wielebinski, Richard; Junkes, Norbert; Grahl, Berndt H.

2011-03-01

69

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2011-07-01

70

Radio astronomy with very large arrray.  

PubMed

The construction of the Very Large Array of radio telescopes has been completed, and this new research instrument is now being used to make radio images of astronomical objects with a resolution comparable to or better than that of ground-based optical telescopes. The role of the Very Large Array in current and future research is discussed both in principle and in terms of a sample of observing projects. PMID:17750599

Hjellming, R M; Bignell, R C

1982-06-18

71

The impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission power density and cause an increasing level of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), which may impact other services and particularly

M. J. Bentum; A. J. Boonstra; W. A. Baan

2010-01-01

72

TH4E: Special Session: Submillimeter Wave Radio Astronomy and Mauna Kea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic role that Mauna Kea has played in the development of Radio Astronomy as well as the historic role that radio astronomy has played in the MTT society will be highlighted in this very special focus session on submillimeter wave instrumentation, techniques, and astronomy. A wide range of talks will cover both current topics in millimeter and submillimeter wave

P. Goldsmith; P. H. Siegel

2007-01-01

73

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http:\\/\\/www.lewiscenter.org\\/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both

C. A. Higgins; J. R. Thieman; K. Bunnell; G. Soholt

2009-01-01

74

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

75

Gigabit digital filter for radio astronomy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gigabit digital filter prototype has been developed with the FPGA (FIeld Programmable Gate Array) for the radio astronomical observation. The digital filtering techniques enables a variety of observing modes defined on the data acquisition system, even with a fixed sampling frequency A/D converter. In this study, the principle of gigabit digital filter design is described in detail, parallel processing design of a FIR (Finite Inpulse Response) filter is presented, and the results of the test manufacturing are shown.

Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Ozeki, Kensuke; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Hashimoto, Tamio

2000-07-01

76

A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

2009-12-01

77

Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

2011-12-01

78

Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

Maddalena, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

79

New ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' Gives Support to Protection Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex international structure exists for the administration of the radio spectrum, now widely viewed as an increasingly valuable natural resource. Radio astronomy was first officially recognized as a radio communications service at the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1959. At that time the IAU, URSI and COSPAR set up under ICSU the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies for Radio Astronomy and Space Science (IUCAF) to represent scientific usage of the spectrum. Radio astronomers work through their national agencies or IUCAF to get their concerns considered by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), or included on the agenda of a World Radio Conference. In addition to IUCAF, National and Regional committees such as the US Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) and the European Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF) facilitate a united participation by radio astronomers. It is essential that the unique requirements of the passive services be clearly documented and readily accessible to professional spectrum managers more attuned to the requirements of government and commercial transmitting services. The ITU Radio-communications Sector is supporting this effort by the publication of ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy''. This document, prepared by an international team of radio astronomers experienced in frequency management, describes the characteristics of the radio astronomy service, the preferred frequency bands for radio astronomy use, and the extreme sensitivity and resulting vulnerability of radio astronomy observations to interference. It defines sharing criteria, harmful interference limits, and the threat of unwanted emissions from broad band (spread spectrum) modulation. Copies of the ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' should be in every engineering and astronomy library, and the material it provides can usefully be included in college and graduate level courses. The Handbook is available in both English and Spanish from the ITU in Geneva.

Davis, Michael M.

1994-12-01

80

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

81

The Harvard Radio Astronomy Station at Fort Davis, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Harvard Radio Astronomy Station at Fort Davis, Texas, came into operation in 1956 as a radio extension of the U.S. Air Force Sacramento Peak Observatory. The location near Fort Davis was chosen for the low level of man-made radio signals. Initially the receiving equipment at the site included a 28-ft diameter antenna and covered the range 100-580 MHz. The receivers swept through this band approximately three times per second, recording the spectrum of solar radio activity. In subsequent years the frequency range was extended to cover all or parts of 10 MHz to 4 GHz. All recorded solar bursts were identified according to five principal spectral types, and lists including times, durations, and frequency ranges of all solar activity were published. Studies of the bursts included analyses of their relationships to flares and other optical solar phenomena, and also their relationships to geophysical phenomena, including magnetic storms and polar blackouts. An 85-ft diameter antenna was installed in 1963, which during 1970-1974 was used for solar observations in the range 580 MHz to 4 GHz. Otherwise this antenna was used for non-solar radio astronomy, including lunar occultations of radio sources, measurements of flux densities at 5 GHz, investigations of the Galactic Center, and similar projects. The solar program was closed in late 1982 after 26 years of continuous operation. After 1974 the 85-ft antenna was used mainly in a program of VLBI network observations conducted by astronomers from Caltech and NRAO. In 1991 it was replaced by an antenna of the VLBA program of the NRAO. This paper describes some details of the antennas and receivers, and results of the solar studies. It also includes a brief discussion of the non-solar observations other than the VLBI program.

Thompson, A. Richard

2010-03-01

82

PetaOp\\/Second FPGA Signal Processing for SETI and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group, the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), seeks to speed the development of radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scalable, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of realtime radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on a small number of modular, connectible hardware components

Aaron Parsons; Donald Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Patrick Crescini; Christina de Jesus; C. Dick; P. Droz; D. MacMahon; K. Meder; J. Mock; V. Nagpal; B. Nikolic; A. Parsa; B. Richards; A. Siemion; J. Wawrzynek; D. Werthimer; M. Wright

2006-01-01

83

PetaOp\\/Second FPGA Signal Processing for SETI and Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group, the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), seeks to speed the development of radio astronomy signal process- ing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scal- able, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of real- time radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on a small number of modular,

Aaron Parsons; Donald Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Patrick Crescini; Christina de Jesus; Chris Dick; Pierre Droz; David MacMahon; Kirsten Meder; Jeff Mock; Vinayak Nagpal; Borivoje Nikolic; Arash Parsa; Brian Richards; Andrew Siemion; John Wawrzynek; Dan Werthimer; Melvyn Wright

2009-01-01

84

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

85

New ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' Gives Support to Protection Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex international structure exists for the administration of the radio spectrum, now widely viewed as an increasingly valuable natural resource. Radio astronomy was first officially recognized as a radio communications service at the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1959. At that time the IAU, URSI and COSPAR set up under ICSU the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies

Michael M. Davis

1994-01-01

86

The beginnings of radio astronomy in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The birth of Dutch radio astronomy can be rather precisely dated to 15 April 1944, when H.C. van de Hulst presented the results of his theoretical research into the origin of radio waves from space. We have investigated the events leading up to the momentous suggestion that hydrogen emission at 21 cm ought to be detectable. Both published material and letters from the Oort Archive have been consulted. Not having direct access to either radar technology or trained engineers, as was the case in countries like England and Australia, Jan Oort had to turn to a diversity of organizations: Philips Electronics Company, the Post Office, and academic colleagues in other disciplines. It was the Post Office's head of radio, A.H. de Voogt, who provided a 7.5 m Würzburg radar reflector and technical support at the Kootwijk station, starting in 1948. We trace the events leading up to the 21 cm line's detection in 1951, and discuss the early results. After a year spent rebuilding and thereby improving the receiver, C.A. Muller, together with Oort, Van de Hulst and others, was able to initiate an extensive HI survey of the Galaxy. The results fully justified the year's wait: a map of the Galaxy, spiral arms, the first rotation curve, and a much improved system of Galactic coordinates. We also present a discussion of Würzburg antennas used for research in the Netherlands, and a brief biography of A.H. de Voogt.

van Woerden, Hugo; Strom, Richard G.

2006-06-01

87

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

88

Interstellar scintillations and nanoarcsecond resolution in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstellar turbulent plasma can be considered to be a radio astronomy antenna—an interstellar diffraction grating, with\\u000a an aperture size roughly equal to the scattering-disk radius, R\\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a = z\\u000a \\u000a eff\\u000a ?\\u000a sc\\u000a ? 1 AU (where z\\u000a \\u000a eff\\u000a is the effective distance and ?\\u000a \\u000a sc\\u000a the scattering angle). The angular resolution of this interstellar diffraction grating is of the order

V. I. Shishov

2010-01-01

89

User friendly database for Neptune planetary radio astronomy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to understand esoteric characteristics of the PRA instrument or the Voyager spacecraft. Several data sets were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and have either appeared already on peer reviewed CDROM's or are in the process of being reviewed for inclusion in forthcoming CD-ROM's. Many of the data sets are also available online electronically through computer networks; it is anticipated that as time permits, the PDS will make all the data sets that were a part of this contract available both online and on CD-ROM's.

Evans, David R.

1993-07-01

90

A history of the Potts Hill radio astronomy field station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of the research activities at the Potts Hill field station of the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics in the period 1946 to 1958. The approach is set in the context of the group structure of the radio astronomy research of the Division and of the links between the groups, particularly those links which involved Potts Hill. Significant research on the structure of the Sun and the Galaxy as well as the discovery of 21-cm H-line and its mapping in the southern sky was achieved in the 12-year lifetime of the field station. Personal recollections are given of research activity during its most active phase in 1951-1953.

Davies, R. D.

2005-12-01

91

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

92

The CASPER collaboration for high-performance open source digital radio astronomy instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) has revolutionized the cost and time scale for development of high performance radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation. We present open source designs (hardware, gateware, libraries, and software tools) for a variety of flexible high bandwidth instruments, including correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, VLBI, pulsar timing and transient search machines. The collaboration relies

Dan Werthimer

2011-01-01

93

Network Development of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of ASC Lpi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All main changes in the network of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory has been related to introduction of the buffer data center in the recent years, upgrading internal and external communication channels and the exploitation of ip-telephony.

Dumsky, D. V.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.

94

Gordon James Stanley and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy in Australia and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the end of the Second World War, the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory applied the expertise and surplus radar equipment acquired during the war to problems of astronomy. Gordon Stanley was among the first group of scientists and engineers to work in the exciting new field of radio astronomy. Like many of his contemporaries, he had a strong background in radio and electronics but none in astronomy. At the Radiophysics Laboratory, and later at Caltech, Stanley developed innovative new radio telescopes and sophisticated instrumentation which resulted in important new discoveries that changed, in a fundamental way, our understanding of the Universe. He was one of those who played a key role in the early development of radio astronomy both in Australia and the United States.

Kellermann, Ken I.; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

95

Report of Survey for McDonald Observatory, Harvard Radio Astronomy Station, and Vicinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A special purpose three-dimensional geodetic survey was conducted in the vicinity of the McDonald Observatory and Harvard Radio Astronomy Station (HRAS) near Ft. Davis, Texas. The observing program included astronomic positions and azimuths, zenith distan...

W. E. Carter J. E. Pettey

1981-01-01

96

Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

Miller Goss, W.

2012-05-01

97

Development of the Radio Astronomy Data Centre (radc) at Prao ASC Lpi RAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Astronomy Data Center (RADC) have been developed at PRAO ASC LPI during the recent years. It consists of: a) the database of the most important astronomical catalogues for radio astronomers; b) the database of the observational data of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory. The database of astronomical catalogues http://astro.prao.ru/db/ contains few tens of the most important catalogues for the planning of the radio astronomy observations. Since 2011, the database of astronomical catalogues has been actively equipped with graphical tools for data visualization and cross-analysis of catalogues between each other. The observation database http://observations.prao.ru/ has collected observational data from the base observatory instruments and radio telescopes. That database provides access to the observation instruments and telescopes descriptions, techniques of making data samples per instruments, information about types of observations, observers and dates of observations, etc.

Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Ladeyshchikov, D. A.; Dumskiy, D. V.; Pugachev, V. D.; Zaytsev, A. Y.; Logvinenko, S. V.

98

A Calibrated Digital Sideband Separating Spectrometer for Radio Astronomy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual sideband (2SB) receivers are well suited for the spectral observation of complex astronomical signals over a wide frequency range. They are extensively used in radio astronomy, their main advantages being to avoid spectral confusion and to diminish effective system temperature by a factor 2 with respect to double sideband (DSB) receivers. Using available millimeter-wave analog technology, wideband 2SB receivers generally obtain sideband rejection ratios (SRR) of 10--15 dB, insufficient for a number of astronomical applications. We report here the design and implementation of an FPGA-based sideband separating FFT spectrometer. A 4 GHz analog front end was built to test the design and measure sideband rejection. The setup uses a 2SB front end architecture, except that the mixer outputs are directly digitized before the IF hybrid, using two 8 bit ADCs sampling at 1 GSPS. The IF hybrid is implemented on the FPGA together with a set of calibration vectors that, properly chosen, compensate for the analog front end amplitude and phase imbalances. The calibrated receiver exhibits a sideband rejection ratio in excess of 40 dB for the entire 2 GHz RF bandwidth.

Finger, Ricardo; Mena, Patricio; Reyes, Nicolás; Rodriguez, Rafael; Bronfman, Leonardo

2013-03-01

99

An application of high-performance reconfigurable computing in radio astronomy signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable Computing has been making inroads in the front-end digital signal processing systems deployed at radio telescopes around the world. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) at Green Bank has developed a signal processing system expressly for pulsar search and timing observations. These observations are among the most demanding experiments in terms of real-time computational and data rate requirements. In

John Ford; Jason Ray

2010-01-01

100

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of 18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-06-01

101

Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

2012-01-01

102

Latent Dirichlet allocation for image segmentation and source finding in radio astronomy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present exploratory work into the application of the topic modelling algorithm latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to image segmentation in greyscale images, and in particular, source detection in radio astronomy images. LDA performed similarly to the standard source-detection software on a representative sample of radio astronomy images. Our use of LDA underperforms on fainter and diffuse sources, but yields superior results on a representative image polluted with artefacts --- the type of image in which the standard source-detection software requires manual intervention by an astronomer for adequate results.

Friedlander, A.; Frean, M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Hollitt, C.

2013-01-01

103

Low frequency solar radio astronomy at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IIA is presently involved in the expansion of its existing radioheliograph operating in the frequency 120-40 MHz at the Gauribidanur radio observatory located about 80 km north of Bangalore. Once completed, the expanded array will have an angular resolution of ? 1' at a typical frequency of 100 MHz. This paper describes the development of solar radio astronomy activities at IIA since 1952 when the first observations were carried out.

Ramesh, R.

104

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to one pagers on historical instruments of astronomy with photos of the following : Astronomy Slides, Celestial Globe, Cometarium, Globe, Gregorian Telescope, Kepler's Laws Demonstration, Orrery, Planetarium, Planisphere, Stereoscopic Pictures of the Moon, Tellurian, and Transit.

2000-01-01

105

Radio Astronomy Activities as a Teaching Tool for Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the Universe, or astronomy, has for a long time been of interest to university students of almost any major. It is also a program that, if properly, allows the university system an opportunity to give students an introduction into the fields of physics as well as other sciences in a non-traditional way. While professional astronomers do not

J. B. Scott; Timothy Imholt; Raymond Benge; James Roberts

2001-01-01

106

Intel® many integrated core (MIC) architecture: portability and performance efficiency study of radio astronomy algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Astronomy demands for HPC power have been rising and are expected to reach exaflop scale by 2020. To address such huge demands for compute, users are testing newer CPU architectures and accelerator architectures such as GPUs and FPGAs. Intel, with the help of HPC Ecosystem partners, has stated a goal to deliver exascale computing capability by 2018. This goal

Rama Malladi; Richard Dodson; Vyacheslav Kitaeff

2012-01-01

107

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began

E. N. Bouton

2005-01-01

108

The Beginnings of Decametric Radio Astronomy: Pioneering Work of S. Braude and his Followers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brief history of the first stages for decametric radio astronomy studies is described. The role of pioneering works of Prof. Braude is outlined. For this paper we used new information explored from Braude's diary. At present, Ukraine is one of recognised country having powerful decametric infrastructure and scientific achievements thanks to the Braude' followers. The author will present a

I. B. Vavilova

2006-01-01

109

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest.

Albert-Jan Boonstra; Noah Saks; Heino Falcke; Marc Klein-Wolt; Ark Bentum; Raj Thilak Rajan; Ir. Stefan J. Wijnholds; Michel Arts; Kees van-T Klooster; Frederik Belien

2010-01-01

110

Cosmic rays in the Galaxy and their implications for VLF radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

New observations of the local galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and of the distribution of GCR nuclei in the Galaxy are described together with the results of modeling of the GCR radial profiles and the application of these results. Special attention is given to the studies of energetic cosmic rays observable with VLF radio astronomy, emphasizing the importance of higer

W. R. Webber

1990-01-01

111

Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurements provide unique information on turbulence in the ISM as well as the mean plasma properties such as density and magnetic field strength. Radio propagation observations can provide input to the major contemporary questions on the nature of ISM turbulence, such as its dissipation mechanisms and the processes responsible for generating the turbulence on large spatial scales. Measurements of the large scale Galactic magnetic field via Faraday rotation provide unique observational input to theories of the generation of the Galactic field.

Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

2013-09-01

112

Adventures in Radio Astronomy Instrumentation and Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the design and implementation of several instruments for digitizing and processing analogue astronomical signals collected using radio telescopes. Modern radio telescopes have significant digital signal processing demands that are typically best met using custom processing engines implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. These demands essentially stem from the ever-larger analogue bandwidths that astronomers wish to observe, resulting

Peter L. McMahon

2011-01-01

113

Highlighting the History of Japanese Radio Astronomy. 2: Koichi Shimoda and the 1948 Solar Eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just two years after Dicke carried out the first radio observations of a solar eclipse, a young Japanese physics graduate, Koichi Shimoda, attempted to observe 3,000 MHz emission during the 9 May 1948 partial solar eclipse. In so doing he unwittingly became the 'founding father' of Japanese radio astronomy. In this paper as our mark of respect for him, we list Shimoda as the lead author of the paper so that his observations can finally be placed on record for the international radio astronomical community.

Shimoda, Koichi; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Ishiguro, Masato

2013-07-01

114

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) ?V on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) ?V on average).

Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

2010-07-01

115

Cyclostationary approaches for spatial RFI mitigation in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interferences (RFIs), and real time filtering algorithms are becoming essential. In this article, it is shown how spatial processing techniques can limit the impact of the incoming RFIs for phased array radio telescopes. The proposed approaches are based on estimation of the RFI spatial signature. It requires the diagonalization of either the classic correlation matrix or the cyclic correlation matrix of the array. Different diagonalization techniques are compared. Then, RFI detection and RFI filtering techniques are illustrated through simulations on data acquired with the Low Frequency Array Radio telescope, LOFAR. The originality of the study is the use of the cyclostationarity property, in order to improve the spatial separation between cosmic sources and RFIs.

Hellbourg, Grégory; Weber, Rodolphe; Capdessus, Cécile; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2012-01-01

116

From the Beginning: Archiving the History of NRAO and US Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 the National Radio Astronomy Observatory will celebrate its 50th anniversary. Before 2003, there were neither archives nor a formal archiving program at NRAO; institutional records were located at any of the four NRAO sites in four different states, and there was no record of the materials that we had. In mid-2003, the long-time NRAO librarian retired and began part time work as NRAO's first archivist. With the completion of an addition to the headquarters building in Charlottesville in spring 2005, the fledgling NRAO Archives moved into a new 1400 sq ft space. In addition to NRAO materials, the Archives also collects papers of individuals. Grote Reber, who built the first radio telescope in his backyard in Wheaton IL in 1937, had in 1995, donated many of his personal papers to NRAO, and these papers have been indexed and are available to researchers. We continue to receive additional materials from his estate in Tasmania. The complete papers of John Kraus, author, researcher, and professor in radio astronomy and engineering at Ohio State University for many years, were donated to the NRAO Archives by his son and estate executor in spring 2005. The NRAO Archives has also mounted Web resources with texts written by Nan Dieter Conklin and by Doc Ewen describing their work in the developing years of US radio astronomy. This talk will present the highlights of how, on a limited budget but with broad support of NRAO staff, the NRAO Archives has begun a program to gather and organize materials on institutional history as well as the personal papers and recollections of contributors to US radio astronomy history.

Bouton, E. N.

2005-12-01

117

Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

118

Fast pulsars, strange stars: an opportunity in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit have been discovered suggesting that there may be even shorter ones. If pulsars with periods below 1\\/2 ms were

Norman K. Glendenning

1990-01-01

119

Methods in computational physics. Volume 14 - Radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented which deal with the special computational problems in radioastronomical studies, studying the chief problems of data acquisition, reduction, and interpretation for selected types of observations. The specific topics studied are the principles of radioheliography with emphasis on the Culgoora radioheliograph, pulsar signal processing, aperture synthesis (in particular, earth rotation aperture synthesis), and computations in radio-frequency spectroscopy. Individual

B. Alder; S. Fernbach; M. Rotenberg

1975-01-01

120

Fast pulsars, strange stars: An opportunity in radio astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's data on radio pulsars is not expected to represent the underlying pulsar population because of a search bias against detection of short periods, especially below 1 ms. Yet pulsars in increasing numbers with periods right down to this limit hav...

N. K. Glendenning

1990-01-01

121

GALAXY: Real-Time VLBI for Radio Astronomy Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALAXY is a research project on advanced VLBI technology, jointly conducted by CRL, NAO, and NTT. The testbed of the project is a 2.5-Gb/s ultra-high speed network using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). One of the aims of this project is to achieve high-sensitivity VLBI observation with this gigabit class network. GALAXY network consists of KSP and OLIVE networks provided by NTT and spans 200km range. The sensitivity achieved in our current observation system is comparable to the world-highest class (approx. 10mJy) using conventional VLBI samplers. This short baseline and high sensitivity make GALAXY a unique VLBI network for astronomy in the world. Here we describe the properties of GALAXY network and observations focusing on some unique results that can be achieved with the capability of GALAXY. Developments of new networking technology such as Internet Protocol UP) with GALAXY network are also presented,

Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Miyaji, Takeshi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kondo, Tetsuro; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Junichi

2001-03-01

122

GALAXY: Real-Time VLBI for Radio Astronomy Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GALAXY is a research project on advanced VLBI technology, jointly conducted by CRL, NAO, and NTT. The testbed of the project is a 2.5-Gb/s ultra-high speed network using Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). One of the aims of this project is to achieve high-sensitivity VLBI observation with this gigabit class network. GALAXY network consists of KSP and OLIVE networks provided by NTT and spans 200 km range. The sensitivity achieved in our current observation system is comparable to the world-highest class (approx. 10mJy) using conventional VLBI samplers. This short baseline and high-sensitivity make GALAXY a unique VLBI network for astronomy in the world. Here we describe the properties of GALAXY network and observations focusing on some unique results that can be achieved with the capability of GALAXY. Developments of new networking technology such as Internet Protocol (IP) with GALAXY network are also presented.

Fujisawa, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Miyaji, Takeshi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kondo, Tetsuro; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Junichi; Sekido, Mamoru

2001-03-01

123

PARTNeR, a Radio Astronomy experience for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR is the acronym for Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo. The 34-m antenna in Robledo de Chavela is used by high schools, universities and amateur astronomers to learn about radioastronomy, physics and to get interested in science. The main project we develop is the observations of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries. The high-school teachers joining our program take a training course to learn the basis of radioastronomy. Some practical lessons to teach the children the physical fundamentals of radioastronomy are also given to them. The operational phase of the project started in 2004, and 25 high schools, 5 universities and 4 societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project.

Suárez, O.; Blasco, C.; Gómez, J. F.; Herranz, M.; Montesinos, B.; García, J.

124

Feature Detection in Radio Astronomy using the Circle Hough Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While automatic detection of point sources in astronomical images has experienced a great degree of success, less effort has been directed towards the detection of extended and low-surface-brightness features. At present, existing telescopes still rely on human expertise to reduce the raw data to usable images and then to analyse the images for non-pointlike objects. However, the next generation of radio telescopes will generate unprecedented volumes of data making manual data reduction and object extraction infeasible. Without developing new methods of automatic detection for extended and diffuse objects such as supernova remnants, bent-tailed galaxies, radio relics and halos, a wealth of scientifically important results will not be uncovered. In this paper we explore the response of the Circle Hough Transform to a representative sample of different extended circular or arc-like astronomical objects. We also examine the response of the Circle Hough Transform to input images containing noise alone and inputs including point sources.

Hollitt, C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.

2012-03-01

125

Radio Astronomy Group: More evidence of increasing solar activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lengthening days of summer and the increase in activity as Solar Cycle 24 gets under way have produced some welcome results for observers of Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs). SIDs are caused by dramatic increases in solar radiation hitting the upper regions of the atmosphere, which change the way radio waves are reflected, and hence the strength of the received signal at ground level monitored by SID observers.

Hyde, P.

2010-08-01

126

A 110 GHz SIS receiver for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 110 GHz superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction receiver has been developed and used in regular astronomical observations on the 4m radio telescope at the Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University. The SIS junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2 K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. The receiver exhibits a best double side band noise temperature of 23 + or - 2 K at 110 GHz. Additional measurements at 98-115 GHz indicate that the receiver has a good response over this input frequency range.

Ogawa, H.; Mizuno, A.; Ishikawa, H.; Fukui, Y.; Hoko, H.

1990-06-01

127

Characterising the Venezuelan Troposphere for Radio-Astronomy Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venezuela possesses a very useful geographical location for doing Radioastronomy. Recently, the Venezuelan Government (via FIDETEL-Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología) has aproved to the Laboratorio de Astronomía y Física Teórica (LAFT) of La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela) the adquisition of four 3 meter diameter parabolic dishes that will be set as a radio-interferometer receiver and that can be used for certain Radioastronomy purposes. The specifications of the instrument will be treated elsewhere (Muñoz and Hernández 2007). To this aim, as ussually, the first step is to characterize the losses due to the atmosphere, and their evolution over time. In previous works (Muñoz et al. 2004, Memoires of V RIAO/VIII OPTILAS, M10-5 Modelling Tropospheric Radio-Attenuation Parameters for Venezuela, 359; Muñoz et al. 2006, CIENCIA, Vol. 14, 4, 428) we have studied some relevant electromagnetic (e-m) attenuation parameters dueto hydrometeors and absortion gases in the lower atmosphere, focused in local telecommunication applications (surface e-m trajectories). In this work we extend our results to include the cenital and quasi-cenital e-m trajectories, characterizing thus the medium losses in the 0.4-4.0 GHz spectral window for several Venezuelan locations. We report refractivity values and their gradients, tropospheric indexes, extinction coefficients and the total rain attenuation for the whole territory under study.

Pacheco, R.; Muñoz, A. G.; Brito, A.; Cubillán, N.

2009-05-01

128

Centimeter-wave Research with the Morehead State University 21 M Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduate Students in Radio Astronomy Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Science Center at Morehead State University has developed a medium aperture cm-wave radio telescope, the 21 M Space Tracking Antenna and Radio Telescope. Located in the radio-frequency quiet, mountainous region of eastern Kentucky, the telescope serves as an Earth Station for satellite mission support and provides telemetry, tracking, and control services with an emphasis on university cubesat missions. In addition, the telescope is engaged in research programs in radio astronomy and features receivers operating in the Ku-band (11.2 to 12.7 GHz, including a well-known methanol line) and the L-band (1.4 to 1.7 GHz, including lines of atomic hydrogen and molecular hydroxyl). At these bands, the telescope is capable of supporting a wide variety of niche astronomical research programs, including longitudinal studies (e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGN) monitoring), observations of transient phenomena (e.g., gamma-ray bursts and supernovae), and surveys (e.g., kinematic studies of Galactic HI). A description of the space tracking antenna system and radio telescope, its capabilities and research projects planned for or currently underway with the telescope (namely monitoring AGNs and surveying the Galactic supernova remnant population) will be presented and discussed. Funding for the 21m telescope has been provided by NASA, the SBA, the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation and Kentucky NSF EPSCoR.

Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Pannuti, T. G.; Atwood, J. W.; Ennis, M. E.

2007-12-01

129

The Contribution of an Experimental WWII Radar Antenna to Australian Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division's short-lived Georges Heights field station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill field station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, Galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, H.

2011-01-01

130

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

2011-03-01

131

Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

132

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

133

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces students to some general concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-10-07

134

Moon-based Very Long-Wavelength Radio Astronomy Facility: science drives and technological challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific laboratories at manned and un-manned Moon bases are top priorities for the next wave of exploratory missions. Environmental conditions on the Moon are beneficial for various types of experimental research. Very Long Wavelength radio Astronomy (VLWA) is among the most attractive scientific disciplines for the suit of Moon-based laboratories. Space science has revolutionised astronomy by opening up several hitherto inaccessible windows in the spectrum. The opening of each new spectral window has resulted in unexpected discoveries and made it possible to obtain a comprehensive picture of physical processes in celestial sources. One of the last remaining unexplored regions of the spectrum is at the lowest radio frequencies. Radio emission below 15 MHz (wavelengths longer than 20 m) is inaccessible from the Earth surface due to absorption and scattering in the ionosphere. Unique new science areas for VLWA studies include: (i)Investigation of radio sky at so far inaccessible regime of electromagnetic radiation; (ii) Cosmological "experiments" with "fossil" relativistic electrons; (iii) Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays via VLWA emission from particle interactions with the Moon; (iv) Solar system "weather", including coronal mass ejections, (v) Searches for Jupiter-like exoplanets. In addition to the astrophysical tasks mentioned above, the VLWA facility on the Moon can be implemented as a Wide Area Network, as pioneered by the Earth-based Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). This allows the inclusion of other sensors, such as seismic detectors to conduct selenological studies. The LOFAR is being constructed in the Netherlands. It will operate in the frequency range 20 - 220 MHz. Several other projects will aim at addressing cosmological problems by studying the Universe at the range of frequencies below 100 MHz. These and other new radio astronomy facilities will lay the scientific and technological ground for VLWA in space. We will present a multi-step approach toward creating a permanent VLWA observatory on the Moon. Its first phase would include a demonstrator to be deployed as a small-scale scientific payload onboard one of the lunar missions of the next decade. A concept of an affordable fullscale observatory will be presented in the context of a long-term Moon exploration programme.

Gurvits, Leonid

135

Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session, problems of linking positions from one observing session to another can be avoided, the astronomers say. The result will be a much stronger, more precise, reference grid. Telescopes in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and in the Pacific will participate. Improving the celestial positional grid will allow astronomers better to pinpoint the locations and measure the motions of objects in the sky. As astronomers increasingly study objects using multiple telescopes observing at different wavelengths, such as visible light, radio, infrared, etc., the improved positional grid will allow more accurate overlaying of the different images. The improved celestial reference frame also strengthens a terrestrial reference frame used for radio-telescope measurements that contribute to geophysical research. The precise geodetic measurements help geophysicists understand phenomena such as plate tectonics, earth tides, and processes that affect our planet's orientation in space. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio telescope system with 10, 240-ton dish antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. Operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, the VLBA offers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in astronomy. The multi-telescope observation will be accompanied by public-outreach activities in celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. A public web page devoted to the observation will be hosted at Bordeaux Observatory, and some of the participating telescopes will have webcams available.

2009-11-01

136

Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

2012-06-01

137

Ingenuity and initiative in Australian radio astronomy: the Dover Heights "hole-in-the-ground" antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1950s staff from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics based at the Dover Heights field station employed ingenuity and initiative in response to a lack of funding and support for a new radio telescope. In order to obtain the requisite aperture for the resolution sought they spent their own time excavating a 21.9-m parabolic depression in the sand at the field station, and when the viability of this prototype transit instrument was established its diameter was increased to 24.4 m, making this the largest radio telescope in Australia at the time. Operating at 400 MHz, this instrument was employed to map the galactic centre region and in a search for new discrete sources. It also was used to investigate polarization in the plane of the Galaxy, and in an unsuccessful search for the newly-proposed deuterium line. Today the Dover Heights "hole-in-the-ground" antenna lies buried beneath Rodney Reserve, and there is little at this public playing field to remind visitors of the important contributions made by this radio telescope, and others at this site, during the formative years of Australian radio astronomy.

Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

2002-06-01

138

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements

Jack Welch; Don Backer; Leo Blitz; Douglas C.-J. Bock; Geoffrey C. Bower; Calvin Cheng; Steve Croft; Matt Dexter; Greg Engargiola; E. Fields; James Forster; Colby Gutierrez-Kraybill; Carl Heiles; Tamara Helfer; Susanne Jorgensen; Garrett Keating; John Lugten; Dave MacMahon; Oren Milgrome; Douglas Thornton; Lynn Urry; Joeri van Leeuwen; Dan Werthimer; Peter H. Williams; Melvin Wright; Jill Tarter; Robert Ackermann; Shannon Atkinson; Peter Backus; William Barott; Tucker Bradford; Michael Davis; Dave DeBoer; John Dreher; Gerry Harp; J. Jordan; T. Kilsdonk; T. Pierson; K. Randall; J. Ross; S. Shostak; M. Fleming; C. Cork; A. Vitouchkine; N. Wadefalk; Sander Weinreb

2009-01-01

139

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided\\u000a into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is\\u000a described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We

Bo Peng; Wenjun Han

2009-01-01

140

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

2009-12-01

141

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were initially sited at Marcoussis, near Paris, before being transferred to the Nançay field station in 1957. The third Würzburg antenna was used by staff from the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, and was installed at Meudon Observatory on the outskirts of Paris. This paper describes the three antennas, lists the personnel involved, discusses the observations made, evaluates the significance of this research in a national and international context, and comments on their current whereabouts.

Orchiston, Wayne; Lequeux, James; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Delannoy, Jean

2007-11-01

142

The wideband backend for host country radio astronomy in the Spanish DSN Robledo complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Deep Space Network hosts three complexes worldwide for spacecrafts tracking. The Spanish complex, the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC), operates a set of highly sensitive antennas, which are used for Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) during a percentage of their operational time. We have designed, developed and built a wideband backend for HCRA in MDSCC, which greatly improves its available facilities, and opens new scientic cases to be tackled. The backend is able to sample up to 6 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth, in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz, using two dierent antennas. An intermediate-frequency (IF) processor downconverts the two-polarization signals to four base-band channels of 1.5 GHz width. Digitalisation is done through a set of FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which can provide spectral resolutions from 7 to 200 kHz, and spectral coverages from 100MHz to 1.5 GHz each. This new facility enables HCRA to aord new scientic projects, such as extragalactic radio astronomy and spectral surveys; at the same time, the available time for HC is greatly optimized. It was necessary the development of dedicated software for spectra acquisition and control of the equipment, and also the upgrading of the existing observing programs. Once end-to-end assembled, the whole backend was tested through a set of commissioning observations. In this contribution the main features of the new backend are described, including the IF processor, the FFT spectrometer and the developed software. Some astronomical results are also included.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; García Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.

2012-09-01

143

Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization. Results are given for simulated and experimental data, demonstrating deeper beampattern nulls by 6 to 30dB. To increase the system bandwidth toward the hundreds of MHz bandwidth required by astronomers for a fully science-ready instrument, an FPGA digital backend is introduced using a 64-input analog-to-digital converter running at 50 Msamp/sec and the ROACH processing board developed at the University of California, Berkeley. International efforts to develop digital back ends for large antenna arrays are considered, and a road map is proposed for development of a hardware correlator/beamformer at BYU using three ROACH boards communicating over 10 gigabit Ethernet.

Landon, Jonathan C.

144

Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

2006-05-01

145

The Development of Radio Astronomy at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides information about the emergence and development of radio astronomy at the Sternberg Astronmical Institute of Moscow State University (GAISH), and further at the Space Research Institute (IKI). The main results of theoretical studies of mechanisms for the Sun, Galactic and extragalactic radio emission and their relationship to physical processes in space are laid out in detail. The results of observations carried out at the initiative of and with the participation of radio astronomers from GAISH and IKI using many radio telescope in the Soviet Union and abroad are also considered, including methods for space radio astronomy.

Gindilis, L. M.

146

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research

Zamri Zainal Abidin; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zulfazli Rosli; Siti Fatin Fathinah Malim; Norsuzian Mohd Anim

2010-01-01

147

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

148

Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The first group exhibits a linear velocity gradient and forms a line in our VLBI map which is consistent with a rotating disc of masers seen edge-on around a massive star. The second group of masers are blueshifted with respect to the first group and lie in a conical region south of the inferred disc. We argue that these masers probably arise in an outflow emerging approximately perpendicularly to the disc. We find that the maser positions at 6.7 and 12.2 GHz are coincident and those of the second group correspond approximately to the absolute positions of NH3, H2CO and OH masers associated with the radio-continuum and infrared source NGC7538-IRS1. In addition we find similar evidence for circumstellar discs of masers in W75N and S252. For these three sources associated with ultra compact HII regions, from the linear velocity gradients and assuming that the central protostars are massive, we derive that the radii of the circumstellar discs are in the range 300-1200 AU which is typical of protoplanetary discs. In the second part, we present the design and realization of 4 GHz cryogenic low noise amplifiers used as IF amplifiers in a radio-camera receiver (SISYFOS project) which will be installed in the Onsala 20m millimeter wave telescope. The requirements of the SISYFOS project at cryogenic temperature are a minimum gain of 25 dB and noise equivalent temperature less than 10 K over the frequency range 3.4-4.6 GHz. Because of its low noise and high gain properties, the MGF4310E series super low noise HEMT from Mitsubishi have been selected to satisfy these requirements. We show that a very simple input design using a high impedance series line viewed as a series inductor provides good matching over a broad bandwidth while ensuring the stability of the amplifier. The minimum noise equivalent temperature and gain of the amplifier measured at cryogenic ambient temperature over the specified bandwidth are 7 K and 28 dB respectively.

Minier, V.

1998-10-01

149

Panoramic Radio Astronomy: Wide-field 1-2 GHz research on galaxy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a burst of renewed vigor enabled by recent technological advancements, radio astronomers around the world are now developing a number of new telescopes and instruments. Within the coming few years, a major improvement will be achieved over current facilities. Interferometers such as ASKAP, MeerKAT and WSRT+APERTIF will provide a combination of larger field of view and increased simultaneous bandwidth, while maintaining good collecting area and angular resolution. They will achieve a survey speed 10-50 times larger at 1-2 GHz than what is currently possible, allowing for the first time optical-like all-sky extragalactic surveys at these frequencies. The way that radio astronomical research is carried out will change profoundly, marking a major step towards the capabilities sought after for the coming decades. Significant progress will be made in many fields of radio astronomy. One of the areas that will benefit most is research into the evolution of galaxies over the past few Gyr. In particular, wide-field observations at 1-2 GHz will provide an unprecedented panoramic view of the gas properties and star formation in galaxies, embedded in their environment, from z~0.2-0.5 to the present. We aim to bring together researchers in this field to discuss the optimal exploitation of the new radio observatories for future science programs. Within the framework of our current knowledge of the galaxy population at z<0.5, we will address: the key science questions that the new telescopes will permit us to answer in combination with complimentary work at other wavelengths; the observing/analysis modes/strategies which will allow us to most efficiently exploit the data; and the techniques for most effectively coping with the huge volume of survey products, so far unusual for the radio community. In keeping with the forward-looking spirit of this conference, we encourage potential speakers to present and discuss their plans for the instruments of the near future. The key points that the conference will address are: * Scope, depth and design of HI wide area surveys * Evolution of the HI mass function and its dependence on morphological type and environment * Evolution of galaxy scaling relations out to z~0.2 * The evolution of star formation and its relation to gas content in galaxies * Wide field-of-view deep HI observations of individual fields - nearby clusters, groups and galaxies * Continuum surveys: star-forming-galaxies and the role of AGN activity * Polarisation and magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

150

Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

2012-05-01

151

News and Views: Bite the bullet; Radio astronomy lurking in your laptop; Want to find planets? Track the lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John O'Sullivan, a radio astronomer, has received the 2009 Australian Prime Minister's Prize for Science for technology that was devised to improve radio astronomy, but now allows fast and reliable wireless computing for all of us - genuine knowledge transfer in action. A spectrographic survey has found that stars with planets - like our Sun - tend to have a lot less lithium in their make-up than comparable stars without planetary systems. It is not yet clear how this comes about, but it points the way to a shortcut to finding new exoplanetary systems.

2009-12-01

152

A Collision of Interests - Protecting Radio Astronomy from Interference in a Free-Market Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection of radio astronomy (RA) from radio frequency interference (RFI) is becoming increasingly difficult. Established mechanisms for the management of spectrum in the United States and throughout the world have provided a degree of protection from RFI by assigning certain bands to RA on an exclusive or shared use basis. Explosive growth in commercial spectrum use has created spectrum crowding outside the RA bands, especially at lower frequencies below 3 GHz. Constellations of low-earth-orbit satellites are a particular problem to RA in that they always have transmitters above the horizon and these transmitters can spill unwanted emissions into the RA bands from their adjacent operating bands. The desire to study the early Universe presents a new challenge for RA with respect to RFI. The RA protected bands were selected for frequencies of important spectral lines. For objects in the distant, redshifted Universe, these lines can appear at all frequencies below the rest frequency and observations may be needed where the RA bands offer no protection. The growing needs of RA occur at the same time that commercial demand for spectrum is driving the Federal Communications Commission and the International Telecommuncations Union to consider entirely new approaches to spectrum management. These approaches would favor intensive commercial use of spectrum over scientific use in that decisions would be largely based on economic and efficient use considerations. It has even been proposed by some proponents of change in spectrum management policy that the entire spectrum be sold to the highest bidders in one global auction. While this is unlikely to happen, it is indicative of the climate in which RA spectrum managers currently work.

Vanden Bout, P. A.

2004-05-01

153

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-07-01

154

Constraints on Saturn's G Ring from the Voyager 2 Radio Astronomy Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reanalyzed the data acquired by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment during the passage of Voyager 2 through the outer part of Saturn's G ring, originally published by Aubier et al.(1983. Geophys. Res. Lett.10, 5-8). This study closely parallels the reanalysis of the Voyager 1 PRA data during the E-ring passage (Meyer-Vernet et al.1996. Icarus123, 113-128). The instrument detected dust grain impacts on the spacecraft in a region of ?1000 km vertical extent around the ring plane with a maximum at ring plane crossing. The signal is mainly produced by grains of radius of a few micrometers. We find a size distribution less steep than the r-6law inferred for submicrometer grains by Showalter and Cuzzi (1993. Icarus103, 124-143) from photometric data. These results can be reconciled if the slope of the size distribution flattens above 0.5 ?. Assuming a rough continuity between the distributions deduced from the two data sets and an r- qlaw for the grains detected by PRA, we infer that the differential power law index q< 3.5 for grain radii between about a half micrometer and a few micrometers. From the observed vertical profile, we deduce an effective ring vertical thickness H? 1200/( q- 1) km. When qvaries in the range 3.5-2, Hvaries in the range 500-1200 km and the geometric cross section per unit area is a few times 10 -6.

Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Lecacheux, Alain; Pedersen, Bent M.

1998-04-01

155

Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Dark Energy was discovered in 1998 with the observation that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. It constitutes 70 percent of the matter and energy in the Universe, but its nature remains unknown. Determining its nature is one of the most important problems in astrophysics. "Measuring precise distances is one of the oldest problems in astronomy, and applying a relatively new radio-astronomy technique to this old problem is vital to solving one of the greatest challenges of 21st Century astrophysics," said team member Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The work on UGC 3789 follows a landmark measurement done with the VLBA in 1999, in which the distance to the galaxy NGC 4258 -- 23 million light-years -- was directly measured by observing water masers in a disk of material orbiting its central black hole. That measurement allowed refinement of other, indirect distance-measuring techniques using variable stars as "standard candles." The measurement to UGC 3789 adds a new milepost seven times more distant than NGC 4258, which itself is too close to measure the Hubble Constant directly. The speed at which NGC 4258 is receding from the Milky Way can be influenced by local effects. "UGC 3789 is far enough that the speed at which it is moving away from the Milky Way is more indicative of the expansion of the Universe," said team member Elizabeth Humphreys of the CfA. Following the achievement with NGC 4258, astronomers used the highly-sensitive GBT to search for other galaxies with similar water-molecule masers in disks orbiting their central black holes. Once candidates were found, astronomers then used the VLBA and the GBT together with the Effelsberg telescope to make images of the disks and measure their detailed rotational structure, needed for the distance measurements. This effort requires multi-year observations of each galaxy. UGC 3789 is the first galaxy in the program to yield such a precise distance. Team member Cheng-Yu Kuo of the University of V

2009-06-01

156

A New Approach to Radio Astronomy Signal Processing: Packet Switched, FPGA-based, Upgradeable, Modular Hardware and Reusable, Platform-Independent Signal Processing Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our group seeks to revolutionize the development of radio astronomy signal processing instrumentation by designing and demonstrating a scalable, upgradeable, FPGA-based computing platform and software design methodology that targets a range of real-time radio telescope signal processing applications. This project relies on the development of a small number of modular, connectible, upgradeable hardware components and platform- independent signal processing algorithms

Aaron Parsons; Don Backer; Chen Chang; Daniel Chapman; Henry Chen; Pierre Droz; Christina de Jesus; David MacMahon; Andrew Siemion; John Wawrzynek; Dan Werthimer; Mel Wright

157

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. There was also an abiding interest in the terrestrial effects of this solar radio emission. Among these solar pioneers were French radio astronomers from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In this paper we review the early solar observations made by them from Paris, Marcoussis and Nançay prior to the construction of a number of innovative multi-element solar interferometers at the Nançay field station in the mid-1950s.

Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Kundu, Mukul; Arsac, Jacques; Blum, Émile-Jacques; Boischot, André

2009-11-01

158

Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, radio astronomy receivers have been limited to bandwidths less than an octave, and as a result multiple feeds and receivers are necessary to observe over a wide bandwidth. Next generation of instruments for radio astronomy will benefit greatly from reflector antenna feeds that demonstrate very wide instantaneous bandwidth, and exhibit low noise behavior. There is an increasing interest in wideband systems from both the cost and science point of view. A wideband feed will allow simultaneous observations or sweeps over a decade or more bandwidth. Instantaneous wide bandwidth is necessary for detection of short duration pulses. Future telescopes like square kilometer array (SKA), consisting of 2000 to 3000 coherently connected antennas and covering a frequency range of 70 MHz to 30 GHz, will need decade bandwidth single pixel feeds (SPFs) along with integrated LNAs to achieve the scientific objectives in a cost effective way. This dissertation focuses on the design and measurement of a novel decade bandwidth sinuous-type, dual linear polarized, fixed phase center, low loss feed with an integrated LNA. A decade bandwidth, low noise amplifier is specially designed for noise match to the higher terminal impedance encountered by this antenna yielding an improved sensitivity over what is possible with conventional 50 O amplifiers. The self-complementary, frequency independent nature of the planar sinuous geometry results in a nearly constant beam pattern and fixed phase center over more than a 10:1 operating frequency range. In order to eliminate the back-lobe response over such a wide frequency range, we have projected the sinuous pattern onto a cone, and a ground plane is placed directly behind the cone's apex. This inverted, conical geometry assures wide bandwidth operation by locating each sinuous resonator a quarter wavelength above the ground plane. The presence of a ground plane near a self complementary antenna destroys the self complementary nature of the composite structure resulting in frequency dependent impedance variations. We demonstrate, using simulations and measurements, how the return loss can be improved by modifying the sinuous geometry. The feed-LNA combination is characterized for important properties such as return loss, system noise, far field beam patterns including cross-polarization over a wide frequency range. The system is developed as a feed for a parabolic reflector. The overall system performance is calculated in terms of the A/Tsys ratio. A cryogenic version would have a direct impact on specialized observing applications requiring large instantaneous bandwidths with high sensitivity. A novel cryogenic implementation of this system is demonstrated using a Stirling cycle, one-stage refrigerator. The cryocooler offers advantages like low cost, light weight, small size, low power consumption, and does not require routine maintenance. The higher antenna input impedance and a balanced feeding method for the sinuous antenna offers a unique set of challenges when developing a cryogenic system.

Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

159

New Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elsevier Science began a fully electronic and refereed journal in astronomy and astrophysics in 1996. "New Astronomy" is available via the Web as well as in print. Elsevier states the journal will publish "articles in all fields of astronomy and astrophysics: theoretical, observational and instrumental. 'New Astronomy' includes full length research articles and letter articles. The journal covers solar, stellar, galactic and extragalactic astronomy and astrophysics. It reports on original research in all wavelength bands, ranging from radio to gamma-ray." The journal's Web site provides a listing of receiving editors, as well as a call for papers. It will be a scholarly journal of "rigorously refereed" papers and aims to provide a short publication time, with accepted articles being made immediately available electronically. Detailed instructions on submittal are at the site.

1996-01-01

160

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted four successful eclipse expeditions to Africa and northern Europe. This short paper lists the personnel involved, discusses their instrumentation, describes the observations made, and evaluates the significance of these observations in an international context.

Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis

2007-03-01

161

System integration and radiation pattern measurements of a phased array antenna employing an integrated photonic beamformer for radio astronomy applications.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the system integration and the experimental demonstration of a photonically beamformed four-element receiving array antenna for radio astronomy applications. To our knowledge, the work described here is the first demonstration of the squint-free, continuously tunable beamsteering capability offered by an integrated photonic beamformer based on optical ring resonator true-time-delay units, with measured radiation patterns. The integrated beamformer is realized in a low loss, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible optical waveguide technology. The measurements show a wideband, continuous beamsteering operation over a steering angle of 23.5 degrees and an instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz limited only by the measurement setup. PMID:22410879

Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Marpaung, David; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Maat, Peter; Dijkstra, Klaas; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René

2012-03-01

162

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...at Green, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, a licensee proposing to operate...P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia 24944....

2011-10-01

163

47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...at Green, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, a licensee proposing to operate...P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia 24944....

2012-10-01

164

47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at the Naval Radio Research...Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, West Virginia, any applicant for a station...P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of...

2012-10-01

165

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 1: Nordmann's attempt to observe solar radio emission in 1901  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon after the discovery of radio waves by Hertz in 1886 the idea that the Sun must emit this radiation was suggested. A number of scientists from different nations then attempted to detect this emission, and one of these was the French astronomer, Charles Nordmann. This paper provides biographical Information an Nordmann before discussing his attempt to detect solar emisson in 1901 and the reasons he was unsuccessful.

Débarbat, Suzanne; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

2007-03-01

166

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

167

Scaling radio astronomy signal correlation on heterogeneous supercomputers using variousdata distribution methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation radio telescopes will require orders of magnitude more computing power to provide a view of the universe with greater sensitivity. In the initial stages of the signal processing flow of a radio telescope, signal correlation is one of the largest challenges in terms of handling huge data throughput and intensive computations. We implemented a GPU cluster based software correlator with various data distribution models and give a systematic comparison based on testing results obtained using the Fornax supercomputer. By analyzing the scalability and throughput of each model, optimal approaches are identified across a wide range of problem sizes, covering the scale of next generation telescopes.

Wang, Ruonan; Harris, Christopher

2013-06-01

168

Radio Astronomy and Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations - Development of Investigations in U.S.S.R  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of CETI investigations carried out in the USSR during a 20-year period from the beginning of the 60's to the beginning of the 80's. Experiments of the search for signals of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI) in the radio range and principal conferences dedicated to this problem are described. Some theoretical questions connected to the search for signals from ETI

L. M. Gindilis

1986-01-01

169

Clustering-based Filtering to Detect Isolated and Intermittent Pulses in Radio Astronomy Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-emitting neutron stars (pulsars) produce a series of periodic pulses at radio frequencies. Dispersion, caused by propagation through the interstellar medium, delays signals at lower frequencies more than higher frequencies. This well understood effect can be reversed though de-dispersion at the appropriate dispersion measure (DM). The periodic nature of a pulsar provides multiple samples of signals at the same DM, increasing the reliability of any candidate detection. However, existing methods for pulsar detection are ineffective for many pulse-emitting phenomena now being discovered. Sources exhibit a wide range of pulse repetition rates, from highly regular canonical pulsars to intermittent and nulling pulsars to rotating radio transients (RRATs) that may emit only a few pulses per hour. Other source types may emit only a few pulses, or even only a single pulse. We seek to broaden the scope of radio signal analysis to enable the detection of isolated and intermittent pulses. Without a requirement that detected sources be periodic, we find that a typical de-dispersion search yields results that are often dominated by spurious detections from radio frequency interference (RFI). These occur across the DM range, so filtering out DM-0 signals is insufficient. We employ DBSCAN data clustering to identify groups within the de-dispersion results, using information for each candidate about time, DM, SNR, and pulse width. DBSCAN is a density-based clustering algorithm that offers two advantages over other clustering methods: 1) the number of clusters need not to be specified, and 2) there is no model of expected cluster shape (such as the Gaussian assumption behind EM clustering). Each data cluster can be selectively masked or investigated to facilitate the process of sifting through hundreds of thousands of detections to focus on those of true interest. Using data obtained by the Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), we show how this approach can help separate RFI from difficult to find single and intermittent pulses.

Wagstaff, Kiri; Tang, B.; Lazio, T. J.; Spolaor, S.

2013-01-01

170

Investigation of radiation hardness of SIS junctions for space borne radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submillimeter astronomy with SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) mixers in space offer access to new wavelength windows and unsurpassed sensitivity. However little is known about the behavior of these devices in space. The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) aboard ESA's cornerstone Herschel Space Observatory (formely FIRST) satellite, scheduled for launch in 2007, will be among the first instrument using SIS technology in space. Within this context it is important to study possible radiation damage effects in SIS tunnel junctions. The particular devices used for HERSCHEL-HIFI-Band 1 (480-640 GHz) were fabricated with a new process based on negative resist E-beam lithography and very high current densities (15 kA/cm^2). In this paper, we report on radiation hardness tests with 10 MeV protons on the described high current density Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions.

Péron, I.; Faury, G.; Delorme, Y.; Dauplay, F.; Lecomte, B.; Salez, M.; Schuster, K.-F.

2002-05-01

171

Broadband beamforming of dense aperture array (DAA) and focal plane array (FPA) signals using 3D spatio-temporal filters for applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that 3D spatio-temporal filters have potential applications in aperture synthesis radio astronomy for the broadband-beamforming\\u000a of the array of signals that is received from dense aperture arrays (DAAs) and also from focal plane arrays (FPAs). In particular,\\u000a we consider possible applications for the planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project where broadband beamforming is required\\u000a at the front-end

Thushara K. Gunaratne; Len T. Bruton

2011-01-01

172

Radio Astronomy and Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations - Development of Investigations in U.S.S.R.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of CETI investigations carried out in the USSR during a 20-year period from the beginning of the 60's to the beginning of the 80's. Experiments of the search for signals of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (ETI) in the radio range and principal conferences dedicated to this problem are described. Some theoretical questions connected to the search for signals from ETI are discussed.

Gindilis, L. M.

173

Radio Astronomy Signal Processing for Pulsar Searching using High Performance Reconfigurable Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster will describe our preliminary work to use high performance reconfigurable computers to accelerate the signal processing required for performing a pulsar search on data from a radio telescope. Specifically, we are using the Berkeley Emulation Engine (BEE2) reconfigurable computer and Internet BreakOut Board (IBOB) hardware developed by the CASPER group at Berkeley, and the MATLAB\\/Simulink design flow. In

Joeri van Leeuwen; Peter McMahon; Dan Werthimer

174

The energy of electron beams near the Io footprint derived from radio-astronomy observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of Jupiter-Io auroral electrons can be inferred through the analysis of decametric radio emissions, especially that of millisecond bursts. Jovian millisecond (or S-)bursts are intense impulsive decametric radio bursts drifting in frequency in tens of milliseconds. Previous analyses suggest that S-bursts are cyclotron-maser emission in the flux tubes connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. Electrons are thought to be accelerated from Io to Jupiter. Near Jupiter, a loss cone appears in the magnetically mirrored electron population, which is able to amplify extraordinary (X) mode radio waves. Most of the theories about their origin include an interpretation of their frequency drift. We have analysed two sets of data collected at the DAM Nançay and Karkhov radio-telescopes; they are consistent with the above scenario. In addition, we confirm that the frequency drift df/dt(f) is negative on average and decreases in absolute value at high frequencies, consistent with the adiabatic theory of particles motion. We find a typical energy of 4 keV for the emitting electrons. In many cases, we find evidence of localized ~ 1 kV electric potential jumps at high latitudes along magnetic field lines connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. These potential jumps are stable over tens of minutes and propagate upward with a velocity of the order of the sound velocity. We will discuss the consistency of such ~ 4 keV electron populations with other energy estimates derived from observations of the UV Jupiter-Io auroras.

Mottez, F.; Hess, S.; Zarka, P.; Prangé, R.

2008-12-01

175

Dust distribution around Neptune: Grain impacts near the ring plane measured by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Voyager 2 flyby of Neptune the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment recorded an intense noise near the equatorial plane around 3.4 and 4.2 RN, as already observed during previous Voyager ring plane crossings at Saturn and Uranus. This noise is interpreted as being due to impact ionization of dust grains striking the spacecraft. We deduce a power law index of the grain mass distribution of about 2. The PRA system is sensitive to particles with radii larger than ˜1.6 ?m, and the largest particles, detected near the ring plane, are evaluated to have a radius of ˜10 ?m. The spatial dust distribution along the spacecraft trajectory around the two equatorial crossings is found not to be symmetrical with respect to the ring plane and spread over wide regions: over ˜2 RN perpendicularly to the equatorial plane with the densest part concentrated within ˜700 km. The vertical optical depth ? of this dense region is found to be 10-6 - 10-8.

Pedersen, B. M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Aubier, M. G.; Zarka, P.

176

Dust distribution around Neptune - Grain impacts near the ring plane measured by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Voyager 2 flyby of Neptune, the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment recorded an intense noise near the equatorial plane around 3.4 and 4.2 R(N), as already observed during previous Voyager ring plane crossings at Saturn and Uranus. This noise is interpreted as being due to impact ionization of dust grains striking the spacecraft. A power law index of the grain mass distribution of about 2 is deduced. The PRA system is sensitive to particles with radii larger than about 1.6 micron, and the largest particles, detected near the ring plane, are evaluated to have a radius of about 10 microns. The spatial dust distribution along the spacecraft trajectory around the two equatorial crossings is found not to be symmetrical with respect to the ring plane and spread over wide regions: over about 2 R(N) perpendicularly to the equatorial plane with the densest part concentrated within about 700 km. The vertical optical depth of this dense region is found to be 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -8.

Pedersen, B. M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Aubier, M. G.; Zarka, P.

1991-10-01

177

MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND CLUMPS IN THE BOSTON UNIVERSITY-FIVE COLLEGE RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GALACTIC RING SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18{sup 0} < l < 55.{sup 0}7 and Galactic latitudes |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the {sup 13}CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s{sup -1}. Because the GRS uses {sup 13}CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than {sup 12}CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of {sup 13}CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Simon, R. [I.Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: rathborn@bu.edu, E-mail: alexj@bu.edu, E-mail: jackson@bu.edu, E-mail: ronak@bu.edu, E-mail: simonr@ph1.uni-koeln.de

2009-05-15

178

Monitoring and Control of EMBRACE: A 4608 Element Phased Array for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMBRACE is a technology demonstrator for the decimetre wavelength range of the Square Kilometre Array. As a demonstrator instrument, the primary goal is to test and verify its merits as an SKA candidate design. For this purpose, we have developed the control software for EMBRACE including the real-time control software, the data acquisition and the observation setup systems. We have reused and adapted the LOFAR C++ control software and implemented a similar architecture on the LCU (Local Control Unit) computer. Station Control Unit (SCU) software provides a Python interface to LCU for users to easily setup observation scripts for various types of observation and to capture integrated data. Tests with satellites and strong radio sources are in progress to validate the system and characterize the demonstrator.

Taffoureau, C.; Renaud, P.; Picard, P.; Borsenberger, J.; Torchinsky, S.; Olofsson, H.; Viallefond, F.

2012-09-01

179

The far sidelobes and noise temperature of a small paraboloidal antenna used for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made of the radiation pattern of a symmetrical, prime-focus paraboloidal antenna which is used as a radio telescope at 1420 MHz. A transmitter was placed on a nearby hilltop, and the test antenna, used as a receiver, was driven through the range of directions permitted by its mounting; about 55 percent of the radiation pattern was accessible to measurement. The main beam, near sidelobes, and spillover lobes have been measured, and the conical sidelobes generated by scattering from the feed support struts are clearly seen. The effective temperature of the ground at 1420 MHz has been determined by radiometry. Of a measured total antenna temperature of 26.8 K with the antenna pointing at the zenith, the following contributions can be accounted for: cosmic microwave background (2.7 K), galactic emission (1.0 K), atmospheric emission (2.0 K), direct spillover from the ground into the feed (8.0 K), leakage through the reflector mesh (5.9 K), and diffraction around the reflector rim (0.6 K). It is concluded that ground radiation scattered from the feed support struts into the aperture is a significant contributor to antenna noise; 5.8 + or - 2.5 K has been attributed to this cause. Of the total noise from the ground, 1.1 K is contributed by hills surrounding the site; most of this enters the antenna through the sidelobes generated by the feed support struts.

Anderson, M. D.; Routledge, D.; Vaneldik, J. F.; Landecker, T. L.

1991-03-01

180

Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Predicting Good Observing Periods for High Frequency Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency observations with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope are affected by atmospheric conditions. Water vapor and the atmospheric stability influence radio waves by increasing the opacity of the atmosphere and degrading the quality of the "seeing." Although Green Bank is located in a temperate climate, preliminary studies using data from an 86 GHz tipping radiometer and a 12 GHz phase monitoring interferometer suggest that about 30% of the time ( 100 days/year) conditions will be excellent for observations at 100 GHz. This project attempts to determine in detail what atmospheric conditions produce simultaneously optimal seeing and opacity. We examined fifty-one periods of good observing that occurred over a period of 100 days. The analysis looks for patterns between twenty-five different weather parameters, drawn from a combination of surface, satellite, and vertical atmospheric measurements. Our preliminary results indicate that conditions of good opacity and good seeing do occur simultaneously and we can frequently predict good observing conditions from a combination of temperature, wind direction, pressure, and water vapor. >From this research, two high school projects were developed for students taking an introductory one semester astronomy course. In the first, students use data from the Observatory and four surrounding weather stations, as well as geographical and climatic information of the area, to create and test an interpolated vertical profile of the atmosphere over Green Bank. In the second, students analyze weather parameters on a set of poor observing days and compare their results with those of the good-weather study described above.

Maciolek, A. A.; Maddalena, R. J.

2000-12-01

181

Multiwavelength Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA\\'s Infrared Astrophysics Data Center explains how the universe can be observed using the entire electromagnetic spectrum. There is an introduction to using light in astronomy; information on and images taken from different areas of the electromagnetic spectrum of objects in the solar system, the Milky Way galaxy and beyond; and a table of radiation types, their characteristic temperatures, and objects emitting this type of radiation. The tutorial explains how observations are made using X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared wavelengths, and radio wavelengths. There is a section on why telescopes are sent to space and a multiwavelength gallery.

2007-02-25

182

Radio Astronomy group report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 12 months, solar cycle 24 has at last started to show some real flare activity as active areas on the Sun begin to develop in complexity and size. The activity chart (Figure 1) shows our recorded Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs) over the past 5 years

Cook, J. A.

2010-06-01

183

Astronomy in Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of astronomical research in Finland. There are three institutes devoted to Astronomy in general, at the Universities of Helsinki, Oulu, and Turku, and a Radio Astronomy Observatory at the Helsinki University of Technology. In addition, Solar system research with space-borne instrumentation is being carried out by the Physics Departments at the Universities of Helsinki and Turku, and by the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

Mattila, K.; Tornikoski, Merja; Tuominen, Ilkka; Valtaoja, Esko

2004-09-01

184

Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

2002-12-01

185

Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) - Working with national communication administrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Astronomy detects extremely faint radio signals from space, and hence is very susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from other radio communication services. Although radio astronomy has been allocated some radio bands by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), cosmic radio emissions occur over the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, there is a need for radio telescopes to operate

Anastasios Tzioumis

2008-01-01

186

Elementary astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

Fierro, J.

2006-08-01

187

The Beginning of Modern Infrared Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I came to the attention of astronomers through inventing the low temperature bolometer at Texas Instruments. I was quickly drawn into pioneering infrared (IR) astronomy. I soon transferred to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and then to the University of Arizona to make astronomy my focus. Parallel programs were getting under way at the California Institute of Technology, Cornell, the

Frank J. Low; G. H. Rieke; R. D. Gehrz

2007-01-01

188

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

189

The beginnings of decameter radio astronomy: pioneering works of Semen Ya. Braude and his followers in Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

S.Ya. Braude (1911-2003) was the well-known radio astronomer, one of the founders of low-frequency astronomical research in the world, in particular in the former Soviet Union. He began to work in this field of science in 1957, in Kharkiv city (Ukraine), from the design and manufacturing small decameter interferometer ID-1 and ID-2. Since that time Braude and his team have

I. B. Vavilova; A. A. Konovalenko; A. V. Megn

2007-01-01

190

The role of the atmosphere in satellite geodesy, radio astronomy and other applications of trans-atmospheric propagation of radio waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the atmosphere on radio waves relevant to technological applications is investigated theoretically, and the associated errors are classified and defined. Range errors are defined as the length of the phase path minus the geometric distance, and range errors are divided into those related to the troposphere and those related to the ionosphere. Ground-path error and group delay are also mentioned as important errors which can influence the angle of arrival and direct ranging. Ionospheric range errors are defined in terms of first-order and higher-order errors including the second-order refraction error, and the pulse-travel-time delay is mentioned. The parameters required to estimate ionospheric errors include slant electron content, and mean ionospheric height, and the second-order errors require knowledge of the vertical electron content, the equivalent slant thickness, the height of the F-layer peak, and the shape factor.

Leitinger, R.

191

Early Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and

Hugh Thurston

1996-01-01

192

Early Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

Thurston, Hugh

193

Astronomy: Research in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activities at this site include modeling pixels with graph paper, investigating parallax, and calculating the distance modulus of Cepheid variables. Background material includes a discussion about various telescopes and other remote sensing, and the difference between brightness and magnitude of stars. Students are instructed to add the words radio telescope, black hole, Milky Way Galaxy, light year, parallax, magnitude, Cepheid variables, and North Star to their vocabulary lists. This site is the fourth of six lessons in astronomy.

194

Advanced Amateur Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Telescope optics; 2. Atmosphere, seeing, magnification and eyepieces; 3. Telescope hardware and adjustments; 4. Astrophotography with the camera; 5. Astrophotography through the telescope; 6. Electronic imaging; 7. The Moon; 8. The terrestrial planets; 9. The gas-giant planets; 10. Comets, asteroids, meteors and aurorae; 11. The Sun; 12. Variable stars and novae; 13. Methods of photometry; 14. Double stars, star clusters, nebulae, galaxies and supernovae; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Radio astronomy; 17. Further information; Appendix: useful formulae.

North, Gerald

1997-08-01

195

Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE we are very well informed about Greek and Babylonian astronomy, almost nothing was known of an Egyptian calculating astronomy until very recently. This situation, however, has been completely altered by the discovery and investigation of a number of Demotic texts. In the beautiful collection of Egyptian papyri belonging to the Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen, A. Volten found an astronomical

O. Neugebauer

1939-01-01

196

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

197

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Ricky Leon Murphy of Astronomy Online, is a collection of references, images, and information for general astronomy. This work covers topics from the basics of science and observation through the solar system, stars, cosmology, and astrobiology. The material is clearly organized by topic using links to reference materials on the web.

Murphy, Ricky L.

2010-01-19

198

Binocular Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often supposed that anyone who means to take a serious interest in astronomy must acquire a large and expensive telescope. Nothing could be further from the truth. A great deal can be done with the naked eye alone, as is described in NAKED-EYE ASTRONOMY. It is true that a telescope costs a considerable amount of money, and the

P. Moore

2000-01-01

199

Intermediate Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

200

Primary Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

201

The New Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There's more to the Universe than meets the eye. In a marvelous review of multi-wavelength astronomy, The New Astronomy compares traditional optical images to infrared, ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray astronomical observations of a staggering variety of cosmic objects. With over 300 photographs and images obtained by telescopes and detectors operating at different wavelengths, the authors present startlingly different views of the solar system, stars, galaxies and, in this new edition, Halley's Comet and Supernova 1987A. Specially processed by astronomers worldwide, these images reveal in spectacular detail otherwise invisible events such as starbirth, stardeath, and distant quasar eruptions. Emphasizing the physical processes that produce astronomical radiation, they explain how the observations have expanded our existing knowledge and provided new discoveries. They also describe the new techniques in nontechnical language. By giving equal weight to observations at all wavelengths, this book corrects the bias toward optical astronomy and objectively presents all views of the Universe. It will appeal to everyone interested in the mysteries of astronomy. Nigel Henbest and Michael Marten previously collaborated (along with Heather Couper) on The Guide to the Galaxy (CUP, 1994).

Henbest, Nigel; Marten, Michael

1996-08-01

202

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) provides the Infrared Astronomy Website as one of its outreach programs. Infrared Astronomy, or "the detection and study of the infrared radiation (heat energy) emitted from objects in the Universe," is described and placed in context in the sections Discovery of Infrared, What is Infrared, Infrared Astronomy, Background, and the Infrared Universe. For current information, see the News & Discoveries, Active/ Future Projects, and Activities sections; past and current projects supported by IPAC are featured in the Infrared Gallery. The site targets a broad audience and is geared towards many learning levels.

203

Astronomy in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching and research. Joint supervision for postgraduate level research was organized between local and Iraqi expatriate astronomers. The IAU was among the first international organizations to offer assistance. Many observatories worldwide have also given support. Plans will be proposed for re-building the Observatory, supporting teaching and research, and establishing an institute for astronomy in Erbil, together with further suggestions on how the international astronomical community can assist Iraqi astronomers.

Alsabti, A. W.

2006-08-01

204

Long-Wavelength Astronomy on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a variety of proposals for a long-wavelength radio astronomical telescope on the Moon since soon after the first human landings. We highlight two aspects of the Moon that make it particularly appealing for long-wavelength radio astronomy. 1. There are locations on the Moon that can be shielded completely from terrestrial emissions and at least partially from solar

J. Lazio; R. J. MacDowall; D. L. Jones; J. C. Kasper; K. Weiler; S. D. Bale; S. Neff

2006-01-01

205

Development of Astronomy in the USSR (Fifty Years of Soviet Science and Technology) Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Radio astronomy; Stellar cosmogony; Development of planetary cosmogony; Latest problems in planetary cosmogony; Cosmology; The study of outer space using artificial earth satellites and robot space stations; Studies in the history of astronomy; ...

A. A. Mikhailov M. S. Zverev G. A. Chebotarev B. A. Bronshten O. B. Dobrovolskii

1969-01-01

206

Ancient Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lecture and study guide presents evidence of the interest of ancient civilizations in astronomy. It first summarizes the apparent motions of the planets on the sky. Next, the ways early societies made and recorded observations of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars are described. The Mayans are used as an example of how great accomplishments in astronomy helped shape a society's behavior. The material also includes information about the difficulties in interpreting ancient astronomical observatories do to the precession of the polar axis and a discussion of cyclic phenomena associated with the motion of the Moon.

O'Connell, Robert

2008-02-26

207

Early Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest investigations that we can relate to what is now science are observations of the sky: Astronomy. The earliest written records of every civilization we know of - from China, Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates and Indus valleys, Central America, the Andes, and so forth - all contain at least some astronomical texts. There are in addition monuments and artifacts that show a clear interest in astronomy, such as Stonehenge and rock paintings, from cultures that left no written records. The interest in celestial phenomena contributed to the development of Babylonian arithmetic and Greek geometry.

Thurston, Hugh

208

Egyptian astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Egypt, stars and planets were seen as goods and astronomy was practiced by priests in the temples. The most important time cycle of the Egyptian calendar was that of the heliac rising of Sirius during all the history of Ancient Egypt. Thus Egyptian astronomers built a calendar of 365 days, which was never corrected and in which the heliacal

H. Andrillat

1997-01-01

209

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

210

Early Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest investigations that we can relate to what is now science are observations of the sky: Astronomy. The earliest written records of every civilization we know of - from China, Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates and Indus valleys, Central America, the Andes, and so forth - all contain at least some astronomical texts. There are in addition monuments and artifacts that

Hugh Thurston

1994-01-01

211

Astronomy Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

Greenstone, Sid

212

Astronomy Adventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections:…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1986-01-01

213

Astronomy Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has 11 kid-friendly books on a wide range of astronomy topics. For each title, the publisher and publication date are included along with author name. The list includes engaging stories, field guides and other reference books.

214

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

215

Grassroots Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congress has a large impact on the amount and quality of astronomical research that takes place in the United States. By funding NASA and NSF, as well as other agencies such as the Department of Education and the Department of Defense, the Federal Government enables U.S. astronomers to perform cutting edge research. However, Congress makes decisions based on input from citizens. It the citizens are silent on an issue, Congress does not know it exists. Last summer the U.S.amatuer community rallied in support of professional research, resulting in a healthy budget for both NASA and NSF astronomy research. I will present a summary of how the funding process works and how and why amateurs can and should help ensure continued research funding for U.S. astronomy.

Marvel, Kevin B.

216

Popular Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. The System of the World Historically Developed: Introduction; 1. The ancient astronomy, or the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies; 2. The Copernican system, or the true motions of the heavenly bodies; 3. Universal gravitation; Part II. Practical Astronomy: Introductory remarks; 1. The telescope; 2. Application of the telescope to celestial measurements; 3. Measuring distances in the heavens; 4. The motion of light; 5. The spectroscope; Part III. The Solar System: 1. General structure of the solar system; 2. The sun; 3. The inner group of planets; 4. The outer group of planets; 5. Comets and meteors; Part IV. The Stellar Universe: 1. The stars as they are seen; 2. The structure of the universe; 3. The cosmogony; Addendum to Part III chapter 2; Appendix; Index; Addendum II, the satellites of Mars; Explanation of the star maps.

Newcomb, Simon

2011-10-01

217

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ricky Leon Murphy decided to create this website when he was working towards a masterÂs degree in astronomy, and he still keeps it updated regularly, along with the assistance of his wife, Chanthirar. The site has been the recipient of several awards over the past few years, and visitors looking for basic and accessible information about the world of astronomy will not be disappointed. Near the top of the homepage, visitors will see a number of thematic areas, including ÂOur GalaxyÂ, CosmologyÂ, ÂExoplanetsÂ, and ÂAstrophotographyÂ. In the ÂOur Galaxy section, visitors will find a number of short and informative essays on our own galaxy, along with pieces about the evolution of formation of other galaxies. Visitors will also appreciate the wide range of images available in the ÂAstrophotography section, which happens to include both professional and amateur images.

Murphy, Ricky L.

218

US Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the 19th century ended, astronomy underwent a period of rapid growth in the United States, a growth that was fueled by both the expansion of the university system and private philanthropy and which also paralleled the growth in astrophysical research. For the first half of the 20th century, the US government took little interest in the funding of astronomical research, concentrating on those a...

Marvel, K.; Milkey, R.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

219

Communicating Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

2007-08-01

220

Humanising Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

Levin, S.

2008-06-01

221

Conveying astronomy to the public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy offers us a unique chance to carry out outreach projects in great scale and, to think about new ways to improve our efforts. In this paper I present a few considerations on my activity as a popularisation person. I address its importance and I will emphasize on radio, television and public lectures. I also stress certain ingredients I believe popularisation must include; it must be interesting, diverse, simple, pertinent, and be peer reviewed.

Fierro, Julieta

2011-06-01

222

National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center: Arecibo Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 305m radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory "is the largest single-dish radio telescope on our planet and is available to the global scientific community for astronomical observation at wavelengths between 6 m and 3 m." Researchers can search WAPP data and information about past, present, and future projects at the Observatory. The extensive website provides numerous data reduction packages and file formats. Users can find extensive materials on the planetary studies, space and atmospheric science, and astronomy occurring at the observatory. Students and educators can learn about Arecibo's summer program. The News link is filled with fascinating new accomplishments, employment opportunities, and upcoming astronomy talks and seminars.

223

Learning Astronomy by Doing Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modern science curriculum, students should learn science knowledge or "facts"; they should develop science skills, strategies, and habits of mind; they should understand the applications of science to technology, society, and the environment; and they should cultivate appropriate attitudes toward science. While science knowledge may be taught through traditional lecture-and-textbook methods, theories of learning (and extensive experience) show that other aspects of the curriculum are best taught by doing science -- not just hands-on activities, but "minds-on" engagement. That means more than the usual "cookbook" activities in which students use a predetermined procedure to achieve a predetermined result. The activities should be "authentic"; they should mirror the actual scientific process. In this presentation, I will describe several ways to include science processes within astronomy courses at the middle school, high school, and introductory university level. Among other things, I will discuss: topics that reflect cultural diversity and "the nature of science"; strategies for developing science process skills through projects and other practical work; activities based on those developed and carried out by amateur astronomers; topics and activities suitable for technical-level courses (we refer to them as "applied" in my province); projects for astronomy clubs and science fairs; and topics that expose students to astronomy research within lecture courses.

Percy, J. R.

2006-08-01

224

National Radio Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) "operates powerful, advanced radio telescopes spanning the western hemisphere." The website is nicely divided into information for the general public, astronomers, and teachers and students. Users can learn all about NRAO's many telescopes located throughout the United States. Researchers can find out about meetings, conferences, software resources, and surveys. Amateur radio astronomers can find links describing how to build antennas and interferometers. Everyone will enjoy the numerous images of astronomical phenomena and NRAO's telescopes and facilities.

225

Some radio meteor news  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio meteor observing for astronomy purposes is still alive, despite the fact that traditional TV transmitters used for decades tend to disappear. Radio observers are now starting to develop their own dedicated transmitters, and are using new kinds of transmitters, such as military and radio-navigation systems to continue their studies. Encouraging results are also obtained in the aeronomy/geophysics domain when searching for evidence of modifications of the Earth/ionosphere waveguide by discrete ionized meteor trails.

Rault, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

226

Center for Astronomy Education  

NASA Website

[Educators Higher Education] [Available: Nationally] The Center for Astronomy Education is a professional development project for instructors of the introductory astronomy course, with emphasis on community colleges.

227

Reports on Astronomy 2010-2012 (IAU XXVIIIA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Fundamental astronomy; 2. Sun and heliosphere; 3. Planetary systems science; 4. Stars; 5. Variable stars; 6. Interstellar matter; 7. Galactic system; 8. Galaxies and the Universe; 9. Optical and infrared techniques; 10. Radio astronomy; 11. Space and high energy astrophysics; 12. Union-wide activities; 13. Executive committee; Index.

Corbett, Ian F.

2012-04-01

228

Egyptian astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Egypt, stars and planets were seen as goods and astronomy was practiced by priests in the temples. The most important time cycle of the Egyptian calendar was that of the heliac rising of Sirius during all the history of Ancient Egypt. Thus Egyptian astronomers built a calendar of 365 days, which was never corrected and in which the heliacal raising was evidently shifting at the rate of one day every four years. The year had twelve months of thirty days and a holy period of five days.

Andrillat, H.

229

Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of participants; Preface; 1. Star formation Francesco Palla; 2. Last stages of stellar evolution Stuart R. Pottasch; 3. The Milky Way galaxy and the galactic centre Gerard Gilmore; 4. Galaxies in the infrared Charles M. Telesco; 5. Cosmology Robert D. Joseph; 6. G25.2+0.2, a new ring nebula around a luminous blue star: case study for the importance of IR observations Eric E. Becklin; 7. Two colloquia on cosmic dust N. Chandra Wickramasingle; 8. Infrared instrumentation Ian S. McLean; 9. Infrared astronomy with satellites Thijs de Graauw.

Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

2004-01-01

230

Astronomie und Astrophysik (Astronomy and Astrophysics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An historic review of astronomy and astrophysics is presented. Astronomy is principally the observation of stars and the estimation of their position and moving. Fixed stars are distinguishable from the Sun, the Moon and the planets. Before the seventeent...

1989-01-01

231

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

232

Center for Astronomy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is dedicated to the professional development of introductory astronomy instructors. The Center for Astronomy Education is designed to connect practicing astronomy instructors in order to share ideas, pose questions, and suggest successful practices. In addition to useful links and resources, the principal partner in this site is the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona.

Brissenden, Gina

2005-06-17

233

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

234

CASA: Common Astronomy Software Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASA is a suite of tools for radio data calibration and imaging with an iPython interface. It is freely available to the general community, and is being developed with the primary goal of supporting the data post-processing needs of the next generation of radio astronomical telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the Expanded Very Large Array. The 3.0 release (December 2009) is the first non-beta one, and has several new features which will be highlighted. The consortium of developers is led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and includes the European Southern Observatory, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, ASTRON, and the Australia Telescope National Facility.

Reid, Robert I.; CASA Team

2010-01-01

235

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the claims of certain science fiction novels and films, humans cannot see in infrared. As many people know, the primary source of infrared radiation is heat, and the study of infrared astronomy allows scientists to detect radiation emitted from objects throughout the universe. This delightful website (created by NASA and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology) provides a wide range of material on this fascinating area of scientific study. Visitors can lean about the discovery of infrared, learn about the technology that is used in such endeavors, and of course, look over dozens of infrared images and video clips. Educators will be glad to learn that there are a number of activities offered here for use in the classroom, including one that will help students learn how to build a photocell detector.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

236

The Astronomy Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Workshop (http:\\/\\/janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy

D. P. Hamilton; M. L. Asbury

1999-01-01

237

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

238

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

239

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2013-01-01

240

Innovation in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies; 39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

2008-07-01

241

Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

Jones, Richard C.

1994-01-01

242

CASA: Common Astronomy Software Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, is being developed with the primary goal of supporting the data post-processing needs of the next generation of radio astronomical telescopes such as ALMA and EVLA. The package can process both interferometric and single dish data. The CASA infrastructure consists of a set of C++ tools bundled together under an iPython interface as a set of data reduction tasks. This structure provides flexibility to process the data via task interface or as a python script. In addition to the data reduction tasks, many post-processing tools are available for even more flexibility and special purpose reduction needs.

International Consortium Of Scientists

2011-07-01

243

URSI/IEEE XXIV Convention on Radio Science. Proceedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main topics of the convention are: electromagnetics; radio systems and circuits; radio astronomy and space research; applications and algorithms for wireless communication; advanced design techniques for wireless systems and circuits.

Valtaoja, E.; Wiik, K.

244

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

245

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

246

T. Arny's Astronomy Quizzes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas Arny's collection of online quizzes at the University of Massachusetts span the entire introductory astronomy curriculum. Subjects covered include historical astronomy, astronomical units and scales, telescopes, planetary geology, the sun, stellar evolution, cosmology, and life in the universe.

Arny, Thomas. T.

2004-07-17

247

Radio spectrum measurements at the Gauribidanur observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a campaign in December 2006, radio spectrum measurements over the frequency range 45-870 MHz were carried out at the Gauribidanur observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore. The spectrometer used for the above purpose was subsequently configured for radio spectral observations of the solar corona. This paper describes, (i) radio frequency interference over some of the frequency bands `protected' for radio astronomy; and (ii) `first' solar radio burst observation and the above instrument.

Monstein, C.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.

2007-12-01

248

Young Astronomers and Astronomy teaching in Moldavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curricular Astronomy is taught in Moldavia , except Transnistria and Gagauzia, in the final (11th class) of the secondary schools and gymnasiums, and in the 12th class of the lyceums. The program takes 35 academic hours. The basic book is by Vorontsov-Veliaminov, used in the former USSR, but the Romanian one is also used, in spite of many criticisms addressed to both by our astronomy teachers. In Transinstria (on the left of the Dniester river)astronomy is taught 17 hours. Extracurricular activities develop at the Real Lyceum, where students and amateur astronomers carry out regular observations. Particularly, photographs of the comet Hale-Bopp have been realized using a Cassegrain 450 mm telescope by young astronomers under supervision of S. Luca and D. Gorodetzky (Gorodetchi). Except the telescope from the Real Lyceum other few telescopes are in construction. Unfortunately, no planetarium exists now in Chisinau, since the old one was returned to church. Astronomy courses are taught at the physical and mathematical departments of the Pedagogical University, Transnistrian Moldavian University in Tiraspol and the State University of |Moldavia. Many efforts were made by the State University lecturers and scientists to popularize Astronomy and Astrophysics in the books and in the press, at the radio and TV. No astronomy is taught at the Gagauzian National University in Comrat. No astronomiucal departments exist in Universities of |Moldavia.

Gaina, Alex

1998-09-01

249

Astronomy in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no record so far known of Nigeria's participation in old time astronomy. However, she started a gradual entry into modern day astronomy in 1962. In this report, I present a review of the steps taken so far by Nigeria to realize her dreams in astronomy, and examine the prospects awaiting astronomers from Nigeria.

Sigalo, Friday Barikpe

2004-08-01

250

Astronomy in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the

A. W. Alsabti

2006-01-01

251

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review the teaching and learning of astronomy, in elementary and secondary school, colleges and universities, and for the public through astronomy outreach and communication. I describe International Year of Astronomy 2009, and some of the national and personal projects in which I am involved.

Percy, John R.

2010-10-01

252

Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) - Working with national communication administrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Astronomy detects extremely faint radio signals from space, and hence is very susceptible to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) from other radio communication services. Although radio astronomy has been allocated some radio bands by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), cosmic radio emissions occur over the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, there is a need for radio telescopes to operate over very wide radio bands and avoid RFI. Radio Quiet Zones (RQZ) in various forms have been implemented around many radio astronomy observatories, to minimise the impact of RFI on radio astronomy observations by coordinating with nearby radiocommunication services. The history and characteristics of such RQZ around the world will be reviewed, with emphasis on recent experience. For the next generation radio astronomy telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), it will be of critical importance to minimise RFI over the whole operating frequency range 200 MHz - 25 GHz. Progress towards establishing strict RQZ for the SKA will be reviewed. The main experience and lesson learned is that it is critical to work closely with national communication administrations. Work on RQZ in international bodies and the implications for radio sciences will also be discussed.

Tzioumis, Anastasios

253

Using a Satellite Swarm for building a Space-based Radio Telescope for Low Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radio astronomy, as in astronomy in general, a wide range of frequencies is observed as each spectral band offers a unique window to study astrophysical phenomena. In the recent years, new observatories have been designed and built at the extreme limits of the radio spectrum. For the low frequencies several Earth-based radio telescopes are constructed at this moment. In

Mark Bentum; A. J. Boonstra; C. J. M. Verhoeven; A. J. van der Veen; E. K. A. Gill; N. Saks; H. Falcke; M. Klein-Wolt; R. T. Rajan; S. J. Wijnholds; M. Arts; K. van't Klooster; F. Beliün; A. Meijerink; B. Monna; J. Rotteveel; M. A. Boer; E. Bongers; E. Boom; E. van Tuijl; A. van Staveren

2010-01-01

254

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)|

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

255

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

256

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

257

Astronomy in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in Asia has continuously developed. Local wisdom in many Asian countries reflects their interest in astronomy since the historical period. However, the astronomical development in each country is different which depends on their cultures, politics and economics. Astronomy in some Asian developing countries such as China and India are well-developed while some other countries especially in south-east Asia, with some supports such as telescopes, trainings, experts etc. from some developed countries, are trying to promote relevant research in astronomy as well as use astronomy as a tool to promote scientific awareness and understanding for the public. Recently, a new national research institute in astronomy with a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope has been established in Thailand. One of the major objectives of this research-emphasis institute would aim at a collaborative network among south-east Asian countries so as to be able to contribute new knowledge and research to the astronomical community.

Soonthornthum, B.

2006-08-01

258

The Old Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of webpages is part of a course, called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the view of the universe that astronomers held up to 500 years ago, including: the apparent motion of the planets (such as retrograde motion) on the celestial sphere; the universe of Ptolemy and Aristotle, involving epicycles; and medieval Aristotelian astronomy.

2007-01-17

259

Conducting radio astronomy in the EMC environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of electromagnetic interference (EMI) at microwave frequencies, examples of the widely varying sources of such EMI, and measures to counteract them are considered. Problems caused by computer equipment, power lines, digital clocks, automotive spark plugs, television antennas, arc welding equipment, phone systems, aircraft transmissions, and satellite equipment are described. Countermeasures include the use of braided mesh around cables, burying of incoming power lines, and replacement of defective equipment. Certain antenna radome structures are particularly helpful in countering EMI.

Waterman, P. J.

1984-02-01

260

Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

2012-12-01

261

Early Physics and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Science before the Greeks; 2. The new concept of nature; 3. Plato and Greek mathematics; 4. Aristotle and the knowledge of Nature; 5. Practical astronomy; 6. Early Greek cosmology; 7. Mathematical astronomy; 8. The foundation of statics; 9. Dynamics in antiquity; 10. The conception of light and sound; 11. The structure of material substances; 12. Properties of matter and chemical change; 13. The transmission of Greek science; 14. Experimental physics in the Middle Ages; 15. The development of statics; 16. The establishment of kinematics; 17. Force and motion in the Middle Ages; 18. Mediaeval astronomy; 19. The change called Renaissance; 20. The reform of astronomy; Bibliography; Index.

Pedersen, Olaf

1993-03-01

262

The Astronomy Thesaurus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you ever feel overwhelmed by the extensive amount of jargon used in astronomy? This web site may offer visitors with an easy way to compare astronomy material from different authors. The Astronomy Thesaurus, created by Robyn M. Shobbrook of the Anglo-Australian Observatory and Robert R. Shobbrook of Sydney University, provides a way to standardize the terminology in the field of astronomy. Users can search through the web site alphabetically or by keywords. By supplying the thesaurus in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish, this web site may also help individuals communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds.

263

Astronomy in Indian Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tradition of astronomy in India goes back to ancient times. Many festivals and rituals are associated with astronomical phenomena. Indian children start learning rudiments of astronomy from primary classes. But primary teachers are not equipped to handle this subject so not much learning actually takes place. The first serious interface with astronomy occurs when children reach class X when they are 15 years old. Till last year astronomy was there in class XII also but it has now been dropped. This is a serious setback for the study of astronomy. In class X astronomy forms part of general science. Since children at this stage are not proficient in physics and mathematics the subject remains descriptive though there are useful activities for children to do. However the teachers are not equipped to handle this subject and there is no help in the form of visual material. So the subject remains neglected. The Indian astronomical community can help by training teachers and providing visual material. It must also urge authorities to reintroduce astronomy in class XII if astronomy is to flourish in India. Moreover India needs to network with developing countries share experiences with them and evolve a strategy that promotes astronomy.

Bhatia, V. B.

264

Project Earth Science: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hands-on, teacher-tested activities in Project Earth Science: Astronomy brings the sometimes daunting concepts of astronomy down to Earth. Background information, supplementary readings, and suggestions for integrating other disciplines provide the teacher with a framework to launch a successful introduction to astronomy. Students will discover Earth's uniqueness by examining it as a part of the whole--one planet within our Solar System. How did the planets form? Are we seeing a star's present or past? Why is Earth's distance from the Sun so important? Project Earth Science: Astronomy will lead you and your students on an exploration that takes you to the stars and back.

Smith, P. S.

2001-01-01

265

Neptune's radio emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different radio emissions observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument during the inbound and outbound trajectories are reviewed. Two types of emissions (smooth and bursty) were recorded in the frequency range of 20 to 1300 kHz which differ in spectral, temporal, and polarization characteristics. The source location of the smooth radio emission have been determined through the observations at the closest approach when the radio source was occulted by the planet. Other types of emission detected by the PRA experiment include the fore shock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at ring-crossings and different low frequency waves. It is concluded that there is at least one radio source in the auroral zone of the northern magnetic hemisphere where a good fit to the observations can be obtained when assuming an emission cone model.

Leblanc, Y.; Ladreiter, H. P.

1992-11-01

266

Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes includes the visiting Scientists and Professors from various Research Organizations located in and around Bangalore as well as the in-house Scientific staff. It is gratifying to note that several students, after going through one or more of these courses, have indeed made commitments to pursue Astronomy as their career, some of them even obtaining admissions in to the institutes and universities in India and abroad for further studies in this field.

Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

267

"Conference on communicating astronomy with the public":taking action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 2003, The National Radio Astronomy Observatories (NRAO) and the National Research Council (NRC) held a three-day conference in Washington, D.C., on communicating with the public about astronomy. The goals of this conference, intended to be a working meeting, were 'to develop a program to share outreach and education resources among the astronomical community [and] to find ways of communicating with underdeveloped constituencies.' Scientists, communication specialists and others active in public outreach and education about astronomy and space science deliberated on the current state of astronomy communications, the needs of the mass media and the entertainment media, the conduct of public outreach and education as an element of research astronomy, and best practices in astronomy outreach and education. Two important products of the meeting were: 1) A 'Washington charter for communicating astronomy with the public,' a position paper articulating principles of action for funding agencies, professional astronomical societies, individual researchers and universities, laboratories, research organizations and other institutions interested in communicating with the public about astronomy; 2) The appointment of a task force to to organize an electronic archive of informational resources about astronomy. Two options under consideration by the task force are creation of a Web site providing links, categorized and searchable, to astronomy public outreach and education resources; and creation of a Web site that would be a searchable database of astronomy information and imagery (either representative or comprehensive). This paper will highlight the proceedings of the conference, report outcomes, and provide a status report on post-conference actions.

Billings, L.

268

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)|

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

269

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

Fraknoi, Andrew

1983-01-01

270

Astronomy @ Hale School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth in space is one of the teaching strands of the Western Australia science curriculum. I was able to beg some money from my school to set up an astronomy club and address some of the outcomes of the teaching statement. As a Pom, I thought teaching Astronomy here was going to be great. As a baby boomer mesmerized by

William Cooper

2002-01-01

271

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

272

Astronomy LITE Demonstrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences

Kenneth Brecher

2006-01-01

273

TeV astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful realization of the current-generation of ground-based detectors, TeV Astronomy has entered into a new era. We review recent advances in VHE astronomy, focusing on the potential of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), and highlight astrophysical implications of the results obtained within recent years.

Rieger, Frank M.; de Oña-Wilhelmi, Emma; Aharonian, Felix A.

2013-06-01

274

Fundamentals of solar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several textbooks available on solar astronomy which deal with advanced astrophysical aspects of solar physics, and books which provide very elementary knowledge about the Sun. This book will help to bridge the gap. It aims to stimulate interest in solar astronomy, presenting at one place the basic methods and techniques used in the field, together with the latest

Arvind Bhatnagar; William Livingston

2005-01-01

275

Colonial American Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early

Donald K. Yeomans

2007-01-01

276

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

277

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Wilhelm Brüggenthies; Wolfgang R. Dick

2005-01-01

278

Astronomy Without a Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section describes: the celestial sphere, coordinate systems, the motion of the stars. There are also sections describing: time, the seasons, time zones, the phases of the moon, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, and the motions of the planets.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

279

A Basic Astronomy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

Fraknoi, Andrew

280

Junior High Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and…

Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

281

Parameters of a forward scatter radio meteor set-up: Preliminary calculations for the MSR radio meteor project in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MSR set-up was developed considering several parameters related to radio astronomy calculations for the observing system, neighborhood environmental characteristics, and many conditions related to the placement of the instrument. In the present work a forward scatter radio meteor link is analyzed to obtain the required parameters for a meteor radio astronomy dedicated set-up. The analysis is illustrated by calculating the parameters for the MSRV2 system employed at the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronoma (IAR).

Semegone, Juan Martin; Sanz, Juan A.

2006-08-01

282

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

Green, Paul

283

Compendium of Practical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

Roth, Günter D.; Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.

284

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

285

Random time series in astronomy.  

PubMed

Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series. PMID:23277606

Vaughan, Simon

2012-12-31

286

Developing Astronomy in Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Beginning from a brief historical introduction the up to day situation is presented and the topics relevant to Astronomy development analyzed from the view point of a person actually working in Astrophysics. Arising from national needs, Astronomical Calculations is the only "native-born" branch of astronomy in Cuba. Cuba was an observational platform capable to provide the Soviet Union with the 24 hours solar patrol needed by its Space Agency System to protect the men in orbit. This was the beginning of a very fruitful development of solar research in Cuba. Russia installed the instruments, trained the people to operate them, and gives the academic environment to develop the scientific work in solar physics, space weather, and related topics. What about Stellar Astronomy? The Cuban astro-climate is not good to develop an observational base. We are trying to develop stellar astronomy in collaboration with institutions capable to provide both, the academic and technical environment; but to continue developing Stellar Astronomy we need to influence the public opinion and convince people they need groups working in Astronomy. How to do that? Publishing. Giving conferences talking about OUR work, not only like spectators of the science. Showing science is culture in modern times. Showing projects in Astronomy can be cheap. ¡This is very important! Astronomy is not a luxury. Real possibilities I consider the Virtual Observatory concept the more appropriate in the near future, but it is necessary to have a connectivity level that is not commonly provided in Cuba, and to train the people. Concluding remarks From my experience "engagement" is the key word for Astronomy development in developing countries. Astronomy can not be developed without an appropriate academic environment, and we have not it. It is not "only" about financial resources, it is about "real collaboration" with a mature partner and common research goals.

Rodriguez Taboada, R. E.

2006-08-01

287

Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2006-07-01

288

The Future of Space Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

Field, George B.

1984-01-01

289

The Future of Space Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

Field, George B.

1984-01-01

290

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-12-01

291

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-09-01

292

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: ANIMATED ORBITS OF PLANETS AND MOONS: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. SOLAR SYSTEM COLLISIONS: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. ORBITAL SIMULATIONS: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. ASTRONOMY WORKSHOP BULLETIN BOARD: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

2000-05-01

293

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

2001-12-01

294

Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

295

New Voyager Radio Spectrograms of Uranus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New, high-resolution spectrograms of the Voyager-2 radio observations at Uranus were produced from the original, six-second Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data and these show a number of new features which were not obvious in previous versions. Among the...

W. Calvert D. Tsintikidis

1990-01-01

296

Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

Naranjo, O. A.

2008-06-01

297

Astronomy Java Applets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive astronomy java applets were created for astronomy students at the University of British Columbia. They cover topics dealing with the solar system and demonstrate the phases of the inner planets, retrograde motion, Kepler's Laws, cratering and solar eclipses. Applets on stellar astronomy include: fusion in the sun, the Big Bang, extrasolar planets, black holes, the H-R diagram, binary stars, parallax, the Doppler Effect, and black body radiation. The last set of simulations deal with telescopes. They demonstrate Snell's Law, electrostatics, and properties of lenses and mirrors.

Scharein, Robert Glenn, 1959-

2010-05-04

298

Bakersfield College: Astronomy Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nick Strobel, from Bakersfield College, created this website to provide educational materials for the introductory astronomy course he teaches. Users can find a seventeen chapter online textbook, equipped with fantastic astronomy images and numerous review questions. The site offers a description of angular momentum; a mathematics review; tables of astronomy constants, physical constants, planets, and stars; and a glossary. Students can benefit by reading the study guide, which addresses ways to improve study habits and exam scores. Be sure to read Mr. Strobel's Copyright Notice prior to utilizing the resources avaiable here.

299

Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent paper in this journal1 presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses.2-4 Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In this paper we describe the use of Tracker in introductory astronomy to analyze a ``video'' consisting of a series of still images of star fields and sunspots. Because astronomy focuses on concepts unfamiliar to most students, the visualization that video analysis provides can be especially valuable.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2013-03-01

300

Environmental Issues and Astronomy: An Introductory Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the topic of environmental issues in respect to astronomy. A number of related readings and links to web sites are provided. Content includes information on light pollution, observatory sites and their environmental impact, radio interference and preventing the contamination of Earth or other worlds.

Fraknoi, Andrew

2011-03-30

301

To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground-based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1996-01-01

302

Astronomy @ Hale School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth in space is one of the teaching strands of the Western Australia science curriculum. I was able to beg some money from my school to set up an astronomy club and address some of the outcomes of the teaching statement. As a Pom, I thought teaching Astronomy here was going to be great. As a baby boomer mesmerized by the moon landings it came as a disappointment to find that my MTV students found Astronomy passé. Why aren?t students fascinated? Astronomy asks the fundamental life questions: * Where did everything come from? * How did it all get here? * Where is it all going to? * Why are all the science labs I've ever worked in hiding a dusty Tasco refractor or a half working Meade * How was I going to survive?

Cooper, William

303

Women in Astronomy Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century women have played a key role in astronomy, making major discoveries that advanced the field. Today there are many examples of women astronomers leading new fields and making fundamental contributions to understanding the Universe. Yet women remain a small fraction of practicing (academic) astronomers. Only 5% of the full professors in astronomy are women, even though at least 10% of astronomy Ph.D.s have gone to women over the last 100 years (and the fraction is now approaching 25%). These and other statistics for women in astronomy, including those from the recent survey by the American Astronomical Society, suggest mechanisms are in place to help men advance beyond their representation in the talent pool. To ensure equity of opportunity and to strengthen science by drawing on the largest possible talent base, similar mechanisms might allow talented women astronomers to meet with comparable success.

Urry, Meg

2000-04-01

304

Infrared Astronomy Fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides basic information on infrared astronomy as practiced from the ground, in the air, and in space. The focus in this chapter is on atmospheric and background limitations, basic data reduction techniques, absolute calibration, and photometry.

Tokunaga, Alan T.; Vacca, William D.; Young, Erick T.

305

Remote Access Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)|

O'Connor, Erin

1994-01-01

306

A multifrequency analysis of radio variability of blazars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out a multifrequency analysis of the radio variability of blazars, exploiting the data obtained during the extensive monitoring programs carried out at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO, at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz) and at the Metsähovi Radio Observatory (22 and 37 GHz). Two different techniques detect, in the Metsähovi light curves, evidence of

A. Ciaramella; C. Bongardo; H. D. Aller; M. F. Aller; G. De Zotti; A. Lähteenmaki; G. Longo; L. Milano; R. Tagliaferri; H. Teräsranta; M. Tornikoski; S. Urpo

2004-01-01

307

Interstellar Radio Communication and the Frequency Selection Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE largest microwave radio telescope on Earth, at the Arecibo Observatory of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, will soon have the capability of communicating with an identical radio telescope, if such exists, anywhere in the Galaxy. But such communication assumes some previous agreement between the transmitting and receiving civilizations, or mutual discovery of the chosen radio frequency, bandpass, information

F. D. Drake; Carl Sagan

1973-01-01

308

Tips for Astronomy TA's  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the University of Washington offers great hints to help beginner astronomy teaching assistants (TAs) become better instructors. The site addresses preparation for classroom teaching, questioning style, classroom strategies, increasing student motivation, and many other topics of interest to teachers. For first-time teachers, the section describing the first day of class may be the most important. While designed for astronomy TAs, anyone involved in the teaching profession can hone their skills by following the suggestions presented.

309

Music and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do Brian May (Queen’s lead guitarist), William Herschel and the Jupiter Symphony have in common? And a white dwarf, a piano and Lagartija Nick? At first glance, there is no connection between them, nor between the Music and the Astronomy. However, there are many revealing examples of musical Astronomy and astronomical Music. This four-page proceeding describes the sonorous poster that we showed during the VIII Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

Caballero, José A.; González Sánchez, S.; Caballero, I.

310

The Astronomy Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Workshop (http:\\/\\/janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the

D. P. Hamilton

2005-01-01

311

The Astronomy Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Workshop (http:\\/\\/janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the

D. P. Hamilton; M. L. Malayeri; K. M. A. Pahlevan; W. C. Jacobson

2004-01-01

312

Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood  

Microsoft Academic Search

It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and\\/or teachers who don't understand

P. Plait

2003-01-01

313

Radio Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)|

Downes, Ann

1986-01-01

314

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

315

Astronomy and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of teaching of astronomy in the schools of the former communist countries has been disccused in the connection with the genealogical (family names) of the Presidents of the Countries and scientists astronomers and other Country leaders. Particularly the recent decision of the Russian authorities to reduce the hours for the course of astronomy in the Russian secondary schools is supposed to critics. Some improvements of the situation has been reported. The hours for the astronomy teaching in Russia varry, according with the will of Ministers of Education of the Countries, Prime ministers and Presidents. Similar news came from the Romania. In conclusion, there is no a stable curriculum for astronomy (physics) in some countries. This reffer especially to the number of hours. The influence of presidents of the Countries is so great, that the fate of the astronomy teaching (probably of science teaching in general), that it is difficult to have a scientific education in a country without an elementary scientific education of the Leaders of the Countries, particularly of the persons above. An incomplete list of political leaders and scientists (astronomers and physicists) with the same family names is given. Since the number of persons with decision power in the area is about 3 per country in 4 years, the modern astronomy is taught during about 200 years, the total number of family names responsible for the area of astronomy teaching throughout the world during the last 200 years is about 10000. A similar calculation could be made for physics teaching. Another aspect of the problem is the relation of the number of publications with the GDP/capita of the country. The relation between science and policy is mediated by the number of papers /population which "grosso modo" is proportional to the GDP/capita for the country given. Subsequently the GDP/capita corellates strongly with the policy. The SPIRES database ilustrates this with evidence, but with taking in account of some historical traditions of the country.

Gaina, Alex

2009-10-01

316

Astronomy Students Learn to Think Big.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents background information related to astronomy for high school students. Discusses the differences between astronomy and astrophysics, and the employment of the astronomy graduates. Lists degree programs in astronomy and related subjects in an appendix. (YP)|

Somerville, W. B.

1989-01-01

317

Astronomy Students Learn to Think Big.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information related to astronomy for high school students. Discusses the differences between astronomy and astrophysics, and the employment of the astronomy graduates. Lists degree programs in astronomy and related subjects in an appendix. (YP)

Somerville, W. B.

1989-01-01

318

Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the

K. A. Knierman; D. W. McCarthy; K. Schutz

2005-01-01

319

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather fine website is a must-visit for anyone involved in teaching college-level astronomy. The Astronomy Center is sponsored by the American Astronomical Society, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the National Science Foundation, among other distinguished organizations. Visitors can get started by looking over the Recent Additions area, which in the past has included features on the phases of the moon, interactive activities related to fossil stars, and a telescope primer for educators. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse By Topic area to find specific materials on 13 subjects, including galaxies, the solar system, and the Milky Way. Also, visitors can browse by document type, where the headings include Simulations, Projects, and Labs. The Cosmic Time and Distance area is a real delight, as it includes activities that will challenge students to explore the concepts of parallax and aberration of light as they apply to astronomy.

2012-06-08

320

Astronomy education in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thailand is one of the developing countries which pursues the goal to advance economy, technology as well as science. Education in Astronomy is considered as a supporting factor, since it is one of the basic sciences which can teach the young generation to understand and conserve their mother nature and at the same time helps to develop analytical thinking. The poster reports the present developments in astronomical education in Thailand which includes (1) current astronomy education in school and university; (2) educational activities outside school; (3) development of programs for teaching astronomy in school (including teacher training); (4) the access of educational resources via internet. Proposals for future development and collaborations will be presented and discussed.

Hutawarakorn, Busaba; Soonthornthum, B.; Kirdkao, T.

321

Astronomy Media Player  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the planets to various interstellar bodies, learning about astronomy can be fun and engaging. One way to learn about such matters is via podcasts, and this website is committed to finding the best astronomy podcasts from various places around the world. Users can get started by looking at one the following sections: "General", "Observing", "Courses", "Your Questions", "Observations", and "Top Ten". Each section contains a host of current (and former) podcasts. Persons looking to find answers to specific astronomy queries will want to look over podcasts like "Ask an Astronomer" and "Brain Bites" in the "Your Questions" area. The "Observatories" area is equally delightful, and it contains links to podcasts such as "Gemini Observatory" and "W.M. Keck Observatory". Of course, the social media options on the site are quite good, and it's easy to reference such treasures on Facebook, Digg, and so on.

322

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C., created the Astronomy Center website to "provide a web-based databank that provides faculty with links to a wide range of teaching and learning resources for [an] Undergraduate Introductory Astronomy course." Faculty are also encouraged to suggest materials to add to the database, as well as to offer their own comments on the materials. Visitors will find that the website can be browsed by topic or by type of resource. Some of the topics include "Cosmic Time and Distance", "Historical Astronomy", and "Exoplanets". Examples of the types of resources available include "Pedagogy", "Simulations", and "Images". In order to demonstrate the size of the solar system, visitors will find that the lab, "The Thousand Yard Model" is valuable for teaching elementary through high school students, and lower undergraduate classes.

323

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

Simmons, Mike

2009-01-01

324

Rocket astronomy - an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of rocket astronomy is retold, with emphasis on solar investigations. The use of captured V-2 rockets after World War II was followed by the Aerobee, which exceeded the V-2's altitude and was more reliable. The V-2 has made first-generation investigations in X-ray and UV photometry, which was followed by studies of the solar cycle X-ray variablity, the X-ray corona, and solar flares. Nike rockets played an important role in these investigations. The role of rockets in galactic X-ray astronomy is briefly described.

Friedman, H.

325

Astronomy behind the Headlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Behind the Headlines is a web-based monthly periodical that features short interviews about the latest discoveries in astronomy and space science. Episodes are available as a podcast or a pdf document, and include supplemental activities and background information. Recent episodes include ground-breaking techniques for measuring a black hole, water on the moon, an exploration of cosmic debris, and a recent comet collision on Jupiter. All episodes are narrated by renowned scientists, who explain the phenomena and why its discovery is significant. This periodical is published and maintained by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

2010-02-26

326

Astronomy before the telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is the most comprehensive and authoritative survey to date of world astronomy before the telescope in AD 1609. International experts have contributed chapters examining what observations were made, what instruments were used, the effect of developments in mathematics and measurement, and the diversity of early views of cosmology and astrology. The achievements of European astronomers from prehistoric times to the Renaissance are linked with those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and the Islamic world. Other chapters deal with early astronomy in the Far East and in the Americas, and with traditional astronomical knowledge in Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

Walker, C.

327

Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

2012-01-01

328

Is astronomy useful for societies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly review various aspects related to the usefulness of astronomy to societies. Astronomy constitutes an important part of human culture, all over different countries and all over the entire history of humankind. Because of its intrinsic interest, astronomy is able to attract young generations towards technical and scientific careers. Moreover, it is also an indirect trigger of innovation and

Jean Audouze

2011-01-01

329

The Radio Sky in the STARLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STARLAB is a portable planetarium created, produced, and distributed by Learning Technologies, Ltd. Upon entering the STARLAB, images are projected onto the ceiling of the planetarium's dome using custom, interchangeable projection cylinders mounted on top of an ultrabright point light source. The STARLAB is ideal for teaching students about astronomy since it may be easily transported to schools across the nation. In order to take advantage of this powerful teaching tool, one of the foremost priorities of the Sensing the Radio Sky project was the development a projection cylinder that would visually interpret the quantitative data taken with radio telescopes and present that information in a form that students could understand and appreciate. The final version of the cylinder demonstrates a variety of topics relevant to an understanding of radio astronomy. When using the Radio Sky cylinder in the STARLAB, teachers may discuss the differences between optical and radio astronomy such as the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy, different sources of electromagnetic radiation, and important radio sources within and outside of the Galaxy. In addition, the flexibility of the cylinder's design allows for a variety of educational activities to be conducted within the STARLAB, all complemented by the Radio Sky cylinder's unique presentation of the Galaxy in radio wavelengths. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Buck, S.; Harris, R.; Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.; Castelaz, M. W.

2005-12-01

330

The Radio JOVE Project: A Worldwide, Ground-based Amateur Decameter-Wavelength Radio Observatory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) began over four years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 500 of these kits have been distributed to students

J. Thieman; C. Higgins; G. Lauffer; R. Ulivastro; R. Flagg; J. Sky

2003-01-01

331

The Radio JOVE Project: A Worldwide, Ground-Based, Amateur, Decameter-Wavelength Radio Observatory Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radio JOVE project began over four years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 500 of these kits have been distributed to students and

J. Thieman; C. Higgins; R. Flagg; J. Sky

2003-01-01

332

Astronomy Education and Popularization Facilities at Guanajuato University in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Astronomy Department of Universidad de Guanajuato, 400 km NW of Mexico City, nine professional astronomers do research and teaching at both graduate and undergraduate level. In addition, in the last few years, this group has carried out astronomy popularization activities at three different sites. First, a rudimentary observatory named "La Azotea" (the roof) on the top of the main building of the University (at Guanajuato centre), which includes a 16-cm refractor in a dome, a couple of XIXth century astronomical instruments, and a classroom with capacity for 50 people. The refractor was out of use for about twelve years but will be fully operational before summer 2006. Second, the "Observatorio de La Luz", 20 kms away from Guanajuato centre, includes a professional 0.6m Cassegrain and a 2m radio telescope, with a 21cm receiver. Finally, on the roof of the Astronomy Department headquarters, an optical 0.4m Dobsonian is available. We also dispose of internet connection everywhere and 6 portable 8-inch telescopes (two at each site), devoted to regular astronomical observations for the general public, specially for scholars. Numerous repair works are currently carried out on the building of "La Azotea", and recently a project to establish there a Centre for Popularization of Astronomy has been approved by the Regional Science Council. The main activities, some of them currently developed at these sites are: (1) A permanent program of astronomical observations for a wide audience. (2) Training in Observational Astronomy for physics undergraduate students. (3) Regular talks on astronomy and other science domains. (4) Summer schools in Astronomy for elementary and high-school teachers. (5) In the near future, the foundation of an amateur society of astronomy.

Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Schroeder, K.-P.; Ramirez, L.

2006-08-01

333

Greek mathematical astronomy reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations have thrown new light on such topics as the early Greek belief in heliocentricity, the relation between Greek and Babylonian astronomy, the reliability of Ptolemy's Syntaxis, Hipparchus's theory of motion for the sun, Hipparchus's value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, and Eratosthenes' estimate of the size of the earth. Some claims resulting from these investigations are controversial,

Hugh Thurston

2002-01-01

334

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early astronomy of ancient Egypt is known to us from its practical application to time measurement, in the large sense of a calendar year and in the smaller of the 24 h day. The earliest calendar year was lunar, kept in place in the natural year by the star Sirius. From this lunistellar year evolved the well-known calendar year

R. A. Parker

1974-01-01

335

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent communication to NATURE1, Dr. H. Chatley points out that in my former communication2 I did not take account of a whole group of important papers of well-known scholars, and he adds some remarks on stars and planets in ancient Egypt. I think Dr. Chatley must have overlooked my first sentence, where I speak on ``Egyptian calculating astronomy''.

O. Neugebauer

1939-01-01

336

Data in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of data in astronomy and astrophysics is discussed. The growth of astronomical and astrophysical data in the 20th century is examined, the critical evaluation of such data is reviewed, and the accessibility of the data is considered. The possibility of centralizing information concerning the plates stored in plate vaults at various observatories is discussed.

Hauck, B.

337

Astronomy and astrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most

Philippe Zarka

2011-01-01

338

Great Debates in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses important debates that have occurred in the history of astronomy. It begins with a debate on the scale of the universe and continues with the scale of the universe and the nature of the universe. Each of these debates has background information, educational materials, and published proceedings about the debate.

Nemiroff, Robert

2004-07-17

339

T. Arny's Astronomy Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas Arny's collection of online tutorials at the University of Massachusetts span a range of astronomy-related topics. Tutorial subjects include gravity, escape velocity, seasons, orbits, the properties of stars, and galaxies. Each tutorial has questions interspersed to allow students to assess their learning about the presented subject.

Arny, Thomas. T.

2005-04-27

340

Colonial American Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-12-01

341

Astronomy at O level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is designed to bring the O-level astronomy course to the notice of schools not directly connected with the subject. It discusses the syllabus in general terms and suggests methods of introducing it into the existing timetable. It then goes on to outline the snags arising from following the course with emphasis on the written work and a criticism

P. Richards-Jones

1968-01-01

342

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

343

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

344

Strategies for Teaching Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned\\

J. Bennett

2000-01-01

345

Rescuing Middle School Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught

L. A. Mayo; D. Janney

2010-01-01

346

Teaching Astronomy Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and

Mary L. Radnofsky; Matthew Bobrowsky

2004-01-01

347

The Future of Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a summary of the Reports of the Panels'' published by the Astronomy Survey Committee of the National Academy of Sciences in 1973, involving aspects of cosmology, quasars, exploding galaxies, stars, stellar evolution, solar system, organic molecules, life, and interstellar communication. Included are recommendations for scientific…

Greenstein, Jesse L.

1973-01-01

348

Astronomy in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

Rosenzweig, Patricia

349

Teaching Astronomy at SRTM University, Nanded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

School of Physical Sciences of SRTM University, Nanded, Maharashtra offers Astronomy & Astrophysics as one of the specializations at postgraduate (M. Sc) level. With a view to provide training in astronomical observations, data analysis and interpretation of the data; the school has incorporated a set of observational as well as data analysis exercises as a part of this course. The school at present is having observing facilities like, two 8 inch aperture Meade optical telescopes equipped with SSP-3 and SSP-3A photometers, 416-XT CCD camera and is in the process of procurement of Advanced Coma Free 16 inch (40cm) aperture Meade LX-200 optical telescope along with ST-10XME CCD camera and SBIG spectrograph. In addition to these facilities, with an objective of spreading the joy and excitement of radio astronomy among the postgraduate and research students, the school is procuring one 10-feet diameter dish antenna and 1420 MHz Hydrogen Line Spectrometer (radio observation setup). For the solar irradiance measurement, the school is also procuring one StellarNetUV-VIS-NIR Spectro-Radiometer. These facilities are quite suitable for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, carrying out spectroscopic observations of a variety of objects, 21-cm observations of star-forming regions, solar irradiance measurement etc. This presentation is aimed to give a brief summary of various activities that are conducted at M Sc. level using the facilities available in our university department.

Patil, Madhav Khushalrao

350

A Collaborative Astronomy Project Between Multimedia and Physics Undergraduate Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2004, faculty and undergraduate multimedia and physics interns from the University of North Carolina at Asheville and nearby Furman University joined together at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop a new education and public outreach program of radio astronomy by utilizing the StarLab portable planetarium system. The program consists of three components: the StarLab cylinder for projection of the radio sky; display of a pulsar on the radio sky; and teaching and learning materials accessible through the Internet and CD-ROM. The multimedia and physics interns worked together to articulate and communicate aspects of their disciplines as they related to the development of the cylinder, the depiction of the pulsars and pulsar projector, and classroom activities for teachers and students. As a result, the cylinder shows both the radio sky and illustrates five distinct types of radio sources. The cylinder is augmented further through the use of an audio-visual pulsar projector, which emits pulses with sound for the audio-visually challenged. The activities present teachers with lesson plans related to radio astronomy topics. We discuss the unique development by this team needed to accomplish the program's first year goals. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Castelaz, M. W.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.; Moffett, D. A.

2004-12-01

351

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested in large university survey courses, as well as smaller classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. It has also been used in High School and Junior High School science classes. Below are some tools in the Astronomy Workshop. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Planetary Calculators (New!): Calculate a simple formula, e.g. the escape velocity, simultaneously for all planets and moons in the Solar System. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Build Your Own Solar System (New!): Choose the masses of up to four planets, and their orbital sizes and shapes, and explore the prospects for life in your creation. Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

2000-10-01

352

Strategies for Teaching Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

Bennett, J.

2000-12-01

353

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

354

Active Learning Astronomy for Astronomy: The Evolving Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This student supplement to Astronomy: The Evolving Universe provides thirty-two hands-on activities for students of astronomy. Highly focused on central concepts in astronomy, each activity is linked to a section of the main text. The activities are designed to take 30 or 40 minutes of class time, and most require no special materials or extra resources. These class-tested activities form a key part of the innovative teaching strategies developed by Michael Zeilik.

Zeilik, Michael

2002-07-01

355

The Timbuktu Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient city of Timbuktu was the main centre for commerce and scholarship in West Africa from the 13th century until the 17th century. Books were bought from North Africa and other centres of Islamic learning, and local scholars also wrote many books on astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature, law and islam. Scholarship peaked during the 16th and 17th century but declined gradually until the 19th century. Our project aims to study the ancient manuscripts from Timbuktu in order to search for astronomy in them. The main aim of the project is to document our research and use it to attract African youth into science and technology by appealing to their heritage. This paper outlines progress made since the inception of the project in 2006.

Medupe, Rodney Thebe; Warner, Brian; Jeppie, Shamil; Sanogo, Salikou; Maiga, Mohammed; Maiga, Ahmed; Dembele, Mamadou; Diakite, Drissa; Tembely, Laya; Kanoute, Mamadou; Traore, Sibiri; Sodio, Bernard; Hawkes, Sharron

356

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can instructors achieve real-time pace matching with students during large class lectures? How can students become more invested in their own in-class learning? Peer Instruction, coming into widespread use for undergraduate physics courses across the U.S., and now for astronomy as well, can help resolve these perennial questions. As a crucial part of Peer Instruction, teachers pose a question that probes students' conceptual understanding and may also highlight common misconceptions (a ConcepTest). The ConcepTests become the subject of small interactive peer group debates in class. We are compiling a library of ConcepTests to facilitate the implementation of Peer Instruction in introductory undergraduate astronomy. We describe the ConcepTest library, tell you how to access it, and discuss modes of evaluation.

Green, P. J.; Morgan, W. A., Jr.

2000-12-01

357

Practical Semantic Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

2010-01-01

358

Astronomy in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica provides a unique environment for astronomers to practice their trade. The cold, dry and stable air found above the high Antarctic plateau, as well as the pure ice below, offers new opportunities for the conduct of observational astronomy across both the photon and the particle spectrum. The summits of the Antarctic plateau provide the best seeing conditions, the darkest skies and the most transparent atmosphere of any earth-based observing site. Astronomical activities are now underway at four plateau sites: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Concordia Station at Dome C, Kunlun Station at Dome A and Fuji Station at Dome F, in addition to long duration ballooning from the coastal station of McMurdo, at stations run by the USA, France/Italy, China, Japan and the USA, respectively. The astronomy conducted from Antarctica includes optical, infrared, terahertz and sub-millimetre astronomy, measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, solar astronomy, as well as high energy astrophysics involving the measurement of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos. Antarctica is also the richest source of meteorites on our planet. An extensive range of site testing measurements have been made over the high plateau sites. In this article, we summarise the facets of Antarctica that are driving developments in astronomy there, and review the results of the site testing experiments undertaken to quantify those characteristics of the Antarctic plateau relevant for astronomical observation. We also outline the historical development of the astronomy on the continent, and then review the principal scientific results to have emerged over the past three decades of activity in the discipline. These range from determination of the dominant frequencies of the 5 min solar oscillation in 1979 to the highest angular scale measurements yet made of the power spectrum of the CMBR anisotropies in 2010. They span through infrared views of the galactic ecology in star formation complexes in 1999, the first clear demonstration that the Universe was flat in 2000, the first detection of polarization in the CMBR in 2002, the mapping of the warm molecular gas across the ~ 300 pc extent of the Central Molecular Zone of our Galaxy in 2003, the measurement of cosmic neutrinos in 2005, and imaging of the thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect in galaxy clusters in 2008. This review also discusses how science is conducted in Antarctica, and in particular the difficulties, as well as the advantages, faced by astronomers seeking to bring their experiments there. It also reviews some of the political issues that will be encountered, both at national and international level. Finally, the review discusses where Antarctic astronomy may be heading in the coming decade, in particular plans for infrared and terahertz astronomy, including the new facilities being considered for these wavebands at the high plateau stations.

Burton, Michael G.

2010-10-01

359

Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.  

PubMed

The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum. PMID:17774074

Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

1986-02-21

360

Public Outreach in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I will address ways in which astronomy can be conveyed to the general public. I believe that the workings of the cosmos are an effective way to interest the public in science due to their multidisciplinary nature and appeal. This paper is based on the idea that outreach is part of informal education and therefore must be encouraged since it is the way adults learn throughout their lives. We must take advantage of year 2009 to address astronomy in Galileo's honor. I think that outreach should be carried out in the way we enjoy learning about subjects outside our field of expertise. It must be done with passion and for the joy of giving; the gift that outreach conveys is knowledge.

Fierro, J.

2009-05-01

361

Interactive Astronomy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two interactive astronomy games, 'Small and Large' and 'Near and Far', help to introduce important basic concepts about the size of the Universe. In 'Small and Large', students examine pictures of various astronomical objects and arrange them numerically by size. In 'Near and Far, they arrange pictures of objects by their distance from Earth. The games serve as motivators for further discussion and learning and may be used with large groups, a few students or with just one other person.

Morrow, Cherilynn

362

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can instructors achieve real-time pace matching with students during large class lectures? How can students become more invested in their own in-class learning? Peer Instruction, coming into widespread use for undergraduate physics courses across the U.S., and now for astronomy as well, can help resolve these perennial questions. As a crucial part of Peer Instruction, teachers pose a question

P. J. Green; W. A. Morgan Jr.

2000-01-01

363

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking.

E. L. Zirbel

2002-01-01

364

Rocket astronomy - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of rocket astronomy is retold, with emphasis on solar investigations. The use of captured V-2 rockets after World War II was followed by the Aerobee, which exceeded the V-2's altitude and was more reliable. The V-2 has made first-generation investigations in X-ray and UV photometry, which was followed by studies of the solar cycle X-ray variablity, the X-ray

H. Friedman

1981-01-01

365

100 Hours of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years

Mike Simmons

2009-01-01

366

The Timbuktu Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient city of Timbuktu was the main centre for commerce and scholarship in West Africa from the 13th century until the\\u000a 17th century. Books were bought from North Africa and other centres of Islamic learning, and local scholars also wrote many\\u000a books on astronomy, medicine, mathematics, literature, law and islam. Scholarship peaked during the 16th and 17th century\\u000a but

Rodney Thebe Medupe; Brian Warner; Shamil Jeppie; Salikou Sanogo; Mohammed Maiga; Ahmed Maiga; Mamadou Dembele; Drissa Diakite; Laya Tembely; Mamadou Kanoute; Sibiri Traore; Bernard Sodio; Sharron Hawkes

2008-01-01

367

Quia Astronomy Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quia is short for Quintessential Instructional Archive. This site offers a collection of astronomy-based computer activities and quizzes developed by educators for students. Games include concentration (memory), word searches, matching, and flash cards. Topics covered include the nine planets, constellations, stellar evolution, moons, the Messier catalog, and general solar system and astronomical body facts. More tools are available with a subscription to Quia

368

Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

2010-12-01

369

Astronomy Education and Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Dr. Gene Smith of the University of California, San Diego, is very useful for a teacher. There are many tutorials, educational sites, curriculum resources and links to other courses. Topics on this page include: telescopes, nuclear energy, solar neutrinos, general relativity, galaxies, quasars, thermal radiation, atomic structure, black holes, dark matter and cosmology. This is a great resource for a general overview of many different topics in astronomy.

Smith, Gene

2009-07-29

370

Archaeology and astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

2009-10-01

371

Teaching Astronomy Online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swinburne Astronomy Online (SAO) is a fully online graduate astronomy program with students and instructors located in over 30 countries around the globe. SAO uses a hybrid online form of delivery with image and animation-rich course content provided on CD-ROMs and the Internet used for communication research and assessment purposes. Now in its nineth semester and continuing to grow SAO can be considered a 'success story' in new teaching methods and used as an example for online education programs. One of the key distinguishing features of online education as compared to other forms of distance education is the opportunity for instructors and students to interact via online asynchronous discussion forums. Asynchronous discussion forums are used to a varying degree in different online academic programs and in widely different ways. In this paper we will give a historical overview of SAO and how it operates what astronomy we teach online and why specifically focusing on the use of asynchronous discussion forums - which are a central feature of the SAO program - as a learning and teaching tool

Maddison, Sarah T.; Mazzolini, Margaret M.

372

ESO's Astronomy Education Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, has operated a programme of astronomy education for some years, with a dedicated Educational Office established in 2001. We organise a range of activities, which we will highlight and discuss in this presentation. Many are run in collaboration with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), such as the "Catch a Star!" competition for schools, now in its fourth year. A new endeavour is the ALMA Interdisciplinary Teaching Project (ITP). In conjunction with the EAAE, we are creating a set of interdisciplinary teaching materials based around the Atacama Large Millimeter Array project. The unprecedented astronomical observations planned with ALMA, as well as the uniqueness of its site high in the Atacama Desert, offer excellent opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching that also encompass physics, engineering, earth sciences, life sciences, and culture. Another ongoing project in which ESO takes part is the "Science on Stage" European science education festival, organised by the EIROforum - the group of seven major European Intergovernmental Research Organisations, of which ESO is a member. This is part of the European Science Teaching Initiative, along with Science in School, a newly-launched European journal for science educators. Overviews of these projects will be given, including results and lessons learnt. We will also discuss possibilities for a future European Astronomy Day project, as a new initiative for European-wide public education.

Pierce-Price, D. P. I.; Boffin, H.; Madsen, C.

2006-08-01

373

DSPSR: Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

dspsr is a high-performance, open-source, object-oriented, digital signal processing software library and application suite for use in radio pulsar astronomy. Written primarily in C++, the library implements an extensive range of modular algorithms that can optionally exploit both multiple-core processors and general-purpose graphics processing units. After over a decade of research and development, dspsr is now stable and in widespread

W. van Straten; M. Bailes

2011-01-01

374

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book offers a unique collection -- the first of its kind -- of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, publication studies, research indicators, space science planning, research communication, public outreach, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable by readers not necessarily hyper-specialized in astronomy, while still providing specific detailed information. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, science sociologists, research planners and strategists, project managers, and public relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6671-9

Heck, André

2000-11-01

375

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

376

Overview of technical approaches to radio frequency interference mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview provides an interface between lines of thought on radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation in the fields of radio astronomy and signal processing. The goal is to explore the commonality of different approaches to help researchers in both fields interpret each other's concepts and jargon. The paper elaborates on the astronomers' concept of gain closure relations and how they

F. H. Briggs; J. Kocz

2005-01-01

377

Analysis of Jovian decamteric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research effort involved careful examination of Jovian radio emission data below 40 MHz, with emphasis on the informative observations of the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment (PRA) on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The work is divided into three sections, decametric arcs, decametric V bursts, and hectometric modulated spectral activity (MSA).

Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Arias, T. A.; Garnavich, P. N.; Hammerschlag, R.

1986-08-01

378

Astronomy librarians networking for you  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Libraries Association, Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Division (SLA PAM) is the primary networking medium of astronomy librarians in North America. Through conferences, the Union List of Astronomy Serials, a listserver (PAMNET), liaisons to professional societies such as the AAS, professional development courses, a website and other products, it provides an invaluable tool for enhancing the services offered by small observatory and research libraries. A special event is LISA (Library and Information Services in Astronomy), an international conference held every few years. Samples on display.

Cummins, M. V.; Chu, B. S.; Bryson, E. P.

1996-12-01

379

Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

Orchiston, Wayne

2005-01-01

380

Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1980's. Volume 1 - Report of the Astronomy Survey Committee. Volume 2 - Reports of the Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommended priorities for astronomy and astrophysics in the 1980s are considered along with the frontiers of astrophysics, taking into account large-scale structure in the universe, the evolution of galaxies, violent events, the formation of stars and planets, solar and stellar activity, astronomy and the forces of nature, and planets, life, and intelligence. Approved, continuing, and previously recommended programs are related to the Space Telescope and the associated Space Telescope Science Institute, second-generation instrumentation for the Space Telescope, and Gamma Ray Observatory, facilities for the detection of solar neutrinos, and the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility. Attention is given to the prerequisites for new research initiatives, new programs, programs for study and development, high-energy astrophysics, radio astronomy, theoretical and laboratory astrophysics, data processing and computational facilities, organization and education, and ultraviolet, optical, and infrared astronomy.

381

Radio evidence for shock acceleration of electrons in the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the new class of kilometer-wavelength solar radio bursts observed with the ISEE-3 Radio Astronomy Experiment occurs at the reported times of type II events, which are indicative of a shock wave. An examination of records from the Culgoora Radio Observatory reveals that the associated type II bursts have fast drift elements emanating from them; that

H. V. Cane; R. G. Stone; J. Fainberg; J. L. Steinberg; S. Hoang; R. T. Stewart

1981-01-01

382

Space for celestial symphonies? Towards the establishment of international radio quiet zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of low- and medium-Earth orbit mobile satellite communications poses a threat to radio astronomers which could be mitigated by the establishment of international radio quiet zones (IRQZs), where communications traffic is managed (not eliminated) to allow radio astronomy to continue. Using the prototype of national such zones in the USA, this article explains how the system would work

Frans G. von der Dunk

2001-01-01

383

Dyslexia and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

2007-12-01

384

Greek mathematical astronomy reconsidered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations have thrown new light on such topics as the early Greek belief in heliocentricity, the relation between Greek and Babylonian astronomy, the reliability of Ptolemy's Syntaxis, Hipparchus's theory of motion for the sun, Hipparchus's value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, and Eratosthenes' estimate of the size of the earth. Some claims resulting from these investigations are controversial, especially the reevaluation of Ptolemy (though it is notable that no one any longer uses data from the Syntaxis for investigating such things as the spin of the earth). This essay presents the evidence for these claims; it makes no pretense of presenting the evidence against them.

Thurston, Hugh

2002-03-01

385

Animated Tutorials: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains four animated tutorials that demonstrate different astronomy concepts. These include: Lunar Phases shows how the motion of the moon relative to the Earth and Sun change the appearance of the moon; Sidereal and Synodic Months demonstrates the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, and the rotation of the Moon around the Earth, defines different periods of time; Blackbody Curves demonstrates how the temperature, and other parameters, of a radiating black body changes the radiation curve; and Nearest Stars presents a 3-D map of the stars closest to our Sun, also showing their spectral type.

2007-06-05

386

Neutrino astronomy with MACRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources can be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions with the matter surrounding the detector. We present the results of a search for either a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux or a point-like source of neutrinos in the sample of upward-going muons gathered by MACRO. We find no evidence for either type of signal. The muon flux upper limit for the diffuse signal has been set at the level of 1.5 ×10-14 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . 1 Neutrino astronomy: overview and motivation High energy neutrinos in the range from 100 GeV up to 107 GeV are expected from a wide class of galactic and extragalactic astrophysical objects. Neutrino production requires the existence of hadronic processes and is generally described in the picture of the so-called beam dump model (Gaisser, 1995): high energy protons accelerated in proximity of compact objects by shocks waves or plasma turbulence interact with photons or target matter surrounding the source, producing pions. Neutrinos of electron and muon flavors originate from decay of charged pions, as well as from decay of generated muons. In the same hadronic chains, high energy ?-rays are expected to be produced through neutral pion decay. Like ?-rays, neutrinos can travel undeflected through the Universe. Neutrinos however are much less absorbed than photons and thus make a more powerful tool for astronomy searches. Many of the candidate sources of neutrinos (binary systems, supernovae remnants, AGNs, GRBs etc) have already been recognized as gamma rays emitters at energies higher than 100 GeV: this provides an important hint to neutrino astronomy, even if the observed ?-ray energies are not high enough to exclude the electromagnetic production mechanisms, such as synchrotron or inverse Compton processes. In this scenario, the detection of high energy neutrinos would open a new field of research, complementary to ?-ray astronomy and essential in order to investigate the inner structure of the most interesting cosmic objects.

Perrone, L.; MACRO Collaboration

2001-08-01

387

Astronomy in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

2013-01-01

388

Misconceptions in Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list is a work in progress. We are using it to build a library of (mis)information and categorize the location of the proper science. Click on the linked misconceptions to see the scientific explanations of these common mistakes courtesy of a number of informative online scientific resources. The effort to find and link more and more good science to this list is ongoing, and eventually all these misconceptions will be linked to lead to the proper science. The different topics include: stars, the solar system, galaxies, physics, black holes, cosmology and the history and philosophy of astronomy.

Comins, Neil

2009-05-27

389

Astronomy and Philately  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both astronomy and philately are multi-faceted disciplines and their interaction makes a fascinating study. In attempting to demonstrate the breadth and complexity of philately, the author describes her own collection which has been in process of formation for some seventy years. Over this time, awareness of the rich variety of collectables has grown and these will be gradually introduced throughout the paper. As with other forms of human activity, the hobby is subject to fashion and some of the resultant developments are described.

Morris, Margaret I.

2013-01-01

390

Animated Tutorials: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains four animated tutorials that demonstrate different astronomy concepts. These include: Lunar Phases shows how the motion of the moon relative to the Earth and Sun change the appearance of the moon; Sidereal and Synodic Months demonstrates the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, and the rotation of the Moon around the Earth, defines different periods of time; Blackbody Curves demonstrates how the temperature, and other parameters, of a radiating black body changes the radiation curve; and Nearest Stars presents a 3-D map of the stars closest to our Sun, also showing their spectral type.

2009-05-18

391

Software for Astronomy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links as well as self-extracting files to download various astronomical software to complement lessons about astronomy. Programs include eclipsing binary stars, Luna view, a solar system simulator, an H-R calculator to create types of stars, Starclock to show the evolution of star types, Mystars and Starcalc that both show views of the night sky, and Geoclock which provides a calculator for sunrise, sunset and more. Most of these programs are free and the rest are shareware. This site gives easy instructions on how to download the software to a PC (there are a few links for Macs), and a brief description of what the software does.

Love, Jamie

2007-03-27

392

Review of Antarctic astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have always sought the best sites for their telescopes. Antarctica, with its high plateau reaching to above 4,000 metres, intense cold, exceptionally low humidity and stable atmosphere, offers what for many forms of astronomy is the ultimate observing location on this planet. While optical, infrared and millimetre astronomers are building their observatories on the ice, particle physicists are using the ice itself as a detector and exploration of the terahertz region is being conducted from circumpolar long-duration balloons. Remarkable astronomical discoveries are already coming out of Antarctica, and much, much more is just around the corner.

Storey, John W. V.

2013-01-01

393

Superluminal motion in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several examples of `intrinsic-type' superluminal motion in astronomy are taken. A simple signal-delay transformation is devised and shown to be sufficient to explain the superluminal effect as resulting from differential signal delay across an expanding source. The distinction between relativistic motion and relativistic kinematics is made. The key kinematical equation used to describe superluminal motion is an alternative statement of the Doppler effect. Relativistic transformations, which are relevant when intervals in different reference frames are compared, then lead to the relativistic Doppler factor (?), which is applicable to measurements on a photographic image, for example that of a relativistic quasar jet with superluminal components.

Falla, D. F.; Floyd, M. J.

2002-01-01

394

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

Lubowich, D. A.

2006-08-01

395

Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes basic misconceptions about the origin of elements and forms of matter found in chemistry texts that need modification in light of modern observational data and interpretations given in astronomy. Notes that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. Confounding examples from astronomy include white dwarfs, neutron…

Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

1996-01-01

396

Animations for Physics and Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

Gallis, Michael R.

397

Third-World Astronomy Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several developing countries of the Third World have been actively interested in astronomy, as is evidenced by the membership of the IAU. The enthusiasm of individual astronomers from these countries is, however, not matched by the resources available to them to pursue their interest in astronomy, in teaching as well as research, at an above-threshold level. Major problems requiring solutions

Jayant V. Narlikar

2001-01-01

398

Spreading Astronomy Education Through Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Astronomy has been an important vehicle for effectively passing a wide range of scientific knowledge, teaching the basic skills of scientific reasoning, and for communicating the excitement of science to the public, its inclusion in the teaching curricula of most institutions of higher learning in Africa is rare. This is partly due to the fact that astronomy appears to

P. Baki

2006-01-01

399

The Astronomy Workshop: Enhanced Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Workshop (http:\\/\\/janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes and by the general public. The philosophy of the site is to foster student interest in astronomy by using their fascination with computers and the internet. We are upgrading the \\

Melissa N. Hayes-Gehrke; G. Deming

2007-01-01

400

Communicating Astronomy with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The communication of astronomy to the public is an important topic that will play an ever greater role in the coming years as a link between society and the scientific astronomical community, while supporting both formal and informal science education. The communication of achieved results is now seen frequently as a natural and obligatory activity to inform the public and attract both funding and science students. A number of obstacles do exist to this communication work. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Commission 55 "Communicating Astronomy with the Public" seeks to alleviate part of these problems and to establish and support effective ways to communicate astronomy with the public in the long term. In this paper, we present the initiatives and activities taking place under the auspices of the IAU Commission 55: Communicating Astronomy with the Public, especially the initial outcome from the "Communicating Astronomy with the Public" journal Working Group.

Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, Pedro

401

Astronomy and the developing world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today Astronomy is studied by a small number of researchers. Although there is general interest in astronomy, it is difficult for the general public to gain access to information and knowledge on the subject. The institution of the International Year of Astronomy could provide a solution to the problem by providing a scientific basis for the traditional and cultural perception of the sky. It could also encourage scientific research in the field. These words are taken from the Proclamation of the International Year of Astronomy by UNESCO in 2005 and should encourage activity in astronomy in and for developing countries. There is no undisputed definition of a developing country, as it involves a complex evaluation of much data: in this work, I will use the International Statistical Institute evaluation.

Villone, B.

2008-06-01

402

Undergraduate Astronomy Imaging Labortatory: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Iowa has set up a CCD-based astronomy laboratory for undergraduate astronomy courses, with emphasis on use in a freshman-level introductory course. The equipment consists of a computer-controlled mount with several Cassegrain optical systems (10-35cm aperture) and medium format CCD cameras. The system is completely automated, including dome control, filter selection, focus, and pointing corrections. This allows the student to concentrate on planning, executing, and analyzing interesting scientific projects without extensive technical training. The images are analyzed on a network of ten 486 PC's which are connected to the CCD-control computer for easy image file access. We will present sample results from a large number of solar system, stellar, and extragalactic observations. We have also developed a number of `cloudy-sky' laboratory exercises using CD-ROM images from the NASA planetary spacecraft (e.g. Voyager, Magellan, Viking) as well as maps from radio, infrared, and x-ray surveys. We plan to upgrade this system to allow remote operation of a dark-site telescope within one year. A video of the equipment and a demonstration of the telescope control software will be shown. Also, samples of a laboratory manual will be available illustrating the types of observations and cloudy-sky exercises which have been done.

Mutel, R. L.; Sauerbrei, P. J.; Ottenheimer, A.

1992-12-01

403

Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechamisms and propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as it flew by Neptune. The study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, and ray tracing to determine the possible source mechanisms and locations of the radiation, including the narrowband bursty and smooth components of the Neptune radio emission.

Menietti, J. Douglas

1994-07-01

404

MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

2006-12-01

405

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

406

Astronomy Education in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

Metaxa, M.

407

Astronomy in Syria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syria has been involved in the field of astronomy since 1997, when Prof. F.R. QUERCI, France, visited Syria and made a presentation on the International NORT project; (NORT: the Network of Oriental Robotic Telescope), which was a selected project of the sixth United Nations/ European Space Agency Workshop on Basic Space Science (document no. A/AC.105/657 dated 13/12/1996). NORT aims to establish a robotic telescope network on high mountain peaks around the Tropic of Cancer, from Morocco in the west to the desert of China in the east. The purposes for establishing this network are technical and educational. The General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS) has carried out a pilot study using remote sensing techniques and has selected four sites in order to determine the best location for the astronomical observatory the within NORT programme. Following this project, GORS decided to establish an office for astronomical studies, one of the earliest works of GORS in astronomy was an initiative to establish a planetarium within the GORS campus, to accommodate approximately 120 observers. A contest to choose the best planetarium design, for the Arab World, took place at GORS.

Al-Mousli, A. T.

2006-11-01

408

Astronomy Olympiads in Russia and Their Position in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy olympiads started to be organised in Russia more than 60 years ago (then it was still USSR). In 1994, on the basis of several regional astronomy olympiads, appeared the All-Russian Astronomy Olympiad (Vserossijskaya astronomicheskaya olimpiada) or ARAO. It has been organised under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and pupils attending higher forms have taken part in it. The main objective of ARAO is to find and support talented pupils. Leading universities of the country (Russia) have also organised their own astronomy olympiads. In this way there are Astronomy Olympiads of Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kazan. Among them the largest is that of Saint Petersburg. The main characteristic of these olympiads is that they have also included pupils of younger forms and have prepared their own tasks. The main objective of these olympiads is to find and support future students of astronomy classes at those universities. All astronomy Olympiads have played an important role in preparing future astronomers. This work is supported by Leading Scientific Schools Grant No. NSH-3290.2010.2.

Eskin, B.; Tarakanov, P.; Kostina, M.

2012-12-01

409

Report Of The Cospar WG On "Future Of Space Astronomy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COSPAR President on April 20, 2010 appointed the "Future of Space Astronomy” Working Group under the aegis of Commission E, with the aim to analyze the difficult situation of space astronomy over the next two decades and recommend ways to improve the prospects. Having assessed the scientific needs and the current plans of the main space agencies worldwide, the WG has identified some major concerns about the lack of a secured future for Space Astronomy. In fact, astronomers today have access to an impressive set of space missions and ground-based observatories that gives them nearly continuous coverage of the electromagnetic spectrum from the gamma-ray to the radio regions. But the picture becomes concerning and critical in the next 10 - 15 years, when current space astronomy missions will have ended and new missions will be much less numerous. Astronomy is a difficult observational science requiring continuous and simultaneous access to the full electromagnetic spectrum to explore our complex Universe and to pursue answers to fundamental scientific questions. The history of space astronomy, especially the past three decades, has demonstrated clearly the importance and benefits of access to the gamma-ray, X-ray, UV-optical, near IR and far-IR spectrum from space. So far the only planned observatory class missions, proposed to NASA-ESA-JAXA are JWST (2018), WFIRST/EUCLID (2018-2020), Athena (ex IXO, 2022) and LISA. The latter two under re-scope in an ESA alone scenario with a cost <1B€. We will present the main WG outcome with a number of recommendations and, finally, suggest a road map for the next decades. *WG membership: Pietro Ubertini (Chair), Italy, Neil Gehrels (Co-Chair), USA, Ian Corbett (IAU liason), UK, Paolo De Bernardis, Italy, Marcos Machado, Argentina, Matt Griffin, UK, Michael Hauser, USA, Ravinder K. Manchanda, India, Nobuyuki Kawai, Japan, Shuang-Nan Zhang, China, Mikhail Pavlinsky, Russia

Ubertini, Pietro; Space Astronomy*, Cospar WG on Future of

2011-09-01

410

Schiaparelli and the dawn of astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schiaparelli is remembered by astronomers and scholars interested in ancient astronomy in particular for his fundamental contributions to the understanding of ancient Greek astronomy and for his pioneer work on babylonian astronomy. In the present paper we will highlight some of his studies and ideas about: a) the origins and the primitive astronomy in the context of the european archaeology

E. Antonello

2011-01-01

411

Statistics in Astronomy in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Astronomy is the oldest of the sciences, yet in many senses it is the newest of the sciences. Through the centuries, statistics has aided astronomy and astronomy has aided statistics. The history of statistics in astronomy is too vast a subject to cover i...

E. L. Scott

1975-01-01

412

Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding…

Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

2003-01-01

413

Promoting Mental Model Building in Astronomy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While astronomy has recently re-emerged in many science curricula, there remain unresolved teaching and learning difficulties peculiar to astronomy education. This paper argues that mental model building, the core process in astronomy itself, should be reflected in astronomy education. Also, this crucial skill may promote a better understanding of…

Taylor, Ian; Barker, Miles; Jones, Alister

2003-01-01

414

Introducing Astronomy Through Solar and Lunar Calendar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of competence teachers to educate basic science astronomy and space science in Indonesia implies that knowledge of astronomy and space science will be transmitted to the young generation improperly. Priority in curriculum of basic science include only small amount of general astronomy and public perception that astronomy is less importance than basic science both are disadvantage for developing astronomical

Moedji Raharto

2003-01-01

415

How to Increase Correct Learning of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomy is the most popular and attractive among the sciences. Undoubtedly the importance of exact knowledge of astronomy is becoming more and more important. However the level of teaching of astronomy at schools lyceums colleges and even universities especially in the FSU countries is far to be satisfactorily. Moreover some astronomy related information in the mass media (TV newspapersetc.) has

Alisher S. Hojaev

2003-01-01

416

Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO\\/CRS\\/CIE\\/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The

Guilherme Simon da Rosa; Nelson Jorge Schuch; Cassio Espindola Antunes; Natanael Gomes

2008-01-01

417

A Radio Astronomical Star Party for those "On The Verge"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the Onsala Stjärnträff (Onsala Star Party), an unconventional outreach event that was held during Sweden's inaugural Day and Night of Astronomy in October 2012. The target group consisted of individuals who are "on the verge" of discovering astronomy; individuals who have a spark of enthusiasm for astronomy, but who have not yet taken this passive interest to the next level. For the event, we adapted the concept of a star party to provide insight, inspiration, hands-on experience and networking opportunities for the participants. Furthermore, the Onsala Space Observatory's radio telescopes allowed us to compensate for poor weather and to fulfil our role in communicating radio astronomy to a wider public.

Wirström, E. S.; Cumming, R. J.

2013-04-01

418

Astronomy of Nabta Playa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repetitive orientation of megaliths, human burials, and cattle burials toward the northern regions of the sky reveals a very early symbolic connection to the heavens at Nabta Playa, Egypt. The groups of shaped stones facing north may have represented spirits of individuals who died on the trail or locally. A second piece of evidence for astronomy at Nabta Playa is the stone circle with its two sightlines toward the north and toward the rising sun at the June solstice. Finally, the five alignments of megaliths, which were oriented to bright stars in the fifth millennium, suggest an even more careful attention to the heavens. The "empty tombs" and deeply buried table rocks of the Complex Structures provide some of the greatest enigmas of Nabta Playa. The recurrent symbolism of the ceremonial centre involves issues that would have been of both practical and symbolic importance to the nomads: death, water, cattle, sun, and stars.

McK Mahille, J.; Schild, R.; Wendorf, F.; Brenmer, R.

2007-07-01

419

Williams College Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Williams College Astronomy website promotes its educational and research activities dealing with many aspects of coronal heating, planetary nebulae, solar eclipses, relativistic astrophysics, and related astronomical topics. The website features the latest astronomical news stories and a bulletin of the latest activities of the group. By visiting the People link, researchers can discover the many research activities and published papers on subjects including studying the sun at total solar eclipses and detecting diatomic carbon molecule (C2) in interstellar space. Students and educators can find numerous images of planetary nebulae observed at Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory as well as a short introduction to planetary nebulae and two exercises to explore the image database. The website offers a great tutorial and history of solar eclipses. Visitors can learn about the history of the Hopkins Observatory, the oldest observatory in the United States.

420

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

Zirbel, E. L.

2002-12-01

421

Misconceptions in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study performed by the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Italy) and the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia (Spain), we analyse some common misconceptions in astronomy. In particular we explored the evolution of these misconceptions (if any) depending on age and socio-educational factors, from a cognitive structures point of view. Cognitive structures interact with learnt contents and produce resistant conceptual schemes that are almost completely unknown and ignored by teachers and educators. We carried out an extensive survey (more than 2000 tests in the two countries) and we studied the spontaneous schemes and concepts used by youngsters when facing some basic astronomical ideas, in order to focus efforts on helping to change the above schemes by inducing a "clash of ideas" for the students. In that way, students could acquire a dynamic mental model consistent with the scientific model.

Gallego-Calvente, A. T.; Sandrelli, S.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

2008-06-01

422

Astronomy and political theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

Campion, Nicholas

2011-06-01

423

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

Venner, L.

2008-11-01

424

Gravitational wave astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

Finn, L. S.

425

Gravitational Wave Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If two black holes collide in a vacuum, can they be observed? Until recently, the answer would have to be "no." After all, how would we observe them? Black holes are "naked" mass: pure mass, simple mass, mass devoid of any matter whose interactions might lead to the emission of photons or neutrinos, or any electromagnetic fields that might accelerate cosmic rays or leave some other signature that we could observe in our most sensitive astronomical instruments. Still, black holes do have mass. As such, they interact—like all mass—gravitationally. And the influence of gravity, like all influences, propagates no faster than that universal speed we first came to know as the speed of light. The effort to detect that propagating influence, which we term as gravitational radiation or gravitational waves, was initiated just over 50 years ago with the pioneering work of Joe Weber [1] and has been the object of increasingly intense experimental effort ever since. Have we, as yet, detected gravitational waves? The answer is still "no." Nevertheless, the accumulation of the experimental efforts begun fifty years ago has brought us to the point where we can confidently say that gravitational waves will soon be detected and, with that first detection, the era of gravitational wave astronomy—the observational use of gravitational waves, emitted by heavenly bodies—will begin. Data analysis for gravitational wave astronomy is, today, in its infancy and its practitioners have much to learn from allied fields, including machine learning. Machine learning tools and techniques have not yet been applied in any extensive or substantial way to the study or analysis of gravitational wave data. It is fair to say that this owes principally to the fields relative youth and not to any intrinsic unsuitability of machine learning tools to the analysis problems the field faces. Indeed, the nature of many of the analysis problems faced by the field today cry-out for the application of machine learning techniques. My principal goal in this chapter is to (i) describe the gravitational wave astronomy problem domain and associated analysis challenges, and (ii) identify some specific problem areas where the application of machine learning techniques may be employed to particular advantage. In Section 19.2, I describe what gravitational waves are, how they are generated and propagated, and the several different observational technologies through which we expect, over the next decade or so, gravitational wave astronomy will exploit. I have written this section for the non astronomer; however, I think that even the gravitational wave astronomer may find the viewpoint taken here to be of interest. In Section 19.3, I deconstruct the work involved in the analysis of gravitational wave data and describe (briefly!) the techniques currently used for data analysis. The focus of Section 19.4 is on the application of machine learning tools and techniques in gravitational wave data analysis. I conclude with some closing remarks in Section 19.5.

Finn, Lee Samuel

2012-03-01

426

Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

Urama, J. O.

427

Astronomy in laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is not easy to practice astronomical observation in a high school. It is difficult to teach authentic astronomy because real-world conditions cannot be reproduced in the classroom. However, the following ideas produce some interesting experiments. 1. The reappearance experiment of the meteor spectrum. We produced emission spectra by using a gas burner and welding. It can be understood that the luminosity of emission lines varies according to temperature. Furthermore, we mixed in liquid chlorides of Na, Ca, Fe, Sg, Si, etc., in different proportions tomimic different meteor spectra. We then observed the time changes of the luminosity using a video camcorder that we attached to a spectroscope. The spectrum in the experiment closely resembled that of a meteor. 2. The verification of the black-drop phenomenon.Long ago, the black-drop phenomenon became important in the case of Venus's passage between the Earth and the Sun, a transit of Venus. We tried to reproduce this phenomenon by using a small ball painted black, solar light, and an artificial illuminant. The profile of the reproduced image was then checked in detail. We found that this phenomenon depended on the influence of the limb darkening of the Sun, the scintillation of the Earth's atmosphere, and the optical performance of the telescope. Furthermore, we imitated Venus's atmosphere as an additional experiment by applying oil on the surface of the small ball. It resulted in an interesting profile but was not a sufficient experiment. Of course, these experiments are in conditions that are very different from the actual physical conditions. However, we think that they provide a very effective method for enhancing students' interest in astronomy. We are planning other experiments with similar themes.

Suzuki, B.

2006-08-01

428

Color in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

Brecher, K.

2002-05-01

429

Challenges to Astronomy and Astrophysics: Working Documents of the Astronomy Survey Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the papers of seven working groups in support of the study Astronomy and Astrophysics forthe 1980's, volumes 1 and 2. The groups studied solar physics, planetary science, galactic astronomy, extragalactic astronomy, related areas of science...

1983-01-01

430

Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in Babylonia during the first millennium BC developed out of a long tradition of observing and interpreting the sky into a science that was both observational and theoretical. It is well established that these developments influenced the practice of astronomy in neighbouring cultures in the Indus valley, Egypt and the Greco-Roman world. However, it is less clear whether there was any significant input from foreign cultures into the development of Babylonian astronomy. In this paper I examine the evidence for possible traces of Greek influence on Babylonian astronomy during the late first millennium BC. In particular, I discuss two possible cases of Greek influence that have been proposed in recent years: the naming of certain zodiacal signs and a value for the length of the year found on a Babylonian text that may be based upon Greek observations of summer solstices.

Steele, J. M.

431

Astronomy Education Research Down Under  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of research conducted in Australasia over the past decade into students' concept development in astronomy. The literature identifies a number of learning difficulties pertinent to astronomy such as the lack of prior knowledge interplay of intuitive or naive beliefs problems with juxtaposition difficulties in mental-modelling the inappropriate use of analogies and the absence of consideration of the historical development of astronomy in teaching. This paper also reports on the impact on and effectiveness of some teaching and learning strategies that have been developed and employed in a variety of learning environments to address some of these learning difficulties. The discussion concludes with a number of recommendations for further focussed research into the learning and conceptual needs of students. It is suggested that there needs to be a greater research focus on strategies to ensure that students can scaffold and challenge their own learning of abstract and spatial ideas that are fundamental to their understanding of astronomy.

Broadfoot, John M.; Ginns, Ian S.

432

Communicating Astronomy Beyond IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy 2009, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first look at the night sky through a telescope, was arguably the most successful public-outreach event in the history of science. Thousands of professional and amateur astronomers, public-information officers, writers, publishers, teachers, and informal educators from 148 countries worked tirelessly to share the wonders of astronomy with millions of people, from rural schoolchildren to the President of the United States. How to build on IYA2009 was the theme of "Communicating Astronomy with the Public 2010," a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa, in March 2010. I report some of the highlights from CAP2010 and consider the extent to which the IYA2009 helped us address global challenges in astronomy communication.

Fienberg, Richard Tresch

433

Infrared Astronomy from the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow ...

D. Lester

1988-01-01

434

Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These introductory astronomy tutorials are student-centered activities designed to promote conceptual understanding. Topics consist include understanding the celestial sphere, measuring distance by using parallax, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, and the H-R diagram.

Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Tim P.; Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brissenden, Gina; Research, Conceptual A.

2005-06-13

435

Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

Ulvestad, James S.

2011-05-01

436

Introductory Astronomy: Active Galaxies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses the different types of active galacties: Double-Lobed radio galaxies, Seyfert Galaxies, BL Lac Objects, and quasars. These pages discuss the structure, components, behavior, and provide an image or diagram for each type. It also provides information about the role black holes may have in understanding active galaxies and an image of a suspected black hole at core of a NGC4261. This site ends with a short quiz.

Department, University O.

2005-06-07

437

The LOFAR radio environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations. Methods: We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz/1 s resolution. Results: We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linearly when decreasing the data frequency resolution. Conclusions: Currently, by using an automated RFI detection strategy, the LOFAR radio environment poses no perceivable problems for sensitive observing. It remains to be seen if this is still true for very deep observations that integrate over tens of nights, but the situation looks promising. Reasons for the low impact of RFI are the high spectral and time resolution of LOFAR; accurate detection methods; strong filters and high receiver linearity; and the proximity of the antennas to the ground. We discuss some strategies that can be used once low-level RFI starts to become apparent. It is important that the frequency range of LOFAR remains free of broadband interference, such as DAB stations and windmills.

Offringa, A. R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Zaroubi, S.; van Diepen, G.; Martinez-Ruby, O.; Labropoulos, P.; Brentjens, M. A.; Ciardi, B.; Daiboo, S.; Harker, G.; Jeli?, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mellema, G.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R. F.; Schaye, J.; Vedantham, H.; Veligatla, V.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Birzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H.; Conway, J.; de Vos, M.; Dettmar, R. J.; Eisloeffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Gerbers, M.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Koopman, Y.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McKean, J.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Mol, J. D.; Nijboer, R.; Noordam, J.; Norden, M.; Paas, H.; Pandey, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Rafferty, D.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Schoenmakers, A. P.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; van Ardenne, A.; van Cappellen, W.; van Duin, A. P.; van Haarlem, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Weeren, R. J.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M.; Wucknitz, O.

2013-01-01

438

Commission 41: History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 41 was created at the VIIth IAU General Assembly in Zürich in 1948. From an inauspicious start-Otto Neugebauer was appointed the first President in his absence, but proceeded to express his conviction that ``an international organization in the history of astronomy has no positive function. . .my only activity during my term of service consisted in iterated attempts to resign''-the Commission quickly assumed a key role in the international development of the history of astronomy as an academic discipline.

Ruggles, Clive; Kochhar, Rajesh; Il-Seong, Nha; Belmonte, Juan; Corbin, Brenda; de Jong, Teije; Norris, Ray; Pigatto, Luisa; Soma, Mitsuru; Sterken, Chris; Xiaochun, Sun

2012-04-01

439

In Support of Instrument Technology Development for THz Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic spectrum from 1-5 THz is extremely rich in molecular and atomic fine structure lines and is expected to be highly rewarding for astronomy if sensitive wideband heterodyne detectors can be developed. Recent developments in devices, materials, and fabrication technology suggest that nearly quantum-limited sensitivity with ~16 GHz bandwidth on the sky should be possible in the next decade. The new technology will be suitable for focal-plane and beam-forming arrays as well as conventional single element receivers and interferometers. In recent years, due to lack of funding, work on THz radio astronomy instruments in the U.S. has been overtaken by work in Europe and Japan, and we believe this to be a good time to restore U.S. competitiveness.

Kerr, A. R.; Bryerton. Eric; Crowe, Tom; Erikson, Neal; Fisher, Rick; Goldsmith, Paul; Gottlieb, Carl; Groppi, Chris; Hesler, Jeffrey; Hunter, Todd; Barker, Scott; Lichtenberger, Arthur; Narayanan, Gopal; Padin, Steve; Pan, S.-K.; Russell, Adrian; Srikanth, S.; Thaddeus, Pat; Walker, Chris; Webber, John; Weikle, Bobby; Wootten, Al; Ziurys, Lucy; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

440

Introducing Astronomy into Mozambican Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mozambique has been proposed as a host for one of the future Square Kilometre Array stations in Southern Africa. However, Mozambique does not possess a university astronomy department and only recently has there been interest in developing one. South Africa has been funding students at the MSc and PhD level, as well as researchers. Additionally, Mozambicans with Physics degrees have been funded at the MSc level. With the advent of the International Year of Astronomy, there has been a very strong drive, from these students, to establish a successful astronomy department in Mozambique. The launch of the commemorations during the 2008 World Space Week was very successful and Mozambique is to be used to motivate similar African countries who lack funds but are still trying to take part in the International Year of Astronomy. There hare been limited resources and funding, however there is a strong will to carry this momentum into 2009 and, with this, influence the Government to introduce Astronomy into its national curriculum and at University level. Mozambique's motto for the International Year of Astronomy is ``Descobre o teu Universo''.

Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Paulo, C. M.; Besteiro, A. M. A. R.; Geraldes, H.; Maphossa, A. M.; Nhanonbe, F. A.; Uaissine, A. J. R.

2011-06-01

441

GAVRT and Radio Jove: Partners in K-12 Science Teacher Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http:\\/\\/www.lewiscenter.org\\/gavrt) and The Radio Jove Project (http:\\/\\/radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) have a recent partnership to train K-14 teachers to use radio astronomy telescopes as vehicles for science education. The partnership is part of the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) education and outreach program. Teachers attend training workshops to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and\\/or

C. A. Higgins; J. R. Thieman; B. Nakamura; R. Dorcey

2010-01-01

442

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis

James M. Cordes

2009-01-01

443

Radio Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio control of the motions of aerospace vehicles of various types and purposes (missiles, spacecraft, aircraft) is examined. Chief attention is focused on the principles and methods of radio control. Current methods of analysis and synthesis of the corr...

L. S. Gutkin V. B. Pestryakov V. N. Tipugin

1971-01-01

444

Using Group Research Projects to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar planet project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting exoplanets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kupier Telescope in near-UV and optical filters in order to detect any asymmetries between filters. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12m telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. The projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. As of January 2012 the extrasolar planet project became an official independent study class. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects creating a learner-centered environment.

McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C. W.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Austin, C. L.; Schlingman, W. M.

2012-05-01

445

Astronomie avec Miroirs Liquides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse démontre que la technologie des miroirs liquides a atteint une maturité qui permet de l'appliquer à la recherche astronomique. Les télescopes à miroir liquide offrent des images astronomiques de qualité comparable à celle des télescopes conventionels utilisés dans des conditions similaires. La première partie de la thèse présente le premier télescope a miroir liquide dédié à la recherche astronomique: le 2,7 m de University of British Columbia-Université Uval (UBC-UL). Elle donne également les renseignements techniques utiles pour l'exploitation des télescopes à miroir liquide en milieu extérieur. La deuxième partie de la thèse analyse les données de la saison 1996 du télescope à miroir liquide de 3 m du NASA Orbital Debris Observatory (NODO). Une comparaison avec les observations effectuées avec des télescopes conventionels, publiées dans la littérature, démontre la bonne qualité des données du NODO. Une recherche d'objets particuliers, parmi les 20 000 objets répertoriés pendant la saison 1996, démontre le potentiel des miroirs liquides pour les projets d'astronomie demandant de grandes surfaces collectrices sur de longues périodes de temps.

Cabanac, Remi Andre

446

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2007-12-01

447

Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

Parello, S. L.

2008-06-01

448

Multimessenger Astronomy and Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos play a very important role in multimessenger astronomy. In this talk, I start with a simple argument on how bright the Universe is in both photons and neutrinos. It is remarkable that one can easily show that the neutrinos, especially those emitted from past core-collapse supernovae, form the brightest radiation component in the Universe, ever emitted from astrophysical sources. The detection of this cosmic supernova neutrino background has not been made yet, but is almost guaranteed in the near future. Thus, I review theoretical predictions of the supernova neutrino background, and the latest upper limits experimentally obtained on its flux. Then I discuss prospects of detecting supernova neutrinos from nearby galaxies. With upcoming Mton detectors, or hopefully with a multi-Mton detector, one could study not only supernova neutrinos but also a true stellar death rate, hidden black-hole formation, etc. Finally, I discuss detectability of high-energy neutrinos and implications for underlying supernova-gamma-ray burst connection. Detecting neutrinos will not only give unique diagnostics but also help find gravitational waves.

Ando, Shin'ichiro

2013-04-01

449

Radio Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thousands of today's high school students run FM radio stations at school, carrying on a tradition that began 50 years ago. Radio helps students learn to work with others and develop a strong sense of responsibility. A sidebar gives advice on starting a high school radio station. (MLF)|

Sanderson, Neil

1998-01-01

450

AstronomyCenter.org - A Digital Library for Astronomy 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS is sponsoring the development of a digital collection of online resources for teaching introductory astronomy: astronomycenter.org. Astronomy Center is part of the ComPADRE project with the AIP and its member organizations (see Deustua et al. at this meeting). The goal of Astronomy Center is to build a portal that will be a broad collection of high-quality digital resources, a useful and inviting interface to search and browse the collection, and an online meeting place for faculty at a variety of institutions to gather and share information. The collection will be launched in early 2005 and will initially contain a few hundred resources, selected primarily by Astronomy Center staff. The collection will grow through user and author submissions. Meanwhile, resources will be peer-reviewed and featured on the site as the collection grows. We will present the astronomycenter.org site, the user interface, some resources in the collection, the peer review process, and how members of the community can get involved with Astronomy Center. This work was made possible by a NSF National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Digital Library (NSDL) grant to the AAPT, AIP, and AAS.

Gagne, M.; Monahan, P.; Deustua, S.; Mason, B.

2004-12-01

451

Involving High School Students in Astronomy Research: What's the goal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) is an NSF funded ITEST program that engages high school students and their teachers in radio astronomy research. Teachers and students from 72 schools have received training through this program. More than 300 students have joined with astronomers in analyzing data, and several discoveries have been made. In this paper we examine the evaluation data collected to determine if initial goals were met, and if in fact, the initial goals were the right ones. In particular we examine whether participation in the PSC a) affected students' and teachers' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry, and b) motivated students to pursue STEM career paths.

Heatherly, Sue Ann; Scoles, S.; McLaughlin, M.; Lorimer, D.

2012-01-01

452

DSPSR: Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DSPSR is a high-performance, open-source, object-oriented, digital signal processing software library and application suite for use in radio pulsar astronomy. Written primarily in C++, the library implements an extensive range of modular algorithms that can optionally exploit both multiple-core processors and general-purpose graphics processing units. After over a decade of research and development, DSPSR is now stable and in widespread use in the community. This paper presents a detailed description of its functionality, justification of major design decisions, analysis of phase-coherent dispersion removal algorithms, and demonstration of performance on some contemporary microprocessor architectures.

van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.

2010-10-01

453

DSPSR: Digital Signal Processing Software for Pulsar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dspsr is a high-performance, open-source, object-oriented, digital signal processing software library and application suite for use in radio pulsar astronomy. Written primarily in C++, the library implements an extensive range of modular algorithms that can optionally exploit both multiple-core processors and general-purpose graphics processing units. After over a decade of research and development, dspsr is now stable and in widespread use in the community. This paper presents a detailed description of its functionality, justification of major design decisions, analysis of phase-coherent dispersion removal algorithms, and demonstration of performance on some contemporary microprocessor architectures.

van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.

2011-01-01

454

Ondvrejov solar radio WWW page  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since mid 1997 the Solar Radio Astronomy Group of the Astronomical Institute in Ondvrejov has been running a new WWW page. You can find us at the address --- http://sunkl.asu.cas.cz/radio/ --- where information about our instruments, observed frequencies, as well as about our data archive is available. The home page includes four main topics: 1. Observation & Instrumentation --- here you can find information about which instruments are currently in use, observed frequencies, time resolutions etc. Presently we use for solar radio observations three dedicated instruments: RT3 -- single frequency 3 GHz receiver with 10 ms time resolution RT4 -- radio spectrograph 2.0--4.5 GHz with 100 ms time resolution RT5 -- radio spectrograph 0.8--2.0 GHz with 100 ms time resolution The observations are run daily, while the Sun is higher then 5 degrees above the horizon. Because of the tremendous amount of data, only chosen time intervals with radio events are archived. Event Archive Info: --- here you can find information about archived data (date, time interval) as well as overall images of individual events in GIF format (the image names are at the same time hyperlinks for direct loading) sorted by date and time of observation. Gallery: --- here you can find some representative examples of spectra of solar radio events, recorded by our instruments. Anonymous FTP Server: --- enables direct FTP access to our image archive. This WWW page should give you an insight, what data are available and what the events look roughly like. The uncalibrated rough data from our archive can be processed only by special programs and are not generally free. But if you are interested in a particular event from our archive, you can contact us via e-mail address: radio@asu.cas.cz This work has been supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences through grant no.A3003707.

Jivrivcka, Karel; Meszarosova, Hana

455