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1

Radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

1991-01-01

2

CRAF Handbook for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

CRAF Handbook for Radio Astronomy EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION Committee on Radio Astronomy forum for science. The ESF Expert Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies, CRAF, was established Astronomy Service and other passive applications. Cover: The 76-m diameter Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank

Rodriguez, Luis F.

3

Early Cambridge radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy started in Cambridge immediately after the hostilities of the World War II have ceased. Martin Ryle was the inspiring leader of a small group that started to develop interferometry techniques at the Cavendish Laboratory. From this development came the numerous Cambridge radio source surveys culminating in the Nobel prize awarded to Martin Ryle for invention of aperture synthesis.

F. G. Smith

2007-01-01

4

Early Cambridge radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy started in Cambridge immediately after the hostilities of the World War II have ceased. Martin Ryle was the inspiring leader of a small group that started to develop interferometry techniques at the Cavendish Laboratory. From this development came the numerous Cambridge radio source surveys culminating in the Nobel prize awarded to Martin Ryle for invention of aperture synthesis. The history of this early development is the subject of the present paper.

Smith, F. G.

2007-06-01

5

Division X: Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been important advances in radio astronomy in the last three years. New discoveries both at the galactic and extragalactic scale have been reported over this period and we highlight here several of them. The outstanding results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, allowing an accurate determination of the main cosmological constants, are certainly among the most important.

Luis F. Rodríguez; Ren-Dong Nan; Philip J. Diamond; Gloria Dubner; Michael Garrett; Anne Green; Masato Ishiguro; W. Miller Goss; Russ Taylor; Lucia Padrielli; A. Pramesh Rao; José M. Torrelles; Jean L. Turner

2007-01-01

6

The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

2010-01-01

7

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti  

E-print Network

Radio Astronomy Fundamentals I John Simonetti Spring 2012 Radio astronomy provides a very different view of the universe than optical astronomy. Radio astronomers and optical astronomers use astronomy. Radio astronomers talk about sources of radio emission. Cas A is a strong source, for example

Ellingson, Steven W.

8

Microwave instrumentation for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy is a branch of science that allows observation of natural radio signals from cosmic sources. Microwave techniques are employed in large radio telescope systems in diverse ways. Starting with early vacuum tube receivers at meter wavelengths, low-noise receivers have pushed the leading edge of technology, culminating in present-day receivers employing HFET amplifiers, superconducting tunnel junctions, and other advanced

John C. Webber; Marian W. Pospieszalski

2002-01-01

9

Short History of Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Short History of Radio Astronomy #12;Jansky ­ January 1932 Modified Bruce Array: Harald Friis Background: Penzias & Wilson 1965 · 20 ft Echo Horn (Sugar Scoop): · Harald Friis design #12;Pulsars: Bell

Shirley, Yancy

10

An Introduction to Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

2014-02-01

11

The future for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

2013-12-01

12

Radio Frequency Interference and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy have been closely linked since the emergence of radio astronomy as a scientific discipline in the 1930s. Even before the official establishment of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, protection against contemporary and future radio noise levels was seen as crucial to ensure success of any new observatory. My talk will examine the various local, regional, national, and international efforts enacted to protect NRAO and other American radio astronomy sites from RFI.

Smith, Sierra

2014-01-01

13

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

14

Division x: Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division X provides a common theme for astronomers using radio techniques to study a vast range of phenomena in the Universe, from exploring the Earth's ionosphere or making radar measurements in the Solar System, via mapping the distribution of gas and molecules in our own Galaxy and in other galaxies, to study the vast explosive processes in radio galaxies and

Luis F. Rodriguez; Ren-Dong Nan; Lucia Padrielli; Philip J. Diamond; Gloria M. Dubner; Michael Garrett; W. Miller Goss; Anne Green; Masato Ishiguro; A. Pramesh Rao; Russell A. Taylor; Jose M. Torrelles; Jean L. Turner

2007-01-01

15

Three Radio Astronomy Futures: ALMA, EVLA, SKA  

E-print Network

for digital correlation of very wideband signals from a radio interferometer WIDAR was invented by BrentThree Radio Astronomy Futures: ALMA, EVLA, SKA Charlottesville Astronomical Society 6 February 2008 Mark T. Adams Assistant Director, EPO National Radio Astronomy Observatory #12;Presentation Overview

Groppi, Christopher

16

Industrial interference and radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interferer - victim scenario is described for the case of industrial interference affecting radio astronomical observatories. The sensitivity of radio astronomical receivers and their interference limits are outlined. EMC above 30 MHz is a serious problem for Radio Astronomy. Interferer (CISPR) and victim (ITU-R RA 769) standards are not harmonised. The emissions from the interferer and their spectral characteristics are not defined sufficiently well by CISPR standards. The required minimum coupling losses (MCL) between an industrial device and radio astronomical antenna depends on device properties but is shown to exceed 140 dB in most cases. Spatial separation of a few km is insufficient on its own, the terrain must shield > 30-40 dB, additional mitigations such as extra shielding or suppression of high frequency emissions may be necessary. A case by case compatibility analysis and tailored EMC measures are required for individual installations. Aggregation of many weak rfi emitters can become serious problem. If deployment densities are high enough, the emission constraints can even exceed those for a single interferer at a short distance from the radio observatory. Compatibility studies must account not only for the single interferer but also for many widely distributed interference sources.

Jessner, A.

2013-07-01

17

Very low frequency radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very low frequency (VLF) radio astronomy covers the frequency range below about 30 MHz (or the wavelength range above 10 m). This is the last window of the electromagnetic spectrum never to have been observed with spatial resolution. This is a range over which the Earth's ionosphere transmits either poorly or not at all. In this paper, we describe some means to observe this frequency range and we review what can be expected from exploring the astrophysics of the universe at very low radio frequencies. We present the scientific case for a large array to be set up on the far side of the Moon. This would open an entirely new field of remote probing of astrophysical plasmas in the Universe.

Bougeret, J.-L.

18

The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the

Wayne Orchiston; A. Boischot; J. Delannoy; M. Kundu; J. Lequeux; M. Pick; J. Steinberg

2011-01-01

19

Sketches on the history of radio astronomy in the USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of papers is presented on the history of radio astronomy in the USSR, dealing with such aspects as the founding of radio-astronomy centers and the main stages in the development of radio-astronomical research. Particular consideration is given to achievements in metagalactic, galactic, and solar radio astronomy; studies of lunar and planetary radio emission; and astronomical observations at radar

A. E. Salomonovich

1985-01-01

20

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy presented at the Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004), Introduction to special section on Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy, Radio Sci

Ellingson, Steven W.

21

Postwar Radio Astronomy and the US Military  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radio astronomy in the United States during the period 1945-60 was greatly influenced by the funding and requirements of the US military. The scientific researchers and their military patrons continued the intimate relationship that had been so successful for the development of radar and communications during World War II. The result was a very high level of funding that led to large-scale projects, a concentration on the microwave portion of the radio spectrum, and primary interest in the sun, moon, and planets. These effects, however, ironically significantly contributed to the lag in US radio astronomy relative to that in Australia and England. Unlike the American approach, the strategy of the groups in Sydney, Cambridge and Jodrell Bank, reasoned that the most fruitful way to approach the radio sky at the time was with relatively simple equipment (largely revamped war surplus) operating at the lower frequencies. Other factors, such as the strength of optical astronomy in the US, also played important roles. By the mid-1960s, the microwave expertise that had been developed in the US finally paid off such that US radio astronomy was at last able to assume a position of more parity. Some similarities in the development of postwar Soviet radio astronomy will also be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1993-12-01

22

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

23

Technology Advances for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of radio astronomy continues to provide fundamental contributions to the understanding of the evolution, and inner workings of, our universe. It has done so from its humble beginnings, where single antennas and receivers were used for observation, to today's focal plane arrays and interferometers. The number of receiving elements (pixels) in these instruments is quickly growing, currently approaching one hundred. For the instruments of tomorrow, the number of receiving elements will be in the thousands. Such instruments will enable researchers to peer deeper into the fabric of our universe and do so at faster survey speeds. They will provide enormous capability, both for unraveling today's mysteries as well as for the discovery of new phenomena. Among other challenges, producing the large numbers of low-noise amplifiers required for these instruments will be no easy task. The work described in this thesis advances the state of the art in three critical areas, technological advancements necessary for the future design and manufacturing of thousands of low-noise amplifiers. These areas being: the automated, cryogenic, probing of diameter100 mm indium phosphide wafers; a system for measuring the noise parameters of devices at cryogenic temperatures; and the development of low-noise, silicon germanium amplifiers for terahertz mixer receivers. The four chapters that comprise the body of this work detail the background, design, assembly, and testing involved in these contributions. Also included is a brief survey of noise parameters, the knowledge of which is fundamental to the design of low-noise amplifiers and the optimization of the system noise temperature for large, dense, interferometers.

Russell, Damon Stuart

24

Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

2014-01-01

25

Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

Joshi, Bhal Chandra

26

After the SKA - Radio Astronomy in 2049  

E-print Network

The concept of a Square Kilometre Array was developed to ensure that progress in Radio Astronomy in the early 21st Century continued at the same impressive pace as was achieved during the first 50 years. The SKA telescope is designed to pave that road to greater and greater sensitivity. So what technical challenges does the project face and what key innovations will drive the success of the SKA? What will the next Radio Astronomy mega-science project look like? In this article the author discusses the likely avenues of progress in the coming decades and comments on the status of radio astronomy in 2049 - the author's 70th (and presumably her retirement) year.

Harvey-Smith, Lisa

2012-01-01

27

Huug & history: Rambling through early radio astronomy in the  

E-print Network

Huug & history: Rambling through early radio astronomy in the Netherlands Richard Strom Astron & University of Amsterdam #12;The Americans Jansky & Reber were the radio astronomy pioneers Karl Jansky ­ Grote Reber #12;Dutch awareness of radio astronomy comes from Reber's work (1940) Grote Reber (left

Peletier, Reynier

28

Techniques of Radio Astronomy T. L. Wilson1  

E-print Network

#12;2 T. L. Wilson The origins of optical astronomy are lost in pre-history. In contrast radioTechniques of Radio Astronomy T. L. Wilson1 Code 7210, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave of the techniques of radio astronomy. This study began in 1931 with Jansky's discovery of emission from the cos- mos

Masci, Frank

29

Using Many-Core Hardware to Correlate Radio Astronomy Signals  

E-print Network

Using Many-Core Hardware to Correlate Radio Astronomy Signals Rob V. van Nieuwpoort nieuwpoort@astron.nl John W. Romein romein@astron.nl ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands ABSTRACT A recent development in radio astronomy is to replace traditional dishes with many small

van Nieuwpoort, Rob V.

30

The Radio JOVE Project: Inexpensive Radio Astronomy for the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio astronomy observations of Jupiter and the sun. Students build a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive non-profit kit (about \\$125) and use it to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio telescopes connected to the Web. The project is a useful adjunct to activities in optical astronomy since students should recognize that we learn about the Universe through more than just the optical spectrum. In addition to supplementing knowledge of Jupiter and the sun, the project teaches about charged particles and magnetic fields. Building of the kit is also a mini-course in electronics. The Radio JOVE website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) contains science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, software, and education resources for students and teachers.

Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.; Pine, W.

2000-12-01

31

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801 EVLA Memorandum 41 Lightning Protection protection. A major concern of this type of installation is the susceptibility of the cable to lightning reliable indication of the need for lightning protection on a particular cable route is a history

Groppi, Christopher

32

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, VA  

E-print Network

. 320 ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-CONVERSION, ANALOG/DIGITAL SIDEBAND-SEPARATING MIXER PROTOTYPE J. R. Fisher & M. A. Morgan June 16, 2008 #12;Analysis of a Single-Conversion, Analog/Digital Sideband, and complexity of radio astronomy receivers and to place the conversion from analog to digital signals as close

Groppi, Christopher

33

Radio astronomy - The next decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discoveries made over the past several decades by radio astronomers include radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, energetic bursts from the sun and Jupiter, the greenhouse effect on Venus, the rotation of Mercury, giant molecular clouds, violent activity in galactic nuclei, and cosmic background radiation. This paper discusses the development of ever more powerful radio telescopes, which include the VLA operated by NRAO near Socorro (New Mexico); the new NRAO's 100-m Green Bank Telescope being constructed in Green Bank (West Virginia); and the proposed Millimeter Array, which will consist of 40 antennas, each 8-m across, arranged in any of four different ways depending on the size of the region under study. Consideration is also given to methods for increasing the resolving power and image quality of radio telescopes, with special attention given to very-long-baseline interferometry.

Kellermann, Kenneth I.

1991-09-01

34

Curriculum Vitae Casey J. Law Radio Astronomy Lab  

E-print Network

Curriculum Vitae ­ Casey J. Law Radio Astronomy Lab University of California Hearst Field Annex ­ B://astro.berkeley.edu/claw 1 Education Northwestern University, Ph.D., Astrophysics (2007) Boston University, M.A., Astronomy: Radio Astronomy Lab Postdoctoral Fellow at UC Berkeley. Worked with Geoff Bower, Don Backer, and Carl

Militzer, Burkhard

35

Tools for teaching radio-astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the worldwide radiotelescope ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) has started preliminary operations. Radio-astronomy is thus entering a new golden age, a fantastic opportunity for widening formal and informal educational training and public involvement, for making a science impact on young people. The EU-HOU consortium has developed a small radiotelescope network (6 antenna) spread over Europe and directly accessible from the web via a remote control interface. These antenna are mostly dedicated to high school teachers in the context of the COMENIUS European commission Lifelong Learning Program: ``Connecting classrooms to the Milky-Way''. However, such small antenna can also be used to teach at University and introduce students to radio-astronomy principles.

Salomé, P.; Radiguet, A.; Albert, B.; Batrung, M.; Caillat, M.; Gheudin, M.; Libert, Y.; Ferlet, R.; Maestrini, A.; Melchior, A.-L.; Munier, J.-M.; Rudolph, A.

2012-12-01

36

Advances in solar radio astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

Kundu, M. R.

1982-01-01

37

Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and\\u000adevelopment of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong\\u000acost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science\\u000arequirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal\\u000aof shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be\\u000acounterproductive. Instrument optimization is

J. R. Fisher; R. F. Bradley; W. F. Brisken; W. D. Cotton; D. T. Emerson; A. R. Kerr; R. J. Lacasse; M. A. Morgan; P. J. Napier; R. D. Norrod; J. M. Payne; M. W. Pospieszalski; A. Symmes; A. R. Thompson; J. C. Webber

2009-01-01

38

Multichannel Interference Mitigation Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-astronomical observations are increasingly corrupted by radio frequency interference, and on-line detection and filtering algorithms are becoming essential. To facilitate the introduction of such techniques into radio astronomy, we formulate the astronomical problem in an array signal processing language and give an introduction to some elementary algorithms from that field. We consider two topics in detail: interference detection by rank estimation of short-term covariance matrices and spatial filtering by subspace estimation and projection. We discuss experimental data collected at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and illustrate the effectiveness of the spacetime detection and blanking process on the recovery of a 3C 48 absorption line in the presence of GSM mobile telephony interference.

Leshem, Amir; van der Veen, Alle-Jan; Boonstra, Albert-Jan

2000-11-01

39

The early history of Radio Astronomy in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy developed in several European countries on the initiative and with the expertise of scientists who had been involved in radar research during World War II. This paper traces the influence of various radar techniques on the design of early radio telescopes, covering the period 1945-1955, after which time radio had become accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

F. Graham-Smith

2005-01-01

40

Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of the MIT Haystack Observatory, and has a 30-year background in observational radio astronomy and interferometric imaging. His email is [cjl at haystack dot mit dot edu].

Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

2014-04-01

41

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank West Virginia  

E-print Network

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank West Virginia ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT sensitivity, however, has not been thoroughly discussed. The Switching scheme was invented by Dicke (1946

Groppi, Christopher

42

The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

2014-10-01

43

Radio astronomy and spectrum management - The impact of WARC-79  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of radio astronomy are considered, taking into account broad-band and narrow-band cosmic radiation, the evolution of equipment and techniques of the radio astronomer toward better sensitivity and better angular resolution, and the three general classes into which radio telescopes can be divided. Attention is given to the extraordinary interference problems faced by radio astronomers, the location of radio-astronomy observatories in secluded locations, the preparation by radio astronomers and space scientists for WARC-79, the actions taken at WARC-79, and the WARC impact. It is pointed out that radio astronomy has emerged from WARC-79 in a better position in the International Radio Regulations than it has ever enjoyed in the past. Radio astronomers can be satisfied that the requirements of their radio service are generally being given serious consideration. Most of the requests for allocations have been granted at frequencies above 20 GHz.

Pankonin, V.; Price, R. M.

1981-08-01

44

Astronomy 4194 Group Studies Essential Radio Astronomy Syllabus for May Term 2014 Prof. Martini Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

Astronomy 4194 ­ Group Studies ­ Essential Radio Astronomy ­ Syllabus for May Term 2014 ­ Prof. Martini Page 1 of 2 Astronomy 4194 ­ Group Studies ­ Essential Radio Astronomy Syllabus for May Term 2014. Paul Martini, Dept. of Astronomy Office: 4021 McPherson Lab (4th floor), mailbox in 4055 McPherson Lab

Martini, Paul

45

JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously generate images or video to display those features. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

2014-04-01

46

Broadcasting Astronomy: The Stars Meet on the Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe our project Tutti Dentro — Le Stelle si incontrano in Radio (Come in everybody! — The Stars meet on the Radio), an Italian radio show about astronomy and space. The format involved celebrities, young astronomers and a network of 95 FM and web radio stations during the period July 2007 - January 2009. We will explore its structure, the language and the strategies adopted, along with the technical equipment and the software for recording sessions and editing. Finally we will describe the response from celebrities, radio stations and listeners. Our results could be a useful reference for those wishing to create similar radio programmes to deliver astronomy to a wider audience.

Nobili, L.; Masiero, S.

2010-06-01

47

Radio Astronomy Studies at the Lebedev Physical Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of radio astronomy studies at FIAN is described, beginning with the first theoretical (1946) and experimental (1947) studies of the solar radio emission. Information about the development of the Crimean station of FIAN, then the establishment and development of the Radio Astronomy Station in Pushchino is presented. Work on the construction of large radio telescopes, including the FIAN 22-m, DKR-1000 and BSA telescopes, is described, together with important results obtained during observations of the Sun (including the discovery of its "supercorona"), planets, line radio emission and studies of pulsars and other discrete sources.

Dogel', B. A.; Ilyasov, Y. P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.; Kokurin, Y. L.; Kuz'min, A. D.; Salomonovich, A. E.; Sorochenko, R. L.; Udal'tsov, V. A.

48

Fifty years of radio astronomy - Progress, discoveries, and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of radio astronomy and radio astronomers is outlined for the observation of celestial events at EM frequencies between 3,000,000-300 billion Hz. Noting that more information about the composition of events and objects can be gained at radio frequencies than at optical frequencies, the history begins with Jansky (1932) and an experiment to discover the source of static in

J. P. Vallee

1982-01-01

49

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by `amateur' scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was `a character', and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was

V. Radhakrishnan

2006-01-01

50

Highlighting the history of French Radio Astronomy. 5: The Nançay Large Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radio telescope (Le Grand Radiotélescope) at the Nançay radio astronomy field station of Paris Observatory was built between 1958 and 1966 on the model of the Ohio State University radio telescope, with which a large collecting area was obtained at low cost. The Nançay radio telescope, with a surface area of 7,OOO m², is a meridian instrument which

James Lequeux; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Wayne Orchiston

2010-01-01

51

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank Science Center  

E-print Network

are welcome. If your group is traveling by car, we will incorporate your group into the regularly scheduled the telescopes. Digital cameras and other electronics create radio pollution which can ruin astronomers' data. We that makes it difficult to do radio astronomy. Find out more! Find out how bad light pollution is in your

Groppi, Christopher

52

Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

Varano, S.

2008-06-01

53

International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous observations to produce extremely high-resolution images, and another network (the High Sensitivity Array) that uses the same technique with large telescopes to observe particularly faint celestial objects. With this technique, NRAO telescopes work with MPIfR's Effelsberg telescope to produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Both institutions also are part of the international collaboration building the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile and of the international planning effort to build a Square Kilometer Array. The VLBA is a system of ten antennas, each with a dish 25 meters in diameter. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 8000 kilometers. Under the new agreement, the two institutions will continue their previous observational collaborations, and in addition will share resources to improve the technical capabilities of each other's telescopes, particularly at short wavelengths, They also will collaborate in the peer-reviewed process each uses to allocate observing time, and agree to mutually maintain an "open skies" policy allowing open access to each other's telescopes on a peer-reviewed basis. The agreement notes the report of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Senior Review committee, which called upon the NRAO to seek partners to contribute to the operation of the VLBA. The MPIfR affirms its strong interest in maintaining the VLBA's unique scientific capabilities, and its monetary contribution toward the 22 GHz upgrade of the VLBA is a solid sign of that commitment. "The VLBA provides the greatest resolving power of any instrument in astronomy, and the MPIfR's contribution to enhancing its capabilities is an important validation of the VLBA's importance to frontier astrophysics," Lo said. The joint VLBA project calls for the MPIfR to fund the receiving-system upgrades and the NRAO to perform the work. The project is scheduled to be complete, with all 10 VLBA an

2007-12-01

54

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out

M. L. Kaiser; K. W. Weiler

2000-01-01

55

A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

2000-12-01

56

Figure 1: ATA 42 antenna array at Hat Creek ********ADAPTIVE REAL TIME IMAGING FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY*******  

E-print Network

Figure 1: ATA 42 antenna array at Hat Creek ********ADAPTIVE REAL TIME IMAGING FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY --------------------------­ · Astronomers primarily interested in astronomy. ­ Data reduction preoccupies radio astronomy specialists,f,p Bandpass( )f PolCal( )f,p Gains( )s,f,p S Beam Imager Astronomy Solver I2 ( ) )^(^, 2sVpfV - å ¹kj X Solver

Militzer, Burkhard

57

A Mathematical Review of Polyphase Filterbank Implementations for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of polyphase filterbanks is commonly used for signal processing in radio astronomy. The rapid and ongoing evolution of parallel hardware architectures requires optimised implementations of such techniques to be redeveloped. However, much of the published research regarding polyphase filterbanks refers the reader to signal processing books with a more general scope. Furthermore, these references tend to focus on the design of filters, rather than their implementation. For this reason, this work presents a mathematical background for the implementation of a polyphase filterbank specific to radio astronomy. It also addresses the advantages and disadvantages of polyphase filterbanks in comparison with more commonly used techniques.

Harris, Christopher; Haines, Karen

2011-10-01

58

The Current Status of Low Frequency Radio Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radio astronomy is severely limited by the Earth's ionosphere. Below 15 -- 20 MHz, space-based radio observations are superior or even mandatory. Three different areas of astronomical research manifest themselves at low radio frequencies: solar, planetary, and galactic-extragalactic. Space-based observations of solar phenomena at low frequencies are a natural extension of high-frequency ground-based observations that have been carried out since the beginnings of radio astronomy. Measurements of known solar phenomena such as Types II and III bursts have been extended from the few solar radii altitude range reachable by ground-based techniques out to 1 AU and beyond. These space-based solar measurements have become critical in our developing an understanding of ``space weather." In contrast, non-thermal planetary radio emissions are almost exclusively a space radio astronomy phenomenon. With the exception of two components of Jupiter's complex radio spectrum, the magnetospheric and Auroral radio emissions of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have all been discovered by space radio astronomy techniques. For astrophysical applications, the lack of angular resolution from space at low frequencies has thwarted progress such that most areas still remain to be fully exploited. Results to date have only included overall cosmic background spectra and extremely crude (~1 steradian resolution) ``maps." In this overview we will briefly summarize the current status of science in the three areas of research and outline some future concepts for low-frequency, space-based instruments for solar, planetary, and astrophysical problems.

Kaiser, M. L.; Weiler, K. W.

59

Radio Astronomy Transformed: Aperture Arrays - Past, Present & Future  

E-print Network

I review the early development of Aperture Arrays and their role in radio astronomy. The demise of this technology at the end of the 1960's, and the reasons for the rise of parabolic dishes is also considered. The parallels with the Antikythera mechanism (see these proceedings) as a lost technology are briefly presented. Aperture Arrays re-entered the world of radio astronomy as the idea to build a huge radio telescope with a collecting area of one square kilometre (the Square Kilometre Array, SKA) arose. Huge ICT technology advances had transformed Aperture Arrays in terms of their capability, flexibility and reliability. In the mid-1990s, ASTRON started to develop and experiment with the first high frequency aperture array tiles for radio astronomy - AAD, OSMA, THEA & EMBRACE. In the slipstream of these efforts, Phased Array Feeds (PAFs) for radio astronomy were invented and LOFAR itself emerged as a next generation telescope and a major pathfinder for the SKA. Meanwhile, the same advantages that apertu...

Garrett, Michael A

2012-01-01

60

IAU DIVISION X, XII / COMMISSION 40, 41 / WORKING GROUP on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

IAU DIVISION X, XII / COMMISSION 40, 41 / WORKING GROUP on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History

Groppi, Christopher

61

A KALMANTRACKERBASED BAYESIAN DETECTOR FOR RADAR INTERFERENCE IN RADIO ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

the noise floor, impulsive aircraft echoes weak enough to make detection difficult may still cause sig observatories . However, the induced pollution is impulsive and transient, so for radio astronomy observation they can be blanked. Aircraft hundreds of kilometers from the telescope cause troublesome echoes. A window

Wirthlin, Michael J.

62

The IAU Early Japanese Radio Astronomy Project: A Progress Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan was one of those nations that make an early start in radio astronomy, when solar observations began at both the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and at Osaka University in 1949. The research at the TAO accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s under the capable direction of Professor Hatanaka, while an equally-vibrant program was developed independently at Toyokawa by Professor Tanaka from Nagoya University. In this paper, after briefly describing the Osaka University initiative we will outline the instruments developed at Toyokawa and Mitaka, review the research programs carried out with them and introduce the scientific staff who played so important a role in the early development of Japanese radio astronomy. Following the success of the WG's Early French Radio Astronomy Project (seven papers were published), an ambitious IAU project to systematically document early developments in Japanese radio astronomy and publish the results in a series of research papers in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage was launched in December 2010. Further research visits to Tokyo were made by the second author in 2011 and 2012, and two papers have now been completed and a start made on a third.

Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Stewart, Ron

2012-09-01

63

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

read by the counter in the ULO rack. (This counter measures the output of the multiplier.) An OCP 1XX 8NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT ........ .......· · 5 5 ULO Counter Control and Storage ..................... .... 7 6 IF Processor Counter and Control

Groppi, Christopher

64

Effects of gaps among panels in radio astronomy reflector antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main reflector of antennas used for radio astronomy consists of hundreds of panels among which, for various reasons, small gaps are left. The effects of these gaps on the field scattered by the reflector are analyzed by means of an hybrid numerical technique which combines the finite element method (FEM) and the method of moments (MoM). Numerical results pertaining

G. Pelosi; R. Coccioli; A. Gaggelli

1998-01-01

65

Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

Derman, Samuel

2010-01-01

66

Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) in Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

purpose computing on GPUs (GPGPU): History, motivations, device characteristics. How GPUs fit into radio exist for NVIDIA, AMD, Intel, Apple. First release Dec 2008, currently at v1.2 #12;CUDA vs OpenCL CUDA

Groppi, Christopher

67

The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

2013-05-01

68

Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation

Pierre Encrenaz; Jesús Góomez González; James Lequeux; Wayne Orchiston

2011-01-01

69

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 7: 53-56 (2004) The IAU Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 7: 53-56 (2004) The IAU Historic Radio Astronomy of publications on the history of radio astronomy; (4) monitoring other developments relating to the history of radio astronomy. This was a joint initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History

Groppi, Christopher

70

Explore. Learn. Inspire. National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

E-print Network

of Education endorses HOU as a means of integrating relevant technology into the science curriculum Size: 20 Suitable for all ages. Duration: 40 minutes per group. · Students search the Science Center for sources of man-made radio waves ­ fun! Exploring Our Solar System Group Size: 20 Suitable for all ages

Groppi, Christopher

71

Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries,

T. J. Cornwell; K. Golap; S. Bhatnagar

2005-01-01

72

Rapid Development of Radio Astronomy Instrumentation  

E-print Network

Recorder - Haystack, NRAO Transient Searches - Fly's Eye at ATA - UC Berkeley and Cornell Beamfo's Eye A Search for Highly Energetic Dispersed Radio Transients using the Allen Telescope Array #12;Fly November 19, 2007 - Dan Werthimer and Geoff Bower have lunch to discuss transient search projects using

California at Berkeley, University of

73

Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

Radhakrishnan, V.

2006-12-01

74

Astronomy at the Molonglo radio observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general description of astronomical observation programs at the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) in Australia, is presented. Emphasis is given to completed surveys of HII content and SNR in the Magellanic Clouds. The SNR observations have so far identified 55 remnants which do not conform to conventional theories of SNR evolution. Cataloging and analysis of the HII regions and planetary nebulae data has been completed in the SMC but has only recently been started in the LMC. Other observing programs at MOST include mapping of southern radio and 'normal' galaxies, observations of variable radio sources, 'deep mapping' of a selection of far southern fields for cosmological studies, and studies of the Galactic center. Consideration is also given to advantages of using real-time beams for pulsar studies and for the development of a 'transient event recorder' to search for pulsed or rapidly varying radio phenomena during normal map synthesis. A facsimile of the working map for a standard 70 degree galactic field is given in order to illustrate the observational capabilities of the MOST system.

Mills, B. Y.

75

Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

1974-01-01

76

Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

Kaiser, M. L.

1990-01-01

77

A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications.

Mena, J.; Bandura, K.; Cliche, J.-F.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Tang, Q. Y.

2013-10-01

78

Automating Radio Astronomy in the NASA Deep Space Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomy observations with the DSN are being automated to simplify operations for DSN personnel, enable remote directing and monitoring by investigators, allow the use of short blocks of antenna time, and use of unanticipated antenna availability on very short notice. The key elements of the system are the Equipment Activity Controller (EAC), which performs the same functions as a DSN operator's console but with additional capabilities, the Radio Astronomy Controller (RAC), which controls radio astronomy and other R&D equipment, and the PC Field System (PCFS), which controls the VLBI recorders. Normally, the EAC is client to both the RAC and the PCFS. The EAC graphical user interface (GUI) normally runs on the EAC, but need not, allowing for remote operation. Messages between the client and servers are Extended Tcl (TclX) commands and are passed using a simple TCP/IP protocol called Net Services. The Tcl command set has been augmented with Net Services commands. The EAC will accept commands from both the PCFS and RAC, enabling either of those to be the focus of the experiment, with the EAC acting effectively as a client providing access to DSN antennas and receivers. The design also allows a user developed program (e.g. a Tk script) on a remote computer (e.g. at JPL) to be the focus of the experiment. All communications and the DSN's operational network are secured through the use of hardware encryption units. This poster describes primarily the RAC and the design of its server software. Each connection to the server is assigned its own Tcl interpreter. All have access to specific commonly shared data. While only certain tasks can control resources, a large number of monitoring connections can be accepted. In addition, the server executes specific Tcl scripts at predefined intervals. These timed scripts can be edited in real-time for greater experiment flexibility.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Leflang, J. G.; Trinh, T.

1996-12-01

79

Goniopolarimetry: Space-borne radio astronomy with imaging capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of space-based low-frequency radio astronomy (below 50 MHz) are briefly introduced. As the wavelength range considered does not allow the use of focusing systems, goniopolarimetric (or direction-finding) techniques have been developed. These inversion techniques provide the direction of the wave vector, the polarization state and the flux of the observed electromagnetic wave. In case of spatially extended sources, we can also infer an order of magnitude of the apparent source size. These techniques are presented, and their limitations are discussed. An example from a recent study illustrates the techniques and capabilities.

Cecconi, Baptiste

2014-05-01

80

South African SKA Project Postgraduate Scholarship Programme Postgraduate Projects for 2013 1. Radio Astronomy Science  

E-print Network

. Radio Astronomy Science 1.2. Radio Astronomy Science - PhD topics Project Title Project Description Title Project Description Qualifications and Skills Required Link to MeerKAT and/ or SKA Science. This project is related to the MeerKAT continuum survey science and the SKA science theme `Magnetic fields

Jarrett, Thomas H.

81

Explorations in Radio Astronomy for High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few educational resources in Radio Astronomy are aimed at a high school audience. This rich field, however, utilizes several areas of physics studied at the secondary level, from interference and electromagnetism to relativity and geometry. During the summer, J. Bridger developed a series of web-based projects and hands-on explorations specifically targeted at secondary students. In addition, these projects were adapted into designs for exhibits for a modern visitor center at the Very Large Array. The projects developed emphasize interactive, exploratory investigation as a means to conceptual understanding. Multi-antenna interferometry is modeled using microphones and parabolic dishes, and many astronomical phenomena (AGN and Gravitational Lensing) are simulated using simple inexpensive classroom materials. In addition, many projects were developed that enable students to use sky survey data to develop long-term original research projects, emphasizing the value of multi-wavelength observation. The final project, developed as a web page, also includes sections on history, modern research and interferometry theory. The site will be accessible from the NRAO site and can serve as a general secondary resource for teachers wishing to incorporate a Radio Astronomy unit into their science curriculum.

Bridger, J.

2002-12-01

82

Radio Astronomy transformed: Aperture Arrays - Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

Aperture Arrays have played a major role in radio astronomy since the field emerged from the results of long-distance communication tests performed by Karl Jansky in the early 1930's. The roots of this technology extend back beyond Marconi, although the first electronically scanned instrument only appeared in the run-up to World War II. After the war, phased arrays had a major impact in many walks of life, including astronomy and astrophysics. Major progress was made in understanding the nature of the radio sky, including the discovery of Pulsars. Despite these early successes, parabolic dishes largely replaced aperture arrays through the 1960's, and right up until the end of the 20th century. Technological advances in areas such as signal processing, digital electronics, low-power/high performance super-computing and large capacity data storage systems have recently led to a substantial revival in the use of aperture arrays - especially at frequencies below 300 MHz. Composed of simple antennas with commercia...

Garrett, M A

2013-01-01

83

UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

Hargreaves, J. E.

2012-09-01

84

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe  

E-print Network

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe #12;The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation

Groppi, Christopher

85

Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 3: Early solar radio research at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio astronomy group at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1948 immediately after WWII, and decided to put its main research efforts into solar radio astronomy. The first radio telescope was completed in 1949 and started routine observations at 200 MHz. Since then, the group has placed its emphasis on observations at meter and decimeter wavelengths, and has constructed various kinds of radio telescopes and arrays operating at frequencies ranging from 60 to 800 MHz. In addition, radio telescopes operating at 3, 9.5 and 17 GMHz were constructed. In parallel with the observationally-based research, theoretical research on solar radio emission also was pursued. In this paper, we review the instrumental, observational and theoretical developments in solar radio astronomy at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in the important period from 1949 through to the 1960s.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Enome, Shinzo; Hayashi, Masa; Kaifu, Norio; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuchiya, Atsushi

2014-03-01

86

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(3), 249-253 (2009). THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(3), 249-253 (2009). 249 THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: · assemble of these instruments; · maintain an on-going bibliography of public- cations on the history of radio astronomy

Groppi, Christopher

87

Laboratory Astrophysics and Radio Astronomy: Some Recent Successes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents several examples illustrating how the close coordination of laboratory astrophysics and radio astronomy can lead to an improved understanding of the rich chemistry of circumstellar shells which surround evolved carbon stars and dense molecular clouds. State-of-the-art microwave techniques in combination with supersonic molecular beam techniques and long path absorption spectroscopy at millimeter-wave wavelengths are used here to determine precise rest frequencies of known or postulated reactive molecules of astrophysical interest. Because the astronomically most interesting lines either have been measured or can be calculated to better than 1 km/sec in equivalent radial velocity, dedicated astronomical searches can be undertaken with confidence, and the carriers of unidentified series of astronomical lines can be established with certainty.

McCarthy, Michael C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2006-09-22

88

Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities, and associated unit topics have also been developed.

Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

2000-12-01

89

An Overview of W.N. Christiansen's Contribution to Australian Radio Astronomy, 1948-1960  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1948, an accomplished industrial physicist who had harboured a long-term ambition to become an astronomer joined the newly-formed Radio Astronomy Group in the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia. Thus, W.N. (`Chris') Christiansen (1913-2007) began a new career in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. This paper reviews Christiansen's contribution to both instrumentation development and scientific research during the first phase of his career in radio astronomy, covering his work at the Potts Hill and Fleurs field stations prior to his resignation from the Division of Radiophysics in 1960.

Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

90

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 15(3), 255-257 (2012). IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 15(3), 255-257 (2012). Page 255 IAU HISTORIC RADIO of publications on the history of radio astronomy; and d) monitor other develop- ments relating to the history-deceased radio astronomers, and links to various sources of material on the history of radio astronomy. 3

Groppi, Christopher

91

Very low frequency radio astronomy from lunar orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of very low frequency aperture synthesis as a probe of astrophysical phenomena. Specifically, the science achievable with the Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE) is discussed. The density distribution and the degree of turbulence of the galactic plasma can be determined from its effect on background radio sources. These same absorption phenomena can be used to determine magnetic field strengths within astrophysical plasmas. Detection of unabsorbed synchrotron emission can provide information on the relativistic plasma component. The detection of new pulsars may prove feasible because of their steep spectra. Observations of planets in the solar system will be used to study their interaction with the solar wind. VLF studies of the sun will provide new information on the outer layers of its atmosphere and magnetic field as well as provide insight on the propagation of MHD disturbances through the corona. The plasma in the earth's magnetic field can be observed in detail and as a function of time. This will prove invaluable in understanding auroral phenomena end reconnection events.

Duric, Nebojsa

92

Jansky and Reber: Two Remarkable Stories in Early Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraterrestrial radio waves were first detected in 1931-32 by Karl Jansky at the Bell Telephone Labs in New Jersey while he was investigating sources of interference to recently opened, trans-Atlantic shortwave (20 MHz) radiotelephone circuits. At this time Jansky was only a few years beyond his physics degree from the University of Wisconsin, where his father was a professor of engineering. Jansky studied this "star noise" off and on until 1935, establishing that the emission came from the direction of the Milky Way and the galactic center, but did not pursue it in any further detail. The only other person to make a significant contribution to the nascent subject before World War II was Grote Reber, an electrical engineer who worked for several different radio firms in Chicago. After reading Jansky's articles, in 1937 Reber decided to build a 30-ft diameter dish antenna in the backyard of his suburban home in Wheaton, Illinois. By 1939 he had detected the Jansky radiation, which he called "cosmic noise", at 160 MHz and he comenced a long term program of mapping it in detail (with a 12 degree beam). Reber became a well-known figure to the astronomers at the University of Chicago and Yerkes Observatory (Struve, Greenstein, Kuiper, Henyey, Keenan) as he sought to learn astronomy and convince the staff that this cosmic noise was of importance. Struve, editor of the "Astrophysical Journal", was finally persuaded to publish Reber's articles. During and just after the war Reber extended his work to 480 MHz. He then sought funds to move his dish to a quieter locale and to build a second, much larger dish, but neither of these plans came to fruition. It is ironic that the remarkable contributions of these two pioneers to the field that would eventually become known as "radio astronomy" (a term only introduced in the late 1940s) had little influence on the spectacular growth of the field in the decade after World War II. The great bulk of the important work was done in England and Australia, where it grew wholly independently out of wartime radar labs. Reasons for the lag in the US, largely due to the effects of military funding and the strong community of (optical) astronomers, will be discussed.

Sullivan, W. T., III

1996-05-01

93

Radio frequency interference measurements in Indonesia. A survey to establish a radio astronomy observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of radio frequency spectrum occupancy performed at sites aimed to host the future radio astronomy observatory in Indonesia. The survey is intended to obtain the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment in a spectral range from low frequency 10 MHz up to 8 GHz. The measurements permit the identification of the spectral occupancy over those selected sites in reference to the allocated radio spectrum in Indonesia. The sites are in close proximity to Australia, the future host of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) at low frequency. Therefore, the survey was deliberately made to approximately adhere the SKA protocol for RFI measurements, but with lower sensitivity. The RFI environment at Bosscha Observatory in Lembang was also measured for comparison. Within the sensitivity limit of the measurement equipment, it is found that a location called Fatumonas in the surrounding of Mount Timau in West Timor has very low level of RFI, with a total spectrum occupancy in this measured frequency range being about 1 %, mostly found at low frequency below 20 MHz. More detailed measurements as well as a strategy for a radio quiet zone must be implemented in the near future.

Hidayat, Taufiq; Munir, Achmad; Dermawan, Budi; Jaelani, Anton Timur; Léon, Stéphane; Nugroho, Dading Hadi; Suksmono, Andriyan Bayu; Mahasena, Putra; Premadi, Premana Wardayanti; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Kunjaya, Chatief; Dupe, Zadrach Ledoufij; Brahmantyo, Budi; Mandey, Denny; Yusuf, Muhammad; Tri Wulandari, Hesti Retno; Arief, Falahuddin; Irfan, Muhammad; Puri Jatmiko, Agus Triono; Akbar, Evan Irawan; Sianturi, Hery Leo; Tanesib, Jehunias Leonidas; Warsito, Ali; Utama, Judhistira Aria

2014-02-01

94

Radio Astronomy in Holland Before 1960: Just a Bit More than HI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early radio astronomy in the Netherlands is explored, especially that which did not involve neutral hydrogen studies. Although little of this early—mainly solar—work was published in professional journals, there is some information in a popular Dutch astronomy magazine. From this it is clear that the early radio observations of the Sun were driven as much by the needs of radio communication as by solar physics. The important role which A.H. de Voogt, Head of the PTT's radio service, played in both Dutch and international radio astronomy is described. A brief sketch is given of the history of the two PTT stations where the early observations were made.

Strom, Richard

2005-01-01

95

Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

1981-01-01

96

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 9(2), 203-205 (2006). IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 9(2), 203-205 (2006). 203 IAU HISTORIC RADIO Assembly of the IAU as a joint initiative of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy achievements of these instruments; · maintain an on-going bibliography of publications on the history of radio

Groppi, Christopher

97

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8(1), 65-69 (2005). THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO ASTRONOMY WORKING GROUP.  

E-print Network

Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8(1), 65-69 (2005). 65 THE IAU HISTORIC RADIO of publications on the history of radio astronomy; and · monitor other developments relating to the history Further Publications on the History of Radio Astronomy Balick, B., 2005. The discovery of Sagittarius A

Groppi, Christopher

98

SYSTEM NOISE ANALYSIS OF AN ULTRA WIDE BAND APERTURE ARRAY ELEMENT FOR LOW FREQUENCY RADIO ASTRONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest challenges in radio astronomy for the 21st century is the SKA telescope, the newest radio telescope in the world to be built as a Square Kilometre Array of antennas distributed in hundreds of stations to form an interferometric image of the sky. Below 1 GHz, these stations will be composed of thousands of inexpensive elements in

E. Garcia; P. Alexander

99

Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

Traub, Wesley A.

2000-01-01

100

In memoriam: Grote Reber 1911-2002 founder of radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, amateur radio operator W9GFZ, died December 20, 2002 in Tasmania. He would have been 91 years old on December 22nd. Reber is acknowledged as the Father of Radio Astronomy and the inventor of the first true radio telescope. With the advent of space satellites, his greatest legacy may well be his invention of the parabolic dish, designed to receive nonterrestrial electromagnetic radiation, a concept that has revolutionized worldwide communication.

Peratt, A. L.

2003-12-01

101

A Sustainable approach to large ICT Science based infrastructures; the case for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Large sensor-based infrastructures for radio astronomy will be among the most intensive data-driven projects in the world, facing very high power demands. The geographically wide distribution of these infrastructures and their associated processing High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities require Green Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). A combination is needed of low power computing, efficient data storage, local data services, Smart Grid power management, and inclusion of Renewable Energies. Here we outline the major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science.

Barbosa, Domingos; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Aguiar, Rui; van Ardenne, Arnold; de Santander-Vela, Juande; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes

2014-01-01

102

Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurements provide unique information on turbulence in the ISM as well as the mean plasma properties such as density and magnetic field strength. Radio propagation observations can provide input to the major contemporary questions on the nature of ISM turbulence, such as its dissipation mechanisms and the processes responsible for generating the turbulence on large spatial scales. Measurements of the large scale Galactic magnetic field via Faraday rotation provide unique observational input to theories of the generation of the Galactic field.

Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

103

Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

Warwick, J. W.

1972-01-01

104

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Measurements of Copper Heat Straps Near 4 K  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory EDTN 204 Measurements of Copper Heat Straps Near 4 K measurements of the thermal resistance of heat straps used in the ALMA Band 6 cartridges. The results suggest cartridge was measured. The heat straps include Sn/Pb/Ag 62/36/2 solder joints and bolted connections

Groppi, Christopher

105

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Cryogenic (4K) Measurements of Some Resistors and Capacitors  

E-print Network

National Radio Astronomy Observatory EDTN 205 Cryogenic (4K) Measurements of Some Resistors capacitors and thin-film resistors at 4.2 K. The capacitors have the following dielectrics: SiO2, ATC types CA and CC, and ATC type 700A. The resistors are TaN and nichrome thin film made by Mini-Systems, Inc

Groppi, Christopher

106

Improving long time stability of a radio astronomy receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical radio receivers used to observe weak radio sources often suffer from instabilities in the output signal due to ambient temperature changes, which make it impossible to detect even strong celestial sources. Here, I report about a cheap and successful solution based on a wine cooler to keep operating temperature stable within ± 0.1 °C.

Monstein, C.

2014-03-01

107

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT NO. 321  

E-print Network

-10 GHz range of the loss of some machined and plated conductors at room temperature and in liquid helium Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors R. Finger and A. R. Kerr July 3, 2008 #12;NATIONAL RADIO Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors R. Finger and A. R. Kerr July 3, 2008 #12;1 National Radio

Groppi, Christopher

108

Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

1979-01-01

109

Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) ?V on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) ?V on average).

Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

2010-07-01

110

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to one pagers on historical instruments of astronomy with photos of the following : Astronomy Slides, Celestial Globe, Cometarium, Globe, Gregorian Telescope, Kepler's Laws Demonstration, Orrery, Planetarium, Planisphere, Stereoscopic Pictures of the Moon, Tellurian, and Transit.

2000-01-01

111

Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation of the RAE-2 spacecraft is described. The instruments include a pair of long travelling-wave antennas, a 37-m dipole, two radiometers making one frequency scan every 144 sec, and two rapid-sampling total-power burst receivers which cover the range from 0.025 to 13.1 MHz in 32 discrete steps. Effects of terrestrial noise on RAE-1 and RAE-2 observations are discussed, and it is noted that RAE-2 is uniquely capable of observing repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies. Some observational programs are briefly noted, including observations of the galactic background distribution, measurements of lunar occultations of solar radio bursts, and searches for more radio sources among the planets, galactic objects, and extragalactic sources.

Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

1975-01-01

112

Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

2006-01-01

113

A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution to grow is alarming. Preventive measures to eliminate interference through FCC legislation and ITU agreements can be effective; however, many times this approach is inadequate and interference excision at the receiver is necessary. Conventional techniques such as RF filters, RF shielding, and postprocessing of data have been only somewhat successful, but none has been sufficient. Adaptive interference cancellation is a real-time approach to interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy. We describe here, for the first time, adaptive interference cancellation in the context of radio astronomy instrumentation, and we present initial results for our prototype receiver. In the 1960s, analog adaptive interference cancelers were developed that obtain a high degree of cancellation in problems of radio communications and radar. However, analog systems lack the dynamic range, noised performance, and versatility required by radio astronomy. The concept of digital adaptive interference cancellation was introduced in the mid-1960s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low-frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartments of automobiles. These audio-frequency applications require bandwidths of only a few tens of kilohertz. Only recently has high-speed digital filter technology made high dynamic range adaptive canceling possible in a bandwidth as large as a few megahertz, finally opening the door to application in radio astronomy. We have built a prototype adaptive canceler that consists of two receivers: the primary channel (input from the main beam of the telescope) and a separate reference channel. The primary channel receives the desired astronomical signal corrupted by RFI (radio-frequency interference) coming in the sidelobes of the main beam. A separate reference antenna is designed to receive only the RFI. The reference channel input is processed using a digital adaptive filter and then subtracted from the primary channel input, producing the system output. The weighting coefficients of the digital filter are adjusted by way of an algorithm that minimizes, in a least-squares sense, the power output of the system. Through an adaptive-iterative process, the canceler locks onto the RFI, and the filter adjusts itself to minimize the effect of the RFI at the system output. We have designed the adaptive canceler with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 40 MHz. This prototype system will ultimately be functional with a variety of radio astronomy receivers in the microwave band. We have also built a prototype receiver centered at 100 MHz (in the FM broadcast band) to test the adaptive canceler with actual interferers, which are well characterized. The initial laboratory tests of the adaptive canceler are encouraging, with attenuation of strong frequency-modulated (FM) interference to 72 dB (a factor of more than 10 million), which is at the performance limit of our measurements. We also consider requirements of the system and the RFI environment for effective adaptive canceling.

Barnbaum, Cecilia; Bradley, Richard F.

1998-11-01

114

Application of Lossless Data Compression Techniques to Radio Astronomy Data flows  

E-print Network

The modern practice of Radio Astronomy is characterized by extremes of data volume and rates, principally because of the direct relationship between the signal to noise ratio that can be achieved and the need to Nyquist sample the RF bandwidth necessary by way of support. The transport of these data flows is costly. By examining the statistical nature of typical data flows and applying well known techniques from the field of Information Theory the following work shows that lossless compression of typical radio astronomy data flows is in theory possible. The key parameter in determining the degree of compression possible is the standard deviation of the data. The practical application of compression could prove beneficial in reducing the costs of data transport and (arguably) storage for new generation instruments such as the Square Kilometer Array.

Natusch, Tim

2014-01-01

115

Cosmic rays in the Galaxy and their implications for VLF radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New observations of the local galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and of the distribution of GCR nuclei in the Galaxy are described together with the results of modeling of the GCR radial profiles and the application of these results. Special attention is given to the studies of energetic cosmic rays observable with VLF radio astronomy, emphasizing the importance of higer angular resolution studies in the frequency range 1-30 MHz, with 1-2 deg resolution at 1 MHz. Examples of studies that can benefit from using such resolution include studies of H II regions, the spectral dependence of absorption and emissivity related to SNRs and giant molecular clouds, the emission and absorption related to nearby galaxies and AGN, and the determination of the detailed fine structure of interstellar absorption. In addition, the VLF radio astronomy can be used for studies of all types of energetic particle populations in different galaxies.

Webber, W. R.

116

A very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of terrestrial ionospheric absorption, very little is known of the radio sky beyond 10 m wavelength. An extremely simple, low cost very low frequency radio telescope is proposed, consisting of a large array of short wires laid on the lunar surface, each wire equipped with an amplifier and a digitizer, and connected to a common computer. The telescope could do simultaneous multifrequency observations of much of the visible sky with high resolution in the 10 to 100 m wavelength range, and with lower resolution in the 100 to 1000 m range. It would explore structure and spectra of galactic and extragalactic point sources, objects, and clouds, and would produce detailed quasi-three-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs of the Sun.

Douglas, James N.; Smith, Harlan J.

1988-01-01

117

PARTNeR, a Radio Astronomy experience for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR is the acronym for Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo. The 34-m antenna in Robledo de Chavela is used by high schools, universities and amateur astronomers to learn about radioastronomy, physics and to get interested in science. The main project we develop is the observations of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries. The high-school teachers joining our program take a training course to learn the basis of radioastronomy. Some practical lessons to teach the children the physical fundamentals of radioastronomy are also given to them. The operational phase of the project started in 2004, and 25 high schools, 5 universities and 4 societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project.

Suárez, O.; Blasco, C.; Gómez, J. F.; Herranz, M.; Montesinos, B.; García, J.

118

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were

Wayne Orchiston; James Lequeux; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Jean Delannoy

2007-01-01

119

The Radiophysics Field Stations and the Early Development of Radio Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1946–1961 Australia was one of the world’s leading nations in radio astronomy and played a key role in its\\u000a development. Much of the research was carried out at a number of different field stations and associated remote sites situated\\u000a in or near Sydney which were maintained by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s Division of\\u000a Radiophysics.

Wayne Orchiston; Bruce Slee

2005-01-01

120

Radio Astronomy at the Centre for High Performance Computing in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present results on galaxy evolution and cosmology which we obtained using the supercomputing facilities at the CHPC. These include cosmological-scale N-body simulations modelling neutral hydrogen as well as the study of the clustering of radio galaxies to probe the relationship between dark and luminous matter in the universe. I will also discuss the various roles that the CHPC is playing in Astronomy in SA, including the provision of HPC for a variety of Astronomical applications, the provision of storage for radio data, our educational programs and our participation in planning for the SKA.

Catherine Cress; UWC Simulation Team

2014-04-01

121

Planetary Radio Astronomy: The 60 Years from Burke and Franklin to ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly 60 years, radio astronomy has played a major role in the characterization and monitoring of thermal structure, composition, and temporal changes of the planets and small bodies in our solar system. At this, the 60th anniversary of the initial detection of radio emission by a planet, the role radio astronomy has played in the early characterization of solar system objects, in raising basic scientific questions and motivating planetary exploration missions, and in providing insight into the structure and temporal variations of planets is explored. The evolution of the instrumentation capabilities from crude total-power, or bolometric measurements averaged over an entire planetary disk to today's instrumentation providing radio images of planets and comets with high spectral resolution is also discussed. Major developments such as precise total-power calibration, ultra-large apertures, microwave and millimeter-wave array technology, and supporting laboratory spectroscopy have played major roles in enhancing the effectiveness of radio astronomical observations. The newest generation instruments such as the upgraded Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Altacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now usher in a whole new level of capability in observation of solar system objects.

Steffes, Paul G.

2014-11-01

122

Future Trends in Solar Radio Astronomy and Coronal Magnetic-Field Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radio astronomy has an amazingly rich, but yet largely unexploited, potential for probing the solar corona and chromosphere. Radio emission offers multiple ways of detecting and tracking electron beams, studying chromospheric and coronal thermal structure, plasma processes, particle acceleration, and measuring magnetic fields. To turn the mentioned potential into real routine diagnostics, two major components are needed: (1) well-calibrated observations with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions and (2) accurate and reliable theoretical models and fast numerical tools capable of recovering the emission source parameters from the radio data. This report gives a brief overview of the new, expanded, and planned radio facilities, such as Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA), Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), Chinese Solar Radio Heliograph (CSRH), Upgraded Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (USSRT), and Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) with the emphasis on their ability to measure the coronal magnetic fields in active regions and flares. In particular, we emphasize the new tools for 3D modeling of the radio emission and forward fitting tools in development needed to derive the magnetic field data from the radio measurements.

Fleishman, Gregory; Nita, Gelu; Gary, Dale

123

Management and Operations of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), provides instrumentation for research in radio astronomy ... observing capabilities in radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and atmospheric sciences, and observing ...

124

New Antennas and Methods for the Low Frequency Stellar and Planetary Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the special Program of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, creation of the new giant Ukrainian radio telescope (GURT) was started a few years ago on the UTR-2 radio telescope observatory. The main goal is to reach maximum band at the lowest frequencies (10-70 MHz), effective area (step-by-step up to 100,000 sq.m), and high interference immunity for resolving many astrophysical tasks when the sensitivity is less limited by the confusion effects. These tasks include stellar radio astronomy (the Sun, solar wind, flare stars, pulsars, transients) and planetary one (Jupiter, planetary lightnings, Earth ionosphere, the Moon, exoplanets). This array should be complementary to the LOFAR, E-LOFAR systems. The first stages of the GURT (6 x 25 cross dipole active elements) and broad-band digital registration of the impulsive and sporadic events were tested in comparison with the existing largest decameter array UTR-2.

Konovalenko, A. A.; Falkovich, I. S.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, Ph.; Koliadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Gridin, A. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Reznik, A. P.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Stepkin, S. V.; Mukha, D. V.; Nikolajenko, V. S.; Karlsson, R.; Thide, B.

125

Radio astronomy with the European Lunar Lander: Opening up the last unexplored frequency regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is a unique location in our solar system and provides important information regarding the exposure to free space that is essential for future human space exploration to mars and beyond. The active broadband (100 kHz-100 MHz) tripole antenna now envisaged to be placed on the European Lunar Lander located at the Lunar South Pole allows for sensitive measurements of the exosphere and ionosphere, and their interaction with the Earths magnetosphere, solar particles, wind and CMEs and studies of radio communication on the Moon, that are essential for future lunar human and science exploration. In addition, the Lunar South Pole provides an excellent opportunity for radio astronomy. Placing a single radio antenna in an eternally dark crater or behind a mountain at the South (or North) pole would potentially provide perfect shielding from man-made radio interference (RFI), absence of ionospheric distortions, and high temperature and antenna gain stability that allows detection of the 21 cm wave emission from pristine hydrogen formed after the Big Bang and into the period where the first stars formed. A detection of the 21 cm line from the Moon at these frequencies would allow for the first time a clue on the distribution and evolution on mass in the early universe between the Epoch of Recombination and Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Next to providing a cosmological breakthrough, a single lunar radio antenna would allow for studies of the effect of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the solar wind at distances close to Earth (space weather) and would open up the study of low frequency radio events (flares and pulses) from planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, which are known to emit bright (kJy-MJy) radio emission below 30 MHz (Jester and Falcke, 2009). Finally, a single radio antenna on the lunar lander would pave the way for a future large lunar radio interferometer; not only will it demonstrate the possibilities for lunar radio science and open up the last unexplored radio regime, but it will also allow a determination of the limitations of lunar radio science by measuring the local radio background noise.

Klein Wolt, Marc; Aminaei, Amin; Zarka, Philippe; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Falcke, Heino

2012-12-01

126

U.S.-Canadian Partnership in Radio Astronomy Valuable for Science, NRAO Director Says  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States and Canada intend to collaborate on two of the most important radio astronomy projects of the new century - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), astronomers from both countries announced today. "This cooperative program - the North American Partnership in Radio Astronomy - involves the key projects that will dominate radio astronomy world-wide," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This partnership will multiply the efforts of both nations' astronomers for the benefit of science. It builds on a long tradition of cooperative efforts in radio astronomy, and will ensure that we continue that tradition into the new millennium," Vanden Bout said. The U.S.-Canada radio astronomy partnership is outlined in two letters of intent signed recently. The first, between the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), states that both agencies will use their best efforts to obtain the necessary funding for construction and operation of ALMA. The second, between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the NSF, and the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, funded by the NRC, forms a partnership in the EVLA. The VLA Expansion Project is a two-phase program designed to improve the scientific capabilities of the VLA tenfold by replacing 1970s-vintage equipment with modern technologies and adding new radio-telescope antennas to the existing 27-antenna array. Dedicated in 1980, the VLA has been used for more than 10,000 observing projects covering nearly every area of astrophysics. It is the most powerful, flexible and widely-used radio telescope in the world. The Expanded VLA will provide the improved observational capabilities needed to meet the research challenges of the coming years. In addition to the participation by Canada, funds have been pledged by Mexico. Both Mexico and Germany have funded VLA improvements in the past. A proposal to the NSF requesting U.S. funds for the EVLA is currently under review by the National Science Foundation. The agreement between the NRAO and the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) calls for HIA to build a new correlator - the digital "heart" that combines the received signals from multiple antennas to make those antennas work as a single, powerful telescope - for the EVLA. The new correlator will represent a contribution of 10 million (US). The full EVLA project will cost about 150 million, to be done in two phases, the first costing 75 million. "Canada has a strong program of radio astronomy, and in particular a skilled team of specialists in designing correlators, and we are pleased to have their talents directed toward building a new machine for the VLA," Vanden Bout said. ALMA will consist of 64 12-meter-diameter dish antennas comprising a single imaging telescope to study the universe at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths - the region between radio waves and infrared waves. An international project being designed and developed by the U.S. and European nations, ALMA will be located on a high-altitude site in the Atacama desert of Chile. "ALMA will give scientists an unprecedented look at the structure of the early universe and revolutionary insights on how stars and planets form, among many other contributions," Vanden Bout said. "The EVLA will bring unmatched power and versatility to the study of objects as close as the Sun and planets and as far as primeval galaxies at the edge of the observable universe. Together, these two instruments will be at the forefront of 21st Century astrophysics," he added. "ALMA has been a bilateral project involving the United States and Europe. These new agreements with Canada turn ALMA into a partnership between Europe and North America," Vanden Bout said. Design and development work on ALMA has been ongoing since 1998, funded by the NSF and European organizations. Canadians already have participated in this work. ALMA is pla

2001-10-01

127

Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

1973-01-01

128

The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000’s lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

Peters, S. M.; Kitaeff, V. V.

2014-10-01

129

The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery  

E-print Network

The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000's lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

Peters, Sean M

2014-01-01

130

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

E-print Network

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

Welch, Jack; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Forster, James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jorgensen, Susanne; Keating, Garrett; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; Milgrome, Oren; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter H; Tarter, Melvin Wright Jill; Ackermann, Robert; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Barott, William; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Michael; DeBoer, Dave; Dreher, John; Harp, Gerry; Jordan, Jane; Kilsdonk, Tom; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Fleming, Seth Shostak Matt; Cork, Chris; Wadefalk, Artyom Vitouchkine Niklas; Weinreb, Sander

2009-01-01

131

The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

Welch, J.; Backer, D.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bower, G. C.; Cheng, C.; Croft, S.; Dexter, M.; Engargiola, G.; Fields, E.; Forster, J.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, C.; Heiles, C.; Helfer, T.; Jorgensen, S.; Keating, G.; Lugten, J.; MacMahon, D.; Milgrome, O.; Thornton, D.; Urry, L.; van Leeuwen, J.; Werthimer, D.; Williams, P. H.; Wright, M.; Tarter, J.; Ackermann, R.; Atkinson, S.; Backus, P.; Barott, W.; Bradford, T.; Davis, M.; Deboer, D.; Dreher, J.; Harp, G.; Jordan, J.; Kilsdonk, T.; Pierson, T.; Randall, K.; Ross, J.; Shostak, S.; Fleming, M.; Cork, C.; Vitouchkine, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Weinreb, S.

2009-08-01

132

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO(1--0) emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l = 18 deg -- 55.7 deg and a latitude range of |b| < 1 deg, a total of 75.4 square degrees. We achieved an angular sampling of 22 arcsec, better than half of the telescope's 46 arcsec angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l < 40 deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l > 40 deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is sigma(TA*) ˜ 0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We present the integrated intensity image (zeroth moment map), channel maps, and position-velocity diagram. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community at www.bu.edu/galacticring or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M.

2005-12-01

133

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey is a new survey of Galactic 13CO J=1-->0 emission. The survey used the SEQUOIA multipixel array on the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope to cover a longitude range of l=18deg-55.7d and a latitude range of |b|<1deg, a total of 75.4 deg2. Using both position-switching and On-The-Fly mapping modes, we achieved an angular sampling of 22", better than half of the telescope's 46" angular resolution. The survey's velocity coverage is -5 to 135 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l<=40deg and -5 to 85 km s-1 for Galactic longitudes l>40deg. At the velocity resolution of 0.21 km s-1, the typical rms sensitivity is ?(T*A)~0.13 K. The survey comprises a total of 1,993,522 spectra. We show integrated intensity images (zeroth moment maps), channel maps, position-velocity diagrams, and an average spectrum of the completed survey data set. We also discuss the telescope and instrumental parameters, the observing modes, the data reduction processes, and the emission and noise characteristics of the data set. The Galactic Ring Survey data are available to the community online or in DVD form by request.

Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Chambers, E. T.; Johnson, A. M.; Dormody, M.; Lavoie, R.; Heyer, M. H.

2006-03-01

134

Improved Multi-octave 3 dB IF Hybrid for Radio Astronomy Cryogenic Receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern mm and sub-mm ultra low noise receivers used for Radio Astronomy have evolved to provide very wide instantaneous bandwidth. Some of the configurations used in present cryogenic front-ends, like sideband separating mixers and balanced amplifiers, need 90° 3 dB hybrids at the IF, typically in the 4-12 GHz band. There are commercially available devices covering this band with good ambient temperature characteristics, but poor cryogenic performance. We describe the design, construction and measurement of a multioctave stripline hybrid for the 4-12 GHz band specially conceived to perform reliably when cooled to 15 K. The coupling and reflection show very little temperature dependence. A balanced cryogenic amplifier was assembled with two 3 dB hybrid units and available amplifiers (~4.5 K noise temperature) designed and built in-house for ALMA. This device is critically compared with a single ended amplifier and with an amplifier with an input isolator. The latter is the typical arrangement of the IF of radio astronomy receivers. The balanced option shows an advantage of 2.8 K in noise with less sensitivity to input mismatches.

Malo, I.; Gallego, J.; Diez, C.; López-Fernández, I.; Briso, C.

2009-04-01

135

DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS Special Astronomy Seminar  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS Special Astronomy Seminar October 13, 2011 Speaker : Mayukh) Abstract Black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) are widely observed sources in the X-ray and radio astronomy

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

136

Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces students to some general concepts of astronomy. Topics include geocentric versus heliocentric theories of the solar system and how they explain the sun's movements, sidereal days versus solar days, and why we have seasons. There is also discussion of Kepler's laws of orbital motion, the phases of the Moon, how eclipses occur, and how tides are produced. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-10-07

137

Estimating the size of a radio quiet zone for the radio astronomy service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size of a radio quiet zone (RQZ) is largely determined by transmission losses of interfering signals, which can be divided into free space loss and diffraction loss. The free space loss is dominant. The diffraction loss presented in this paper is described as unified smooth spherical and knife edge diffractions, which is a function of minimum path clearance. We present a complete method to calculate the minimum path clearance. The cumulative distribution of the lapse rate of refractivity ( g n ), between the earth surface and 1 km above, is studied by using Chinese radio climate data. Because the size of an RQZ is proportional to g n , the cumulative distribution of g n can be used as an approximation for the size of the RQZ. When interference originates from mobile communication or television transmissions at a frequency of 408 MHz, and overline {g_n } is 40 N/km, where the refractivity N=left( {n-1} right) × 10^6, the size of the RQZ would be 180 km for a mobile source or 210 km for a television source, with a probability in the range of 15-100% in different months and for different stations. When speaking of the size of an RQZ, the radius in the case of a circular zone is implied. It results that a size of an RQZ is mainly influenced by transmission loss rather than effective radiated power. In the case where the distance between an interfering source and a radio astronomical observatory is about 100 km, at a frequency of 408 MHz, the allowable effective radiated power of the interfering source should be less than -30 dBW with a probability of about 85% for overline {g_n } equals 40 N/km, or -42 dBW with a probability less than 1 % for overline {g_n } equals 80 N/km.

Peng, Bo; Han, Wenjun

2009-12-01

138

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom.

S. K. Dunn; J. Brown

2003-01-01

139

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in

Wayne Orchiston; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Mukul Kundu; Jacques Arsac; Émile-Jacques Blum; André Boischot

2009-01-01

140

The Radio Properties of the dMe Flare Star Proxima Centauri Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,  

E-print Network

.sinica.edu.tw Stephen M. White Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA email: white on its radio luminosity at 6 and 3.5 cm, the lowest detection threshold yet reached for a star other than a filling factor of Ÿ 13%. Loops at temperatures ¸3 \\Theta 10 6 K, similar in temperature to the non

White, Stephen

141

Coherence theory applied to space radio astronomy: Cassini/RPWS, a practical implementation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar and planetary, space radio astronomy has taken advantage of several technical and methodological improvements, from the first age - when simple wire antennas and analogue filters were used (RAE, IMP, Voyager) -, later - when spacecraft spin (ISEE, Ulysses) could be exploited for source direction retrieval, and up to now - with the current use of on board digital correlators analyzing multiple wire antennas (Cassini, Stereo). Indeed, correlation analysis from multiple sensors allows, in principle, the full second order statistics of the analyzed signal to be retrieved, thus providing, with respect to simple antenna system, some extra information on the received radio waves (mainly the spatial brightness distribution and intrinsic polarisation of the observed radio source). In the real case of experiments aboard interplanetary spacecraft, one has to take into account a number of undesirable instrumental effects, for instance the perturbation of the antenna response by the spacecraft conductive body or the limitation of the signal to noise ratio by the available telemetry rate. In this talk, taking as a working example the Cassini/RPWS data, we develop a consistent statistical model of such a correlator, which allows actual measurements to be easily characterized and reliably inverted. Some results from observations of Jovian and Saturnian radiating sources are provided as illustrative examples.

Lecacheux, A.

2009-04-01

142

Unformatted Digital Fiber-Optic Data Transmission for Radio Astronomy Front-Ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a prototype integrated receiver front-end that combines all conversions from RF to baseband, from analog to digital, and from copper to fiber into one compact assembly, with the necessary gain and stability suitable for radio astronomy applications. The emphasis in this article is on a novel digital data link over optical fiber which requires no formatting in the front-end, greatly reducing the complexity, bulk, and power consumption of digital electronics inside the antenna, facilitating its integration with the analog components, and minimizing the self-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI) which could leak into the signal path. Management of the serial data link is performed entirely in the back-end based on the statistical properties of signals with a strong random noise component. In this way, the full benefits of precision and stability afforded by conventional digital data transmission are realized with far less overhead at the focal plane of a radio telescope.

Morgan, Matthew A.; Fisher, J. Richard; Castro, Jason J.

2013-06-01

143

New Astronomy from the Moon: a Lunar Based Very-Low Frequency Radio Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the universe, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. Such a project will utilize the same transportation, communication, and power systems required for further exploration of the Moon. The lunar surface provides unique advantages for astronomy, even compared to orbits or Lagrange points. It is a large and stable platform that can shield unwanted radiation and that will be easily accessible once a lunar base is established. Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s. The most seriously investigated concept has always been a very-low- frequency (VLF) array on the lunar far side for mainly three reasons. First, the very low frequencies below ~30 MHz is the last window in the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy, giving us good reasons to anticipate unexpected discoveries. Second, because of E a r t h ' s significant radio interference, the lunar far side may well be the only site accessible that enables sensitive galactic / extra-galactic VLF observations. Finally, an array of short dipole antennas is one the most technologically feasible observatories to be placed and operated on the Moon. The motivations for a lunar based VLF array is detailed in the first section. The second section provides a review of the foregoing effort and a summary of the consensus to date. To make this dream into a reality, we identify the next required steps in the third section. We must f i r s t address any unresolved issues, especially concerning the lunar environmental factors like the ionosphere density. We should make the most out of the upcoming lunar missions by proposing relevant measurements. Most importantly, we should begin proposing our first array now. C o n s i d e r i n g the limited budget, the first realistic surface array will be deployed as a piggyback payload to early landers on the lunar south pole. The side of the Malapert Mountain that is facing away from Earth may be a good radio-quiet site. To address issues relevant to the lunar VLF array project, we have developed a general tool to simulate the propagation of radio waves in the lunar environment. In this study, we investigated (1) how well the Moon shields long-wavelength radio interference, (2) how the Malapert Mountain at the lunar south pole shields terrestrial radio interference, and (3) how the lunar surface environment i n f l u e n c e interferometric observations. These radio wave simulation studies and their results are presented in the fourth section. Finally, in the last section, we make recommendations for future missions and propose the first surface array to be deployed on the far side of the Malapert Mountain near the lunar south pole. To finalize the site and the design of the observatory, recommendations are presented for specific m e a s u r e m e n t s to be made by upcoming missions including SMART-1, LunarSat, and SELENE. It is especially critical to obtain detailed topology at candidate sites and to determine the electron d e n s i t y profile above the lunar surface at various times of the lunar month. Suggestions are given for a precursor orbiting array around 2010, a surface array on the lunar south pole around 2015, and ultimately a far side array around 2020. To realize the dream of gaining new views of the universe f r o m the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these missions.

Takahashi, Yuki D.

2002-01-01

144

A Low-Frequency Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency band below 30 MHz is one of the last unexplored bands in radio astronomy. This band is well suited for studying the early cosmos at high hydrogen redshifts, the so-called dark ages, extragalactic surveys, (extra) solar planetary bursts, and high energy particle physics. In addition, space research such as space weather tomography, are also areas of scientific interest. Due to ionospheric scintillation (below 30MHz) and its opaqueness (below 15MHz), earth-bound radio astronomy observations in these bands are either severely limited in sensitivity and spatial resolution or entirely impossible. A radio telescope in space obviously would not be hampered by the Earth's ionosphere. In the past, several (limited) studies have been conducted to explore possibilities for such an array in space. These studies considered aperture synthesis arrays in space, at the back-side of the Moon, or a satellite constellation operating in a coherent mode. In 2009 an ESA project, Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space (DARIS), set out to investigate the space-based radio telescope concept. The focus of this feasibility study is on a moderate size three-dimensional satellite constellation operating as a coherent large aperture synthesis array. This aperture synthesis array would consist of 5 to 50 antennas (satellites) having a maximum separation of 100 km. This study considers the main aspects of such a distributed system in more detail than previous studies. This conference contribution aims at presenting an overview of the DARIS project and at discussing the main results. The project selected extra-galactic surveys and the search for transient radio sources as the best suited science cases within the DARIS concept, and it investigated the scientific and technical requirements for such an array. Several antenna concepts were considered and simulated. An active antenna dipole array concept would be well suited, and a moderate 5 m tip-tip antenna system would lead to a sky noise limited system. Multiple digital signal processing scenarios were considered. Ultimately, although a distributed signal processing approach would be fa-vorable in terms of reliability and scalability, for complexity reasons the project has chosen to have several (5 to 50) identical receiving nodes, and one centralized processing node i.e. the correlator. Analysis has shown that with current technologies, one MHz bandwidth can be processed with full duty cycle. The limiting factor is the inter-satellite link bandwidth. Several deployment locations, such as Moon orbit, Earth-Moon L2, and dynamic Solar orbits were investigated. Each of those locations has its pro's and con's such as interference levels from the Earth (which drive the number of sampling bits), relative speed-vectors of the satellite nodes (influencing maximum correlator integration times, and the need for orbit maintenance), and achievable down-link bandwidth to Earth. Two preferred deployment location were selected: Moon orbit and dynamic Solar orbit. The main advantage of the Moon orbit is that the syn-thetic aperture is filled more rapidly, making it more suitable for transient science than the dynamic Solar orbit. The project also studied the relation between the three-dimensional satellite configuration, the deployment location and the quality of the sky maps. The conclusion is that for the science cases under consideration, sufficient independent aperture sampling points can be obtained in a 1 MHz limited band (with 1 kHz channels) by using bandwidth synthesis. It is expected that, as a result, up to about one million astronomical sources can be detected in a five year duration mission.

Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Saks, Noah; Falcke, Heino; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Bentum, Ark; Thilak Rajan, Raj; Wijnholds, Ir. Stefan J.; Arts, Michel; van-T Klooster, Kees; Belien, Frederik

145

Probing Strongly-Scattered Compact Objects Using Ultra-High-Resolution Techniques in Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores fundamental limits in radio astronomy and develops techniques that utilize the scintillation of compact objects to probe detailed properties of their emission regions and of the scattering material. I develop a statistical framework for observations with spectral resolution at or near the Nyquist limit, suitable for describing the observed statistics of strongly-scattered sources. I demonstrate that these statistics can effectively isolate the signature of an extended emission region, requiring no assumptions about the nature or distribution of the scattering material. Then, using observations of the Vela pulsar at 760 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope, I thereby achieve a spatial resolution of 4 km at the pulsar. Finally, I explore the signature of refractive scintillation on the interferometric visibility measured on long baselines, and I derive optimal correlation estimators for quantized data.

Johnson, Michael Douglas

146

Molecular Clouds in the Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University--Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) is a new survey of 13CO (1--0) emission covering Galactic longitudes 18 deg < l < 55.7 deg and Galactic latitudes |b| < 1 deg. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46 arcsec angular resolution on a 22 arcsec grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 kms-1. By using 13CO, a better column density tracer than the more commonly used 12CO, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. Thus, the GRS detects many new structures and cloud cores previously missed by the older 12CO surveys. With this homogeneous, fully-sampled survey of 13 CO emission, we can identify and catalog molecular clouds throughout the inner Galaxy. To select molecular clouds, we use the CLUMPFIND algorithm, which uses a method of closed contours to search for contiguous emission features without assuming an a priori shape. The molecular cloud catalog will allow us to characterize the masses, sizes, line-widths, and densities of molecular clouds in a range of Galactic environments. This will also allow us to determine clump mass spectra for many molecular complexes and study its relation to the initial mass function. In addition, the internal structure of molecular clouds, which traces the influence of turbulence in the interstellar medium, can also be studied in a wide range of star-forming environments. Here we present a preliminary list and analysis of the characteristics of a sample of molecular clouds identified within the GRS. The GRS is a joint project of Boston University and Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, funded by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-9800334, AST-0098562, & AST-0100793

Johnson, A. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2005-12-01

147

New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive and versatile astronomical observatories in the world since its dedication in 1980. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the Caribbean. In both the VLA and VLBA, the cosmic radio waves received by each antenna are combined with those received from every other antenna in the system to produce images with extremely great resolving power, or ability to see fine detail. The more widely separated the antennas, the greater the resolving power. The greatest separation between antennas of the VLA is 20 miles; in the VLBA, 5,000 miles. If your eyes could see the same level of detail as the VLA, you could, at the distance from New York to Los Angeles, make out an object the size of a small car. With the resolving power of the VLBA, you could read the owner's manual. The VLBA can make images hundreds of times more detailed than those available from the Hubble Space Telescope. However, because of the way in which such multi-antenna radio telescopes, called interferometers, work, there is a gap between the levels of detail obtainable with the VLA and the VLBA. Linking the VLA to the VLBA Pie Town antenna is the first step toward filling in that gap and allowing astronomers to see all scales of structure -- small, medium-sized, and large -- in objects such as stars, galaxies and quasars. Additional antennas, distributed throughout New Mexico, would fully fill that gap. Adding the new antennas to the VLA "would provide the capability to image astronomical objects on all spatial scales, from the very largest to the very smallest. The combination of the VLA and VLBA then would be the only single instrument in astronomy covering such a range of spatial scales, and thus a tool of great and unique value to science," said Vanden Bout. LEFT: NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, left, speaks with U.S. Senator Pete Domenici, right, following the ceremony at the Array Operations Center in Socorro Dec. 15. Nobel Laureate Robert Wilson is in the ba

1998-12-01

148

New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater size. The book reprints internal memos, reports, and recollections of astronomers who were there, as the initial elation turned to frustration when the 140 Foot Telescope project became mired in technical difficulties, plans for larger dishes were put on hold, and the scientific staff of the fledgling Observatory struggled to create a National Observatory with inadequate equipment in a very remote location. Articles by David Heeschen and John Findlay tell the story of the creation of the 300 Foot Telescope, at that time the largest in the world, which went from initial concept to full operation in only 23 months, and began a rich life of research that put the NRAO on the world scientific map. The 300 Foot Telescope was originally intended to be an interim instrument, but as documented in the book, demand for its use was so high that it was kept in operation long after its initial planned retirement, with regular upgrades and new generations of electronics. The sudden collapse of the 300 Foot Telescope on a calm evening after 26 years of operation shocked the astronomical community. But it was Fun... features dramatic first-hand accounts by the people who were there that night: the telescope operator who found himself under a falling structure; the Observatory staff who at first could not believe what happened, and those who worked during the night and into the next day to secure the area, preserve information on what happened, and deal with the rush of publicity. The book includes extensive photographs and the Executive Summary Report of the panel which was commissioned to investigate the collapse and its implication for the design of other large radio telescopes. But it was Fun... will appeal to a variety of audiences. Historians of science will be interested in the articles by David Heeschen, Gerald Tape, and Hugh van Horn, on the evolution of the concept of a National Observatory, and the difficulties of putting the concepts into practice in Green Bank. Those interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal a

2007-07-01

149

Applicability of radio astronomy techniques to the processing and interpretation of aperture synthesis passive millimetre-wave applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD programme is contributing to the development of Passive Millimetre-Wave Imagers (PMMWI) using the principles of interferometric aperture synthesis and digital signal processing. The principal applications are security screening, all-weather flight aids and earth observation. To enhance the cost-effectiveness of PMMWI systems the number of collecting elements must be minimised whilst maintaining adequate image fidelity. A wide range of techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community for improving the fidelity of sparse interferometric array imagery. This paper brings to the attention of readers these techniques and discusses how they may be applied to imaging using software packages publicly available from the radio astronomy community. The intention of future work is to adapt these algorithms to process experimental data from a range of realistic simulations and real-world targets.

Taylor, Christopher T.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Salmon, Neil A.; Cameron, Colin D.

2012-06-01

150

Origins of Radio Astronomy at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Role of J.L. Pawsey  

E-print Network

I will discuss the interactions of a number of individuals that played major roles in the formation of radio astronomy in India in the period 1952-1962, particularly Dr. Joseph L. Pawsey. The story began in 1953-1954: Pawsey brought Govind Swarup to Australia as a Colombo Fellow in 1953, where he worked with Christiansen, Mills, Wild and Bolton. Later, Swarup went to Stanford where he completed a PhD with Ron Bracewell working on the new Solar Microwave Spectroheliograph. In the era 1960-1963, with the encouragement of Pawsey, several colleagues in Australia and Bracewell, discussions began among a number of Indian colleagues to form a radio astronomy group in India. The main players were G. Swarup, T.K. Menon, M.R. Kundu and T. Krishnan. Homi J. Bhabha, the Director of TIFR, made the decisive offer to this group to start a radio astronomy project in early 1962. Swarup joined TIFR in early April 1963. Many factors contributed to the successful formation of the new group: international networking among scienti...

Goss, W M

2014-01-01

151

Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

Evans, David R.

1993-01-01

152

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted

Wayne Orchiston; Jean-Louis Steinberg

2007-01-01

153

COMPUTER USE AUTHORIZATION ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

COMPUTER USE AUTHORIZATION ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT RADIO ASTRONOMY LABORATORY THEORETICALASTROPHYSICS authorized to support charges for the computer account. Please give the completed form to Bill Boyd in 401: ____________________________ User I.D.: ________________________ CONDITIONS OF USE The Astronomy Department provides computing

Militzer, Burkhard

154

Design, Environmental and Sustainability Constraints of new African Observatories: The example of the Mozambique Radio Astronomy Observatory  

E-print Network

The Mozambique Radio Astronomy Observatory (MRAO) will be a first milestone towards development of radioastronomy in Mozambique. Development of MRAO will constitute a preparation step towards participation in the upcoming Africa VLBI Network and the Square Kilometer Array project. The MRAO first antenna is planned to serve as a capacitation and training facility and will be installed after the conversion of a 7-meter telecom dish in South Africa. Therefore, this first radiotelescope design has to comply with local spectral and environmental constraints. Furthermore, power availability and long term sustainability with potential inclusion of solar power and control of Radio Frequency Interference are analyzed. Here we outline some of the design, environmental and power sustainability constraints.

Barbosa, Domingos; Ribeiro, Valerio A R M; Loots, Anita; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L; Gaylard, Michael; van Ardenne, Arnold; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Bergano, Miguel; Amador, Jose Carlos; Maia, Rodrigo; Melo, Rui

2013-01-01

155

Radio stars; Proceedings of the Workshop on Stellar Continuum Radio Astronomy, Boulder, CO, August 8-10, 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented on radio-observable processes in stars, stochastic electron acceleration in stellar coronae, corotating interaction regions in stellar winds, damping of the magnetoionic Z mode, and electron-cyclotron maser emission during solar and stellar flares. Also considered are radio emission from the winds of single stars, as well as from circumstellar envelopes, AG Pegasi, L1551 IRS5, premain sequence stars and associated structures, P Cygni, Cyg OB2 No. 5, Theta(1)A Orionis, Gamma(2) Vel, symbiotic stars, and VV Cephei-type binaries. Papers are also presented on emission from flare stars and RS CVn systems, early-type stars, AM Herculis, the late-type dwarf stars UV Ceti and YZ CMi, AU Mic, dMe stars, solar-type stars, A and B stars, active late-type giants in binary systems, RS CVn binaries, W UMa Systems, and from strong X-ray sources. Also considered are parameters of the SS433 accretion disk, the confirmation of Cygnus X-3 radio periodicity, a variable Rho P Ophiuchi cloud radio star, microwave spectroscopic deduction of coronal magnetic fields, and a technique for removing confusion sources from VLA data. Other topics include stellar radio emission theoretical problems, high-angular resolution studies, and the time-resolution domain.

Hjellming, R. M.; Gibson, D. M.

156

Discovering astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

Chapman, R. D.

1978-01-01

157

Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 1: Nordmann's attempt to observe solar radio emission in 1901  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after the discovery of radio waves by Hertz in 1886 the idea that the Sun must emit this radiation was suggested. A number of scientists from different nations then attempted to detect this emission, and one of these was the French astronomer, Charles Nordmann. This paper provides biographical Information an Nordmann before discussing his attempt to detect solar emisson

Suzanne Débarbat; James Lequeux; Wayne Orchiston

2007-01-01

158

A 5 Giga Samples Per Second 8-Bit Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, manufactured, and characterized an 8-bit 5 Giga samples per second (Gsps) ADC printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). An e2v EV8AQ160 ADC chip was used in the design and the board is plug compatible with the field programmable gate array (FPGA) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) community. Astronomical interference fringes were demonstrated across a single baseline pair of antennas using two ADC boards on the Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) telescope. Several radio interferometers are using this board for bandwidth expansion, such as Submillimeter Array; also, several experimental telescopes are building new spectrometers using the same board. The ADC boards were attached directly to the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH-2) FPGA board for processing of the digital output signals. This ADC board provides the capability of digitizing radio frequency signals from DC to 2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth), and to an extended bandwidth of 2.5 GHz (5 dB) with derated performance. The following worst-case performance parameters were obtained over 2 GHz: spur free dynamic range (SFDR) of 44 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) of 35 dB, and effective number of bits (ENOB) of 5.5.

Jiang, Homin; Liu, Howard; Guzzino, Kim; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Chang, Ray; Chen, Ming-Tang

2014-09-01

159

The wideband backend at the MDSCC in Robledo. A new facility for radio astronomy at Q- and K-bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The antennas of NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela are available as single-dish radio astronomical facilities during a significant percentage of their operational time. Current instrumentation includes two antennas of 70 and 34 m in diameter, equipped with dual-polarization receivers in K (18-26 GHz) and Q (38-50 GHz) bands, respectively. Until mid-2011, the only backend available in MDSCC was a single spectral autocorrelator, which provides bandwidths from 2 to 16 MHz. The limited bandwidth available with this autocorrelator seriously limited the science one could carry out at Robledo. Aims: We have developed and built a new wideband backend for the Robledo antennas, with the objectives (1) to optimize the available time and enhance the efficiency of radio astronomy in MDSCC; and (2) to tackle new scientific cases that were impossible to investigate with the existing autocorrelator. Methods: The features required for the new backend include (1) a broad instantaneous bandwidth of at least 1.5 GHz; (2) high-quality and stable baselines, with small variations in frequency along the whole band; (3) easy upgradability; and (4) usability for at least the antennas that host the K- and Q-band receivers. Results: The backend consists of an intermediate frequency (IF) processor, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS), and the software that interfaces and manages the events among the observing program, antenna control, the IF processor, the FFTS operation, and data recording. The whole system was end-to-end assembled in August 2011, at the start of commissioning activities, and the results are reported in this paper. Frequency tunings and line intensities are stable over hours, even when using different synthesizers and IF channels; no aliasing effects have been measured, and the rejection of the image sideband was characterized. Conclusions: The new wideband backend fulfills the requirements and makes better use of the available time for radio astronomy, which opens new possibilities to potential users. The first setup provides 1.5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in a single polarization, using 8192 channels and a frequency resolution of 212 kHz; upgrades under way include a second FFTS card, and two high-resolution cores providing 100 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth, and 16 384 channels. These upgrades will permit simultaneous observations of the two polarizations with instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 3 GHz, and spectral resolutions from 7 to 212 kHz.

Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; Gutiérrez Bustos, M.; Sotuela, I.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.; Franco, M.; Cernicharo, J.; García-Miró, C.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Vázquez, M.; Calvo, J.; Baquero, A.

2012-06-01

160

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS On the meteor height from forward scatter radio observations  

E-print Network

Abstract. It is known from theory that, by means of a plasma physics approach, it is possible to obtain a simple formula to calculate the approximate height of a meteor (Foschini 1999). This formula can be used in case of forward scatter of radio waves and has the advantage that it does not depend on the diffusion coefficient. On the other hand, it is possible to apply the formula to a particular type of meteor only (overdense meteor type I), which is a small fraction of the total number observed. We have carried out a statistical analysis of several radio echoes from meteor showers recorded during last years by a radio observer located in Belgium. The results are compared and discussed with those obtained with other methods and available in literature. Key words: meteors, meteoroids – plasmas – scattering 1.

A. Carbognani; M. De Meyere; L. Foschini; C. Steyaert

161

Analysis of the Capability and Limitations of Relativistic Gravity Measurements Using Radio Astronomy Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uses of radar observations of planets and very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations of extragalactic objects to test theories of gravitation are described in detail with special emphasis on sources of error. The accuracy achievable in these tests with data already obtained, can be summarized in terms of: retardation of signal propagation (radar), deflection of radio waves (interferometry), advance of planetary perihelia (radar), gravitational quadrupole moment of sun (radar), and time variation of gravitational constant (radar). The analyses completed to date have yielded no significant disagreement with the predictions of general relativity.

Shapiro, I. I.; Counselman, C. C., III

1975-01-01

162

Scaling radio astronomy signal correlation on heterogeneous supercomputers using variousdata distribution methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next generation radio telescopes will require orders of magnitude more computing power to provide a view of the universe with greater sensitivity. In the initial stages of the signal processing flow of a radio telescope, signal correlation is one of the largest challenges in terms of handling huge data throughput and intensive computations. We implemented a GPU cluster based software correlator with various data distribution models and give a systematic comparison based on testing results obtained using the Fornax supercomputer. By analyzing the scalability and throughput of each model, optimal approaches are identified across a wide range of problem sizes, covering the scale of next generation telescopes.

Wang, Ruonan; Harris, Christopher

2013-12-01

163

Effects of the Earth's Ionosphere on HF Radio Astronomy from Artificial Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the effects of the ionosphere on HF observations from satellite-borne radio telescopes is presented. The primary effect investigated is the focusing effect of the ionosphere on incoming cosmic noise. This effect was computed according to the Hamiltonian equations for a ray path in a general magnetoionic medium, assuming the ionosphere to be a nonhomogenous, nonisotropic, magnetoionic

M. D. Grossi; K. M. Strom; S. E. Strom

1961-01-01

164

Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented.

Gawande, R.; Bradley, R.; Langston, G.

2014-10-01

165

Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.  

PubMed

We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented. PMID:25362437

Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

2014-10-01

166

Highlighting the History of Frebch Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multielement Grating Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all

Monique Pick; Jean-Louis Steinberg; Wayne Orchiston; Andre Boischot

2011-01-01

167

The energy of electron beams near the Io footprint derived from radio-astronomy observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of Jupiter-Io auroral electrons can be inferred through the analysis of decametric radio emissions, especially that of millisecond bursts. Jovian millisecond (or S-)bursts are intense impulsive decametric radio bursts drifting in frequency in tens of milliseconds. Previous analyses suggest that S-bursts are cyclotron-maser emission in the flux tubes connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. Electrons are thought to be accelerated from Io to Jupiter. Near Jupiter, a loss cone appears in the magnetically mirrored electron population, which is able to amplify extraordinary (X) mode radio waves. Most of the theories about their origin include an interpretation of their frequency drift. We have analysed two sets of data collected at the DAM Nançay and Karkhov radio-telescopes; they are consistent with the above scenario. In addition, we confirm that the frequency drift df/dt(f) is negative on average and decreases in absolute value at high frequencies, consistent with the adiabatic theory of particles motion. We find a typical energy of 4 keV for the emitting electrons. In many cases, we find evidence of localized ~ 1 kV electric potential jumps at high latitudes along magnetic field lines connecting Io or Io's wake to Jupiter. These potential jumps are stable over tens of minutes and propagate upward with a velocity of the order of the sound velocity. We will discuss the consistency of such ~ 4 keV electron populations with other energy estimates derived from observations of the UV Jupiter-Io auroras.

Mottez, F.; Hess, S.; Zarka, P.; Prangé, R.

2008-12-01

168

SkuareView: client-server framework for accessing extremely large radio astronomy image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new wide-field radio telescopes, such as: ASKAP, MWA, and SKA; will produce spectral-imaging data-cubes (SIDC) of unprecedented volume. This requires new approaches to managing and servicing the data to the end-user. We present a new integrated framework based on the JPEG2000\\/ISO\\/IEC 15444 standard to address the challenges of working with extremely large SIDC. We also present the developed j2k

Vyacheslav V. Kitaeff; Chen Wu; Andreas Wicenec; Andrew D. Cannon; Kevin Vinsen

2012-01-01

169

Molecular Clouds and Clumps in the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of 13CO J = 1 ? 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18° < ell < 55fdg7 and Galactic latitudes |b| <= 1°. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the 13CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s-1. Because the GRS uses 13CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than 12CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of 13CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.

2009-05-01

170

A Kalman-tracker-based Bayesian detector for radar interference in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations of important L-band spectral lines must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215-1350 MHz band. Such pulsed interference must be dealt with at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other observatories by "blanking" to remove corrupted data. This paper presents a new algorithm which improves aircraft echo detection by using a Kalman tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes. This Bayesian method enables more sensitive weak echo detection. Track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of echoes in the next antenna sweep. A lower detection threshold is used in higher probability regions to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection.

Dong, Weizhen; Jeffs, Brian D.; Fisher, J. Richard

2005-03-01

171

VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

1979-01-01

172

Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications  

E-print Network

Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from $\\mathcal{O}(P^3)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(P^2)$, where $P$ is the number of receive paths to be calibrated. Aims. We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods. Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results. Our simu...

Salvini, Stefano

2014-01-01

173

WSClean: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy  

E-print Network

Astronomical widefield imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new widefield interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependencies of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarisation correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square-Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that...

Offringa, A R; Hurley-Walker, N; Briggs, F H; Wayth, R B; Kaplan, D L; Bell, M E; Feng, L; Neben, A R; Hughes, J D; Rhee, J; Murphy, T; Bhat, N D R; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Jacobs, D C; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Procopio, P; Prabu, T; Riding, J; Roshi, D A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L

2014-01-01

174

Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

Werthimer, Dan

2014-04-01

175

WSCLEAN: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical wide-field imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new wide-field interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependences of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarization correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that combining w-stacking with the w-snapshot algorithm does not significantly improve computing requirements over pure w-stacking. The source code of our new imager is publicly released.

Offringa, A. R.; McKinley, B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Briggs, F. H.; Wayth, R. B.; Kaplan, D. L.; Bell, M. E.; Feng, L.; Neben, A. R.; Hughes, J. D.; Rhee, J.; Murphy, T.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, D. C.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Roshi, D. A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

2014-10-01

176

Digital Signal Processing using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ~100MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ~58MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8Tops/s and 0.236 Tbit/s throughput in a 9kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260MB/s for 9 second time averaging of cross-power and 1 second averaging of total-power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneo...

Kocz, J; Barsdell, B R; Price, D; Bernardi, G; Bourke, S; Clark, M A; Craig, J; Dexter, M; Dowell, J; Eftekhari, T; Ellingson, S; Hallinan, G; Hartman, J; Jameson, A; MacMahon, D; Taylor, G; Schinzel, F; Werthimer, D

2014-01-01

177

Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from 𝒪(P3) to 𝒪(P2), where P is the number of receive paths to be calibrated Aims: We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods: Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results: Our simulations confirm the 𝒪(P2) complexity and excellent numerical and computational properties of the algorithm. They also confirm that the algorithm performs at or close to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB, lower bound on the variance of estimated parameters). We find that the algorithm is suitable for application in self-calibration and discuss how it can be included. We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude speed improvement in calibration over traditional methods on actual LOFAR data. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate that ADI methods are a valid and computationally more efficient alternative to traditional gain calibration methods and we report on its successful application in a number of actual data reduction pipelines.

Salvini, Stefano; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

2014-11-01

178

Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

2012-08-01

179

*** TITLE *** Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012  

E-print Network

*** TITLE *** Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012 ***NAME OF EDITORS*** c 2012 International on HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth Kellermann VICE-CHAIR Wayne Orchiston BOARD Rod Davies Leonid TRIENNIAL REPORT 2009-2012 1. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA

Groppi, Christopher

180

Automated radio astronomy operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improvements in using a computer to drive a DSN 64-meter antenna are described. The development is used to simplify operation, improve antenna safety, reduce antenna wear, present the abuse of antenna by misoperation, increase quantity and quality of data gathered, and give users a greater choice of automatic operations.

Livermore, R. W.

1978-01-01

181

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY  

E-print Network

years at Berkeley [1] and Caltech [2], is to use a thin sheet of mylar (polyethylene terephthalate) as a vacuum window. Atmospheric pressure causes such a window to balloon alarmingly, but the great strength and flexibility of mylar are sufficient in many applications so long as no sharp object pricks the window (in

Groppi, Christopher

182

Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

Paulikas, G. A.

1974-01-01

183

ASTRONOMY 104: UNDERGRADUATE ASTRONOMY SEMINAR  

E-print Network

1 ASTRONOMY 104: UNDERGRADUATE ASTRONOMY SEMINAR SYLLABUS Unique Number 47750 Class Meetings together with fellow astronomy majors, and those in other majors who are keen on astronomy. We hope to discuss present and future pathways to success in and around astronomy, and to share with you some

184

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

Spuck, Timothy

2004-01-01

185

A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

2010-08-01

186

Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

1991-01-01

187

Transactions IAU, Volume XXVIIIA Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012  

E-print Network

Transactions IAU, Volume XXVIIIA Reports on Astronomy 2009-2012 Ian Corbett, ed. c 2012 GROUP ON HISTORICAL RADIO ASTRONOMY CHAIR Kenneth Kellermann VICE-CHAIR Wayne Orchiston BOARD Rod Davies Woerden TRIENNIAL REPORT 2009-2012 1. Introduction The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy

Groppi, Christopher

188

Astronomy 250  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of lecture notes discusses the fundamentals of astronomy. The lecture notes review the topics of celestial mechanics, light, matter, planets, telescopes, the sun, stellar astronomy, stellar evolution, life in the universe, galaxies, and cosmology.

Rieke, Marcia

2011-05-24

189

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bad Astronomy is a site dedicated to misconceptions and myths held regarding astronomy, and the popular culture that propogates them. Of particular note are the many reviews of movies and television from a scientific perspective

Plait, Phil

190

PARTNeR: Radio astromony for students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.

Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

2008-06-01

191

Experimental Astronomy (2004) 17: 261267 C Springer 2005 RFI MITIGATION AND THE SKA  

E-print Network

Experimental Astronomy (2004) 17: 261­267 C Springer 2005 RFI MITIGATION AND THE SKA STEVEN W radio astronomy from its inception. The Workshop on the Mitigation of Radio Frequency Interference in Radio Astronomy (RFI2004) was held in Penticton, BC, Canada in July 2004 in order to consider

Ellingson, Steven W.

192

Multimessenger Astronomy  

E-print Network

Multimessenger astronomy incorporating gravitational radiation is a new and exciting field that will potentially provide significant results and exciting challenges in the near future. With advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LCGT, LIGO, Virgo) we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as electromagnetic (gamma-rays, x-rays, optical, radio) and/or neutrino emission. The LIGO-Virgo interferometer network has already been used for multimessenger searches for gravitational radiation that have produced insights on cosmic events. The simultaneous observation of electromagnetic and/or neutrino emission could be important evidence in the first direct detection of gravitational radiation. Knowledge of event time, source sky location, and the expected frequency range of the signal enhances our ability to search for the gravitational radiation signatures with an amplitude closer to the noise floor of the detector. Presented here is a summary of the status of LIGO-Virgo multimessenger detection efforts, along with a discussion of questions that might be resolved using the data from advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.

N. L. Christensen; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration

2011-05-30

193

University Radio Observatories Program (AST-URO)  

NSF Publications Database

... university-based radio facilities. A primary function of funded University Radio Observatories is to ... student access to state-of-the-art radio astronomy instrumentation. UROs also serve the general ...

194

Infrared Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from NASA's Infrared Astrophysics Data Center describes: the discovery of infrared waves; what infrared waves are and how they are used in astronomy; atmospheric windows; near, middle, and far infrared; the infrared universe; and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. It also provides an IR astronomy timeline; history and development of IR detector technology; information on projects, news and discoveries; an IR gallery; classroom activities; and links for getting involved in astronomy.

Hermans-Killam, Linda

195

Bad Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip Plait, a professor at the physics and astronomy department at Sonoma State University, explores many popular myths and misconceptions about astronomy at this amusing and educational website. Students and educators can learn which ideas promoted by television, news, movies, and the general public are false and, more importantly, why they are false. Amateur astronomers can talk with others about an array of bad astronomy topics on the Bulletin Board. The website offers information about Philip Plait's public talks and about astronomical events.

Plait, Philip

196

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks, one, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave

Baker, Andrew J.

197

Astronomy Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exhibits, invited talks, discussions, and references of a Conference on Demonstrations for Classroom Use in Astronomy,'' and informs of the establishment of a Task Group on Education in Astronomy designed for the purpose of providing a focus for both college and high school teachers. (CC)

Hoff, Darrel; Wentzel, Donat G.

1973-01-01

198

Astronomy Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Today has a great many articles on all subjects relevant to space and our Universe. The site touches on topics like amateur astronomy, telescope advice, string theory and quantum gravity. This site offers information about the planets, space exploration, constellations, meteors, comets, cosmology, and much more. The information is very clear cut and easy to understand.

Delehanty, Marc

2005-06-07

199

Astronomy in Iraq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching and research. Joint supervision for postgraduate level research was organized between local and Iraqi expatriate astronomers. The IAU was among the first international organizations to offer assistance. Many observatories worldwide have also given support. Plans will be proposed for re-building the Observatory, supporting teaching and research, and establishing an institute for astronomy in Erbil, together with further suggestions on how the international astronomical community can assist Iraqi astronomers.

Alsabti, A. W.

2006-08-01

200

Astronomy CATS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

2012-08-01

201

Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

2003-07-01

202

John E. Hibbard National Radio  

E-print Network

John E. Hibbard National Radio Astronomy Observatory The Antennae Galaxies: Archetype for Colliding Galaxies #12;The Antennae: A Merger Prototype J. Hibbard, NRAO 203rd AAS Jan 9 2004 Talk Outline of radio galaxiesUsed to support collisional origin of radio galaxies (Baade & Minkowski 1954, ApJ, 119

Hibbard, John

203

IAU GENERAL ASSEMBLY: RIO 2009 REPORT OF THE IAU WORKING GROUP ON HISTORIC RADIO  

E-print Network

survive. During the Triennium research on the history of radio astronomy was carried out by more than 40 History and Heritage. Papers from the Science Meeting on European Radio Astronomy held at the Prague of a history of radio astronomy DVD and forthcoming books was announced, and Ken Kellermann reported that NRAO

Groppi, Christopher

204

Astronomy Adventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1986-01-01

205

Astronomy Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has 11 kid-friendly books on a wide range of astronomy topics. For each title, the publisher and publication date are included along with author name. The list includes engaging stories, field guides and other reference books.

206

Kinesthetic Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. You will be asked to register your name and email address before downloading the lessons.

207

Civic Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The founding of the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N.Y., in 1852 was a milestone in humanity's age-old quest to understand the heavens. As the best equipped astronomical observatory in the U.S. led by the first American to hold a Ph.D. in astronomy, Benjamin Apthorp Gould Jr., the observatory helped pioneer world-class astronomy in America. It also proclaimed Albany's status as a major national center of culture, knowledge and affluence. This book explores the story of the Dudley Observatory as a 150 year long episode in civic astronomy. The story ranges from a bitter civic controversy to a venture into space, from the banks of the Hudson River to the highlands of Argentina. It is a unique glimpse at a path not taken, a way of doing science once promising, now vanished. As discoveries by the Dudley Observatory's astronomers, especially its second director Lewis Boss, made significant contributions to the modern vision of our Milky Way galaxy as a rotating spiral of more than a million stars, the advance of astronomy left that little observatory behind.

Wise, George

2004-10-01

208

Crank Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a collection of resources to help astronomy faculty understand and respond to creationist claims. The focus of these materials is on "Young Earth" or "Young Universe" Creationism. It includes mathematical analysis, but is meant to be usable in a variety of levels of classes.

Bridgman, William

2006-08-21

209

Astronomy 362: Observational Astronomy University of Montana  

E-print Network

Astronomy 362: Observational Astronomy University of Montana Fall 2010 T/Th 2:10 ­ 3:30 pm CHCB 227://www.physics.umt.edu/~nate/astr362/ Course Description Observational astronomy relies heavily on application of advanced technology astronomy is dominated by the CCD and related pixel array detectors: digital devices with unprecedented

Vonessen, Nikolaus

210

THE ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

THE ASTRONOMY MAJOR DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DARTMOUTH COLLEGE September 2013 #12;The Department of Physics and Astronomy website: http: //www.dartmouth.edu/~physics Upcoming, and Courses: http://dartmouth.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2013/orc If you are thinking of majoring in astronomy

211

THE ASTRONOMY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

THE ASTRONOMY MAJOR DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DARTMOUTH COLLEGE September(2013(( #12;The Department of Physics and Astronomy website: http: //www.dartmouth.edu/~physics Upcoming colloquia://dartmouth.smartcatalogiq.com/en/2013/orc If you are thinking of majoring in astronomy, and have any questions, please contact any

212

Astronomy 135 ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY LABORATORY II  

E-print Network

Astronomy 135 ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY LABORATORY II Spring 2008 INSTRUCTOR: Diane Friend E-MAIL: diane.friend@umontana.edu PHONE: 243-4299 (Phys./Astr. dept. office: 243-2073) OFFICE: CHCB 129 (inside the Physics/Astronomy dept to observing sessions if you wish. The labs will usually expand on material presented in Astronomy 132, so

Vonessen, Nikolaus

213

Astronomy Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of astronomy lesson plans and experiments from across the internet was developed by Reach Out, a center linking University of Michigan and community mentors with children and teens. Topics covered include comets, the Sun, sunspots, the aurora, craters, galaxies, moons, star properties, Moon phases, and meteors. Each lesson plan gives credit to the developer, and contains all the information necessary for applying the lesson in a classroom setting.

214

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

215

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

216

Humanising Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

Levin, S.

2008-06-01

217

Learning Astronomy by Doing Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modern science curriculum, students should learn science knowledge or "facts"; they should develop science skills, strategies, and habits of mind; they should understand the applications of science to technology, society, and the environment; and they should cultivate appropriate attitudes toward science. While science knowledge may be taught through traditional lecture-and-textbook methods, theories of learning (and extensive experience) show that other aspects of the curriculum are best taught by doing science -- not just hands-on activities, but "minds-on" engagement. That means more than the usual "cookbook" activities in which students use a predetermined procedure to achieve a predetermined result. The activities should be "authentic"; they should mirror the actual scientific process. In this presentation, I will describe several ways to include science processes within astronomy courses at the middle school, high school, and introductory university level. Among other things, I will discuss: topics that reflect cultural diversity and "the nature of science"; strategies for developing science process skills through projects and other practical work; activities based on those developed and carried out by amateur astronomers; topics and activities suitable for technical-level courses (we refer to them as "applied" in my province); projects for astronomy clubs and science fairs; and topics that expose students to astronomy research within lecture courses.

Percy, J. R.

2006-08-01

218

The effects of a satellite power system on ground-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of power transmission from the solar power satellite and of radiation from the ground based rectennas on radio astronomy, radar astronomy, and optical astronomy are discussed. Interference sources, acceptable signal and noise levels, and conflicting site requirements for observatories and rectennas are considered.

Thompson, A. R.

1980-01-01

219

THE COMPLEX CORE OF ABELL 2199: THE XRAY and RADIO INTERACTION  

E-print Network

the jet flow, which has led to dynamical history very different from the usual radio galaxyTHE COMPLEX CORE OF ABELL 2199: THE X­RAY and RADIO INTERACTION F. N OWEN National Radio Astronomy Center New Mexico Tech, Socorro NM 87801, USA 1 The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is operated

Eilek, Jean

220

TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

2013-06-01

221

Islamic AstronomyIslamic Astronomy Topics covered  

E-print Network

in September 622 C.E. which led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in IslamicIslamic AstronomyIslamic Astronomy #12;Topics covered ·· Islamic calendarIslamic calendar ·· types importance in the structure ofof kaabakaaba ·· problems in Islamic astronomyproblems in Islamic astronomy

Aslaksen, Helmer

222

Astronomy Books of 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

Mercury, 1986

1986-01-01

223

Early infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

Lequeux, James

2009-07-01

224

The General History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. The Birth of Astrophysics and Other Late Nineteenth-Century Trends (c.1850-c.1920); 1. The origins of astrophysics A. J. Meadows; 2. The impact of photography on astronomy John Lankford; 3. Telescope building, 1850-1900 Albert Van Helden; 4. The new astronomy A. J. Meadows; 5. Variable stars Helen Sawyer Hogg; 6. Stellar evolution and the origin of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram David DeVorkin; Part II. Observatories and Instrumentation: 7. Astronomical institutions. Introduction Owen Gingerich, Greenwich Observatory Philip S. Laurie, Paris Observatory Jacques Lévy, Pulkovo Observatory Aleksandr A. Mikhailov, Harvard College Observatory Howard Plotkin, United States Naval Observatory Deborah Warner, Lick Observatory Trudy E. Bell, Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory Dieter B. Herrmann; 8. Building large telescopes, 1900-1950 Albert Van Helden; 9. Astronomical institutions in the southern hemisphere, 1850-1950 David S. Evans; 10. Twentieth-century instrumentation Charles Fehrenbach, with a section on 'Early rockets in astronomy' Herbert Friedman; 11. Early radio astronomy Woodruff T. Sullivan III; Appendix: The world's largest telescopes, 1850-1950 Barbara L. Welther; Illustrations: acknowledgements and sources; Index.

Gingerich, Owen

2010-04-01

225

The Beginning of Modern Infrared Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I came to the attention of astronomers through inventing the low temperature bolometer at Texas Instruments. I was quickly drawn into pioneering infrared (IR) astronomy. I soon transferred to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and then to the University of Arizona to make astronomy my focus. Parallel programs were getting under way at the California Institute of Technology, Cornell, the Universities of Minnesota and of California, San Diego. Although our methods were crude, discoveries were easy and exciting. I was involved in many of them because I could supply good detectors and invented a number of new techniques. Eventually, I supplied detector systems and instruments through founding of a small company. By the early 1970s, systematic IR astronomy was under way on many important problems that are still active research topics. This rapid success led to investments in large new telescopes and in the IRAS survey satellite.

Low, Frank J.; Rieke, G. H.; Gehrz, R. D.

2007-09-01

226

High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy  

E-print Network

Kilometer-scale neutrino detectors such as IceCube are discovery instruments covering nuclear and particle physics, cosmology and astronomy. Examples of their multidisciplinary missions include the search for the particle nature of dark matter and for additional small dimensions of space. In the end, their conceptual design is very much anchored to the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of 10^{20} and 10^{13} eV, respectively. The cosmic ray connection sets the scale of cosmic neutrino fluxes. In this context, we discuss the first results of the completed AMANDA detector and the reach of its extension, IceCube. Similar experiments are under construction in the Mediterranean. Neutrino astronomy is also expanding in new directions with efforts to detect air showers, acoustic and radio signals initiated by neutrinos with energies similar to those of the highest energy cosmic rays.

F. Halzen

2005-01-26

227

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century - a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

2005-12-01

228

Teaching and Learning Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century - a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

2009-07-01

229

Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy  

E-print Network

1 Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy Ray P. Norris CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science, NSW, Australia Warawara Dept. The International year of Astronomy seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider

Norris, Ray

230

Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

Chattejee, T. K. C.

2006-08-01

231

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

232

PROPOSED PORTHOLE FOR ASTRONOMY MAJORS Information for Astronomy Majors  

E-print Network

PROPOSED PORTHOLE FOR ASTRONOMY MAJORS Information for Astronomy Majors The Astronomy Major sciences such as Astronomy, Physics, or Engineering. (Link to details on Astrophysics Concentration) The General Astronomy Concentration is intended for students who do not plan on research careers in astronomy

Richardson Jr., James E.

233

The history of radio telescopes, 1945-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using ``radio telescopes'' that looked

Woodruff T. Sullivan

2009-01-01

234

Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

Mercury, 1990

1990-01-01

235

Introductory Astronomy Clearinghouse: Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides introductory astronomy activities on topics such as: fundamentals of astronomy, observing the sky, the sun, stars, stellar evolution, the H-R diagram, the Milky Way Galaxy, galaxies, and cosmology.

2005-04-27

236

Big data challenges for large radio arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a \\

Dayton L. Jones; Kiri Wagstaff; David R. Thompson; Larry D'Addario; Robert Navarro; Chris Mattmann; Walid Majid; Joseph Lazio; Robert Preston; Umaa Rebbapragada

2012-01-01

237

The Radio JOVE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

1999-09-01

238

Astronomy outreach, amateur astronomy and exoplanet  

E-print Network

Astronomy outreach, amateur astronomy and exoplanet research Olivier Guyon (Subaru Telescope, Univ and amateur astronomers are at the reason astronomical research is possible #12;#12;Exoplanets discoveries (confirmed exoplanets only) Olivier Guyon (Subaru Telescope, Univ. of Arizona) Jupiter Earth Mass #12

Guyon, Olivier

239

Neutrino Astronomy Scott Wilbur  

E-print Network

Neutrino Astronomy Ph 135 Scott Wilbur #12;Why do Astronomy with Neutrinos? Stars, active galacticV protons, which should be created with neutrinos, have been seen Can be used to observe possible dark with Neutrinos? Three main areas of research: Astronomy More information about high-energy protons and rays

Golwala, Sunil

240

History of infrared telescopes and astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first attempts to measure the infrared outputs of stars preceded by nearly a century the permanent establishment of infrared astronomy as an important aspect of the field. There were a number of false starts in that century, significant efforts that had little impact on the astronomical community at large. Why did these efforts fizzle out? What was different in the start that did not fizzle, in the 1960s? I suggest that the most important advances were the success of radio astronomy in demonstrating interesting phenomena outside of the optical regime, and the establishment virtually simultaneously in the United States of a number of research groups that could support each other and compete against one another in their approach to infrared astronomy.

Rieke, G. H.

2009-08-01

241

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

provides the hot and cold loads for the mixer and logic signals with which to control the other two loss. III. Present Test Set Hardware A. The first section consists of a chopped hot/cold load, photo- detectors and the digital logic to generate the synchronizing control signals (Figure #2). The chopper wheel

Groppi, Christopher

242

NP Stokes fields for radio astronomy  

E-print Network

The spin weighted spherical harmonic (SWSH) description of angular functions typically is associated with the Newman-Penrose (NP) null tetrad formalism. Recently the SWSH description, but not the NP formalism, has been used in the study of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Here we relate this application of SWSHs to a description of electromagnetic radiation and polarization in the NP formalism. In particular we introduce NP Stokes fields that are the NP equivalent of the Stokes parameters. In addition to giving a more coherent foundation for the recent cosmological SWSH application, the NP formalism aids in the computation of the Lorentz transformation properties of polarization.

Ezra T. Newman; Richard H. Price

2010-07-25

243

(Astro)Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Lectures: Serin 401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks telescopes, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic

Baker, Andrew J.

244

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

to be required to turn on the indicator lights is not necessary. Instead, use the following: POKE 49342,237 : REM SET "CALL" BIT POKE 49342,229 : REM CLEAR "CALL" BIT POKE 49342,235 : REM SET "MISS" BIT POKE 49342

Groppi, Christopher

245

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

to support new commercial and military ventures. Advances in both very large scale integration (VLSI is being cluttered with earth- orbiting satellites supporting direct broadcast television, global personal as a function of time. A glance at Fig. 1 reveals that it is impossible to observe in this band without highly

Groppi, Christopher

246

Ionospheric refraction correction in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Snell's law in polar coordinates, the ionospheric refraction effects on the declination and right ascension determination are discussed in this paper. A ray tracing method is also given. With the ionospheric data observed in Beijing, the correction of ionospheric refraction is estimated and some useful conclusions are drawn.

Chai, Yan; Han, Wen-Jun

1986-10-01

247

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

of the board. Short lengths of #22 tinned-copper wire must be inserted through the seven .031" diameter holes in the circuit board. Solder both sides of the board and remove excess wire. It is important throughout construction of this amplifier to use good quality silver-bearing solder along with appropriate flux (see Parts

Groppi, Christopher

248

Radio Astronomy Antennas by the Thousands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large number of microwave antennas of size and surface accuracy appropriate for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) have not been manufactured previously. To minimize total cost, the design needs to be much more carefully considered and optimized than would be affordable for a small number of antennas. The required surface area requires new methods of manufacture and production-line type assembly to be considered. A blend of past antenna construction technology, creativity, and new technology is needed to provide the best possible telescope for the proposed SKA science goals. The following key concepts will be discussed with respect to reflector antennas and many supporting photographs, figures and drawings will be included. Surface and supporting structure comparison of panels with a one-piece shell as produced by hydroforming.

Schultz, Roger

2004-06-01

249

RADIO ASTRONOMY OB8ERVATORYNATIONA VLA Library  

E-print Network

stainless steel cap covering the orifice, and the detector background was checked (back- ground /sec). The test fixture was covered with a plastic bag, and the bag pumped full of helium. No response, the background was pumped to a level less than 10- 9 cm3 /sec, the plastic bag was pumped full of helium

Groppi, Christopher

250

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

leakage, and possible long-term contamination of refrigerator helium supplies. A He leak detector No. 166 Title: ELIMINATION OF ELECTRICAL GROUND LOOPS CAUSED BY HELIUM SUPPLY LINES IN CRYOGENIC LOOPS CAUSED BY HELIUM SUPPLY LINES IN CRYOGENIC RECEIVER SYSTEMS A. R. Kerr, N. Horner, and S.-K. Pan 9

Groppi, Christopher

251

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

Affecting Mixer Performance ········· 5 a) Proximity Effect . . · · . · · · · · · · . · · · · · 5 b) Excess Series Resistance . · · · · · · · · . · · . · 6 c) Self Heating Effect on SIS mixers using Nb/Al-Al203 /Nb junctions fabricated by Hypres Inc. Operated at 2.5 K, the mixer

Groppi, Christopher

252

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be

G. Chin; D. Buhl; J. M. Florez

1980-01-01

253

Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

1980-08-01

254

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Charlottesville, Virginia  

E-print Network

(2) Standard rochelle salt cyanide copper strike bath4 Nickel: (1) Sel-Rex Corporation, Lectro-Nic 10..00.00.001.0.0.0 .. · .... 4 2 5 BATH DECONTAMINATION .... · ······ ················· 5 2.6 AGITATION ······.0·· ····· .... ·at in the baths listed below: Gold: (1) American Chemical and Refining Company, C-27 acid gold plate process

Groppi, Christopher

255

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro, NM 87801  

E-print Network

be organized by Antenna Pad ID. 4. The binders should be kept and maintained in the Fiber Optic Field Lab in a sub-folder named after the antenna pad that the fiber serves. 5. Files names should have a logical be a location code such as ASP (Array Splice Panel), DW7 (Manhole at DW7), etc. 8. All files and folders should

Groppi, Christopher

256

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

Figure 2 Block Diagram of NRAO Implementation . . · · · . · 12 Figure 3 Measurements of Sliding Load . · · · . 18 Tables Table 1 Capacitance of Hewlett-Packard Shielded Open Circuits · . · · · · · . 10 Table II

Groppi, Christopher

257

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

. . . . . . 6 Figure it Heat Shield Mounting Arrangement . . . . · · ·. . . . . 9 Figure 5 Block Diagram of RF · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . . 32 Appendices Appendix 1 SIS Receiver Wiring Diagram · · · · · · · . · · . 33 Appendix 2 315 Receiver

Groppi, Christopher

258

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

Hemmers, Oliver

259

David Tsiklauri, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy  

E-print Network

David Tsiklauri, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy astro.qmul.ac.uk/~tsiklauri 19 Sep oscillations, waves in magnetised plasmas, elements of plasma kinetics. David Tsiklauri Astronomy Unit Queen, Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy astro.qmul.ac.uk/~tsiklauri 19 Sep 2012 STFC summer school

260

M.S. Astronomy Program M.S. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

M.S. Astronomy Program M.S. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 for later reference. 1. understanding of a variety of fields of physics and astronomy at the graduate level 2*. performance of an astronomy research project suitable for a masters thesis 3*. ability

Hemmers, Oliver

261

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY IN THE  

E-print Network

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY IN THE WORKS OF CHAUCER Done By: Ameerah Bte Po'ad Mattar Chew Yoke Wah in astronomy albeit the astronomy incorporated in his works are concealed in a way that it is difficult to extract his full knowledge of astronomy. Astronomy was not the key topic in Chaucer's works although his

Aslaksen, Helmer

262

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY UNIVERSITY OF UTAH Fall 2012 Version 2012 .................................................................................... 11 3.1. Ph.D. in Physics 12 3.1.1. Astronomy & Astrophysics

Tipple, Brett

263

Astronomy for African development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

Govender, Kevindran

2011-06-01

264

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

265

Early Physics and Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Science before the Greeks; 2. The new concept of nature; 3. Plato and Greek mathematics; 4. Aristotle and the knowledge of Nature; 5. Practical astronomy; 6. Early Greek cosmology; 7. Mathematical astronomy; 8. The foundation of statics; 9. Dynamics in antiquity; 10. The conception of light and sound; 11. The structure of material substances; 12. Properties of matter and chemical change; 13. The transmission of Greek science; 14. Experimental physics in the Middle Ages; 15. The development of statics; 16. The establishment of kinematics; 17. Force and motion in the Middle Ages; 18. Mediaeval astronomy; 19. The change called Renaissance; 20. The reform of astronomy; Bibliography; Index.

Pedersen, Olaf

1993-03-01

266

The Radio Jove Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

Thieman, J. R.

2010-01-01

267

Radio Galaxies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

Downes, Ann

1986-01-01

268

John E. Hibbard National Radio  

E-print Network

John E. Hibbard National Radio Astronomy Observatory The Antennae Galaxies: Archetype for Colliding Galaxies #12;The Antennae: A Merger Archetype J. Hibbard, NRAO 203rd AAS Jan 9 2004 Punch line:Punch line: We present a new model of the interactingWe present a new model of the interacting galaxy NGC 4038

Hibbard, John

269

Astronomy Without a Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section describes: the celestial sphere, coordinate systems, the motion of the stars. There are also sections describing: time, the seasons, time zones, the phases of the moon, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, and the motions of the planets.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

270

Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

Eckroth, Charles A.

271

A Basic Astronomy Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

Fraknoi, Andrew

272

Astronomy Books for Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 20 recommended astronomy books for older students and adults. For each title, the publisher and publication date is included, along with author name. The list is divided into three subcategories: General Astronomy and Astrophysics, Light and Telescopes, and Digital Imaging and the 3-D Universe.

273

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

274

High Energy Astronomy Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

1980-01-01

275

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

276

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

277

Peer Instruction for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

Green, Paul

278

International Year of Astronomy: Join the yearlong astronomy party  

E-print Network

International Year of Astronomy: Join the yearlong astronomy party To mark the 400th anniversary are having a yearlong party.The InternationalYear of Astronomy is organized by the United Nations Educational!feature local and regional events such as public telescope viewings and public lectures, astronomy-themed plays

Pedersen, Tom

279

A Voyage through the Radio Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radio Astronomy Research Team from from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, embarked on a special project titled "Mapping the Universe" at the start of the 2000 school year. For the project, students analyzed data from the Arecibo Radio Telescope, which is the world's largest single dish radio telescope, in an effort to learn more about distant galaxies. Students used the information they gathered to calculate the Hubble constant--an accomplishment usually achieved by professional astronomers.

Spuck, Timothy

2004-10-01

280

Yale University Department of Astronomy  

E-print Network

Yale University Department of Astronomy Astronomy 110: Planets and Stars Course will be using selections from the following workbook: Lecture- Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy.93. It is available at the following website: http:// www.mypearsonstore.com/bookstore/lecture-tutorials-for-introductory-astronomy

281

Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

Naranjo, O. A.

2008-06-01

282

The Astronomy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

1999-12-01

283

Astronomy in Ukraine  

E-print Network

The current and prospective status of astronomical research in Ukraine is discussed. A brief history of astronomical research in Ukraine is presented and the system organizing scientific activity is described, including astronomy education, institutions and staff, awarding higher degrees/titles, government involvement, budgetary investments and international cooperation. Individuals contributing significantly to the field of astronomy and their accomplishments are mentioned. Major astronomical facilities, their capabilities, and their instrumentation are described. In terms of the number of institutions and personnel engaged in astronomy, and of past accomplishments, Ukraine ranks among major nations of Europe. Current difficulties associated with political, economic and technological changes are addressed and goals for future research activities presented.

Ya. V. Pavlenko; I. B. Vavilova; T. Kostiuk

2005-12-16

284

Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

Mannone, John C.

2011-05-01

285

Astronomy Java Applets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive astronomy java applets were created for astronomy students at the University of British Columbia. They cover topics dealing with the solar system and demonstrate the phases of the inner planets, retrograde motion, Kepler's Laws, cratering and solar eclipses. Applets on stellar astronomy include: fusion in the sun, the Big Bang, extrasolar planets, black holes, the H-R diagram, binary stars, parallax, the Doppler Effect, and black body radiation. The last set of simulations deal with telescopes. They demonstrate Snell's Law, electrostatics, and properties of lenses and mirrors.

Scharein, Robert Glenn, 1959-

2010-05-04

286

To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground-based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1996-01-01

287

Astronomy and astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An historic review of astronomy and astrophysics is presented. Astronomy is principally the observation of stars and the estimation of their position and moving. Fixed stars are distinguishable from the Sun, the Moon and the planets. Before the seventeenth century, the study of astronomy and astrophysics established maps of the sky for navigation. Huyghens and Kepler improved the calculation of the movement of planets; during the nineteenth century, Herschel and Grauenhoffer improved observation instruments. The 1960's saw the advent of space programs. Later, new areas of research appeared: ultrahigh gamma-ray astronomy, neutrino astrophysics and gravity waves. German scientists have started projects in infrared, optical, ultraviolet and x ray areas. ESA is preparing an x ray observatory program for the year 2000. The Max Planck Institute is working with the Spanish on a telescope in Spain.

288

Women in Astronomy Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a century women have played a key role in astronomy, making major discoveries that advanced the field. Today there are many examples of women astronomers leading new fields and making fundamental contributions to understanding the Universe. Yet women remain a small fraction of practicing (academic) astronomers. Only 5% of the full professors in astronomy are women, even though at least 10% of astronomy Ph.D.s have gone to women over the last 100 years (and the fraction is now approaching 25%). These and other statistics for women in astronomy, including those from the recent survey by the American Astronomical Society, suggest mechanisms are in place to help men advance beyond their representation in the talent pool. To ensure equity of opportunity and to strengthen science by drawing on the largest possible talent base, similar mechanisms might allow talented women astronomers to meet with comparable success.

Urry, Meg

2000-04-01

289

Astronomy from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking back over the twenty five years since Sputnik heralded the beginning of the space age, these essays distill what has been learned in this spectacularly productive period of reconnaissance of outer space. They cover astronomy before the space age, the geology of the inner planets, the exploration of the moon, the flight of the Voyager spacecraft to the giant planets, the "new" sun, the ultraviolet sky, x-ray portraits of our galaxy, and beyond, the future of space astronomy, and finally the route that has led back from astronomy to the rediscovery of Earth. Numerous photographs and extensive reading lists make this an excellent review for specialist as well as general readers. The editors and most of the contributors are affiliated with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. James Cornell is coeditor, with Alan P Lightman, of Revealing the Universe: Prediction and Proof in Astronomy (MIT Press paperback).

Cornell, James; Gorenstein, Paul

1985-04-01

290

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project is a worldwide event consisting of a wide range of public outreach activities, live science center, research observatory webcasts and sidewalk astronomy events. One of the key goals of 100 Hours of Astronomy is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100 Hours of Astronomy will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. This presentation will report on this worldwide public outreach event, its successes and lessons learned, participation and possible follow-up projects and activities.

Simmons, Michael

2009-05-01

291

Physics & Astronomy Degree options  

E-print Network

148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics Theoretical Physics BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Physics) Theoretical Physics and Mathematics MSci (Joint Honours Degree) Physics and Chemistry Entrance Requirements

Brierley, Andrew

292

Astronomy in Everyday Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time astronomers and other scientists believed that the importance of their work was evident to society. But in these difficult days of financial austerity, even the most obvious benefits of science have to undergo careful scrutiny. So, now more than ever is the time to highlight the importance of astronomy as a field in terms of its contributions to our technology, our mind sets and our lives. Here we will outline both the tangible and intangible reasons why astronomy is an important part of society. Whilst considerable attention will be given to technology and knowledge transfer from astronomy, perhaps the most important contribution outlined is the awareness that astronomy gives us of the vastness of the Universe and our place within it.

Rosenberg, M.; Bladon, G.; Russo, P.; Christensen, L. L.

2014-01-01

293

Overview of lunar-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

Smith, Harlan J.

1988-01-01

294

Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

2012-01-01

295

NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships  

NSF Publications Database

NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships (AAPF) Program Solicitation NSF 03-578 ... Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships (AAPF) Synopsis of Program: The NSF Astronomy ...

296

Music and Astronomy  

E-print Network

What do Brian May (the Queen's lead guitarist), William Herschel and the Jupiter Symphony have in common? And a white dwarf, a piano and Lagartija Nick? At first glance, there is no connection between them, nor between Music and Astronomy. However, there are many revealing examples of musical Astronomy and astronomical Music. This four-page proceeding describes the sonorous poster that we showed during the VIII Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society.

J. A. Caballero; S. Gonzalez Sanchez; I. Caballero

2008-10-11

297

Tips for Astronomy TA's  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the University of Washington offers great hints to help beginner astronomy teaching assistants (TAs) become better instructors. The site addresses preparation for classroom teaching, questioning style, classroom strategies, increasing student motivation, and many other topics of interest to teachers. For first-time teachers, the section describing the first day of class may be the most important. While designed for astronomy TAs, anyone involved in the teaching profession can hone their skills by following the suggestions presented.

298

Astronomy and Mathematics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

Ros, Rosa M.

299

Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds a distinguished doctorate and a Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Karlsruhe. Contact him at pankrat@mit.edu, victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius.

Pankratius, Victor

2014-06-01

300

The history of radio telescopes, 1945–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the\\u000a war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources\\u000a of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using “radio\\u000a telescopes” that looked

Woodruff T. Sullivan

2009-01-01

301

Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

2013-12-01

302

Astronomy in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

Hearnshaw, John B.

2006-01-01

303

Rescuing Middle School Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

2010-12-01

304

Astronomy 101 Student Demographics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1999 to 2001, the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) was administered to undergraduates taking introductory astronomy for non-science majors (Astronomy 101) across the United States. A national database has been established using the results from the ADT 2.0 taken as a pretest by more than 5000 students. The 33-question multiple choice test contains 12 student background questions that can be used to create a profile of student enrollments in Astronomy 101. Students who take introductory astronomy reflect undergraduate national trends of gender, choice of major, and ethnic background. Specific questions on course expectations reveal that these students are less confident of their abilities in science than in mathematics. Mathematics background is evenly split between those who have completed only high school level topics (algebra and geometry) and those who have completed college level topics (pre-calculus and calculus). Class demographics aid in the design of effective teaching strategies for successful learning. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 and DGE-9714489.

Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Snyder, K. L.; Miller, E. A.

2001-05-01

305

Conceptual Background to Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) conceives the radio spectrum as primarily a resource for telecommunications. Indeed most applications of radio are for communications and other radio services, particularly the Radio Astronomy Service, are deemed to be `pretend'communication serviceas for spectrum amnagement purposes. The language of Radio Spectrum Management is permeated by the terminology ofcommunications, some derived from the physics of radio and some from aspects of information theory. This contribution touches on all the essential concepts of radiocommunications which the author thinks should be the common mental equipment of the Spectrum Manager. The fundamental capacity of a communication channel is discussed in terms of the degrees of freedom and bandwidth of a signal, and the signal to noise ratio. It is emphasized that an information bearing signal is inherently unpredictable, and must, at some level, be discontinuous. This has important consequences for the form of its power spectrum. The effect of inserting filters is discussed particularly with regard to constant amplitude signals and, in the context of non-linear power amplifiers, the phenomenon of`sideband recovery'. All the common generic forms of modulation are discussed including the very different case of `no-modulation' which applies in all forms of passive remote sensing. Whilst all are agreed that the radio spectrum should be used `efficiently', there is no quantitative measure of spectral efficiency which embraces all relevant aspects of spectral usage. These various aspects are dicussed. Finally a brief outline of some aspects of antennae are reviewed. It is pointed out that the recent introduction of so-called `active antennnae', which have properties unlike traditional passive antennae, has confused the interpretation of those ITU Radio Regulations which refer to antennae.

Ponsonby, J. E. B.

2004-06-01

306

FAKULTT FR PHYSIK UND ASTRONOMIE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

FAKULT�T F�R PHYSIK UND ASTRONOMIE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DEKANAT / OFFICE OF THE DEAN beizufügen: 1. Die Angaben des Faches, für das die Habilitation erfolgen soll (Physik oder Astronomie). 1x 2

Heermann, Dieter W.

307

Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of technical and non-technical astronomy books. Topic areas of non-technical books include general astronomy, amateur astronomy, computers and astronomy, history of astronomy, pseudoscience, space exploration, physics and astronomy, and textbooks. Each entry includes author, title, description, source, and current cost.…

Fraknoi, Andrew

1984-01-01

308

Peer Instruction in Physics & Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a supplement to the Peer Instruction for Astronomy book and provides information about Peer Instruction resources for astronomy classes. Instructions and sample collections of concept test (ConcepTest) questions are available.

Green, Paul

2004-07-17

309

Title: Hilltopper Astronomy Teaching Fellows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 1993 the astronomy faculty of the Kentucky Governor's Scholars Program (GSP) obtained funding through the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium (KSGC) to select small numbers of talented undergraduate science teacher students and place them with GSP astronomy faculty. These \\

Aris Cedeno Dean

310

Astronomy for Development in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will look briefly at efforts to stimulate astronomy across Africa and will broadly summarize the current status of astronomy on the continent. It will also aim to address the question of how astronomy can be used for African development - something that has always been a key driver of efforts to grow the field in this region. The establishment of the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development, which has a global mandate, has provided additional support and opportunity for the many role players across the African continent. These individuals had already organised themselves in order to grow the field of astronomy across all areas from outreach to education to research. Some of these activities built on work done by the IAU's Commission 46 (Astronomy Education and Development) while other activities stemmed from the International Year of Astronomy 2009, specifically the "Developing Astronomy Globally" Cornerstone Project.

Mauduit, Jean-Christophe

2014-01-01

311

Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

Rapp, Steve

2010-01-01

312

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather fine website is a must-visit for anyone involved in teaching college-level astronomy. The Astronomy Center is sponsored by the American Astronomical Society, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the National Science Foundation, among other distinguished organizations. Visitors can get started by looking over the Recent Additions area, which in the past has included features on the phases of the moon, interactive activities related to fossil stars, and a telescope primer for educators. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse By Topic area to find specific materials on 13 subjects, including galaxies, the solar system, and the Milky Way. Also, visitors can browse by document type, where the headings include Simulations, Projects, and Labs. The Cosmic Time and Distance area is a real delight, as it includes activities that will challenge students to explore the concepts of parallax and aberration of light as they apply to astronomy.

2012-06-08

313

Astronomy Education Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy Education Review (AER) is a web-based journal for "everyone who works in astronomy and space science education." AER is published by the American Astronomical Society, and each edition contains papers, reviews of research, and short articles on innovative work in the field. The journal began in 2001, and visitors can search through the past articles by keyword or volume. On the homepage, it's a great idea to start by scanning through the 10 Most Recent Additions to AER area. Here, users will find pieces like "Astronomy Apps for Mobile Devices" and "Using Smartphone Camera Technology to Explore Stellar Parallax: Method, Results, and Reactions." Along the top of the homepage, visitors can use the Browse tab, look over the About section, or read throughout the Features. This last area contains links to their RSS feed and a place to subscribe for alerts about new items from the AER.

2012-03-09

314

Astronomy.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The publishers of Astronomy magazine (originally reviewed in the August 8, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970808.html#10 ) recently announced the release of their updated and expanded Website. The site has the look and feel of a commercial site (and a few ads), but all content is free. Designed for Astronomy hobbyists, the site contains the latest space news, feature articles, a nice beginners section, tips and tools for parents and teachers, a photo gallery, and star charts. Users can also participate in discussion forums, search for astronomy organizations, and subscribe to a free bulletin service. Please note that registration is required for access to some parts of the site.

315

The Astronomy Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C., created the Astronomy Center website to "provide a web-based databank that provides faculty with links to a wide range of teaching and learning resources for [an] Undergraduate Introductory Astronomy course." Faculty are also encouraged to suggest materials to add to the database, as well as to offer their own comments on the materials. Visitors will find that the website can be browsed by topic or by type of resource. Some of the topics include "Cosmic Time and Distance", "Historical Astronomy", and "Exoplanets". Examples of the types of resources available include "Pedagogy", "Simulations", and "Images". In order to demonstrate the size of the solar system, visitors will find that the lab, "The Thousand Yard Model" is valuable for teaching elementary through high school students, and lower undergraduate classes.

316

Astronomy Media Player  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the planets to various interstellar bodies, learning about astronomy can be fun and engaging. One way to learn about such matters is via podcasts, and this website is committed to finding the best astronomy podcasts from various places around the world. Users can get started by looking at one the following sections: "General", "Observing", "Courses", "Your Questions", "Observations", and "Top Ten". Each section contains a host of current (and former) podcasts. Persons looking to find answers to specific astronomy queries will want to look over podcasts like "Ask an Astronomer" and "Brain Bites" in the "Your Questions" area. The "Observatories" area is equally delightful, and it contains links to podcasts such as "Gemini Observatory" and "W.M. Keck Observatory". Of course, the social media options on the site are quite good, and it's easy to reference such treasures on Facebook, Digg, and so on.

317

Visualising Astronomy: "Other Worlds"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrastructures that are built and used for astronomical research are financed by - and therefore must be justified to - our society. Astronomy has an innate appeal for people of all ages, partly because it concerns the fascinating, great questions "of life, the Universe and everything" and partly because much of the data obtained with telescopes can be presented as objects of stunning beauty. These are key facts when considering communicating astronomy with the public. This native advantage that astronomy has over many other sciences does not, however, relieve us of the obligation to explain what we are doing to the public at large. There are many reasons for doing this. They range from attracting bright young people into the subject to fuel future research endeavours to convincing decision-takers to allocate large sums of money to finance increasingly expensive and ambitious projects.

Wyatt, R.

2009-02-01

318

100 Hours of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. 100HA will take place from 2-5 April when the Moon goes from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing. Saturn will be the other highlight of early evening observing events. 100 Hours of Astronomy consists of five main events: 1. An opening event featuring the telescope that Galileo used to make his groundbreaking observations. 2. Activities at science centres, planetariums and science museums including live webcasts, live observations by visitors using remotely-operated telescopes, and enhanced outreach programs including public observing sessions held by amateur astronomy groups. 3. Observing sessions and other educational activities in schools groups held by astronomy clubs and others. 4. 24 hours of live webcasts from research observatories around the world, along with observing events and other outreach activities at participating observatories. 5. 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy - public observing sessions in population centres to bring the opportunity to view the Moon, Saturn and other objects to as many people as possible. The annual International Sidewalk Astronomy Night will be held during this event. These primary activities will be scheduled so that each supports the other, leading in order from one to the next and culminating in the world's greatest public observing event. A wrap-up will be held at the IAU General Assembly in 2009 to recognize all participants’ contributions to this unique global event.

Simmons, Mike

2009-01-01

319

Cosmic Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

Cosmic ray astronomy attempts to identify and study the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. It is unique in its reliance on charged particles as the information carriers. While no discrete source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays has been identified so far, a new generation of detectors is acquiring the huge exposure that is needed at the highest energies, where deflection by magnetic fields is minimized and the background from distant sources is eliminated by pion photoproduction. In this paper, we summarize the status of cosmic ray astronomy, describing the detectors and the analysis techniques.

Paul Sommers; Stefan Westerhoff

2008-02-09

320

Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

Jim Hinton

2007-12-20

321

KidsAstronomy.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

KidsAstronomy.com was created by astronomy buff and elementary school teacher Hiram Bertoch. Her goal of creating a kid friendly Web site that is balanced between text and tech was definitely achieved. Interactive, visually pleasant, and content rich, the site provides kids a great learning resource that is fun to explore. One of the activities "How Big is the Universe" shows a picture of a man in the grass and lets you zoom out by powers of ten to finally see the whole universe. Teachers will also find the site useful with its free lesson plans, worksheets, and additional educational links.

1998-01-01

322

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

richness of the universe. Join this adventure by exploring the astronomy program at the University of TexasUNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY The UniversiTy of Texas aT aUsTin Astronomy is one of the greatest adventures in human history, a quest to understand our origin and fate within the infinite

Jefferys, William

323

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DARTMOUTH COLLEGE GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK 2012-13 #12;2 TABLE .....................................................................27 #12;3 SECTION I PRACTICAL MATTERS 1. WELCOME AND OVERVIEW The Department of Physics and Astronomy with some undergraduate courses. The course requirements for physics and astronomy students are given

324

Research Review NOVA and Astronomy  

E-print Network

Research Review NOVA and Astronomy 2010 October 2011 #12;2 QANU / Research Review NOVA and Astronomy Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) Catharijnesingel 56 PO Box 8035 3503 RA Utrecht NOVA and Astronomy 3 Contents: Update 5 1. The Review Committee and Review Procedures 7 2. Remarks

van Rooij, Robert

325

Taught degrees MSc in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Essentials Taught degrees MSc in Astronomy MSc in Cosmology Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Astronomy Related degrees MSc in Computational Mathematics (p119) MSc in Particle Physics (p137) MSc-class undergraduate honours degree in a physics-, mathematics- or astronomy-based subject. Other degrees

Sussex, University of

326

Taught degrees MSc in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Essentials Taught degrees MSc in Astronomy MSc in Cosmology Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Astronomy Related degrees MSc in Particle Physics (p135) MSc in Physics (p135) MSc in Physics (Euro-class undergraduate honours degree in a physics-, mathematics- or astronomy-based subject. Other degrees

Sussex, University of

327

Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

2012-01-01

328

School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

Stanger, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

329

Is astronomy useful for societies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We briefly review various aspects related to the usefulness of astronomy to societies. Astronomy constitutes an important part of human culture, all over different countries and all over the entire history of humankind. Because of its intrinsic interest, astronomy is able to attract young generations towards technical and scientific careers. Moreover, it is also an indirect trigger of innovation and consequently of financial profit.

Audouze, Jean

2011-06-01

330

Astronomy Education and Popularization Facilities at Guanajuato University in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Astronomy Department of Universidad de Guanajuato, 400 km NW of Mexico City, nine professional astronomers do research and teaching at both graduate and undergraduate level. In addition, in the last few years, this group has carried out astronomy popularization activities at three different sites. First, a rudimentary observatory named "La Azotea" (the roof) on the top of the main building of the University (at Guanajuato centre), which includes a 16-cm refractor in a dome, a couple of XIXth century astronomical instruments, and a classroom with capacity for 50 people. The refractor was out of use for about twelve years but will be fully operational before summer 2006. Second, the "Observatorio de La Luz", 20 kms away from Guanajuato centre, includes a professional 0.6m Cassegrain and a 2m radio telescope, with a 21cm receiver. Finally, on the roof of the Astronomy Department headquarters, an optical 0.4m Dobsonian is available. We also dispose of internet connection everywhere and 6 portable 8-inch telescopes (two at each site), devoted to regular astronomical observations for the general public, specially for scholars. Numerous repair works are currently carried out on the building of "La Azotea", and recently a project to establish there a Centre for Popularization of Astronomy has been approved by the Regional Science Council. The main activities, some of them currently developed at these sites are: (1) A permanent program of astronomical observations for a wide audience. (2) Training in Observational Astronomy for physics undergraduate students. (3) Regular talks on astronomy and other science domains. (4) Summer schools in Astronomy for elementary and high-school teachers. (5) In the near future, the foundation of an amateur society of astronomy.

Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Schroeder, K.-P.; Ramirez, L.

2006-08-01

331

X-ray Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new field, generated from observations above the atmosphere, has been an unexpected gift to astronomy by giving a better understanding of the role and importance of high energy phenomena. The history, instrumentation, and types of celestial sources observed are discussed. (DF)

Giacconi, Riccardo

1973-01-01

332

Historical Planetary Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical planetary astronomy refers to attempts to use archival physical descriptions and depictions of the Moon and planets to help solve modern problems in planetary science. These data are usually qualitative in nature, most often coming to us in the form of telescopic observers' reports and drawings made in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. For this reason, such data

T. A. Hockey

1995-01-01

333

Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2013-01-01

334

Colonial American Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-12-01

335

Adaptive Optics in Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of adaptive optics (AO) has developed as a means to correct for the phase disturbances of an optical signal by understanding the medium through which it passes. This paper is intended to be a brief introduction to the field of adaptive optics with an emphasis the role of AO in astronomy. T e l e s c o

Jay J. McCarthy

336

The International Astronomy Olympiad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an annual scientific-educating event for students of the junior high-school classes, aged 14-18 years. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society founded the IAO in 1996. The Olympiad includes an intellectual competition between these students. The style of the problems is aimed at developping the imagination, creativity and independent thinking.

Gavrilov, Michael G.

2011-06-01

337

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

338

Astronomy Video Contest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

McFarland, John

2008-05-01

339

Das Weltbild der Astronomie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhalt: 1. Das geozentrische Weltbild der Antike und des Mittelalters. 2. Zum heliozentrischen Weltbild. 3. Astronomie und Astrologie. 4. Vom heliozentrischen zum heutigen Weltbild. 5. Die Geburt der Astrophysik. 6. Sterne und Planeten: Das Erschaffen von Neuem. 7. Das Sonnensystem. 8. Galaxien, intergalaktische Materie und die Dunkle Materie. 9. Die Evolution des Universums. 10. Ein spekulativer Blick in den Kosmos.

Nussbaumer, Harry

340

Astronomy in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

Rosenzweig, Patricia

341

The Future of Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of the Reports of the Panels'' published by the Astronomy Survey Committee of the National Academy of Sciences in 1973, involving aspects of cosmology, quasars, exploding galaxies, stars, stellar evolution, solar system, organic molecules, life, and interstellar communication. Included are recommendations for scientific…

Greenstein, Jesse L.

1973-01-01

342

Instrument for Setting Radio Telescope Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) [1] is a 100-meter radio telescope under construction by The National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV. The GBT incorporates a first-of-its-kind active surface that will be adjusted under a closed-loop laser metrology system [2] to correct surface deflections. The goal is to maintain a reflector surface accuracy of 0.220-mm rms in order to

David H. Parker; John M. Payne; John W. Shelton; Timothy Lee Weadon

2000-01-01

343

Status of Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE)  

E-print Network

RICE is designed to detect ultrahigh energy (>100 TeV) neutrinos from astrophysical sources. It will consist of an array of compact radio (100 to 1000 MHz) receivers buried in ice at the South Pole. During the 1995-96 and 1996-97 austral summers, several receivers transmitters were deployed in bore holes drilled for the AMANDA project, at depths of 141 to 260 m. This was the first in situ test of radio receivers in deep ice for neutrino astronomy.

RICE Collaboration; C. Allen; A. Bean; D. Besson; G. Frichter; S. Kotov; I. Kravchenko; D. McKay; T. Miller; L. Piccirillo; J. Ralston; D. Seckel; S. Seunarine; G. Spiczak

1997-09-23

344

New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.

1995-12-01

345

Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy enabled us to study celestial environments characterised by the dominance of high energy particles and their interactions with matter, magnetic and electric fields in the neighbourhood of these special environments. While neutrino astronomy is still in its infancy, it has the potential of becoming the most exciting field of study in the current century. Gamma-ray astronomy has had a chequered career. In the early part of the 20th century, Millikan proposed that cosmic rays are merely gamma rays. This was disproved by Compton, through the establishment of the latitude effect. The soviet astrophysicist Shklovskii pointed out at the III International conference on cosmic rays held at Guanjuato, Mexico, the possibility of supernova remants like the Crab Nebula being sources of TeV gamma rays. This was based on his realisation that the high degree of polarized light from the Crab could be due to Synchrotron emission by TeV energy electrons spiralling round the filamentary magnetic fields of the nebula. He argued that the same mechanism that accelerated electrons could also accelerate the protons which through their interaction with the surrounding matter generate pi-zero measons that would immediately decay into gamma rays. However, the efforts by the soviet experimentalists, who used the night air cerenkov technique for detection of the TeV gamma rays, proved negative; only upper limits could be set on the fluxew of TeV gamma rays from several of the SN-remnants; the negative results were first reported at the 7th ICRC held at Jaipur, India in 1963. High energy gamma ray astronomy had a remarkable revival with the discovery of Pulsars in 1967 and their identification with Neutron stars. The field has thrived since then has been extended even to the PeV range. Beginning with 1965, gamma ray astronomy in the energy range MeV to tens of GeV has also been successfully pursued with ballons, and satellites. The most perplexing in this energy range has been the discovery of the Gamma ray bursts. In the keynote address the historical aspects of this field will be covered with some references to the work in India.

Sreekantan, B. V.

2002-03-01

346

The African Cultural Astronomy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

2011-06-01

347

Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope  

E-print Network

Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope Stephen M. White Array (LOFAR) will be a radio astronomy interferometric array operating in the approximate fre­ quency of high solar activity the Sun will be a prominent (and highly variable) feature of the low­frequency sky

White, Stephen

348

Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope  

E-print Network

Solar radioastronomy with the LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope Stephen M. Whitea, Namir, USA bRemote Sensing Div., Naval Research Lab., Washington D.C., USA ABSTRACT The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) will be a radio astronomy interferometric array operating in the approximate fre- quency range 10

349

Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

Orchiston, Wayne

2005-01-01

350

Radio Journalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…

Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

351

Astronomy and astrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

Zarka, Philippe

2011-06-01

352

Astronomy Training Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the survival of humans in space. Learners will predict how human survival requirements are met by characteristics of our solar system and planet. They engage in an online Astronomy Training module in which they make changes to the astronomical conditions of our solar system and observe the effects of these changes on Earth. They then draw conclusions about which astronomical conditions are necessary to support human survival. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 2 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

353

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-05-01

354

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-09-01

355

X-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth of X-ray astronomy and the nature of X-radiation are considered, taking into account the high-altitude rocket, orbiting observatories, the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources, X-rays and their place in the electromagnetic spectrum, the interaction of X-rays with matter, and X-ray detectors and spectrometers. X-rays from the sun are discussed along with solar-flare X-rays, X-rays from beyond the solar

J. Leonard Culhane; Peter W. Sanford

1981-01-01

356

SPAN: Astronomy and astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a multi-mission, correlative data comparison network which links science research and data analysis computers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. The purpose of this document is to provide Astronomy and Astrophysics scientists, currently reachable on SPAN, with basic information and contacts for access to correlative data bases, star catalogs, and other astrophysic facilities accessible over SPAN.

Thomas, Valerie L.; Green, James L.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Lopez-Swafford, Brian

1987-01-01

357

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking.

E. L. Zirbel

2002-01-01

358

100 Hours of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities including live webcasts, observing events and more. One of the key goals of 100HA is to have as many people as possible look through a telescope as Galileo did for the first time 400 years

Mike Simmons

2009-01-01

359

Farmers Almanac: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This astronomy section of the Farmer\\'s Almanac website provides dates, times, names and meanings of various full moons; definitions of moon terms; and the best times to view the planets. There are links to obtain the exact times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise, and moonset for one day or an entire year; phases of the moon; fraction of moon illumination; and tidal information (height and current speed predictions).

2007-01-13

360

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

1979-01-01

361

MPS Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of the “Sensing the Radio Sky” program is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year program began in the summer of 2004 and was completed in December 2006. The program involved a team of 12 undergraduate physics and multimedia majors and four faculty mentors from Furman University, University of North Carolina-Asheville and Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). One component of the program is the development and production of a projection cylinder for the portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The final draft is complete and will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

Blake, Melvin; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; Walsh, L.; LaFratta, M.

2006-12-01

362

Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book offers a unique collection -- the first of its kind -- of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, publication studies, research indicators, space science planning, research communication, public outreach, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable by readers not necessarily hyper-specialized in astronomy, while still providing specific detailed information. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, science sociologists, research planners and strategists, project managers, and public relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6671-9

Heck, André

2000-11-01

363

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

364

Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. Basic pulsar properties; 2. Pulsars as physical tools; 3. Theoretical background; 4. Instrumentation for pulsar observations; 5. Observing known pulsars; 6. Finding new pulsars; 7. Pulsar timing; 8. Beyond single radio dishes; Appendix.

Lorimer, D. R.; Kramer, M.

2012-10-01

365

CCD Astronomy Software User's Guide  

E-print Network

CCDSoft CCD Astronomy Software User's Guide Version 5 Revision 1.11 Copyright © 1992­2006 Santa ...................................................................................................11 Controlling a CCD Camera

366

The history of radio telescopes, 1945-1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forged by the development of radar during World War II, radio astronomy revolutionized astronomy during the decade after the war. A new universe was revealed, centered not on stars and planets, but on the gas between the stars, on explosive sources of unprecedented luminosity, and on hundreds of mysterious discrete sources with no optical identifications. Using “radio telescopes” that looked nothing like traditional (optical) telescopes, radio astronomers were a very different breed from traditional (optical) astronomers. This pathbreaking of radio astronomy also made it much easier for later “astronomies” and their “telescopes” (X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma-ray) to become integrated into astronomy after the launch of the space age in the 1960s. This paper traces the history of radio telescopes from 1945 through about 1990, from the era of converted small-sized, military radar antennas to that of large interferometric arrays connected by complex electronics and computers; from the era of strip-chart recordings measured by rulers to powerful computers and display graphics; from the era of individuals and small groups building their own equipment to that of Big Science, large collaborations and national observatories.

Sullivan, Woodruff T.

2009-08-01

367

Strategic Plan Department of Physics and Astronomy  

E-print Network

Strategic Plan Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Tennessee, Knoxville September (Ex Officio), and Hanno Weitering #12;Introduction The Department of Physics and Astronomy has over. Figure 1: Schematic diagram illustrating the Department of Physics and Astronomy's interactions

Dai, Pengcheng

368

June 18, 2013 1 Department of Astronomy  

E-print Network

June 18, 2013 1 Department of Astronomy Harvard University _________________________________________________________________________________________ Harvard College Observatory 60 Garden Street, MS 46, Cambridge, MA 02138 SpecialAppointmentsintheFASDepartmentofAstronomy Harvard'sprograminastrophysicsisgreatlyenhancedbythealliancebetweentheHarvard Astronomy

369

REVISED SYLLABUS: ASTRONOMY 1010 SPRING 2012 SOLAR SYSTEM ASTRONOMY  

E-print Network

-semester lecture plus laboratory course on astronomy with an emphasis on celestial motions, history of astronomy will consist of PowerPoint slides, laboratory demonstrations, and other audiovisual presentations. A version of the PowerPoint slides will be posted on the following web site: http://www.chara.gsu.edu/~crenshaw/astr1010

Crenshaw, Michael

370

Radio Interference at the Molonglo Radio Observatory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conjunction with the local Spectrum Management Agency, field trials have been carried out to determine the susceptibility of the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) to interference from terrestrial transmitters. The MOST operates at a frequency of 843 MHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of 3 MHz. The entire band from 825 to 845 MHz has been allocated for mobile telephone use and is soon to be sold to commercial users. Even though 843 MHz is not an internationally recognised radio astronomy frequency, since the MOST began operation in 1980, the band has been locally respected after consultation with Telecom Australia. Normal operation of the MOST requires 12 hours observation to synthesise an image of ~1-5 sq. degrees of sky. In-band interference with irradiance exceeding -172 dBWm^-2 (which confirms our theoretical predictions) causes noticable degradation of MOST images, although occasional bursts stronger than that are tolerable. The damage to MOST images caused by interference depends on the type of modulation and duration of the transmission and the type of observation. The telescope has recently been funded to carry out a deep radio survey of the southern sky. The viability of this survey is now being seriously threatened.

Davidson, G.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Large, M. I.

371

The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Astronomy before history Clive Ruggles and Michael Hoskin; 2 Astronomy in antiquity Michael Hoskin; 3. Astronomy in China Christopher Cullen; 4. Islamic astronomy Michael Hoskin and Owen Gingerich; 5. The Astrolabe Michael Hoskin; 6. Medieval Latin astronomy Michael Hoskin and Owen Gingerich; 7. From geometry to physics: astronomy transformed Michael Hoskin; 8. The refracting telescope in the seventeenth century J. A. Bennett; 9. Newton and Newtonianism Michael Hoskin; 10. The astronomy of the universe of stars Michael Hoskin; 11. The message of starlight: the rise of astrophysics David Dewhirst and Michael Hoskin; 12. Astronomy's widening horizons Michael Hoskin and Owen Gingerich; Reference Guide; Chronology; Glossary; Further reading; Picture acknowledgments; Index.

Hoskin, Michael

1999-03-01

372

The Murchison Widefield Array: The Square Kilometre Array Precursor at Low Radio Frequencies  

E-print Network

The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a ...

Goeke, Robert F.

373

Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO\\/CRS\\/CIE\\/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The

Guilherme Simon da Rosa; Nelson Jorge Schuch; Cassio Espindola Antunes; Natanael Gomes

2008-01-01

374

Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

2010-01-01

375

Astronomy Web Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four interactive simulations on stellar astronomy. The first simulation, Stellar Parallax, shows how parallax varies with stellar distance. The second simulation, Eclipsing Binary Stars, simulates the light curve for a binary star system for different viewing angles. The third simulation, Binary Star System, illustrates the motion and result spectral signatures for a system of two orbiting starts. The final simulation, Stellar Evolution,shows the evolution of different mass stars on the H-R diagram from main sequence to the red giant phase.

Herter, Terry

2005-05-17

376

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

Lubowich, D. A.

2006-08-01

377

Astronomy Mission Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about finding habitable planets. Learners will use an online, multimedia module to simulate the techniques that scientists might use to find a star system and planet that meet the astronomical conditions required for human habitability. Students then summarize their learning from this unit in a final project. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 13 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

378

Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.

Losurdo, Giovanni

379

Spinoff from Space Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Science and Engineering (AS&E) built NASA's first x-ray telescope, flown on OSO-4 (Orbiting Solar Observatory), and developed the x-ray detectors that operated flawlessly for four years aboard SAS-1 (Small Astronomy Satellite). The experience AS&E acquired in detecting and processing cosmic x-rays gave the company a broad technology base for commercial applications. Among the commercial products that stemmed from AS&E's space technology are: Micro Dose x-ray scanner for medical use; a digital radiography diagnosis, a system for nondestructive testing of manufactured products; a system of load management for electric utilities; and additional specialized instruments.

1983-01-01

380

Gravitational-Wave Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

Kelly, Bernard J.

2010-01-01

381

Astronomy in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

2013-01-01

382

Greek mathematical astronomy reconsidered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations have thrown new light on such topics as the early Greek belief in heliocentricity, the relation between Greek and Babylonian astronomy, the reliability of Ptolemy's Syntaxis, Hipparchus's theory of motion for the sun, Hipparchus's value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, and Eratosthenes' estimate of the size of the earth. Some claims resulting from these investigations are controversial, especially the reevaluation of Ptolemy (though it is notable that no one any longer uses data from the Syntaxis for investigating such things as the spin of the earth). This essay presents the evidence for these claims; it makes no pretense of presenting the evidence against them.

Thurston, Hugh

2002-03-01

383

Journal Publishing in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elsevier is the World's largest Scientific, Technical and Medical (STM) Publisher. In this article, I set out how we seek to meet the needs and expectations of the 600,000 authors who submit their work to Elsevier each year. I discuss the services being developed to enhance peer review, article publication and readership, with particular reference to astronomy and physics publishing. Finally, I discuss the challenges presented to the current system by the dramatic increase in the submission of articles from countries such as China and India, and how Elsevier is approaching the various different types of Open Access.

Clark, David

384

Software for Astronomy Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links as well as self-extracting files to download various astronomical software to complement lessons about astronomy. Programs include eclipsing binary stars, Luna view, a solar system simulator, an H-R calculator to create types of stars, Starclock to show the evolution of star types, Mystars and Starcalc that both show views of the night sky, and Geoclock which provides a calculator for sunrise, sunset and more. Most of these programs are free and the rest are shareware. This site gives easy instructions on how to download the software to a PC (there are a few links for Macs), and a brief description of what the software does.

Love, Jamie

2007-03-27

385

Educational Radio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of the radio in education and the crucial role of the radio in distance education in first half of the 20th century; dramatic social changes in the 1960s that led to a review of educational institutions and of educational media; and the radio today as a neglected but inexpensive medium of communication that should be…

Arafeh, Sousan

1999-01-01

386

Science and Mathematics in Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

Woolack, Edward

2009-01-01

387

College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held

T. F. Slater; M. Bennett; W. M. Greene; S. Pompea; E. E. Prather

2003-01-01

388

Astronomy 150: Solar System Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Stacy Palen of the University of Washington, contains lab activities that deal with planetary astronomy. The labs cover: the earth-moon system, atmospheric escape, craters, meteorites, comets, lunar mapping, Mars, volcanoes on Io, Europa, Neptune, satellites of giant planets, and extra-solar planets. This is a nice comprehensive overview of different interactive astronomy topics.

Palen, Stacy

2009-05-25

389

Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

1991-01-01

390

A high data rate recorder for astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic tape recorder developed for the special requirements of radio astronomy and geodesy is described. These requirements include a high bit packing density and long record times. The current version of this longitudinal recorder used by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) records 5.5 Terabits on a 14-in diameter reel of inch-wide tape. A maximum record rate of 256 Mb/s is achieved in the VLBA configuration with one recorder operating at 4 ms and utilizing 32 of the heads in a single stack. The VLBA recorders have been tested using a longitudinal density of 2.25 fr/micron; 448 data + 56 system tracks are recorded in 14 passes, each lasting 50 min, for a total record time (at 128 Mb/s) of 12 h on 14-in diameter reel of inch-wide 13-microns-thick D1-equivalent tape.

Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Cappallo, R. J.; Webber, J. C.; Petrachenko, W. T.

1991-01-01

391

Challenges in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

De Greve, Jean-Pierre

2010-11-01

392

Astronomy books in Spanish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

Fierro, Julieta

393

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

394

Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.

Ostro, Steven J.

1993-01-01

395

Astronomy Education in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic education is fundamental to higher education and scientific and technological literacy. We can confront the widespread adult ignorance and apathy about science and technology. Astronomy, an interdisciplinary science, enhances students' interest and overcomes educational problems. Three years ago, we developed astronomy education in these ways: 1. Summer School for School Students. (50 students from Athens came to the first Summer School in Astrophysics at the National Observatory, September 2-5, 1996, for lectures by professional astronomers and to be familiarized with observatory instruments. 2. Introducing Students to Research. (This teaches students more about science so they are more confident about it. Our students have won top prizes in European research contests for their studies of objects on Schmidt plates and computations on PCs.) 3. Hands-on Activities. (Very important because they bring students close to their natural environment. Activities are: variable-star observations (AAVSO), Eratosthenes project, solar-eclipse, sunspot and comet studies. 4. Contact with Professional Astronomers and Institutes. (These help students reach their social environment and motivate them as "science carriers". We try to make contacts at astronomical events, and through visits to appropriate institutions.) 5. Internet Programs. (Students learn about and familiarize themselves with their technological environment.) 6. Laboratory exercises. (Students should do science, not just learn about it We introduced the following lab. exercises: supernova remnants, galaxy classification, both from Schmidt plates, celestial sphere.

Metaxa, M.

396

The Astronomy Genealogy Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

Tenn, Joseph S.

2014-01-01

397

Astronomy in Antarctica  

E-print Network

Antarctica provides a unique environment for astronomy. The cold, dry and stable air found above the high plateau, as well as the pure ice below, offers new opportunities across the photon & particle spectrum. The summits of the plateau provide the best seeing conditions, the darkest skies and the most transparent atmosphere of any earth-based observing site. Astronomical activities are now underway at four plateau sites: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Concordia Station at Dome C, Kunlun Station at Dome A and Fuji Station at Dome F, in addition to long duration ballooning from the coastal station of McMurdo. Astronomy conducted includes optical, IR, THz & sub-mm, measurements of the CMBR, solar, as well as high energy astrophysics involving measurement of cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos. Antarctica is also the richest source of meteorites on our planet. An extensive range of site testing measurements have been made over the high plateau. We summarise the facets of Antarctica that are dri...

Burton, Michael G

2010-01-01

398

Making Astronomy Accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

Grice, Noreen A.

2011-05-01

399

Ancient Astronomy in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

Parsamian, Elma S.

2007-08-01

400

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

401

Astronomy Olympiads in Russia and Their Position in Astronomy Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy olympiads started to be organised in Russia more than 60 years ago (then it was still USSR). In 1994, on the basis of several regional astronomy olympiads, appeared the All-Russian Astronomy Olympiad (Vserossijskaya astronomicheskaya olimpiada) or ARAO. It has been organised under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and pupils attending higher forms have taken part in it. The main objective of ARAO is to find and support talented pupils. Leading universities of the country (Russia) have also organised their own astronomy olympiads. In this way there are Astronomy Olympiads of Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Kazan. Among them the largest is that of Saint Petersburg. The main characteristic of these olympiads is that they have also included pupils of younger forms and have prepared their own tasks. The main objective of these olympiads is to find and support future students of astronomy classes at those universities. All astronomy Olympiads have played an important role in preparing future astronomers. This work is supported by Leading Scientific Schools Grant No. NSH-3290.2010.2.

Eskin, B.; Tarakanov, P.; Kostina, M.

2012-12-01

402

Productivity and Impact of Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001, 836 papers appearing in 15 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based radio, millimeter, and submillimeter telescopes, plus the HALCA, COBE, and SWAS satellites and a few balloon-borne detectors. More than 80 telescopes were represented, including 36 that were each responsible for five or more papers. These papers were cited 11,332 times in 2002, 2003, and 2004, for a mean rate of 13.56 citations per paper, or 4.52 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor, and compared to 5.40 citations per paper per year for optical astronomy papers in the same period and 6.42 for space-based papers). We examine here the distributions of papers, citations, and impact factors among subject areas and telescopes and make some comparisons with the 2100 optical and infrared and 1200 space-based papers published and cited in the same years. The single largest item in the optical inventory was, naturally, the Hubble Space Telescope, with 16% of the papers and 19% of the citations. Radio astronomy houses an even more dominant entity, the Very Large Array (VLA), responsible for 22% of the papers and 27% of the citations. The VLA is, therefore, proportionately even more influential in world radio astronomy than HST is in world optical astronomy. A third paper in this series looks at papers and citations in the area of infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray space-based astronomy and planetary missions. Of the ``radio'' papers, 149 were also optical papers and 76 were also ``space'' papers, in the sense of reporting or analyzing data in both bands. Their impact factors were 5.71 and 7.51 citations per paper per year, respectively, slightly above the averages for the individual bands. Thus, slightly more than half of observational astronomy is still optical astronomy, but multiwavelength papers are somewhat more influential than average. No radio+optical paper went completely uncited during the triennium.

Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul

2006-06-01

403

In ecliptic observations of Jovian radio emissions by Ulysses - Comparison with Voyager results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Ulysses inbound cruise to Jupiter the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment observed a variety of the planet's radio components in the frequency range below 1 MHz. Most of these emissions were already detected by the Voyager Radio Astronomy and Plasma Wave experiments, however, with much less sensitivity and different spectral coverage. These different radio components within the URAP dynamic spectra are identified, and their appearance with the previous Voyager observations are compared.

Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.; Zarka, PH.; Aubier, M. G.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.

1992-01-01

404

Urban Astronomy: The Astronomy Club at Georgia State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Club at Georgia State University has found interesting ways to share astronomy with students despite the strong light pollution surrounding the campus. We use several 5"-8" telescopes that belong to the Astronomy Department to hold regular solar observing sessions, and we also hold frequent on-campus nighttime observing sessions that highlight bright planets and the Moon, and occasionally a nebula or two. We have also ground our own 8" mirror and built a Dobsonian telescope to enable more off-campus observing.

Ruiz, B.; Grundstrom, E.; Marshall, K.; McFarland, J. P.; McSwain, M. V.; Osterman, M. A.; Veerabathina, N.; Wingert, D. W.

2003-12-01

405

Astronomy Education. Third Newsletter of the TGEA (Task Group on Education in Astronomy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter, published by the Task Group on Education in Astronomy, focuses on astronomy education both for the public and for schools. Topics in this issue include new publications related to astronomy education; a roster of consultants on astronomy education; a collection of course syllabuses (college level); teaching astronomy in schools,…

Wentzel, Donat G., Comp.

406

Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

2014-01-01

407

Laboratory of Astronomy An institute devoted to research, teaching and popularizing astronomy  

E-print Network

Laboratory of Astronomy An institute devoted to research, teaching and popularizing astronomy OF ASTROPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND MECHANICS #12;Introduction The Laboratory of Astronomy at the Aristotle University research, teaching and popularizing Astronomy in Northern Greece and worldwide. The late academician J

Varvoglis, Harry

408

Back to the future: science and technology directions for radio telescopes of the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early days of radio astronomy showed incredibly diverse experimentation in ways to sample the electromagnetic spectrum at radio wavelengths. In addition to obtaining adequate sensitivity by building large collection areas, a primary goal also was to achieve sufficient angular resolution to localize radio sources for multi-wavelength identification. This led to many creative designs and the invention of aperture synthesis

James M. Cordes

2009-01-01

409

Student-Faculty Astronomy Research at Swarthmore  

E-print Network

Student-Faculty Astronomy Research at Swarthmore: Or...doing astronomy research when the Sun is up) More information about the astronomy program can be found at astro.swarthmore.edu and information about Refractor is still used for public viewing... And although many important discoveries of 20th Cen. Astronomy

Cohen, David

410

University of Maryland Graduate Program in Astronomy  

E-print Network

University of Maryland Graduate Program in Astronomy: A Handbook for Graduate Students Last revised student in the Department of Astronomy, a general overview of the graduate program in Astronomy of Astronomy. Information on University regulations and deadlines can be found at the Graduate School's website

Gruner, Daniel S.

411

Cornell Astronomy Saturday November 9, 2013  

E-print Network

Frontiers of Cornell Astronomy Saturday November 9, 2013 105 Space Sciences Building Cornell University #12;Frontiers of Cornell Astronomy Frontiers of Cornell Astronomy 9:00 am Martha Haynes Welcome 9 Astronomy 3:00 pm Astro Grad Network Liquid nitrogen ice cream party Image Credits: Quasar ULAS: Gemini

Richardson Jr., James E.

412

Astronomy Major www.physicsandastronomy.pitt.edu  

E-print Network

Astronomy Major www.physicsandastronomy.pitt.edu Revised: 03/2013 The University of Pittsburgh's internationally recognized Department of Physics and Astronomy has been an important leader at the frontier, chemistry, engineering, and computer science. Required courses for the Astronomy major The BA in astronomy

Jiang, Huiqiang

413

University of Maryland Department of Astronomy  

E-print Network

University of Maryland Department of Astronomy College Park, Maryland 20742 1. INTRODUCTION This report covers astronomical activities primarily within Maryland's Department of Astronomy but also AND INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy The Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy LMA

Gruner, Daniel S.

414

Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge among Amateur Astronomers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amateur astronomers regularly serve as informal astronomy educators for their communities. This research inquires into the level of knowledge of basic astronomy concepts among amateur astronomers and examines factors related to amateur astronomy that affect that knowledge. Using the concept questions from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2,…

Berendsen, Margaret L.

2005-01-01

415

Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a barrier to student and public understanding of astronomy. Perhaps it is time to add astronomical magnitudes to the dustbin of scientific history, along with caloric, phlogiston and the ether.

Brecher, K.

2001-12-01

416

astro-ph/991123012Nov1999 Pulsar Astronomy --2000 and Beyond  

E-print Network

astro-ph/991123012Nov1999 Pulsar Astronomy -- 2000 and Beyond ASP Conference Series, Vol. 3 Ã? 108 with the Lovell 76- meter radio telescope. A bandwidth of 1 MHz was split into 32 channels with signals from each the Taylor & Cordes (1993) model of the Galactic electron distribution, is expected to be negligible

Crawford III, Fronefield

417

Astronomy and political theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

Campion, Nicholas

2011-06-01

418

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

Zirbel, E. L.

2002-12-01

419

Neutrino Astronomy with ANTARES  

E-print Network

ANTARES is a project aiming at the operation of an underwater detector at a depth of 2.5 km close to Toulon in the South of France. The detector is expected to be completed at the beginning of 2007. The main purpose of the experiment is the detection of high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical sources. Being weakly interacting, neutrinos could potentially be more powerful messengers of the universe compared to photons, but their detection is challenging. The technique employs phototubes to detect the arrival time and the amplitude of photons emitted by neutrino charged secondaries due to the Cherenkov effect. ANTARES will contribute significantly in the field of neutrino astronomy, observing the Galactic Centre with unprecedented pointing capabilities.

Teresa Montaruli; for the ANTARES Collaboration

2004-10-26

420

Gravitational wave astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

Finn, L. S.

421

Astronomy for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website takes the complex ideas of astronomy and makes them fun and easy for younger children to understand. The Planets Section highlights each planet in our solar system by answering the following questions: where is it?, how big is it?, can I see it?, how did it get its name?, what is it made of?, what's it like on the surface?, and does it have moons?. An image is included for each planet as well as planetary information for the current month with sky maps. A puzzle section has word games about astronauts, missions, and moons. The Sky Facts section gives general information about eclipses, meteors, and red shift. Links are provided for additional information.

422

Down to Earth Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Space Telescope Science Institute, this website provides access to fun and engaging learning activities about astronomy, all of which live up to the website's name. The Institute also happens to oversee the grant administration, planning, scheduling, and public outreach activities for the Hubble Space Telescope, so it makes sense that they would have some rather nice materials. While the site has a number of useful areas, perhaps the strongest element of the site is the "Amazing Space" section. Here, visitors can learn about the inner workings of telescopes, read their in-house publication "The Star Witness", and take in sights of black holes, comets, galaxies, and gravity at work. Educators should not overlook the "Teaching Tools" area of the site, as they will want to look through their classroom activities, graphic organizers, and reading guides.

2007-12-18

423

Astronomy of Nabta Playa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The repetitive orientation of megaliths, human burials, and cattle burials toward the northern regions of the sky reveals a very early symbolic connection to the heavens at Nabta Playa, Egypt. The groups of shaped stones facing north may have represented spirits of individuals who died on the trail or locally. A second piece of evidence for astronomy at Nabta Playa is the stone circle with its two sightlines toward the north and toward the rising sun at the June solstice. Finally, the five alignments of megaliths, which were oriented to bright stars in the fifth millennium, suggest an even more careful attention to the heavens. The "empty tombs" and deeply buried table rocks of the Complex Structures provide some of the greatest enigmas of Nabta Playa. The recurrent symbolism of the ceremonial centre involves issues that would have been of both practical and symbolic importance to the nomads: death, water, cattle, sun, and stars.

McK Mahille, J.; Schild, R.; Wendorf, F.; Brenmer, R.

2007-07-01

424

Le Point sur... Astronomie III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce fascicule contient l'ensemble des textes du débat sur la cosmologie du big-bang entre Joseph Silk, Jayant V. Narlikar, arbitrés par Jean-Claude Pecker. Il regroupe également des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en francais, soit en anglais et accompagnèes d'une bibliographie dètaillèe.

Pecker, J.-C.

425

Le Point sur... Astronomie IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

Pecker, J.-C.

426

Color in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

Brecher, K.

2002-05-01

427

Radio Ghosts  

E-print Network

We investigate the possibility that patches of old radio plasma (`radio ghosts') of former radio galaxies form a second distinct phase of the inter-galactic medium (IGM), not mixed with the thermal gas. The separation of this phase from the ambient gas and its resistance against eroding turbulent forces is given by magnetic fields, which are expected to be roughly in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding medium. Since patches of this plasma are largely invisible in the radio we use the term `radio ghost' to characterize their nature. Possibilities and difficulties of different detection strategies of ghosts are discussed. These involve radio emission, cosmic microwave background (CMB) and starlight Comptonization, and Faraday rotation. Re-activation of the electron population in shock waves of cosmological structure formation, which seems to lead to the cluster radio relic phenomena. We discuss the role radio ghosts can have: They are able to store relativistic particles for cosmological times, but are also able to release them under the influence of very strong turbulence. This might happen during a major merger event of clusters of galaxies. The released relativistic proton population could produce the observed radio halos of some cluster of galaxies via hadronic reactions with the background gas leading to the production of secondary electrons and positrons. Destroyed ghosts, mixed with the IGM can help to magnetize it. Finally, the strong field strength within ghosts should have a significant impact on the propagation of extragalactic high energy cosmic rays.

Torsten A. Ensslin

1999-06-11

428

Public University Courses in Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public courses in astronomy in Denmark are described. The problems of finding suitable teaching material in Danish are discussed, and an exchange of copyright-free material for translation is suggested.

H. J. F. Olsen

1986-01-01

429

Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These introductory astronomy tutorials are student-centered activities designed to promote conceptual understanding. Topics consist include understanding the celestial sphere, measuring distance by using parallax, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, and the H-R diagram.

Prather, Edward E.; Slater, Tim P.; Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brissenden, Gina; Research, Conceptual A.

2005-06-13

430

The Astronomy Olympiad italian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Astronomy Olympiad (IAO) is an internationally annual astronomy scientific-educating event, born in 1996, which includes an intellectual competition between students aged between 14 and 17. In Italy, the Olympiad is coorganized since 2007 by INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and SAiT (Società Astronomica Italiana) becoming every year a more visible and global event in the italian scenario (in 2011, INAF institutes participating to the local activities were 13). Unluckily, the Italian Committee of the Olympiads cannot involve directly nor rely on schools, since astronomy is no longer part of the scholastic programs. For this reason, the Committee needed to develop in the last years a non traditional mediatic approach that allowed in 2011 to reach a participation of more than 500 teenagers to the Olympics. We will give an overview of the Astronomy Olympics project in Italy and of this non conventional mediatic approach.

Sandrelli, S.; Giacomini, L.

2011-10-01

431

Communicating Astronomy Beyond IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Year of Astronomy 2009, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first look at the night sky through a telescope, was arguably the most successful public-outreach event in the history of science. Thousands of professional and amateur astronomers, public-information officers, writers, publishers, teachers, and informal educators from 148 countries worked tirelessly to share the wonders of astronomy with millions of people, from rural schoolchildren to the President of the United States. How to build on IYA2009 was the theme of "Communicating Astronomy with the Public 2010," a conference held in Cape Town, South Africa, in March 2010. I report some of the highlights from CAP2010 and consider the extent to which the IYA2009 helped us address global challenges in astronomy communication.

Fienberg, Richard Tresch

432

Astronomy Program for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of a teacher's experience in presenting astronomy to 12 to 15 year olds in a summer science program is presented. Observations of planets, meteors, and the sun are the major projects which are discussed. (SA)

Levy, David H.

1979-01-01

433

The Student as Scientist: Secondary Student Research Projects in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student research projects are becoming either integral or optional components of Science curricula in several countries. They provide a valuable opportunity for high school students to experience many of the joys and frustrations that make up the intellectual challenge of Science. Astronomy is one branch of Science that lends itself to student projects. Student Research Projects (SRPs) can be individual, group or collaborative between groups in other schools or countries and may involve professional mentors. Use of the Internet and remote access telescopes allow students to undertake challenging research and make worthwhile contributions to professional programs. This paper presents case studies of student projects in optical and radio astronomy from Australian and overseas schools and details both the benefits and problems faced in conducting such projects. Student responses to involvement in projects are discussed. Potential areas for future collaboration and development are highlighted together with the need for more research as to the most effective ways to implement projects and develop student skills.

Hollow, R. P.

2000-08-01

434

Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

2013-04-01

435

Teaching radio astrophysics the hand-on way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy and space sciences have always been instrumental in attracting young students to physical sciences. While the lectures/demonstrations and exhibitions pertaining to space sci-ences capture the imagination of young students, these alone are not sufficient to induce them to join scientific research. In countries like India, where a large number of students take to physical sciences for under-graduate education, complex sociological factors are key issues in translating this large body of students to potential researchers. While lectures and exhibition lead to an increase in scientific awareness for these students, these do not give a feel for scien-tific research and bridge the gap between high school/college science education and high end research. In this context, a hands-on approach to astronomy education, in science research environments or closely connected to scientific institutions, offers a promising alternative. This approach has been used in optical astronomy, where inexpensive small telescopes are available, often coupling a vast network of amateur astronomy clubs to leading astronomy institutes. The non-visual and relatively more technical nature of radio astronomy has limited a similar approach in past for connecting students to space sciences using radio waveband. The tech-nological explosion in communication industry and radio connectivity in the last decade along with an expansion in engineering education makes this possible now using a hands-on approach in teaching radio astrophysics. In this presentation, the sociological factors affecting the student choice are discussed followed by a review of the efforts to bridge the above mentioned gap by various groups in the world in the last decade with a view to enumerate the best practices in a hands-on approach. A program using this approach at National Center for Radio Astrophysics is described, where the students are exposed to simple hands-on radio astronomy experiments such as spectral line observations of neutral hydrogen from Milky Way and solar flux moni-toring. Such experiments are also useful to familiarize the students with astronomy jargon, which many times becomes an impediment in connecting them with research. This program also aims to develop low cost radio telescopes with involvement of engineering students and the presentation aims at sharing the experience in this program. Future possibilities bridging the gap between the research institutions, such as ours, and the student population at large are also discussed.

Joshi, Bhal Chandra

436

Astronomy at the Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here an energetic grass-roots outreach program run entirely by undergraduate physics and astronomy majors at James Madison University. Our "Team Awestronomy" takes Astronomy out to the Market, literally. Once a month, for eight months during the academic year, the group sets up a “scientific corner” at the Harrisonburg Farmers Market, offering people the chance to meet with astrophysicists (in the making) and discuss science. Our group members wear t-shirts with simple messages like “Ask me about the Sun,” “...about Black Holes and Mega-Masers” or “...about Big Bang” that initiate the dialog. We help our audience with observations of solar activity through our department’s Coronado telescope equipped with a safe H-alpha filter, sunspotters, and the incredibly simple yet durable and accurate handheld (Project Star) spectrometers, and invite them to the free Saturday Planetarium shows and the star parties hosted by our department on the JMU campus. The team is also prepared with a suite of fun activities aimed particularly at K-5 kids, e.g., building (and eating, after investigating out-gassing properties of) ”dirty comets,” making craters (in pans with flour or sand) and testing how different types of impactors (pebbles, ping-pong balls or even crumpled aluminum foil) affect crater formation, and demonstrations of shock wave created in supernova explosions. The main goals of this outreach program are: 1) to illustrate to people of all ages that science is a fun, creative, and exciting process; 2) to empower people to be curious and to ask questions; 3) to demonstrate that science is a viable career path chosen by many diverse individuals; and 4) to nurture a sense of wonder and awe for the Universe. While this outreach program is aimed at a very general audience, of an extremely wide range, we expect to produce a significant impact on K-12 students in general and in particular on the home-schooled kids. There is a relatively high fraction 20%) of home-schooled children in Harrisonburg/Rockingham County. We present a variety of methods by which we assess the success and impact of this program to the community.

Roten, Robert; Constantin, A.; Christensen, E.; Dick, E.; Lapolla, J.; Nutter, A.; Corcoran, J.; DiDomenico, N.; Eskridge, B.; Saikin, A.

2014-01-01

437

The Concise Knowledge Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Section I. History Agnes M. Clerke: 1. From Hipparchus to Laplace; 2. A century of progress; Section II. Geometrical Astronomy and Astronomical Instruments A. Fowler: 1. The Earth and its rotation; 2. The Earth's revolution round the Sun; 3. How the positions of the heavenly bodies are defined; 4. The Earth's orbit; 5. Mean solar time; 6. The movements of the Moon; 7. Movements of planets, satellites, and comets; 8. Eclipses and occultations; 9. How to find our situation on the Earth; 10. The exact size and shape of the earth; 11. The distances and dimensions of the heavenly bodies; 12. The masses of celestial bodies; 13. Gravitational effects of Sun and moon upon the Earth; 14. Instrumental measurement of angles and time; 15. Telescopes; 16. Instruments of precision; 17. Astrophysical instruments; Section III. The Solar System Agnes M. Clerke: 1. The solar system as a whole; 2. The Sun; 3. The Sun's surroundings; 4. The interior planets; 5. The Earth and Moon; 6. The planet Mars; 7. The asteroids; 8. The planet Jupiter; 9. The Saturnian system; 10. Uranus and Neptune; 11. Famous comets; 12. Nature and origin of comets; 13. Meteorites and shooting stars; Section IV. The Sidereal Heavens J.E. Gore: 1. The stars and constellations; 2. Double, multiple, and coloured stars; 3. The distances and motions of the stars; 4. Binary stars; 5. Variable and temporary stars; 6. Clusters and nebulae; 7. The construction of the heavens; Index.

Clerke, Agnes Mary; Fowler, Alfred; Ellard Gore, John

2011-01-01

438

Edible Astronomy Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2007-12-01

439

Neptune's non-thermal radio emissions - Phenomenology and source locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the inbound and the outbound leg of Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune, the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment aboard the spacecraft detected short radio bursts at frequencies within the range of about 500-1300 kHz, and broad-banded smoothly varying emission patterns within the frequency range from about 40-800 kHz. Both emissions can be described in terms of a period of

Gerald K. F. Rabl; H.-P. Ladreiter; Helmut O. Rucker; Michael L. Kaiser

1992-01-01

440

Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) From Extra-High-Voltage (EHV) Transmission Lines  

E-print Network

on AM radio. Today audible noise is of greater concern because many states, counties, and municipalities radio astronomy (in the United States, at least) in 1984 when the El Paso Electric Company proposed for the task as the Chief High Voltage Phenomena Engineer of BPA's Division of Laboratories with many years

Ellingson, Steven W.

441

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Scattering of pulsar radio emission (Kuz'min+, 2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements were carried out from 2003 to 2005 at 111, 60, and 40MHz on the Large Phased Array and DKR radio telescopes of the PushchinoRadio Astronomy Observatory (Astr o Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute). (2 data files).

Kuz'min, A. D.; Losovskii, B. Ya.; Lapaev, K. A.

2008-03-01

442

Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Radio Telescopes" starts with a brief historical introduction from Jansky's1931 discovery of radio emission from the Milky Way through the development ofradio telescope dishes and arrays to aperture synthesis imaging. It includessufficient basics of electromagnetic radiation to provide some understanding of thedesign and operation of radio telescopes. The criteria such as frequencyrange, sensitivity, survey speed, angular resolution, and field of view thatdetermine the design of radio telescopes are introduced. Because it is soeasy to manipulate the electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies, radiotelescopes have evolved into many different forms, sometimes with "wire"structures tuned to specific wavelengths, which look very different from anykind of classical telescope. To assist astronomers more familiar with otherwavelength domains, the appendix A.1. includes a comparison of radioand optical terminology. Some of the different types of radio telescopesincluding the filled aperture dishes, electronically steered phased arrays, andaperture synthesis radio telescopes are discussed, and there is a sectioncomparing the differences between dishes and arrays. Some of the morerecent developments including hierarchical beam forming, phased arrayfeeds, mosaicing, rotation measure synthesis, digital receivers, and longbaseline interferometers are included. The problem of increasing radiofrequency interference is discussed, and some possible mitigation strategies areoutlined.

Ekers, Ron; Wilson, Thomas L.

443

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

time service on the 36 foot millimeter wave telescope in Tucson, Arizona. Description and operation as a steering diode. When the noise tube fires, current flaws through K 1 contacts, meter M, and K2 coil

Groppi, Christopher

444

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

increased. Such a development may be seen in Figure 1. As a result, the telescope can only steer the beam NO. 264 ANALYSIS OF AN ARRAY FEED DESIGN FOR THE 300 FT TELESCOPE PETER D. LAWSON (1986 SUMMER STUDENT) NOVEMBER 1986 NUMBER OF COPIES: 150 #12;ANALYSIS OF AN ARRAY FEED DESIGN FOR THE 300-FT TELESCOPE

Groppi, Christopher

445

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virgini.  

E-print Network

the fortran code, scan number, and the first data word are recorded. This data word represents VFC pulses from the desired level and range of the pulse rate from the VFC's. A two digit octal display is driven by the AGC from the VFC. The instantaneous rate must remain between 0 and 10 kHz if maximum accuracy

Groppi, Christopher

446

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

on the 1 V range > 200 mV, say) the 10 V or 100 V ranges on the VFC may be used, as appropriate. #12;-2 The output pulses from the VFC are passed to a Beckman counter. This counter has been modified to g ive or print-out. Operating Ii3structions Switch on power for VFC, counter punch and scanner power supplies

Groppi, Christopher

447

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

) and (A B) DC Amplifiers 3.4 Correlator Gain DC Amplifier - 3.5 VFC Input Module - - - - - - - - - 3. 6 Adjustments - - 6.2 Total Power Module Adjustments 6.3 Correlator Adjustments - - - - 6.4 VFC Input Module

Groppi, Christopher

448

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank. West Vireirda  

E-print Network

the output stages from overloading. Another difficulty is the input and output circuits. The transformers broadband in and output circuits. The frequency response obtained is shown Figure 4. With 2 db ripple be a coupling problem since it is difficult to design coupling circuits for such a wide frequency range. Until

Groppi, Christopher

449

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

........................................................ ... 1 Input Circuits ............. · · · · ..... · · · · · · · · · · ..... · OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 1 Single ................................................... IF Amplifier and Overload Detector and Output Amplifier ........... Single Sideband Converter- tions are set or monitored remotely from the digital system. Input Circuits A block diagram showing one

Groppi, Christopher

450

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

. Linear motors drive the pens so that static overloads driving the pens into the stops will not damage for logging with the various scientific data for later use. Circuit Description The circuit comprises the basic functions as shown in the ' block diagram. #12;41"11111101111fitilf7 .111 `-,r 3 The circuit

Groppi, Christopher

451

AUTHOR (3): R. J. Howard NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY 088ERVATORY  

E-print Network

millimeters in order to achieve clean square way chopping of the beam with a small chopper wheel. The second) parabola. Tbe coupli_ efficiency to the hot and cold loads was assumed to be 1.0. Each set of measurements consisted of hot and cold calibration followed by sky temperature measurements at 1.0, #12;1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 2

Groppi, Christopher

452

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

and hot loads at 225 GHz may not function effectively at 690 GHz, there is suitable material readily available for this purpose. The physical temperatures of the reference and hot loads may need to be adjusted should be redesigned and improvements should be made to the chopper wheel synchronization technique

Groppi, Christopher

453

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

*, 'THE PROGRAM DETERMINES THE EFFECTIVE WIDTH AND' PRINT *, 'DIELECTRIC CONSTANT AND LOW FREQUENCY' PRINT * 1 ' PRINT *, 'THE USER ENTERS THE RELATIVE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT, Er' PRINT * 1 'THE DIELECTRIC FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE IS ', :ZOL,' ohms' PRINT *, PRINT * 1 ' AND THE EFFECTIVE DIELECTRIC

Groppi, Christopher

454

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

to make five separate 24 V batteries. The five batteries are charged independently and their outputs No. 109 BATTERY PACK FOR HEWLETT-PACKARD 5065A RUBIDIUM FREQUENCY STANDARD Michael Balister OCTOBER 1971 NUMBER OF COPIES: 150 #12;BATTERY PACK FOR HEWLETT-PACKARD 5065A RUBIDIUM FREQUENCY STANDARD

Groppi, Christopher

455

Newman-Penrose Stokes fields for radio astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The spin weighted spherical harmonic (SWSH) description of angular functions is typically associated with the Newman-Penrose (NP) null tetrad formalism. Recently, the SWSH description, but not the NP formalism, has been used in the study of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Here we relate this application of SWSHs to a description of electromagnetic radiation and polarization in the NP formalism. In particular, we introduce NP Stokes fields that are the NP equivalent of the Stokes parameters. In addition to giving a more coherent foundation for the recent cosmological SWSH application, the NP formalism aids in the computation of the Lorentz transformation properties of polarization.

Newman, Ezra T.; Price, Richard H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville, Texas 78520 (United States)

2010-10-15

456

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, W ES  

E-print Network

REPORT NO, 290 INFRARED FILTERS FOR CRYOGENIC RECEIVERS JAMES W. LAMB NUMBER OF COPIES: 150 #12;James W Lamb 23 April ,1992 INFRARED FILTERS FOR CRYOGENIC RECEIVERS Introduction To reduce the heat loading as possible the infrared radiation from ambient needs to be blocked. This may be done using a filter which

Groppi, Christopher

457

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

It is known that water vapor causes phase delays to microwave signals propa- gating through it. These effects No. 89 GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE WATER VAPOR RECEIVER James L. Dolan JANUARY 1970 NUMBER OF COPIES: 100 #12;GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE WATER VAPOR

Groppi, Christopher

458

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

No. 156 140-FT FOCUS/POLARIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM GEORGE H. PATTON APRIL 1975 NUMBER OF COPIES: 150/POLARIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM George H. Patton TABLE OF CONTENTS PagePage I. Introduction II. General Description/POLARIZATION CONTROL SYSTEM George H. Patton I. Introduction This report describes the system used to control the focus

Groppi, Christopher

459

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESV I LLE) VI RG NIA  

E-print Network

(pumping) frequency. When a small signal voltage is Included in the impressed voltage waveform is integrated into the mixer block to minimize waveguide losses. The mixer has been tested with L.O. frequencies from 99 to 115 GHz and I F. 4 . 5 to 5.0 GHz. The measured conversion loss and noise temperature

Groppi, Christopher

460

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK) WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

or snow, was 11.5°C for the temperature difference LT a across the polar shaft (see Figure 2b), 8.8°C longer in sunshine than under #12;2 snow, thus tilting the polar axis by 21 arcsec peak-to-peak. The ptp by shielding polar shaft and southern platform, and by blowing ambient air through the yoke arms. The influence

Groppi, Christopher

461

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

NO. 175 Title: A Dual Axis Control Servo System for Feed Positioning Author(s): Kamaljeet Singh Saini P. Lilie P. Napier P. Rhodes R. Sramek R. Weimer (4-15-96) #12;A dual axis control servo system this position feedback as explained later. (The card provides a PID control signal, though the encoder provides

Groppi, Christopher

462

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

± 0.18 dB ± 0.05 dB -65 dBm 4.2 nsec maximum None detectable to -90 dBm level Our tests indicate which could block the J-T valve if left without attendance. The superconducting maser magnet is quite was a little over 4.2 GHz. This was accomplished by adjusting the magnet current as well as the pump

Groppi, Christopher

463

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia 24944  

E-print Network

megahertz was chosen as the clock frequency to facilitate the use of 5 MHz from the hydrogen maser construction by careful selection of capacitors for the R-C networks. After a nominally correct capacitor combination was found, other capacitors of the same value were tried until the de- sired accuracy was achieved

Groppi, Christopher

464

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Electronics Division Technical Note No. 219  

E-print Network

.Hildebrandt (Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany, 79 GHz Project Lead) and Alan Rogers (Haystack Observatory, M.I.T.) December, they are expected to #12;2 be placed within a vehicle's bumper. The transmitters were first located at a nearby car

Groppi, Christopher

465

Crosscorrelation Spectropolarimetry In Single-Dish Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Modern digital correlators permit the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters using auto and crosscorrelation. We briefly outline the fundamental requirements and some practical details of performing such measurements and refer to two additional papers that provide overview and cover calibration issues in detail.

Carl Heiles

2001-07-18

466

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

-cycle refrigerator is used to remove the heat. Thus, the cryogenic system is a crucial element governing a receiver for the vacuum chamber walls and internal components, fabrication techniques, cleaning procedures and evacuation procedures are important considerations affecting reliability. The purpose of these guidelines is to 3 #12

Groppi, Christopher

467

An Efficient Linear-array Imager for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale surveys are essential means to leapfrog astronomical understanding. Yet, Galaxy-wide surveys at millimetre wavelengths are rare and have not benefited much from multiple receivers that provide large instantaneous field of view. If one were to have a large number of millimetre wave receivers, how best to deploy them to maximize survey speed to measure both point and smoothly distributed emission? In this paper, we present a new cross telescope configuration, Efficient Linear-array Imager, and demonstrate that it provides an interesting alternate solution. As an interferometer element, it lends itself for close packing and thereby blends short and long spacing visibilities naturally, improving imaging.

Balasubramanyam, Ramesh

2014-11-01

468

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

: SOLUTE: PRESSURE mm 4 Weather Station The remote weather station monitoring panel located Hallman Introduction This Electronics Division internal report describes a new remote weather station-end box monitoring system and power supplies (upper half, the front-end box rotator (lower middle

Groppi, Christopher

469

National Radio Astronomy Observatory ELECTRONICS DIVISION TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 203  

E-print Network

.2.2 4.2 K to 77 K heat shields 19 2.3 Conduction heat loading through waveguides 19 2.3.1 Pump waveguide with this system. To follow is a summary of the relevant heat loading equations which may be of use in other 15 K systems and the 4 K J-T loop. 1. SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS 1.1 Radiation heat transfer The equations

Groppi, Christopher

470

A 492 GHz cooled Schottky receiver for radio-astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed a 492 GHz cooled GaAs Schottky receiver driven by a solid state local oscillator with a DSB noise temperature of 550 K measured at the telescope. The receiver-bandwidth is approx. equal to 1.0 GHz. Quasi-optical mirrors focus the sky and local oscillator radiation into the mixer. Stability analysis via the Allan variance method shows that the total system including a 1 GHz bandwidth acousto-optical spectrometer built in Cologne allows integration times up to 100 sec per half switching cycle. We successfully used the receiver at the KOSMA 3 m telescope on Gornergrat (3150m) located in the central Swiss Alps near Zermatt during January-February 1992 for observations of the 492 GHz, (CI) (3)P1 to (3)P0 fine structure line in several galactic sources. These observations confirm that Gornergrat is an excellent winter submillimeter site in accordance with previous predictions based on the atmospheric opacity from KOSMA 345 GHz measurements.

Hernichel, J.; Schieder, R.; Stutzki, J.; Vowinkel, B.; Winnewisser, G.; Zimmermann, Peter

1992-01-01

471

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-print Network

) and switches from the antenna to a comparison termination (load switched). Synchronous detector number 1 power monitor front panel and rear pan.el, This allows total power at the rear panel only to be backed

Groppi, Christopher

472

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GREEN BANK, WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

.......................... 2) Receiver Front Panel Photograph ........... 3) Model of Switched Radiometer 5 4) IF Amplifier are mounted at the focal point of the antenna in use. A block diagram of the receiver is shown in Figure 1 is unaffected when the front-end switch is in the antenna position. The gain modulation factor, a , can

Groppi, Christopher