Sample records for radio wave scintillations

  1. Modeling radio scattering and scintillation observations of the inner solar wind using oblique Alfvén\\/ion cyclotron waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Harmon; William A. Coles

    2005-01-01

    Radio scattering and scintillation observations of the near-Sun solar wind are shown to be dominated by effects associated with obliquely propagating Alfvén\\/ion cyclotron waves. We base this on a modeling of structure functions from angular\\/spectral broadening observations and velocity measurements from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. A simple damped-WKB model was found inadequate, as Landau damping erodes the spectrum faster than

  2. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of the scintillation measurements, and to highlight some of the scientific results obtained to date. Special emphasis is placed on comparing the remote sensing features of planetary and terrestrial scintillation measurements, and on contrasting spacecraft and natural radio source scintillation measurements. I will first discuss planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and then the solar wind.

  3. Using Radio Transmitter to Simulate Amplitude Scintillation on Radio Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, V.; Ilayian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid fluctuation of radio-frequency signal phase and/or amplitude that is generated as a signal passing through the ionosphere is commonly referred to as ionospheric scintillation. Scintillation occurs as radio frequency signals pass through a field of plasma bubbles or irregularities that can lead to signal power fading, phase cycle slips, poor GPS signals and unusable information. The goal of this research is to use radio wave transmission to simulate scintillation under controlled conditions in order examine the performance of different GPS receivers and their ability to suppress the scintillation. The information gained from the VHF (Very High Frequency) transmitter would serve as a diagnostic tool to better understand the environmental conditions that are causing these irregularities. This system could then be used as a baseline design to be upgraded by NASA engineers to 1.2 GHz - 1.5 GHz for testing out the performance of different GPS receivers. The methodology of VHF testing could be translated to higher frequencies, such as CW (Continuous Wave), which could enhance our understanding of this phenomenon.

  4. Some new results on the statistics of radio wave scintillation. I - Empirical evidence for Gaussian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Livingston, R. C.; Whitney, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of ionospheric scintillation data which shows that the underlying statistical structure of the signal can be accurately modeled by the additive complex Gaussian perturbation predicted by the Born approximation in conjunction with an application of the central limit theorem. By making use of this fact, it is possible to estimate the in-phase, phase quadrature, and cophased scattered power by curve fitting to measured intensity histograms. By using this procedure, it is found that typically more than 80% of the scattered power is in phase quadrature with the undeviated signal component. Thus, the signal is modeled by a Gaussian, but highly non-Rician process. From simultaneous UHF and VHF data, only a weak dependence of this statistical structure on changes in the Fresnel radius is deduced. The signal variance is found to have a nonquadratic wavelength dependence. It is hypothesized that this latter effect is a subtle manifestation of locally homogeneous irregularity structures, a mathematical model proposed by Kolmogorov (1941) in his early studies of incompressible fluid turbulence.

  5. MEXART Measurements of Radio Sources. Interplanetary Scintillation Array in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Carrillo, A.; Andrade, E.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Praveenkumar, A.; Sankarasubramanian, G.; Sureshkumar, S.; Sierra, P.; Vazquez, S.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64x64 array of full-wave dipoles operating at 139.65 MHz. The primary aim of the array is to perform Interplanetary Scintillations (IPS) observations of radio sources to track large-scale solar wind perturbations within 1~AU. We describe the initial measurements of radio sources and the advances in the calibration of the antenna.

  6. A decametric wavelength radio telescope for interplanetary scintillation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1975-01-01

    A phased array, electrically steerable radio telescope (with a total collecting area of 18 acres), constructed for the purpose of remotely sensing electron density irregularity structure in the solar wind, is presented. The radio telescope is able to locate, map, and track large scale features of the solar wind, such as streams and blast waves, by monitoring a large grid of natural radio sources subject to rapid intensity fluctuation (interplanetary scintillation) caused by the irregularity structure. Observations verify the performance of the array, the receiver, and the scintillation signal processing circuitry of the telescope.

  7. The Bubbler and Radio Scintillation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about the formation of plasma bubbles in Earth's ionosphere. Plasma bubbles cause stars to twinkle and radio signals from satellites to distort. Learners will build a model ionosphere in order to demonstrate and understand this process. This activity requires special materials including a laser pointer and silicon-based glue.

  8. Radio scintillation of gamma-ray-burst afterglows

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Goodman

    1997-06-09

    Stars twinkle to the eye through atmospheric turbulence, but planets, because of their larger angular size, do not. Similarly, scintillation due to the local interstellar medium will modulate the radio flux of gamma-ray-burst afterglows and may permit indirect measurements of their angular sizes. The amplitude of refractive scintillation is of order ten percent at ten gigahertz unless the source size is much larger than the expected size, of order ten microarcseconds. Diffractive scintillation is marginally possible, depending sensitively on the source size, observing frequency, and scattering measure of the interstellar medium.

  9. Multiple phase screen modeling of ionospheric scintillation along radio occultation raypaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Groves, Keith M.; Caton, Ronald G.; Rino, Charles L.; Straus, Paul R.

    2011-12-01

    We present the Radio Occultation Scintillation Simulator (ROSS), which uses the multiple phase screen method (MPS) to simulate the forward scatter of radio waves by irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere during radio occultation experiments. ROSS simulates propagation through equatorial plasma bubbles which are modeled as homogeneous electron density fluctuations modulated by a Chapman profile in altitude and a Gaussian window in the magnetic east-west direction. We adjust the parameters of the density model using electron density profiles derived from the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar (9.4°N, 167.5°E, 4.3° north dip), and space-to-ground observations of scintillation using VHF and GPS receivers that are colocated with the radar. We compare the simulated occultation scintillation to observations of scintillation from the CORISS instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite during a radio occultation occurring near ALTAIR on 21 April 2009. The ratio of MPS predicted S4 to CORISS observed S4 throughout the F region altitudes of 240-350 km ranged between 0.86 and 1.14.

  10. Alfven Wave Effects in Radio Scattering Observations of the Inner Solar Wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Harmon

    2003-01-01

    Microwave radio scattering and scintillation observations reveal a variety of distinctive characteristics in the density fluctuation spectrum and scintillation velocity field of the solar wind inside 25 solar radii. Any plasma wave or turbulence model of the corona and solar wind must be consistent with these radio results as well as with in situ spacecraft measurements outside 60 solar radii.

  11. Elements of Radio Waves

    E-print Network

    Frank G. Borg; Ismo Hakala; Jukka Määttälä

    2007-12-24

    We present a summary of the basic properties of the radio wave generation, propagation and reception, with a special attention to the gigahertz bandwidth region which is of interest for wireless sensor networks. We also present some measurement results which use the so-called RSSI indicator in order to track how the field strength varies with position and distance of the transceivers. We hope the paper may be useful to anyone who looks for a quick review of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory with application to antennas.

  12. Outflow structure of the quiet sun corona probed by spacecraft radio scintillations in strong scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 484-8601 (Japan); Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471, Japan. (Japan); Miyamoto, Mayu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Häusler, Bernd [Institut für Raumfahrttechnik, Universität der Bundeswehr München, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Pätzold, Martin [Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung, Department Planetenforschung, Universität zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Köln (Germany); Nabatov, Alexander [The Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Chervonoprapornaya, Strasse 4, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Yaji, Kentaro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamada, Manabu, E-mail: imamura.takeshi@jaxa.jp [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1, Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan)

    2014-06-20

    Radio scintillation observations have been unable to probe flow speeds in the low corona where the scattering of radio waves is exceedingly strong. Here we estimate outflow speeds continuously from the vicinity of the Sun to the outer corona (heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 solar radii) by applying the strong scattering theory to radio scintillations for the first time, using the Akatsuki spacecraft as the radio source. Small, nonzero outflow speeds were observed over a wide latitudinal range in the quiet-Sun low corona, suggesting that the supply of plasma from closed loops to the solar wind occurs over an extended area. The existence of power-law density fluctuations down to the scale of 100 m was suggested, which is indicative of well-developed turbulence which can play a key role in heating the corona. At higher altitudes, a rapid acceleration typical of radial open fields is observed, and the temperatures derived from the speed profile show a distinct maximum in the outer corona. This study opened up a possibility of observing detailed flow structures near the Sun from a vast amount of existing interplanetary scintillation data.

  13. Scintillation of spacecraft radio signals on the interplanetary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Bocanegra, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Observations of planetary spacecraft radio signals within the solar system give a unique opportunity to study the temporal and spatial behaviour of the signal's phase fluctuations caused by its propagation through the interplanetary plasma and the Earth's ionosphere. The phase scintillation of the telemetry signal of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Venus Express (VEX) and Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft was observed at X-band with a number of radio telescopes of the European VLBI Network (EVN) in the period 2008-15, within the scope of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) project. It was found that the phase scintillation spectra follow a Kolmogorov distribution with nearly constant spectral index of -2.42 for a full range of Venus orbital phases, from superior to inferior conjunctions and back. The solar wind plasma dominates the scintillation index and Doppler noise along the orbit from superior conjunction to the greatest elongation. Here, I will present the latest results of these observations, while approaching the inferior conjunction, where the Earth ionosphere starts to dominate, and also at the superior conjunction. Empirical coefficients for both contributions were estimated and compared for VEX and MEX.

  14. THE ORIGIN OF RADIO SCINTILLATION IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM Jeffrey L. Linsky,1

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    three quasar radio sources (B1257À326, B1519À273, and J1819+385) that show large-amplitude in- traday the edges of partially ionized warm interstellar clouds where two or more clouds may interact. From the gas OF FAST RADIO SCINTILLATION Interstellar scintillation (ISS) is the apparent variation in flux density

  15. INTERPLANETARY SCINTILLATION RADIO SOURCES DETECTED WITH THE MEXICAN ARRAY RADIO TELESCOPE (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia Ambriz, J. C.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Andrade-Mascote, E.; Carrillo-Vargas, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) has an antenna composed by 4096 full-wavelength dipoles, covering about 9800 square meters. The instrument is primary devoted to carry out observations of compact stelar radio sources presenting Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) at 140 MHz. The IPS technique is a very useful tool to perform observations of large-scale solar wind density disturbances in the inner heliosphere at heliocentric ranges where no other instruments can cover. These observations can help to track the evolution of CMEs and shocks in the interplanetary medium. We present the first catalog of IPS sources detected with the MEXART. We show the power spectrum analysis to obtain information of solar wind velocity and density.

  16. H Produced Ionospheric Electron Density Irregularities Diagnosed by UHF Radio Star Scintillations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Alfred

    HF-waves incident on an overdense (HF-frequency < penetration frequency) ionosphere are known to produce large scale electron density irregularities. It is predicted that similar irregularities are formed during underdense HF-modification. The propagation of UHF radio waves originating from radio stars will be affected by such irregularities in the ionosphere. The interest in a scintillation experiment is twofold. One may obtain information on the electron density irregularies and one may learn about the propagation of radio waves through such a perturbed medium. A thin screen (diffractive) theory is derived which allows to draw conclusions on the electron density irregularities from the intensity fluctuations measured on the ground if the phase perturbations are much less than one radian. Since radio stars suitable for scintillation measurements at UHF are very faint an antenna with a large collection area is required. The observations reported in this dissertation were performed with the 300m diameter spherical reflector of the Arecibo Observatory. Successful observations were performed at 430 MHz and at 1400 MHz. Intensity fluctuations at such high frequencies measured with a large antenna suffer severe filtering in the thin phase screen regime. The theory presented in this dissertation includes these filtering effects. Many observations agree with the predictions of that theory. Some observations indicate that refraction effects have to be included to explain the data. HF-induced electron density irregularities were only observed during overdense heating. Several attempts to detect irregularities at an observing frequency of 430 MHz during underdense heating (HF-frequencies 1.1 to 2 times penetration frequency) failed. All the measurements reported in this dissertation are therefore during overdense heating except for the measurement on the 22 September 1980 whichs shows a transition from underdense to overdense HF-modification. Attempts were made to measure electron density irregularities at an observing frequency of 2380 MHz due to overdense heating but the fluctuations were too weak to be discriminated against instrumental uncertainties. The formation time for the irregularities after the HF-power was turned on was (TURN)25 seconds. Their lifetime after the HF-power was turned off was on the order of hours. The electron density perturbations appear to exceed 1% at times. One observation on 11/12 September 1980 reveals that the density perturbation actually corresponds to a depletion.

  17. Gas scintillation drift chambers with wave shifter fiber readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Weiss, Steven; Parsons, Ann; Lin, Robert P.; Smith, Garth

    1988-01-01

    Results for a prototype xenon gas scintillation drift chamber are presented. Its operation is discussed using two types of light detection schemes: one based on an Anger camera geometry and one based on an array of wave-shifting light fibers. The results are judged to demonstrate the instrument's potential.

  18. Gas scintillation drift chambers with wave shifter fiber readout

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Parsons, A.; Lin, R.P.; Smith, G.

    1988-02-01

    The authors present results from their prototype xenon gas scintillation drift chamber. They discuss its operation with two types of light detection schemes: one based on a Anger camera geometry and one based on an array of wave shifting light fibers. The results demonstrate some of the instruments's tremendous potential.

  19. Theory of thin screen scintillations for a spherical wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A thin screen scintillation theory for a spherical wave is presented under the 'quasi-optical' approximation. We calculate the 'scattering angle', the 'observed angle', the intensity correlation function and the temporal pulse broadening for the random wave. It is found that as the wave propagates outward away from the phase screen, the correlation scale of the intensity fluctuation increases linearly while the 'observed angle' decreases linearly. The calculations are carried out for both Gaussian and power-law spectra of the turbulent medium.

  20. Solar wind interaction with the ionosphere of Venus inferred from radio scintillation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, R.; Sjogren, W.L.; Kliore, A.J. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Luhmann, J.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Brace, L.H. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    This paper presents the first S-band (2.3 GHz) radio scintillations observed in the ionosphere of Venus and discovered when the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft traversed the ionosphere of Venus. In situ plasma measurements as well as propagation calculations confirm that the scintillations are caused by electron density irregularities in the topside ionosphere of Venus below the ionopause. While these topside plasma irregularities have not been studied before, simultaneous magnetic field measurements presented here reveal that they are associated with the penetration of large-scale magnetic fields in the ionosphere. Previous studies based on extensive magnetic field measurements have shown that the presence of large-scale magnetic fields occurs in the subsolar region when the solar wind dynamic pressure exceeds the ionospheric plasma pressure. As with the large-scale magnetic fields, the disturbed plasma and resulting scintillations are therefore a manifestation of high-dynamic solar wind interaction with the ionosphere. Since the scintillations only occur in the subsolar region of Venus, the global morphology of ionospheric scintillations at Venus is different from that of the terrestrial ionosphere, where scintillations are observed in both polar and equatorial regions, with peaks occurring during nighttime. This difference apparently stems from the fact that Venus is not a magnetic planet. The authors also demonstrate that the disturbed plasma produced by the high-dynamic solar wind interaction can be remotely sensed by scintillations during radio occultation measurements, that is, when the spacecraft is outside the ionosphere.

  1. Simulating Ionosphere-Induced Scintillation for Testing GPS Receiver Phase Tracking Loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd E. Humphreys; Mark L. Psiaki; Joanna C. Hinks; Brady O'Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for simulating equatorial transionospheric radio wave scintillation. The model can be used to test Global Positioning System phase tracking loops for scintillation robustness because it captures the scintillation properties that affect such loops. In the model, scintillation amplitude is assumed to follow a Rice distribution, and the spectrum of the rapidly-varying component of complex scintillation

  2. Magellan radio occultation measurements of atmospheric waves on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, David P.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus on three consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft in October 1991. Each occultation occurred over the same topography (67 deg N, 127 deg E) and at the same local time (22 hr 5 min), but the data are sensitive to zonal variations because the atmosphere rotates significantly during one orbit. Through comparisons between observations and predictions of standard wave theory, we have demonstrated that small-scale oscillations in retrieved temperature profiles as well as scintillations in received signal intensity are caused by a spectrum of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. There is a strong similarity between the intensity scintillations observed here and previous measurements, which pertain to a wide range of locations and experiment dates. This implies that the same basic phenomenon underlies all the observations and hence that gravity waves are a persistent, global feature of Venus' atmosphere. We obtained a fairly complete characterization of a gravity wave that appears above the middle cloud in temperature measurements on all three orbits. The amplitude and vertical wavelength are about 4 K and 2.5 km respectively, at 65 km. A model for radiative damping implies that the wave intrinsic frequency is approximately 2 x 10(exp 4) rad/sec, the corresponding ratio between horizontal and vertical wavelengths is approximately 100. The wave is nearly stationary relative to the surface or the Sun. Radiative attenuation limits the wave amplitude at altitudes above approximately 65 km, leading to wave drag on the mean zonal winds of about +0.4 m/sec per day (eastward). The sign, magnitude, and location of this forcing suggest a possible role in explaining the decrease with height in the zonal wind speed that is believed to occur above the cloud tops. Temperature oscillations with larger vertical wavelengths (5-10 km) were also observed on all three orbits, but we are able unable to interpret these unambiguously.

  3. The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART). An Interplanetary Scintillation Array in Mexico in the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.; et al.

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64x64 (4096) full wavelength dipole antenna array, operating at 140 MHz, occupying 9,500 square meters (70 m x 140 m) to carry out interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. This is a dedicated radio array for IPS observations located in the state of Michoacan (350 km north-west from Mexico City, lat. 19° 48' N, long. 101° 41' W and 1964 m above sea level). The aim of this instrument is to track large-sclae solar wind disturbances propagating between the Sun and the Earth using the Interplanetary scintillation technique. We report the system testings, radio source measurements and the collaboration plans for the International Heliophysical Year 2007.

  4. Radio scintillation variations of the circumsolar plasma over the course of the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotova, N. A.; Korelov, O. A.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Sieber, W.; Guesten, R.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation observations of the solar wind acceleration region (solar elongation: R approximately 4-30 R(solar mass)) have been performed at the Effelsberg and Pushino telescopes using natural radio sources. The water maser source IRC-20431 was observed at the wavelength lambda = 1.35 cm in a series of nine scintillation experiments performed during the December solar occultations from 1981 to 1994. Dramatic changes in the radial dependence of the scintillation index m(R) were recorded over the course of the 11-year solar cycle. Decidedly reduced scattering, attributed to a pronounced heliolatitude effect, was observed at the closest solar approach distances in the years around solar activity minimum. The anisotropy of the solar scattering region slowly evolves to a spherically symmetric pattern in the years of high solar activity as more intensive scattering returns to the polar latitudes.

  5. Drift of the ionosphere at high latitude determined from radio star scintillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Harang

    1963-01-01

    Drift measurements of the irregularities causing scintillations have been made using the Mitra method of similar fades at the Arctic station Tromsö (70°N) lying close to the auroral zone. The radio noise emission 6rom the Cassiopeia source on 45 Mc\\/s has been recorded simultaneously at three points lying in the corners of a right-angled triangle with bases equal to 600

  6. CONSTRAINING THE VELA PULSAR'S RADIO EMISSION REGION USING NYQUIST-LIMITED SCINTILLATION STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M. D.; Gwinn, C. R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Demorest, P., E-mail: michaeltdh@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: cgwinn@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: pdemores@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22093 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Using a novel technique, we achieve {approx}100 picoarcsec resolution and set an upper bound of less than 4 km for the characteristic size of the Vela pulsar's emission region. Specifically, we analyze flux-density statistics of the Vela pulsar at 760 MHz. Because the pulsar exhibits strong diffractive scintillation, these statistics convey information about the spatial extent of the radio emission region. We measure both a characteristic size of the emission region and the emission sizes for individual pulses. Our results imply that the radio emission altitude for the Vela pulsar at this frequency is less than 340 km.

  7. The Unified Radio and Plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J. L.; Caldwell, J.; Canu, P.; De Conchy, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Fainberg, J.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment are twofold: (1) the determination of the direction, angular size, and polarization of radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere and the Jovian magnetosphere and (2) the detailed study of local wave phenomena, which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. A brief discussion of the scientific goals of the experiment is followed by a comprehensive description of the instrument. The URAP sensors consist of a 72.5 m electric field antenna in the spin plane, a 7.5-m electric field monopole along the spin axis of a pair of orthogonal search coil magnetic antennas. The various receivers, designed to encompass specific needs of the investigation, cover the frequency range from dc to 1 MHz. A relaxation sounder provides very accurate electron density measurements. Radio and plasma wave observations are shown to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the URAP instruments: radio observations include solar bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and Jovian bursts; plasma waves include Langmuir waves, ion acousticlike noise, and whistlers.

  8. Eddy diffusion coefficient for the atmosphere of Venus from radio scintillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient of the Venus atmosphere in the region of turbulence near 60 km on the basis of radio scintillations observed during radio occultation by the atmosphere. The structure constant estimated from Pioneer Venus orbit 18 entrance radio occultation measurements is used, under the assumption that the turbulence is generated by wind-shear, to derive a value of 40,000 sq cm/sec for the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient, together with an energy dissipation rate of 20 sq cm/sec and a temperature fluctuation dissipation rate of 0.001 K-squared/sec. Results are noted to fall within the range measured for the earth's troposphere, however, indicate that small-scale turbulence is probably the dominant mechanism for vertical transport near the tropopause in the Venus atmosphere.

  9. The propagation of radio waves in the terrestrial environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Boithias

    1983-01-01

    The propagation of a radio wave from a transmitter to an antenna, with one of the two imbedded in the neutral or ionized earth atmosphere, is examined. Attention is given to the propagation of radio waves through an unobstructed space, such as occurs with microwave communications and radar. The theoretical basis for radio wave propagation is reviewed, as are the

  10. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a ?? detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting ?? emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting ?- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  11. HF Radio Wave Production of Artificial Ionospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert

    In 1993 it was predicted that artificial ionospheres would be produced by high power HF radio waves, once HF transmitters approached a GWatt ERP. When that threshold was very recently achieved, such production was indeed detected and published at two high latitude high power HF facilities. Here we review: the first-principles logic behind that prediction, which aspects of such production are critically dependent on magnetic latitude, and which aspects of such production depend only on physical parameters independent of latitude. These distinctions follow directly from decomposition of the problem of ionization production into its components of: radio-wave propagation, wave-particle interactions, electron transport, and quantitative elastic/inelastic cross-sections. We outline this analysis to show that, within the context of early observations, the production of ionization is inevitable, and only a question of competing instability thresholds, and scale of ionization production. This illustrates complimentary aeronomy and plasma physics to advance understanding of both.

  12. Radio scintillations during occultations by turbulent planetary atmospheres. [remote sensing via flyby spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.; Yang, F.-C.

    1980-01-01

    The radio occultation experiment which uses the radio link between the earth and spacecraft passing behind planets has proven to be an important method for remote sensing turbulence in planetary atmospheres. The effects of defocusing and anisotropic irregularities on the turbulence-induced fluctuations of the radio occultation signal are examined. Rytov's method along with geometrical optics is employed to study the frequency spectra and coherences of the log amplitude and phase fluctuations of spherical waves operating at one as well as two frequencies. Comparison with the Mariner 5 2.3-GHz measurements shows good agreement with the theoretical results.

  13. Observations of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Using the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Jeyakumar, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64×64 (4096) full-wavelength dipole antenna array, operating at 140 MHz, with a bandwidth of 2 MHz, occupying about 9660 square meters (69 m × 140 m) ( http://www.mexart.unam.mx ). This is a dedicated radio array for Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations located at latitude 19°48'N, longitude 101°41'W. We characterize the performance of the system. We report the first IPS observations with the instrument, employing a Butler Matrix (BM) of 16×16 ports, fed by 16 east - west lines of 64 dipoles (1/4 of the total array). The BM displays a radiation pattern of 16 beams at different declinations (from -48, to +88 degrees). We present a list of 19 strong IPS radio sources (having at least 3 ? in power gain) detected by the instrument. We report the power spectral analysis procedure of the intensity fluctuations. The operation of MEXART will allow us a better coverage of solar wind disturbances, complementing the data provided by the other, previously built, instruments.

  14. Solar flux dependence of coherence scales in scintillation patterns produced by ESF irregularities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Engavale; K. Jeeva; K. U. Nair; A. Bhattacharyya

    2005-01-01

    The coherence scale length, defined as the 50% decorrelation scale length along the magnetic east-west direction, in the ground scintillation pattern obtained at a dip equatorial location, due to scattering of VHF radio waves by equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities, is calculated, using amplitude scintillation data recorded by two spaced receivers. The average east-west drift of the ground scintillation pattern,

  15. Correctability limitations imposed by plane-wave scintillation in multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawton H; Baker, Gary J; Benson, Robert S

    2006-10-01

    Plane-wave scintillation is shown to impose multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) correctability limitations that are independent of wavefront sensing and reconstruction. Residual phase and log-amplitude variances induced by scintillation in weak turbulence are derived using linear (diffraction-based) diffractive MCAO spatial filters or (diffraction-ignorant) geometric MCAO proportional gains as open-loop control parameters. In the case of Kolmogorov turbulence, expressions involving the Rytov variance and/or weighted C(2)(n) integrals apply. Differences in performance between diffractive MCAO and geometric MCAO resemble chromatic errors. Optimal corrections based on least squares imply irreducible performance limits that are validated by wave-optic simulations. PMID:16985544

  16. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  17. Drift Wave Model of Rotating Radio Transients

    E-print Network

    D. Lomiashvili; G. Machabeli; I. Malov

    2007-09-13

    During the last few years there were discovered and deeply examined several transient neutron stars (Rotating Radio Transients). It is already well accepted that these objects are rotating neutron stars. But their extraordinary features (burst-like behavior) made necessary revision of well accepted models of pulsar interior structure. Nowadays most popular model for RRATs is precessing pulsar model, which is the subject of big discussion. We assume that these objects are pulsars with specific spin parameters. An important feature of our model, naturally explaining most of the properties of these neutron stars, is presence of very low frequency, nearly transverse drift waves propagating across the magnetic field and encircling the open field lines region of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  18. Spectral broadening and phase scintillation measurements using interplanetary spacecraft radio links during the peak of solar cycle 23

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Morabito

    2009-01-01

    When an interplanetary spacecraft is in a solar superior conjunction configuration, the received radio signals are degraded by several effects that generally increase in magnitude as the angle between the spacecraft and the Sun (Sun-Earth-Probe or SEP angle) decreases as viewed by a terrestrial tracking station. During periods of quiescent solar activity, phase scintillation and spectral broadening follow well-defined trends

  19. Ionospheric applications of the scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) mission when used with the DORIS radio beacon network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Bernhardt; Carl L. Siefring; Ivan J. Galysh; Thomas F. Rodilosso; Douglas E. Koch; Thomas L. MacDonald; Matthew R. Wilkens; G. Paul Landis

    2006-01-01

    The scintillation and tomography receiver in space (CITRIS) instrument will orbit the Earth near 560 km altitude to detect signals from the ground-based array of more than 50 DORIS UHF\\/S-band radio beacons established at sites around the world by the French Centre National d‘Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the Institut Géographique National (IGN). The CITRIS receiver is on the US Air Force

  20. Physics-based forecasts of equatorial radio scintillation for the Communication and Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C\\/NOFS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Retterer

    2005-01-01

    The plans for producing long-term (6–24 hour) forecasts of equatorial plasma structure and radio scintillation for the Communication and Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C\\/NOFS) program are described. We discuss the calculations and computer models required to represent the physics of the phenomena pertinent to the C\\/NOFS mission. We describe the means by which the models will be integrated into a

  1. Comparison of LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) Scintillators for RadioIsotope Identification Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Milbrath; Bethany J. Choate; Jim E. Fast; Walter K. Hensley; Richard T. Kouzes; John E. Schweppe

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum halide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators offer significantly better resolution (<3 percent at 662 kilo-electron volt [keV]) relative to sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and have recently become commercially available in sizes large enough for the hand-held radio-isotope identification device (RIID) market. There are drawbacks to lanthanum halide detectors, however. These include internal radioactivity that contributes to spectral counts and a low-energy response that

  2. Role of radio wave reflection during radio occultation by the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheryauenkov, A.I.; Pavel'ev, A.G.; Rubtsov, S.N.; Yakoulev, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical analysis of reflection of radio waves by the sun when the plasma around the sun occults a spacecraft. The frequency difference is calculated between direct and reflected waves, smearing of the energy spectra, and absorption and refractive attenuation of the radio waves. It is shown that in the decimeter range, it may be possible to detect the reflected ray by the methods of frequency and time selection. The authors show that it is possible to perform bistatic radio location of the sun.

  3. The Velocity of Radio Waves over Short Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Colwell; H. Atwood; J. E. Bailey; C. O. Marsh

    1942-01-01

    The velocity of radio waves was measured directly in the following manner. Two radio stations were set up on frequencies of 3492.5 and 2398 kilocycles, respectively. One station was fixed while the other was portable. The fixed station sent out pulses which were received at the portable station. A thyratron control set off return pulses which came back to the

  4. Cloud-induced effects on monthly averaged scintillation amplitude along millimeter-wave slant paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Silvio Marzano; Carlo Riva

    2003-01-01

    A physical-statistical analysis of cloud-induced effects on millimeter-wave amplitude scintillation along Earth-satellite slant paths is presented. Using numerical simulations derived from a cloud radiative model, a dual-channel nonlinear retrieval algorithm is set up to estimate simultaneously cloud columnar water vapor and liquid water contents from measured ground-based brightness temperatures. The latter are related in cloudy conditions to surface meteorological variables

  5. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  6. Rewarming in accidental hypothermia: radio wave versus inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Butterfield, A B; Nucci, R C; Johnson, C

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetized random-source dogs were cooled by refrigeration (3 C) to a stable core temperature of 25 C, and subsequently were rewarmed with warm, humidified inhalation (43 C, 450 mL of minute ventilation per kilogram) or radio frequency induction hyperthermia (4 to 6 watts/kg). The mean time required for core rewarming to 30 C was 231 +/- 3 minutes for warm, humidified ventilation and 106 +/- 32 minutes for radio wave therapy (P less than .01). These data suggest that radio wave heating is a more rapid noninvasive therapy for core rewarming of accidental hypothermia. PMID:3800077

  7. Magnetically programmable surface acoustic wave radio frequency identification tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Matthew; Buford, Benjamin; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2011-04-01

    A reconfigurable surface acoustic wave reflector using an integrated magnetoresistive bit was fabricated and evaluated for use in programmable radio frequency identification tags. It is shown that two distinct reflectivities can be achieved depending on the magnetic state of the bit. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations of optimal reflectivities achievable from resistively loaded surface acoustic wave transducers.

  8. Comparison of LaBr 3:Ce and NAI(Tl) scintillators for radio-isotope identification devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Milbrath; B. J. Choate; J. E. Fast; W. K. Hensley; R. T. Kouzes; J. E. Schweppe

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators offer significantly better resolution (<3 percent at 662keV) relative to sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) but contain internal radioactivity that contributes to spectral counts. LaBr3:Ce has recently become available commercially in sizes large enough for the hand-held radio-isotope identification device (RIID) market. To study its potential for RIIDs, a series of measurements were performed comparing a 1.5×1.5-in. LaBr3:Ce

  9. Optical and millimeter-wave radio seamless MIMO transmission based on a radio over fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Yasumura, Yoshihiro; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2012-12-31

    Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmission of two millimeter-wave radio signals seamlessly converted from polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying optical signals is successfully demonstrated, where a radio access unit basically consisting of only optical-to-electrical converters and a radio receiver performs total signal equalization of both the optical and the radio paths and demodulation with digital signal processing (DSP). Orthogonally polarized optical components that are directly converted to two-channel radio components can be demultiplexed and demodulated with high-speed DSP as in optical digital coherent detection. 20-Gbaud optical and radio seamless MIMO transmission provides a total capacity of 74.4 Gb/s with a forward error correction overhead of 7%. PMID:23388767

  10. APPLICATION OF SMALL SATELLITES FOR HIGH PRECISION MEASURING EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Igarashi; N. A. Armand; A. G. Pavelyev; Ch. Reigber; J. Wickert; K. Hocke; G. Beyerle; S. S. Matyugov; O. I. Yakovlev

    The radio holography methodology may be applied in the scientific programs for future small satellite that will use radio signals emitted by radio navigation, radio communication satellites for precise measuring effects of radio waves propagation at low elevation angles and for global monitoring of radio communication channels passed through the atmosphere and ionosphere. Another task consists in monitoring of the

  11. Improved spacecraft radio science using an on-board atomic clock: application to gravitational wave searches

    E-print Network

    Massimo Tinto; George J. Dick; John D. Prestage; J. W. Armstrong

    2008-12-13

    Recent advances in space-qualified atomic clocks (low-mass, low power-consumption, frequency stability comparable to that of ground-based clocks) can enable interplanetary spacecraft radio science experiments at unprecedented Doppler sensitivities. The addition of an on-board digital receiver would allow the up- and down-link Doppler frequencies to be measured separately. Such separate, high-quality measurements allow optimal data combinations that suppress the currently-leading noise sources: phase scintillation noise from the Earth's atmosphere and Doppler noise caused by mechanical vibrations of the ground antenna. Here we provide a general expression for the optimal combination of ground and on-board Doppler data and compute the sensitivity such a system would have to low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs). Assuming a plasma scintillation noise calibration comparable to that already demonstrated with the multi-link CASSINI radio system, the space-clock/digital-receiver instrumentation enhancements would give GW strain sensitivity of $2.0 \\times 10^{-17}$ for randomly polarized, monochromatic GW signals over a two-decade ($\\sim0.0001-0.01$ Hz) region of the low-frequency band. This is about an order of magnitude better than currently achieved with traditional two-way coherent Doppler experiments. The utility of optimally combining simultaneous up- and down-link observations is not limited to GW searches. The Doppler tracking technique discussed here could be performed at minimal incremental cost to also improve other radio science experiments (i.e. tests of relativistic gravity, planetary and satellite gravity field measurements, atmospheric and ring occultations) on future interplanetary missions.

  12. Gas scintillation drift chambers with wave shifter read-out for hard X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Lin, Robert P.; Weiss, Steven C.

    1987-01-01

    A major improvement in hard X-ray and gamma ray astrophysics could be provided by high pressure xenon time projection chambers where gas scintillation is used both for the measurement of the time of interaction and for the detection of the extracted electrons. This allows three dimensional imaging of naturally complex events (photoelectric interaction with escape photon, Compton scatter, and pair production). A novel read-out system based on wave shifter fibers, which is well suited to the high pressures and large areas required of a hard X-ray telescope is proposed. Expected performances are computed, potential problems are outlined, and the experimental effort to solve these problems are described.

  13. Embracing the Wave: Using the Very Small Radio Telescope to Teach Students about Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Doherty, M.; Minnigh, S.; Arndt, M. B.; Pratap, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) is a low-cost educational tool appropriate for laboratory demonstrations of the nature of radio waves and the principles of interferometry for use in both high school and undergraduate physics/astronomy classes. The system consists of small direct broadcast antenna dishes and other commercially available parts and can be assembled for under $500. Complete teaching units have been developed and tested by high school physics teachers to demonstrate radio wave transmission and exponential absorption though materials (Beer's law), the polarization of electromagnetic waves (Malus' law), the inverse square law, and interferometry. These units can be used to explore the properties of electromagnetic waves, including similarities and differences between radio and visible light, while challenging students' misconceptions about a wavelength regime that is important to both astronomy and everyday life. In addition, the VSRT can be used as a radio astronomical interferometer to measure the diameter of the Sun at 12 GHz. Full details, including a parts list, comprehensive assembly instructions, informational memos, teaching units, software, and conformance to national and Massachusetts educational standards, are available on the web at http://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/undergrad/VSRT/index.html . Development of the VSRT at MIT Haystack Observatory is made possible through funding provided by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Recovery of radioisotopes from nuclear waste for radio-scintillator-luminescence energy applications

    E-print Network

    Alfred Bennun

    2012-08-16

    Extraction of the light weight radioisotopes (LWR) 89Sr/90Sr, from the expended nuclear bars in the Fukushima reactor, should have decreased the extent of contamination during the course of the accident. 89Sr applications could pay for the extraction of 89Sr/90Sr from nuclear residues. Added value could be obtained by using 89Sr for cancer treatments. Known technologies could be used to relate into innovative ways LWR, to obtain nuclear energy at battery scale. LWR interact by contact with scintillators converting \\beta-radiation into light-energy. This would lead to manufacturing scintillator lamps which operate independently of other source of energy. These lamps could be used to generate photoelectric energy. Engineering of radioisotopes scintillator photovoltaic cells, would lead to devices without moving parts.

  15. Extra Low-Frequency Terrestrial Radio-Wave Field Calculations with the Zonal Harmonics Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ralph Johler; Richard L. Lewis

    1969-01-01

    Use of the zonal harmonics series for calculating the terrestrial wave guide fields directly is described. The analysis is extended to include radio waves propagating into sea water or below the earth's surface. A sample calculation of ELF radio waves is analyzed into a direct wave and a wave that has traveled the circumference of the earth. The location of

  16. Impact of tropospheric scintillation in the Ku\\/K bands on the communications between two LEO satellites in a radio occultation geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrica Martini; Angelo Freni; Luca Facheris; Fabrizio Cuccoli

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the impact of clear-air tropospheric scintillation on a radio occultation link between two low Earth orbit satellites in K- and Ku-bands is presented, with particular reference to differential approaches for the measure of the total content of water vapor. The troposphere is described as a spherically symmetric turbulent medium satisfying Kolmogorov theory. Rytov's first iteration solution

  17. Solar Type III Radio Bursts Observed by STEREO/Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Santolik, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Cecconi, B.; Reid, H.

    2012-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are a consequence of suprathermal electrons accelerated during solar flares and/or Coronal Mass Ejections. As electron beams propagate outward from the Sun, they can excite intense Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency fp. These waves can be partly converted via plasma emission processes into the electromagnetic radiation: type III radio bursts either at fp and/or at 2fp. We have performed a statistical study of 156 type III radio bursts observed by STEREO/Waves between May 2007 and September 2011. We have included only simple and isolated events. We have investigated the flux density between 125 kHz and 16 MHz. The maximum flux density occurs at 1 MHz on both spacecraft being in agreement with results of simulations of the resonant interaction of an electron beam with Langmuir waves. The apparent source size of observed type III radio bursts is very extended (40 degrees) for frequencies below 500 kHz while it remains almost constant (25 degrees) for higher frequencies.

  18. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Ippolito

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds,

  19. Numerical studies of current generation by radio-frequency traveling waves

    E-print Network

    Karney, Charles

    Numerical studies of current generation by radio-frequency traveling waves Charles F. F. Karney January 1979; final manuscript received 7 May 1979) By injecting radio-frequency traveling waves of the fusion power output. Recently,' the damping of high-phase-velocity radio- frequency traveling waves has

  20. Verification of particle simulation of radio frequency waves in fusion Animesh Kuley,1,2,a)

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhihong

    Verification of particle simulation of radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas Animesh Kuley,1,2,a (Received 14 May 2013; accepted 8 October 2013; published online 24 October 2013) Radio frequency (RF) waves. INTRODUCTION The importance of radio frequency (RF) waves as a source for heating and current drive has been

  1. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  2. WAVES: The radio and plasma wave investigation on the wind spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Bougeret; M. L. Kaiser; P. J. Kellogg; R. Manning; K. Goetz; S. J. Monson; N. Monge; L. Friel; C. A. Meetre; C. Perche; L. Sitruk; S. Hoang

    1995-01-01

    The WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft will provide comprehensive measurements of the radio and plasma wave phenomena which occur in Geospace. Analyses of these measurements, in coordination with the other onboard plasma, energetic particles, and field measurements will help us understand the kinetic processes that are important in the solar wind and in key boundary regions of the Geospace.

  3. Experimental observations of the spatial structure of wave-like disturbances generated in midlatitude ionosphere by high power radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater with a square wave modulation of the ERP at a frequency lower than or of the order of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency of the neutral atmosphere. The observed wavelike structures, which are possibly AGWs, diverge from the heated area of the ionosphere (observed like a narrow trough with dimensions corresponding to the diagram pattern of the Sura heater), the spatial period of these disturbances is 200-250 km and they are easily traced up to a distance of 700-800 km from the heated region. These observations are in good agreement with complimentary GPS/GLONASS data. We also present the examples of amplitude scintillations of the signals of low-orbital radio beacons corresponding to small-scale field-aligned irregularities in the heated area of ionosphere. The possibility of generation of electromagnetic waves by moving wave-like structures in ionosphere (like AGWs induced by HF-heating observed in our experiments) is also addressed in this work. The authors are grateful to the staff of the Sura facility for their help in conducting the experiments and acknowledge the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 10-05-01126, 11-02-00374, 11-05-01157, 12-02-31839, 12-05-33065, 12-05-10068), grant of the President of Russian Federation MK-2544.2012.5 and Lomonosov Moscow State University Program of Development.

  4. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  5. Mexart Measurements of Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Esparza, A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Praveenkumar, A.; Sankarasubramanian, G.; Sureshkumar, S.; Sierra, P.; Vazquez, S.; Perex-Enriguez, R.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-09-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64x64 array of full-wave dipoles operating at 139.65 MHz. The primary aim of the array is to perform Interplanetary Scintillations (IPS) observations of radio sources to track large-scale solar wind perturbations within 1 AU. We describe the initial measurements of radio sources and the advances in the calibration of the antenna.

  6. Twisted radio waves and twisted thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kish, Laszlo B; Nevels, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    We present and analyze a gedanken experiment and show that the assumption that an antenna operating at a single frequency can transmit more than two independent information channels to the far field violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Transmission of a large number of channels, each associated with an angular momenta 'twisted wave' mode, to the far field in free space is therefore not possible. PMID:23424647

  7. Wave optics simulation of Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam propagation in turbulence: intensity and scintillation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xifeng Xiao; David Voelz

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of partially coherent vortex beams through atmospheric turbulence in weak-to-strong fluctuation regimes is investigated. Irradiance profiles from wave optics simulations and analytical theory compare favorably for a variety of link parameters. Simulation results indicate that partially coherent vortex beams can reduce scintillation index values relative to comparable classic Gaussian Schell model beams when turbulence conditions are mediate to

  8. Remote personal health monitoring with radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We present several techniques utilizing radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health monitoring. One technique involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another technique uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Simultaneous monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting can also be done using networks of RFID sensors. All the monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and timely to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously monitored information provides medical professionals more complete and long-term studies of patients. All of these result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also significant reduction of medical expenditure. These techniques demonstrate that health monitoring of patients can be done wirelessly at any time and any place without interfering with the patients' normal activities. Implementing the RFID technology would not only help reduce the enormous and significantly growing medical costs in the U.S.A., but also help improve the health treatment capability as well as enhance the understanding of long-term personal health and illness.

  9. IPS data of the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) corrected for ionospheric scintillation and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Enríquez, R.; Kotsarenko, A.

    2003-04-01

    The technique of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) allows for remotely probe the plasma concentration of the inner heliosphere. Therefore, with the use of IPS it is possible to track density structures which originate in the Sun and propagate outward into interplanetary space. The technique gives also the possibility of calculating whether a specific large-scale perturbation moves in the direction of the Earth as well as its time of arrival to the Earth environment. Since these structures carry intensified fluxes of energy and momentum which prompt geomagnetic activity, the IPS measurements are important to predict such activity. However, in some cases the IPS has been found wanting before the possibility that false alarms due to perturbations in the ionosphere and in the geomagnetic field can contaminate the data. In this paper, we discuss some shortcomings of the IPS technique and propose for MEXART a correction of the data for geomagnetic activity, and a method of correction for ionospheric activity which involves the analysis of GPS scintillation data.

  10. Scattering of radio frequency waves by blobs in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, Athens, GR-15773 (Greece)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, Athens, GR-15773 (Greece)

    2013-05-15

    The density fluctuations and blobs present in the edge region of magnetic fusion devices can scatter radio frequency (RF) waves through refraction, reflection, diffraction, and coupling to other plasma waves. This, in turn, affects the spectrum of the RF waves and the electromagnetic power that reaches the core of the plasma. The usual geometric optics analysis of RF scattering by density blobs accounts for only refractive effects. It is valid when the amplitude of the fluctuations is small, of the order of 10%, compared to the background density. In experiments, density fluctuations with much larger amplitudes are routinely observed, so that a more general treatment of the scattering process is needed. In this paper, a full-wave model for the scattering of RF waves by a blob is developed. The full-wave approach extends the range of validity well beyond that of geometric optics; however, it is theoretically and computationally much more challenging. The theoretical procedure, although similar to that followed for the Mie solution of Maxwell's equations, is generalized to plasmas in a magnetic field. Besides diffraction and reflection, the model includes coupling to a different plasma wave than the one imposed by the external antenna structure. In the model, it is assumed that the RF waves interact with a spherical blob. The plasma inside and around the blob is cold, homogeneous, and imbedded in a uniform magnetic field. After formulating the complete analytical theory, the effect of the blob on short wavelength electron cyclotron waves and longer wavelength lower hybrid waves is studied numerically.

  11. 1.2 GHz band wave propagation measurements in concrete building for indoor radio communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Horikoshi; K. Tanaka; T. Morinaga

    1986-01-01

    For the design of indoor radio communication or a portable radio telephone system, 1.2 GHz band radio wave propagation characteristics are investigated in a concrete building. Penetration loss through a window, local median variations, and cumulative distributions of received signal levels in a room, reflection coefficient or equivalent dielectric constant and transmission loss of a wall\\/floor are discussed.

  12. Variations of the tropospheric propagation range of ultrashort radio waves above the sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Gliner; S. N. Krivonozhkin; B. M. Shevtsov

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the development of beyond-the-horizon radar, communications and remote sensing of the atmosphere, the problem of predicting the tropospheric propagation range of ultrashort (US) radio waves has assumed great practical importance. Therefore, the dependence of radio signal characteristics on the propagation conditions has been investigated over different radio paths. Of special interest are routes over oceans, where the

  13. Grating formation by a high power radio wave in near-equator ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The formation of a volume grating in the near-equator regions of ionosphere due to a high power radio wave is investigated. The radio wave, launched from a ground based transmitter, forms a standing wave pattern below the critical layer, heating the electrons in a space periodic manner. The thermal conduction along the magnetic lines of force inhibits the rise in electron temperature, limiting the efficacy of heating to within a latitude of few degrees around the equator. The space periodic electron partial pressure leads to ambipolar diffusion creating a space periodic density ripple with wave vector along the vertical. Such a volume grating is effective to cause strong reflection of radio waves at a frequency one order of magnitude higher than the maximum plasma frequency in the ionosphere. Linearly mode converted plasma wave could scatter even higher frequency radio waves.

  14. The Jovian HOM and bKOM radio emissions observed by Wind\\/\\/WAVES and by Ulysses\\/\\/URAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Barrow; A. Lecacheux; R. J. MacDowall; M. L. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    During 1995 and into 1996, both the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) and the Jovian broadband radio emission (bKOM) were received occasionally by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft and by the Unified Radio and Plasma Experiment (URAP) on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Ulysses was then at distances of 5 AU or more from

  15. The Jovian HOM and bKOM radio emissions observed by Wind\\/WAVES and by Ulysses\\/URAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Barrow; A. Lecacheux; R. J. MacDowall; M. L. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    During 1995 and into 1996, both the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) and the Jovian broadband radio emission (bKOM) were received occasionally by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft and by the Unified Radio and Plasma Experiment (URAP) on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Ulysses was then at distances of 5 AU or more from

  16. The Birth and Development of Radio Astronomy Studies of the Sun at the Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol'kov, G. Y.

    The history of the organisation of the Department of Radio Astronomy at the Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation (SibIZMIRAN) is described, together with the principles behind the construction of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope and the results of observations of the solar radio emission at decimetre wavelengths using this telescope.

  17. Jupiter's low-frequency radio spectrum from Cassini\\/Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) absolute flux density measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zarka; B. Cecconi; W. S. Kurth

    2004-01-01

    We apply the calibration method developed by Dulk et al. [2001] to the data from the Cassini\\/Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) High-Frequency Receiver in order to derive flux density measurements of six components of the Jovian low-frequency radio spectrum over the full frequency range of the instrument (3.5 kHz to 16.1 MHz). The estimated accuracy is better than 50%,

  18. Ground Detection of Gyro Resonant Plasma Waves During High Power Radio Waves Experiments at HAARP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Kendall, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    High power radio waves transmitted from the ground can enter the ionosphere and become transformed into electrostatic waves by mode coupling or parametric decay. The decay products may be electromagnetic (EM) waves that propagate to the ground and are detected by ground receivers. The decay products may also be electrostatic waves that are mode converted to EM waves for propagation to ground receivers. The EM signals have frequency offsets from the EM pump wave and are called stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). The production of SEE requires five factors for excitation. First, the EM pump wave must have sufficient amplitude in the ionosphere to excite the parametric decay process. Second, the EM pump wave must propagate to a region where it can couple into a resonant mode of the plasma. Third, the large amplitude EM or ES resonant mode drives a parametric decay instability to generate two other resonant modes in the plasma. Fourth, at least one resonant mode in the plasma must be weakly damped. Fifth, the high frequency daughter wave of the parametric decay process may need to be converted into an electromagnetic wave to be received on the ground. In the framework of these five criteria, the production of stimulated ion Bernstein (SIB) emissions is considered for an electromagnetic pump wave tuned to the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. For maximum pump amplitude, the plasma frequency should be nearly equal to the pump frequency. This double resonance occurs if the EM pump frequency is tuned to match the frequency at the altitude where the plasma frequency in the plasma layer is equal to twice the electron gyro frequency. The double resonance of pump frequency equals plasma frequency equals twice the electron gyro frequency insures that a large amplitude standing wave is formed at the point where the pump electric field can couple into the electron Bernstein resonance at twice the electron cyclotron frequency. The theory for generation of electrostatic by the stimulated electron/ion Bernstein (SEIB) instability has been verified with ground observations of SEE at the HAARP facility in Alaska. The electron Bernstein wave can also decay into another electron Bernstein wave and a lower-hybrid wave. Decay products such as electron Bernstein waves can efficiently accelerate electrons in the ionosphere by cyclotron resonance. The SEE measurements compared with optical and electron density measurements show a strong correlation of Bernstein modes and electron acceleration.

  19. Study of Sun-Earth interactions using equatorial VHF scintillation in the Indian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridhar Banola

    2010-01-01

    Plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere (associated with ESF, plasma bubbles and Spo-radic E layers) cause scintillations in various frequency ranges. VHF radio wave scintillation technique is extensively used to study plasma density irregularities of sub-kilometre size . Ef-fects of magnetic and solar activity on ionospheric irregularities are studied so as to ascertain their role in the space weather of

  20. Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chatterji, S.; Coyne, D. [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO 600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximize sensitivity. For the first time, pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is 2.6x10{sup -25} for PSR J1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSR J2124-3358 is less than 10{sup -6}. Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only 2.2 times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

  1. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Borovsky

    1987-01-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves

  2. ULYSSES spacecraft observations of radio and plasma waves: 1991-1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. MacDowall; R. A. Hess; N. Lin; G. Thejappa; A. Balogh; J. L. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    The radio and plasma wave investigation of the Ulysses spacecraft mission provided nearly continuous observations of wave electric fields (less than 1MHz) and magnetic fields (less than 450 Hz) from spacecraft launch in late 1990 through perihelion in 1995 and beyond. The Ulysses spacecraft reached heliographic latitudes of +\\/-80deg, providing a unique opportunity to study wave activity in fast solar

  3. Geomagnetic control of the winter anomaly in absorption of radio waves at mid-latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruo Sato

    1981-01-01

    Morphological features of the winter anomaly in radio wave absorption, that is, anomalous and large excessive absorptions of MF and HF waves occurring in groups of winter days at midlatitudes, are examined. The examination is based on absorption data sets of MF waves at three ionospheric stations and f(min) data sets at 35 stations in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  4. Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased by the observational technique?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased present a quantitative comparison between a large data base of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves predictions. 1 Introduction Atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are a neutral-air phenomenon, but most techniques

  5. Direction of Arrival Detection System for Radio Surveillance: Frequency Spectrum Analysis of CDMA and Jamming Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Ichiget; Mitsuharu Imai; Hiroyuki Arai; Masayuki Nakano; Masafumi Hirono

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces DOA (direction of arrival) detection system of jamming waves used for radio surveillance of 900 MHz, featuring its function of frequency spectrum analysis to distinguish CDMA (code division multiple access) and jamming waves. There exist many jamming waves arising from illegal (non-licensed) repeating antennas or wireless cameras that seriously interfere to CDMA signals especially in urban districts.

  6. Radio and Plasma Wave Science Opportunities Afforded by the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Kurth; D. A. Gurnett; W. M. Farrell; M. D. Desch; M. L. Kaiser; P. Zarka; A. Lecacheux; P. Canu; S. J. Bolton; J. E. Wahlund; L. G. Blomberg; S. D. Bale; M. Moncuquet

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo mission demonstrated the extensive and varied interactions between the Jovian magnetosphere and the icy Galilean satellites. In particular, the Galileo plasma wave investigation showed the surprisingly complex array of plasma and radio wave phenomena accompanying Ganymede's magnetosphere, evidence of an extensive magnetospheric interaction at Europa, and a weaker yet highly variable interaction at Callisto. The plasma wave observations

  7. Low Frequency Radio-wave System for subsurface investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Kudelya, Anatoliy; Denisov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Low frequency radio-wave methods (RWM) allow subsurface investigations in terms of lithological structure characterization, detection of filtration flows of ground water, anthropogenic and natural cavities. In this contribution, we present a RWM that exploits two coils working at frequencies of few MHz as transmitting and receiving antennas. The basic principle of this inductive method is as follows. The primary alternating electromagnetic field radiated by the transmitting coil induces eddy currents in the subsurface mainly due to the conductivity anomalies. These eddy currents generate a secondary (scattered) magnetic field which overlaps to the incident magnetic field and is detected by the receiving coil. Despite the simple operation of the system, the complexity of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon at hand must be properly modeled to achieve adequate performance. Therefore, an advanced data processing technique, belonging to the class of the inverse scattering approaches, has been developed by the authors in a full 3D geometry. The proposed method allows to deal with data collected on a scanning surface under a dipole inductive profiling (DIP) modality, where the transmitting/receiving coils are moved simultaneously with fixed offset (multi-bistatic configuration). The hardware, called Dipole Inductive Radio-wave System (DIRS), is composed by an electronic unit and transmitting and receiving loop antennas radiating at frequencies of few MHz (2-4 MHz), which are installed on theodolite supports. The compactness of DIRS and its robustness to external electromagnetic interference offers the possibility to perform geophysical research up to the depth of some tens of meters and under several types of ground and water surfaces, vegetation, and weather conditions. The light weight and small size of system (the single antenna with support weights about 5 kg and has a diameter of 0.5m) allows two operators to perform geophysical research without disturbing the surface integrity of investigated ground massif. The value of base and the value of voltage induced on the digital voltmeter of the receiver are stored in memory on a SD-card for a subsequent visualization and processing. Realistic cases of application of the DIRS system enhanced by the inverse scattering approach will be presented at the conference with regard to the geological characterization of a mine shaft and an archaeological site.

  8. Radio-Over-MMF Techniques—Part II: Microwave to Millimeter-Wave Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. J. Koonen; L. M. Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Microwave to mm-wave radio carriers are commonly employed for creating high-capacity picocell wireless networks. Advanced radio-over-fiber (RoF) techniques can efficiently generate and transport such carriers, and deliver them to simplified antenna stations. As in in-building networks multimode fiber is predominantly used, adequate radio-over-multimode fiber (RoMMF) techniques are required to overcome the modal dispersion in multimode fiber links. The optical frequency

  9. Collaboration between URSI and CCIR in the study of tropospheric radio wave propagation problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Saxton

    1978-01-01

    Topics in tropospheric radio wave propagation addressed by the International Union of Radio Science and the International Radio Consultative Committee include clear-air phenomena, precipitation effects, improvements in centimeter-wavelength space and terrestrial communications, and planning for VHF and UHF services. An example of cochannel interference between earth-space and terrestrial links operating at 4 GHz is presented. In addition, interference by precipitation

  10. Some Measurements of High-Latitude Ionospheric Absorption Using Extraterrestrial Radio Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Little; H. Leinbach

    1958-01-01

    This paper describes the manner im which 30-mc extraterrestrial radio waves have been used to study the radio absorption characteristics of the arctic ionosphere. It opens with a brief discussion of the theory of ionospheric absorption, followed by a description of the basic principles involved in the technique. Two different types of equipment which have been used in these absorption

  11. New theoretical aspects of potential radio wave emission from Jupiter like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christof; Rucker, Helmut; Vocks, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio Telescope 2nd generation), LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) or the upgrade of LOFAR in Nancay (the NENUFAR project) are promising facilities with sensitivities sufficiently low to be able to detect radio emission from exoplanets, especially from so-called Hot Jupiters. These are Jovian like planets very close to their host star (about 0.045 AU) and their radio emission is expected to be up to 10E5 times higher than the emission from Jupiter in our solar system. Also recent investigations of the possibility of moons around a Jovian exoplanet (an analog of the Io-Jupiter system) are promising candidates amongst the exoplanets for a future detection of exoplanetary radio emission. As is well known Io triggers radio emission up to 40 MHz in the Jovian case, a frequency which lies well above the ionospheric cutoff of 10 MHz and thus can be measured with ground-based facilities on Earth. We present simulation results for wave growth rates at Jupiter-like exoplanets orbiting at distances smaller than 0.1 AU from their parent star. Under sophisticated assumptions for the plasma environment at these exoplanets we find that the cyclotron maser instability (CMI), the process which is very likely responsible for the generation of radio waves in our solar system, produces radio waves which can propagate away from the planet. Furthermore we check the influence of a magnetodisc at Hot Jupiters on the possible power of the emitted radio waves.

  12. Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES radio instrument onboard the two STEREO spacecraft near 1 A.U. during the period 2007­2010. The impact detection area compared to conventional dust detectors provides flux data with a better statistics. We show

  13. Limits on Enhanced Radio Wave Scattering by Supernova Remnants

    E-print Network

    Laura G. Spitler; Steven R. Spangler

    2005-06-28

    We report multifrequency observations with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the compact radio sources J0128+6306 and J0547+2721, which are viewed through the supernova remnants G127.1+0.5 and S147, respectively. Observations were made at frequencies of 1.427, 1.667, 2.271, and 4.987 GHz. The lines of sight to these sources pass through the shock wave and upstream and downstream turbulent layers of their respective supernova remnants, and thus might detect cosmic-ray generated turbulence produced during the Fermi acceleration process. For both sources, we detect interstellar scattering, characterized by a component of the angular size which scales as the square of the observing wavelength. The magnitude of the scattering is characterized by an effective scattering angular size theta_S0 at a frequency of 1 GHz of 13.2 +/- 2.6 milliarcseconds (mas) for J0128+6306 and 6.7 +/- 2.2 mas for J0547+2721. These angular sizes are consistent with the ``incidental'' scattering for any line of sight out of the galaxy at similar galactic latitudes and longitudes. There is therefore no evidence for enhanced turbulence at these supernova remnants. We establish upper limits to the supernova remnant-associated scattering measures of 8.1-14.8 m^-20/3-pc for J0128+6306 and 3.0 m^-20/3-pc for J0547+2721.

  14. ON THE BRIGHTNESS AND WAITING-TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF A TYPE III RADIO STORM OBSERVED BY STEREO/WAVES

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ON THE BRIGHTNESS AND WAITING-TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF A TYPE III RADIO STORM OBSERVED BY STEREO.S.A. ON THE BRIGHTNESS AND WAITING-TIME DISTRIBUTIONS OF A TYPE III RADIO STORM OBSERVED BY STEREO/WAVES J. P. Eastwood1 solar radio storms, observed at frequencies below 16 MHz by space-borne radio experiments, correspond

  15. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Borovsky

    1987-01-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio

  16. Controlled comparison of radio wave regional hyperthermia and peritoneal lavage rewarming after immersion hypothermia.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Butterfield, A B; Greer, K A; Schoem, S; Johnson, C; Holloway, R R

    1985-10-01

    Anesthetized random source dogs were cooled by ice-water immersion to a stable core temperature of 25 degrees C and subsequently rewarmed with normal saline peritoneal lavage (43 degrees C, 175 ml/kg/hr) or radio frequency electromagnetic-induced regional hyperthermia (4-6 watts/kg). The mean time required for core rewarming to 30 degrees C was 183 +/- 79 minutes for lavage and 58 +/- 13 minutes for radio wave therapy (p less than 0.01). There was no evidence of tissue damage with either modality. These data suggest radio wave regional hyperthermia is superior to peritoneal lavage for core rewarming of rapidly induced immersion hypothermia. PMID:4046088

  17. High-latitude ionospheric phenomena diagnostics by high-frequency radio wave propagation observations

    SciTech Connect

    Blagoveshchenskii, D.V.; Egorova, L.V.; Lukashkin, V.M. (Leningradskii Institut Aviatsionnogo Priborostroeniia, Leningrad (USSR) Arkticheskii i Antarkticheskii NII, Leningrad (USSR))

    1992-04-01

    A system of radio paths in the decameter wave band is used to experimentally solve the problem of diagnostics of high-latitude ionospheric phenomena. Either the statistical parameters of radio signals at radio channel output or the radio wave propagation parameter on the basis of data of oblique sounding of the ionosphere is used as a source of information on a phenomenon. The former approach is taken in the diagnostics of auroral substorms and the main ionization trough. Oblique sounding is used in daytime polar cusp diagnostics. The experimental observations were carried out by two systems of paths: one is situated north of eastern Siberia, and the other encompasses the area north of the European part of the former USSR. The range of corrected geomagnetic latitudes is 55-75 deg. It is concluded that this system of radio paths makes it possible to conduct qualitative short-time prediction of these ionospheric phenomena. 11 refs.

  18. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); [Computer Sciences Corporation, Suitland, Maryland (United States); Thejappa, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Phillips, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Density waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio and optical occultation - Observational tests of theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A parallel examination is conducted of Voyager radio and photopolarimeter occultation observations of the Saturn A ring's density waves. The radio instrument waves exhibit an average -90 deg offset from the dynamical phase. A warping height of about 100-m amplitude can qualtitatively reproduce this phase shift, while preserving the overall model wave shape. These results may be profoundly relevant for satellite-ring torque calculations in Saturn's rings, given the deposition of all of the net torque of the standard model in the first wavelength.

  20. Fiber optic millimeter-wave subcarrier transmission links for personal radio communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyo Ogawa; D. Polifko

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose two configurations of fiber optic links for use in millimeter-wave subcarrier transmission for personal radio communication systems. The system concepts for millimeter-wave personal communication systems are first described and the advantages of millimeter-wave frequencies are discussed. The combination of direct modulation and indirect external modulation techniques was utilized to transmit 25-GHz FM and 70-MHz quadrature phase shift

  1. Wave propagation and earth satellite radio emission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, K. C.; Liu, C. H.; Flaherty, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radio propagation studies of the ionosphere using satellite radio beacons are described. The ionosphere is known as a dispersive, inhomogeneous, irregular and sometimes even nonlinear medium. After traversing through the ionosphere the radio signal bears signatures of these characteristics. A study of these signatures will be helpful in two areas: (1) It will assist in learning the behavior of the medium, in this case the ionosphere. (2) It will provide information of the kind of signal characteristics and statistics to be expected for communication and navigational satellite systems that use the similar geometry.

  2. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-05-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  3. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-05-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  4. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  5. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  6. Performance study of WaveLAN and Altair radio-LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Hollemans; A. Verschoor

    1994-01-01

    Radio-LANs provide a good example of information technology products meeting the current demand for flexibility and mobility in the office environment. It is uncertain, however, what scope they offer and what their restrictions are. We present a performance study of two commercially available radio-LANs: Motorola Altair and NCR WaveLAN. A selection of the results is presented. Using the results of

  7. High-frequency radio-wave ablation of osteoid osteoma in the lumbar spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. L. Osti; R. Sebben

    1998-01-01

    The authors report on the first known application in the spine of percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteoma using radio-frequency\\u000a waves. The technique involves a CT-guided biopsy of the lesion followed by introduction of a 1-mm probe connected to a radio-frequency\\u000a lesion generator. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis and the patient experienced immediate relief of his symptoms.\\u000a No

  8. Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyo Ogawa; David Polifko; Seiichi Banba

    1992-01-01

    System concepts for millimeter-wave personal communication systems and the advantages of millimeter-wave band usage are briefly described. Demonstration of broadband millimeter-wave subcarrier transmission concepts over fiber-optic links is performed. Several fiber-optic link architectures, including one using a combination of direct laser modulation and indirect (external) optical modulation, are outlined with respect to signal transmission at millimeter-wave frequencies. Several configurations are

  9. Variation of Langmuir wave polarization with electron beam speed in type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Malaspina, David M. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ergun, Robert E. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States) and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Observations by the twin STEREO spacecraft of in-situ electric field waveforms and radio signatures associated with type III radio bursts have demonstrated that the polarization of electron beam-driven waves near the local plasma frequency depends strongly on the speed of the driving electron beam. We expand upon a previous study by including all radio bursts with in-situ waveforms observed by STEREO in 2011. The expanded data set contains five times more radio bursts (35 up from 7) and three times as many Langmuir waves (663 up from 168). While this expanded study supports the results of the original study, that faster (slower) beam electrons drive waves with strong (weak) electric fields perpendicular to the local magnetic field, the larger data set emphasizes that the observation of strong perpendicular electric fields at high electron beam speeds is probabilistic rather than definite. This property supports the interpretation of wave polarization dependence on beam speed as Langmuir/z-mode waves shifted to small wave number through interaction with turbulent solar wind density fluctuations.

  10. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations at high southern heliographic latitudes.

    PubMed

    Stone, R G; Macdowall, R J; Fainberg, J; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Goldstein, M L; Hoang, S; Bougeret, J L; Harvey, C C; Manning, R; Steinberg, J L; Kellogg, P J; Lin, N; Goetz, K; Osherovich, V A; Reiner, M J; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Lengyel-Frey, D; Thejappa, G

    1995-05-19

    Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solartype Ill radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high- latitude solar wind. PMID:17774230

  11. Absorption of Magnetosonic Waves in the Crust of Neutron Stars. Radio Emission from Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, D. M.; Harutunyan, A. S.; Hayrapetyan, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The kinetic equation for plasma in the crust of neutron star is solved in the relaxation time approximation. Values of the kinetic coefficients are obtained for crust plasma? with densities in the range of 102- 1014 g/cm3. The propagation of magnetosonic waves in the crust of neutron star is examined with various mechanisms for the dissipation of the wave energy taken into account. It is shown that the crust of neutron star are transparent for magnetosonic waves with frequencies ? ? 1011 Hz and that the wave absorption is lower for stars with higher central densities. A mechanism for radio emission by pulsars is proposed in which the source is on the star's surface and has dimensions equal to the cross section of the beam of magnetosonic waves. Some features of the radio emission (spectral index and pulsar cutoff) are explained.

  12. The peculiarities of long-wave radio bursts during the proton events observed on Interball-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Prokudina

    We analyzed the radio bursts at frequency range 1980 - 100 kHz which were registered by AKR-X (Interball-1) during proton events (SEP). As a rule, we observed radio bursts of III type with large amplitude. The onset of the burst coincided with the explosive (flash) phase of power flare, as we may judge from the comparison of the maximum of the microwave and HXR burst with temporal profile of long-wave radio burst. Accelerated protons escape from the flare without delay and arrived to the Earth during 20-40 min.

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of the VHF\\/UHF radio waves in built-up land communication links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Blaunstein; Nathalie Yarkoni; Dmitry Katz

    2006-01-01

    We present a unified approach of the description of the spatial and temporal distribution of radio signals within built-up radio communication links. This approach is based on a multiparametric stochastic model, which takes into account the characteristic features of built-up terrain and peculiarities of radio wave propagation related with multiple reflections, diffraction and scattering phenomena caused by obstructions surrounding both

  14. Relations among low ionosphere parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Wallops Island, Virginia, are compared with atmospheric parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Charged particle densities are derived from the conductivity data. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity correlated well with neutral atmospheric temperature, with temperature coefficients as large as 4.6%/deg K. Good correlations were also found between HF radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, indicating that the day-to-day absorption variations were principally due to variations in electron loss rate.

  15. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA. PMID:19257596

  16. Observation of radio-wave-induced red hydroxyl emission at low altitude in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Kagan, L M; Nicolls, M J; Kelley, M C; Carlson, H C; Belikovich, V V; Bakhmet'eva, N V; Komrakov, G P; Trondsen, T S; Donovan, E

    2005-03-11

    We report the discovery of radio-wave-induced red emission of OH Meinel rotation-vibrational bands at 629.79 nm. These are the first measurements of artificial aurora below 100 km. We believe that the 629.79-nm OH emission was due to radio-wave focusing by sporadic ionization clouds near 80-85 km altitude, thus giving a technique to visualize the low-altitude sporadic ionization and providing insight into ionospheric interactions at these low altitudes. PMID:15783973

  17. Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

    E-print Network

    Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas Zhe Gao Department of Engineering American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2775431 The use of radio frequency rf power to drive plasma and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron

  18. Low phase noise synthesizer for millimetre wave digital radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Buoli; A. Bonzi; O. Erbisti; G. Mora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a suitable architecture of a microwave synthesizer with an opportune operating frequency range in order to obtain radio link systems from 6 to 60 GHz with modulation schemes more and more complex satisfying the continuous market requirement of spectrum occupancy reduction. A good microwave source synthesizer should provide an extremely low phase

  19. Low Phase Noise Synthesizer for Millimetre Wave Digital Radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Buoli; A. Bonzi; L. O. Erbisti; G. Mora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a suitable architecture of a microwave synthesizer with an opportune operating frequency range in order to obtain radio link systems from 6 to 60 GHz with modulation schemes more and more complex satisfying the continuous market requirement of spectrum occupancy reduction. A good microwave source synthesizer should provide an extremely low phase

  20. Broadband Metric-Range Radio Emission Associated with a Moreton/EIT Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršnak, B.; Magdaleni?, J.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Aurass, H.; Otruba, W.

    2005-05-01

    We present the evolution and kinematics of a broadband radio source that propagated collaterally with an H?/EIT wave, linking it with the type II burst that was excited higher up in the corona. The NRH wave emission extended from the frequency f~327 to f<151 MHz and was considerably weaker than the flare-related type IV burst. The emission centroid propagated at a height of 0-200 Mm above the solar limb and was intensified when the disturbance passed over enhanced coronal structures. We put forward the ad hoc hypothesis that the NRH wave signature is optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission excited by the passage of the coronal MHD fast-mode shock. The identification of radio emission associated with the coronal wave front is important since it offers us new diagnostic information that could provide us with better insight into the physical conditions in the disturbance itself.

  1. Application of surface acoustic wave devices to radio telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strasilla, U.

    1983-01-01

    Three experimental Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (SAWR) are developed and evaluated. A desired center frequency is obtained by correct spacing of the Inter-Digital Transducers (IDT). Transmitting and receiving IDT's must be close for adequate coupling and a sufficient number of reflectors are required to create a high quality standing wave. A review of oscillator theory is given and current technology evaluated.

  2. Manuscript for Review Double directional characterisation of radio wave

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : RADIOWAVE PROPAGATION, MEASUREMENT, CHANNEL SOUNDING hal-00703703,version1-8Jun2012 Author manuscript is to characterise the electromagnetic wave propagation between adjacent rooms in lower deck areas of ships closure. Results show that electromagnetic waves mainly propagate through door edges openings

  3. The propagation of electromagnetic wave in random media and effects on radio astronomical observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Wei Lu; Zhen-Song Wang; Wen-Jun Han

    1990-01-01

    The multiple scattering propagation of electromagnetic waves is investigated through the momentum method. A complete set of the momentum equations with different wavenumbers at different positions are derived for the propagation of a wave in a random medium where the small-angle forward-scattering and Markov random process approximations are valid. The seeing angle in radio-astronomy observations is analyzed by using the

  4. Comparison of rewarming by radio wave regional hyperthermia and warm humidified inhalation.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Butterfield, A B; Greer, K A; Schoem, S; Johnson, C; Holloway, R R

    1984-12-01

    Anesthetized random source dogs were cooled by ice water immersion to a stable core temperature of 25 degrees C and subsequently rewarmed with warm humidified inhalation (43 degrees C, 450 cc of min ventilation X kg-1) or radio-frequency induction hyperthermia (4-6 watts X kg-1). The mean time required for core rewarming to 30 degrees C was 280 +/- 114 min for ventilation and 58 +/- 13 min for radio wave therapy (p less than 0.001). There was no evidence of tissue damage with either modality. These data suggest radio wave heating is superior to warm humidified inhalation therapy for core rewarming of rapidly induced immersion hypothermia. PMID:6517815

  5. Catalogue of the 1997 SOHO-EIT coronal transient waves and associated type II radio burst spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, A.; Aurass, H.; Mann, G.; Thompson, B. J.

    2000-02-01

    We compare the coronal transient wave phenomenon discovered by SOHO extreme ultraviolet observations (``EIT waves'') with the associated radio signature of a coronal shock wave (type II burst). 90% of the type II bursts are associated with an EIT wave. On average, the speed derived from the radio burst is about three times larger than the EIT wave speed. Within the sample, there is no correlation between the speeds of both tracers of a coronal disturbance. Under very general assumptions we conclude that both wave phenomena can be different signatures of the same fast magnetosonic disturbance.

  6. Radio Wave Scattering from Lampposts in Microcell Urban Mobile Propagation Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir Ghoraishi; Jun-ichi Takada; Tetsuro Imai

    2009-01-01

    The radio wave scattering from lampposts in ur- ban areas is analyzed. The lamppost is modeled as a flnite-length conducting cylinder and the approxi- mate theoretical values of its bistatic radar cross sec- tion (RCS) are compared to those experimental val- ues obtained from a propagation channel measure- ment campaign in two urban environments. In the theoretical derivation it is

  7. Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by Free Electrons with Applications to Space Exploration by Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Gordon

    1958-01-01

    Free electrons in an ionized medium scatter radio waves weakly. Under certain conditions only incoherent scattering exists. A powerful radar can detect the incoherent backscatter from the free electrons in and above the earth's ionosphere. The received signal is spread in frequency by the Doppler shifts associated with the thermal motion of the electrons. On the basis of incoherent backscatter

  8. Global mapping of ionospheric HF\\/VHF radio wave absorption due to solar energetic protons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. Sauer; Daniel C. Wilkinson

    2008-01-01

    (1) Simple, one-parameter algorithms are applied to the observed energetic proton flux as provided by instruments aboard the GOES series of satellites to yield estimates of the high-latitude HF and VHF radio wave absorption for day and night, respectively. These results are extended to full daily coverage by treating the effects of solar illumination, geomagnetic cutoff variation, and frequency dependence

  9. Global mapping of ionospheric HF\\/VHF radio wave absorption due to solar energetic protons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. Sauer; Daniel C. Wilkinson

    2008-01-01

    Simple, one-parameter algorithms are applied to the observed energetic proton flux as provided by instruments aboard the GOES series of satellites to yield estimates of the high-latitude HF and VHF radio wave absorption for day and night, respectively. These results are extended to full daily coverage by treating the effects of solar illumination, geomagnetic cutoff variation, and frequency dependence over

  10. Effects of Birefringence Within Ice Sheets on Obliquely Propagating Radio Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Matsuoka; Larry Wilen; Shawn P. Hurley; Charles F. Raymond

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, effects of birefringence on radio waves obliquely propagating though polar ice sheets are examined to facilitate interpretations of bistatic and side-looking radar data. A formalism applicable for arbitrary radar configurations is developed to predict the returned power from within and beneath the ice sheets that have arbitrary alignments of ice crystals (ice fabrics). We applied this formalism

  11. EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Jenn, David C.

    EFFECTS OF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION IN URBANIZED AREAS ON UAV-GCS COMMAND AND CONTROL Lock Wai Lek In an urban environment, the linkage between UAVs and ground control stations are subjected to multipath multipath can result in a nearly complete loss of command signals, which can limit the UAV's operational

  12. Non-contact prediction of soil moisture profiles using radio wave reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Duane Lee

    Scope and method of study. This study investigated the potential of non-contact measurement of volumetric soil moisture profiles by detecting reflected VHF and UHF radio waves. The investigation included a variability analysis of the dielectric properties of soil, tests to relate volumetric moisture content to dielectric properties, a simulation of radio wave reflection from various profiles, and field trials in which antennas transmitted and received radio waves for detection of the moisture gradient in the soil directly below the instrument. In addition to the measurements, an algorithm was devised to resolve layers of moisture from radio wave reflections of multiple frequencies. Potential applications for such an instrument may include irrigation scheduling, detection of plant stress, and hydrological research. Findings and conclusions. The model that simulated reflection coefficients in the frequency range of 80 MHz to 1 GHz was tested using hypothetical and existent moisture profiles. Results of simulated profiles indicated that reflection coefficients could be used to distinguish between volumetric surface moisture and could detect subsurface moisture to a depth of 45.7 cm. Reflection measurements made in the field trials indicated that linear correlation could be made with volumetric moisture in the top 15.2 cm. The profile restoration algorithm closely predicted simulated surface moisture but had a high failure rate predicting subsurface moisture. Results of the study indicated that reflection coefficients could be used to detect soil moisture at depth, but the restoration algorithm did not effectively resolve moisture layers.

  13. On the noon asymmetry of the diurnal variation of radio wave absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Laštovi?ka; J. Prokop

    1975-01-01

    Summary The assymetry of the diurnal variation of radio-wave ionospheric absorption, measured by the A3 method on the 2775 kHz Kiel — Panská Ves circuit, is studied. Almost full symmetry of absorption is observed in winter and autumn. It is explained by electron concentration variations. A remarkable diurnal asymmetry of absorption is observed in spring and particularly in summer. The

  14. Low-latitude seasonal anomalies in ionospheric absorption of radio waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Shirke; S. N. Pradhan

    1974-01-01

    Ionospheric absorption of radio waves at low latitudes is investigated. ; Harmonic analysis of noon time data from a number of stations shows the annual ; and semiannual periodicities to be important. The annual componert is very weak ; at the geographic equatdr and by 30 deg north latitude increases to a peak ; amplitude of close to 40% of

  15. Application of GPS radio occultation method for observation of the internal waves in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. Liou; A. G. Pavelyev; J. Wickert; S. F. Liu; A. A. Pavelyev; T. Schmidt; K. Igarashi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we show that the amplitude radio occultation (RO) method, which employs high-precision global positioning system (GPS) signals, allows one to determine the vertical gradients of refractivity and monitor wave structures in the atmosphere on a global scale at altitudes ranging from 10 to 40 km. We show that the sensitivity of the RO amplitude data to the

  16. Handbook of radio wave propagation loss (100-10,000 MHz)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Frazier

    1984-01-01

    This handbook is intended to assist in manual analysis techniques that must be used when an automated analysis is not possible. It provides estimates of radio wave propagation loss between transmitting and receiving antennas above the assumed smooth-earth surface that were calculated using the Integrated Propagation System (IPS) computer model. For many cases involving electromagnetic compatibility analysis, the included curves

  17. Handbook of radio wave propagation loss (100-20,000 MHz), part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Frazier

    1989-01-01

    The handbook provides estimates of radio wave propagation loss between transmitting and receiving antennas of various heights and transmission frequencies above the assumed smooth earth surface calculated using the NLAMBDA computer model. For many cases involving electromagnetic compatibility analysis, the curves of predicted transmission losses may be used to estimate the transmission losses of the desired and undesired signals. These

  18. Scintillation Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Paul D.

    ' & $ % The Extraction of Scintillation Statistics from Italsat 50 GHz Beacon Data using Wavelets P wavelet method of wet scintillation extraction, assessing the impact on scintillation statistics to the index i as the dilation level and the index j as the translation index. COST 280 MCM4 10 #12

  19. PHASE AND AMPLITUDE CONTROL OF THE RADIO FREQUENCY WAVE IN THE TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenning, R.W.; Sessler, A.M.

    1985-07-01

    The sensitivity of the radio frequency (rf) wave generated by the free electron laser portion of a Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is analyzed, both analytically and numerically in a 'resonant particle' approximation. It is shown that the phase of the rf wave is strongly dependent upon errors in the wiggler strength and wavelength and upon the electron beam characteristics of energy and current. The resulting phase error is shown to be unacceptable for a TBA, given reasonable errors in various components. A feedback system is proposed which will keep the rf wave phase within acceptable bounds. However, the feedback system is, at best, cumbersome and a simpler system would be desirable.

  20. NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Vainio, Rami, E-mail: uganse@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-06-01

    The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.

  1. Echo power loss with RASS (radio acoustic sounding system) due to defocusing effects by distorted acoustic wave front

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Masuda; J. Awaka; K. Okamoto; T. Tsuda; S. Fukao; S. Kato

    1990-01-01

    We have calculated the intensity of RASS (radio acoustic sounding system) echoes scattered by refractive index fluctuations produced by acoustic waves. Because of temperature changes in the atmosphere, the sound speed decreases in the troposphere and the shape of the acoustic wave front becomes elliptical. When the shape of acoustic wave fronts is significantly distorted from a sphere, the backscattered

  2. Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas.

  3. Poloidal force generation by applied radio frequency waves

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); D'lppolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A theoretical framework is developed for calculating the nonlinear rf forces that can drive sheared poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. It is shown that the rf-induced flow drive can be calculated without first obtaining an explicit result for the nonlinear distribution function. Instead, for modes satisfying the eikonal approximation, the flow drive can be expressed entirely in terms of moments of the linearized plasma responses. The method is applied to obtain explicit results for poloidal force generation for sheared flow drive applications in a hot plasma slab that supports rf waves of arbitrary polarization. The theory is fully electromagnetic and retains k{sub (perpendicular} {sub sign)}{rho}{sub i}{approx}1 (Bessel function) effects for the ion dynamics without approximation. An illustrative application to the ion Bernstein wave is presented. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Detection of fundamental and harmonic type III radio emission and the associated Langmuir waves at the source region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Type III radio emission generated in the vicinity of the Ulysses spacecraft has been detected at both the fundamental and harmonic of the local plasma frequency. The observations represent the first clear evidence of locally generated type III radio emission. This local emission shows no evidence of frequency drift, exhibits a relatively short rise time, is less intense than the observed remotely generated radio emission, and is temporally correlated with observed in situ Langmuir waves. The observations were made with the unified radio astronomy and wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft between 1990 November 4 and 1991 April 30, as it traveled from 1 to 3 AU from the sun. During this time period many thousands of bursts were observed. However, only three examples of local emission and associated Langmuir waves were identified. This supports previous suggestions that type III radio emission is generated in localized regions of the interplanetary medium, rather than uniformly along the extent of the electron exciter beam.

  5. An Overview of Observations by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Roux, A.; Canu, P.; Zarka, P.; Tokarev, Y.

    2001-01-01

    On August 18, 1999, the Cassini spacecraft flew by Earth at an altitude of 1186 km on its way to Saturn. Although the flyby was performed exclusively to provide the spacecraft with sufficient velocity to get to Saturn, the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument, along with several others, was operated to gain valuable calibration data and to validate the operation of a number of capabilities. In addition, an opportunity to study the terrestrial radio and plasma wave environment with a highly capable instrument on a swift fly-through of the magnetosphere was afforded by the encounter. This paper provides an overview of the RPWS observations, at Earth, including the identification of a number of magnetospheric plasma wave modes, an accurate measurement of the plasma density over a significant portion of the trajectory using the natural wave spectrum in addition to a relaxation sounder and Langmuir probe, the detection of natural and human-produced radio emissions, and the validation of the capability to measure the wave normal angle and Poynting flux of whistler-mode chorus emissions. The results include the observation of a double-banded structure at closest' approach including a band of Cerenkov emission bounded by electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies and an electron cyclotron harmonic band just above the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. In the near-Earth plasma sheet, evidence for electron phase space holes is observed, similar to those first reported by Geotail in the magnetotail. The wave normal analysis confirms the Polar result that chorus is generated very close to the magnetic equator and propagates to higher latitudes. The integrated power flux of auroral kilometric radiation is also used to identify a series of substorms observed during the outbound passage through the magnetotail.

  6. Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-10-01

    Mergers of neutron-star/neutron-star binaries are strong sources of gravitational waves. They can also launch subrelativistic and mildly relativistic outflows and are often assumed to be the sources of short ?-ray bursts. An electromagnetic signature that persisted for weeks to months after the event would strengthen any future claim of a detection of gravitational waves. Here we present results of calculations showing that the interaction of mildly relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium produces radio flares with peak emission at 1.4 gigahertz that persist at detectable (submillijansky) levels for weeks, out to a redshift of 0.1. Slower subrelativistic outflows produce flares detectable for years at 150 megahertz, as well as at 1.4 gigahertz, from slightly shorter distances. The radio transient RT 19870422 (ref. 11) has the properties predicted by our model, and its most probable origin is the merger of a compact neutron-star/neutron-star binary. The lack of radio detections usually associated with short ?-ray bursts does not constrain the radio transients that we discuss here (from mildly relativistic and subrelativistic outflows) because short ?-ray burst redshifts are typically >0.1 and the appropriate timescales (longer than weeks) have not been sampled. PMID:21964342

  7. Timing noise of radio pulsars and implications to neutron star's interior structure and gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Xie, Yi

    Abstract: Radio pulsars are the most stable natural clocks in the universe, yet timing irregularities or noises can still be substantial when the times of arrivals of their pulses are fitted with some well accepted spin-down models or templates of pulsars. In this talk, I will review our recent work on modeling the timing noises of radio pulsars. Our model includes a long-term power-law decay modulated by periodic oscillations of the surface magnetic fields of neutron stars. Our model can explain the statistical properties of their timing noises. We find that the spin-down evolutions of young and old pulsars are dominated by the power-law decay and periodic oscillations, respectively. By applying our model to the individual spin-down evolutions of several well-measured radio pulsars, we find evidence for Hall drifts and Hall waves in the crusts of neutron stars. The relaxation behaviors of both classical and slow glitches can also be modeled as evolution of their surface magnetic fields, but with opposite trends. Finally we also attempt to improve the sensitivity of detecting gravitational waves with pulsars by applying our model to reduce the timing residuals of millisecond radio pulsars. Our main publications related to this talk are: 2012, ApJ, 757, 153; 2012, ApJ, 761, 102; 2013, ApJ, 778, 31; arXiv:1307.6413, 1312.3049.

  8. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  11. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  12. Radio wave refraction caused by artificial disturbances of the ionosphere - A numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. B.; Svistunov, K. V.

    The method of trajectory calculations is used to study short-wave propagation in the ionosphere, in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities, due to plasma heating by means of high-power transmissions. It is shown that the refraction caused by the artificial disturbances can result in variations of the radio path distances, the occurrence of ricochet trajectories, and the focusing and defocusing of the radiation.

  13. A millimeter-wave full-duplex WDM\\/SCM fiber-radio access network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Smith; D. Novak; C. Lim

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a 35.5-39.5 GHz full-duplex fiber-radio access network, featuring three WDM carriers in the downstream and a single carrier in the upstream. Each downstream wavelength carries three 155-Mbit\\/s BPSK SCM channels, while upstream there is a 20-Mbit\\/s BPSK RF channel. The mm-wave signals in the down- and upstream fiber links are unaffected by chromatic dispersion. The network demonstration incorporates

  14. Comparisons of temperature profiles from nearby GPS radio occultations over a high wave activity region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Luna; Alejandro de La Torre; P. Alexander; P. Llamedo; Torsten Schmidt; Jens Wickert

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has global coverage and is capable of generating high vertical resolution temperature profiles of the troposphere and lower stratosphere with sub-Kelvin accuracy and long-term stability, regardless of weather conditions. Fluctuations in these profiles give information about gravity waves. COSMIC is a six-satellite RO constellation, launched in April 2006, that performs a

  15. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Zinkann, G.

    2014-01-01

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK.

  16. Spatiotemporal evolution of radio wave pump-induced ionospheric phenomena near the fourth electron gyroharmonic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashrafi; K. Kaila; B. Isham

    2007-01-01

    On 12 November 2001, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) high-frequency (HF) radio wave transmitter facility, operating in O-mode at 5.423 MHz with 550 MW effective radiated power, produced artificial optical rings which appeared immediately at transmitter turn-on and collapsed into blobs after ~60 s while descending in altitude. A similar descent in altitude was observed in the EISCAT ultra high

  17. Spatiotemporal evolution of radio wave pump-induced ionospheric phenomena near the fourth electron gyroharmonic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashrafi; M. J. Kosch; K. Kaila; B. Isham

    2007-01-01

    On 12 November 2001, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) high-frequency (HF) radio wave transmitter facility, operating in O-mode at 5.423 MHz with 550 MW effective radiated power, produced artificial optical rings which appeared immediately at transmitter turn-on and collapsed into blobs after ?60 s while descending in altitude. A similar descent in altitude was observed in the EISCAT ultra high

  18. Fully kinetic particle simulation of radio frequency waves in toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    RF particle simulation has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the RF nonlinear interactions with plasmas. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation. This model has been implemented in a global gyrokinetic toroidal code GTC with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio in cylindrical geometry and verified the linear physics of ion plasma oscillation, ion Bernstein wave, lower hybrid wave and its propagation in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Recently we have verified the linear mode conversion of slow and fast waves in cylindrical geometry. Also we have extended the cyclotron integrator in Boozer coordinates to capture the ion Bernstein, and ion cyclotron modes in toroidal geometry. Our goal is to develop a nonlinear toroidal particle code to study the radio frequency wave heating and current drive in fusion plasmas.

  19. Phase Coupling in Langmuir Wave Packets: Evidence for Four Wave Interactions in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.

  20. Effect exerted by a radio wave electromagnetic field on the rheological properties of water and portland-cement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Koshevar, V. D.; Shkadretsova, V. G.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Orlovich, A. I.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of the regimes of high-frequency (radio wave) electromagnetic treatment of gauging water on the process of structurization and on the technological characteristics of portland-cement systems. It has been established that the radio wave electromagnetic activation of water leads to a reduction in its surface tension, dynamic viscosity, and shear stress, as well as intensifies the formation of coagulation structures in a portlandcement slurry and aids in increasing the mobility of cement-sand mixtures.

  1. Influence of tropical F region in ionosphere on propagation of short radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiytsev, O. P.; Savchenko, P. P.

    1985-05-01

    Tropical ionospheric waveguides in the presence of stratification of the electron concentration maximum were studied. Under these conditions a specific form of vertical electron concentration profile is formed which to a great extent determines the nature and conditions of propagation of short radio waves in the low latitudes. The phase trajectories were computed for a spherically stratified ionosphere. Three approaches for description of the ionospheric waveguide were used: comparative, temporal, latitudinal. Examples of computations are given which show that in a wide spatial-temporal range in the tropical ionosphere there is an additional ionospheric waveguide in which radio waves can be propagated along ricochetting trajectories. At identical time there can be three types of phases trajectories or three types of adjacent channels, each of which is characterized by a definite working frequency and definite conditions for the propagation of radio waves in it. The computations presented give a qualitative representation of the influence of stratification of the electron concentration on the formation, dynamics and degeneration of the additional ionospheric waveguides in the tropical latitudes.

  2. Bispectral Analysis of a Langmuir Wave Packet Associated with a Solar Type III Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, T.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the observations of an intense localized wave packet, obtained by the STEREO spacecraft in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. The FFT spectrum of this wave packet contains a primary peak at the local electron plasma frequency, fpe (Langmuir waves), and two secondary peaks, one at 2fpe (second harmonic) and a second one at 3fpe (third harmonic). The wavelet based time-frequency spectrogram indicates that these spectral peaks are coincident in time. It is found that the bicoherence spectrum, computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis technique contains two peaks, one at (fpe, fpe) and a second one at (2fpe, fpe). The high values of the bicoherences of these spectral peaks, which quantify the phase coherences amongst the harmonic components provide unambiguous evidence for the three wave interactions L + L' -> T2f{pe}, and L + T2f{pe} -> T3f{pe} in the waveform data, where L and L' are the oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and T2f{pe} and T3f{pe} are the second and third harmonic electromagnetic waves, respectively. The peak intensity and short duration of this wave packet, which indicate that it is probably a collapsing soliton formed as a result of oscillating two stream instability (OTSI), strongly suggest that the L and L' probably correspond to the OTSI excited oppositely propagating Langmuir waves.

  3. Theory of sheared flow generation by applied radio frequency waves

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R. [Lodestar Research Corp., 2400 Central Ave. P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); D'Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corp., 2400 Central Ave. P-5, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    1999-09-20

    The possibility of employing rf to generate sheared flows in the edge plasma is of great interest as a means of accessing improved regimes of tokamak confinement. Here, we develop an electromagnetic nonlinear eikonal theory (with k{sub (perpendicular} {sub sign)}{rho}{approx}1 and k/k unrestricted) of the rf force terms which drive poloidal flow. Various cancellations, e.g., amongst parts of the electromagnetic and Reynolds stress terms, are exhibited analytically. At the heart of our calculation is the derivation of the nonlinear kinetic pressure tensor {pi}. A general expression for {pi} is obtained in terms of simple moments of the linear distribution function. In the electrostatic limit, the resulting nonlinear forces are expressible entirely in terms of the linear dielectric susceptibility tensor {chi}. Application to the ion Bernstein wave case, with retention of all Bessel function sums, is presented. Comparison is made to simpler approximate calculations. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Fundamental wave of type III solar radio bursts and whistler waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takakura

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated by a numerical simulation that both the whistler waves and plasma waves are excited by a common solar electron beam. The excitation of the whistler waves is ascribed to the loss-cone distribution which arises at a later phase of the passage of the beam at a given height due to a velocity dispersion in the electron beam

  5. Dynamical evidence for nonlinear Langmuir wave processes in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2014-04-01

    The nonlinear processes and evolution of Langmuir waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts are explored in detail. Langmuir waves recorded by the Time Domain Sampler of the STEREO/WAVES instrument can be roughly classified into six groups based on the waveform, power spectra, and field strength perpendicular to the local magnetic field. It is argued that these groups correspond to either different stages of the evolution of Langmuir waves generated by electron beams or differ due to the direction of the magnetic field relative to the solar wind velocity. Approximately half of the observed Langmuir waves have strong perpendicular fields, meaning that understanding how these fields are produced is crucial for understanding type III sources. Most events recorded are either localized waveforms consistent with Langmuir eigenmodes or have two or more spectral peaks consistent with electrostatic (ES) decay of Langmuir/z mode waves. The remaining events appear to correspond to either earlier or later stages of Langmuir wave evolution or are decay events for which the Doppler shift is insufficient to distinguish the beam-driven and product Langmuir waves. This is supported by the fact that most events exceed the threshold for ES decay even though their spectra show no evidence for decay and some of the events are observed when the solar wind flow is approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field, minimizing Doppler shifting. Low-frequency fields produced by intense Langmuir waves are quantitatively consistent with density perturbations produced by the ponderomotive force, ion-acoustic waves produced by ES decay, or sheath rectification. Above the observed nonlinear threshold, quantitative analysis suggests that the observed low-frequency signals are consistent with perturbations produced by ponderomotive effects and ion-acoustic waves produced by ES decay, but effects of sheath rectification may also contribute.

  6. Discovery of millimetre-wave excess emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Ehud; Baldi, Ranieri D.; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf; Stevens, Jamie; Tzioumis, Tasso

    2015-07-01

    The physical origin of radio emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (RQ AGN) remains unclear, whether it is a downscaled version of the relativistic jets typical of radio-loud (RL) AGN, or whether it originates from the accretion disc. The correlation between 5 GHz and X-ray luminosities of RQ AGN, which follows LR = 10-5LX observed also in stellar coronae, suggests an association of both X-ray and radio sources with the accretion disc corona. Observing RQ AGN at higher (mm-wave) frequencies, where synchrotron self-absorption is diminished, and smaller regions can be probed, is key to exploring this association. Eight RQ AGN, selected based on their high X-ray brightness and variability, were observed at 95 GHz with the CARMA (Combined Array for Research in Millimetre-wave Astronomy) and ATCA (the Australia Telescope Compact Array) telescopes. All targets were detected at the 1-10 mJy level. Emission excess at 95 GHz of up to ×7 is found with respect to archival low-frequency steep spectra, suggesting a compact, optically thick core superimposed on the more extended structures that dominate at low frequencies. Though unresolved, the 95 GHz fluxes imply optically thick source sizes of 10-4-10-3 pc, or ˜10-1000 gravitational radii. The present sources lie tightly along an LR (95 GHz) = 10-4LX (2-10 keV) correlation, analogous to that of stellar coronae and RQ AGN at 5 GHz, while RL AGN are shown to have higher LR/LX ratios. The present observations argue that simultaneous mm-wave and X-ray monitoring of RQ AGN features a promising method for understanding accretion disc coronal emission.

  7. Computational strategy for modeling radio wave propagation in lossy circular waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Ronald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cai, D Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of radio waves in lossy waveguides and tunnels has been researched extensively for many years as can be seen in the detailed book by Wait. The mathematics used to model waveguides for communications is essentially the same as that needed to model radio frequency (RF) propagation in simple tunnels. The presence or lack of conductors inside a waveguide or tunnel is a key driver in the nature of the solutions one will find for a particular application, Delogne. When there are conductors passing through a waveguide or tunnel, the simplest modes of propagation are surface-guided waves following the conductor and typically enabling long-range transmission. A tunnel containing a core conductor can act rather like a coaxial cable, propagating waves at a nearly constant speed, regardless of frequency. Conversely, a tunnel or waveguide without internal conductors is subject to very different wave patterns, resulting in a much more complex propagation analysis. Holloway et al. presented an exhaustive study of RF propagation in circular structures embedded in lossy surroundings. The work of Holloway et al. is the basis for this paper, where we discuss application of their computational techniques and present refinements gleaned from our work on similar problems.

  8. Verification of particle simulation of radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Wang, Z. X.; Lin, Z.; Wessel, F.

    2013-10-01

    Radio frequency (RF) waves can provide heating, current and flow drive, as well as instability control for steady state operations of fusion experiments. A particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the RF nonlinear interactions with plasmas. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation. This model has been implemented in a global gyrokinetic toroidal code using real electron-to-ion mass ratio. To verify the model, linear simulations of ion plasma oscillation, ion Bernstein wave, and lower hybrid wave are carried out in cylindrical geometry and found to agree well with analytic predictions.

  9. Prospects for joint radio telescope and gravitational wave searches for astrophysical transients

    E-print Network

    V. Predoi; J. Clark; T. Creighton; E. Daw; S. Fairhurst; I. S. Heng; J. Kanner; T. Regimbau; P. Shawhan; X. Siemens; P. Sutton; A. Vecchio; D. White; G. Woan

    2009-12-02

    The radio skies remain mostly unobserved when it comes to transient phenomena. The direct detection of gravitational waves will mark a major milestone of modern astronomy, as an entirely new window will open on the universe. Two apparently independent phenomena can be brought together in a coincident effort that has the potential to boost both searches. In this paper we will outline the scientific case that stands behind these future joint observations and will describe the methods that might be used to conduct the searches and analyze the data. The targeted sources are binary systems of compact objects, known to be strong candidate sources for gravitational waves. Detection of transients coincident in these two channels would be a significant smoking gun for first direct detection of gravitational waves, and would open up a new field for characterization of astrophysical transients involving massive compact objects.

  10. High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA); Mizuhara, Yosuke M. (Palo Alto, CA); Schumacher, Richard V. (Sunnyvale, CA); Pendleton, Rand P. (Saratoga, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

  11. Verification of particle simulation of radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Z. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Post Office Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Post Office Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Radio frequency (RF) waves can provide heating, current and flow drive, as well as instability control for steady state operations of fusion experiments. A particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the RF nonlinear interactions with plasmas. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation. This model has been implemented in a global gyrokinetic toroidal code using real electron-to-ion mass ratio. To verify the model, linear simulations of ion plasma oscillation, ion Bernstein wave, and lower hybrid wave are carried out in cylindrical geometry and found to agree well with analytic predictions.

  12. Surface-wave data acquisition and dissemination by VHF packet radio and computer networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, M.; Denton, E.; Frye, D.; Hunt, M.; Montgomery, E.

    1988-04-01

    Waverider buoy data are normally transmitted on a 27 MHz analog radio link to a shore station a few miles away, where the buoy data are plotted on a paper strip-chart recorder or logged digitally for later computer processing. Instead, we have constructed a relay station on Martha's Vineyard island that retransmits the received Waverider data over a digital, 148 MHz packet-radio link a personal computer in our laboratory on Cape Cod, where the data are edited, processed, spectrally analyzed, and then sent over an Ethernet line to our Institution mainframe computer for archiving. Telephone modem access of a special wave-data file on the mainframe permits unattended data dissemination to the public. The report describes the entire system, including Waverider buoy mooring hardware, computer programs, and equipment. The purpose of the project was to learn what difficulties are involved in the automated acquisition and dissemination of telemetered oceanographic data, and to gain experience with packet radio techniques. Although secondary to these purposes, the long-term surface-wave monitoring off the southwest shore of Martha's Vineyard has its own scientific, engineering, and environmental benefits.

  13. Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Todd R; Gerken, Elizabeth A

    2005-02-01

    Generation of artificial light in the sky by means of high-power radio waves interacting with the ionospheric plasma has been envisaged since the early days of radio exploration of the upper atmosphere, with proposed applications ranging from regional night-time street lighting to atmospheric measurements. Weak optical emissions have been produced for decades in such ionospheric 'heating' experiments, where they serve as key indicators of electron acceleration, thermal heating, and other effects of incompletely understood wave-particle interactions in the plasma under conditions difficult to replicate in the laboratory. The extremely low intensities produced previously have, however, required sensitive instrumentation for detection, preventing applications beyond scientific research. Here we report observations of radio-induced optical emissions bright enough to be seen by the naked eye, and produced not in the quiet mid-latitude ionosphere, but in the midst of a pulsating natural aurora. This may open the door to visual applications of ionospheric heating technology or provide a way to probe the dynamics of the natural aurora and magnetosphere. PMID:15690034

  14. Discovery of Millimeter-Wave Excess Emission in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf; Stevens, Jamie; Tzioumis, Tasso

    2015-01-01

    The physical origin of radio emission in Radio Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (RQ AGN) remains unclear, whether it is a downscaled version of the relativistic jets typical of Radio Loud (RL) AGN, or whether it originates from the accretion disk. The correlation between 5 GHz and X-ray luminosities of RQ AGN, which follows $L_R = 10^{-5}L_X$ observed also in stellar coronae, suggests an association of both X-ray and radio sources with the accretion disk corona. Observing RQ AGN at higher (mm-wave) frequencies, where synchrotron self absorption is diminished, and smaller regions can be probed, is key to exploring this association. Eight RQ AGN, selected based on their high X-ray brightness and variability, were observed at 95 GHz with the CARMA and ATCA telescopes. All targets were detected at the $1-10$ mJy level. Emission excess at 95~GHz of up to $\\times 7$ is found with respect to archival low-frequency steep spectra, suggesting a compact, optically-thick core superimposed on the more extended structures that...

  15. HF Radio Wave Propagation in the Ionosphere Observed with the ePOP RRI (Radio Receiver Instrument) -- SuperDARN Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Gillies, R. G.; Ridley, C. G.; Yau, A. W.; McWilliams, K. A.; Sofko, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) scientific payload of the recently launched CSA (Canadian Space Agency) CASSIOPE (Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer) satellite mission and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) of HF radars have successfully executed a number of experiments since the launch of ePOP in late September, 2013. This presentation investigates the propagation delays and timing associated with HF radio waves transversing the plasma in the terrestrial ionosphere. Both the relative and absolute timing of the co-ordinated SuperDARN-RRI experiments will be presented. This knowledge is essential for interpreting HF radio wave propagation effects such as range accuracy, mode-splitting and timing, Doppler shift, and delayed 'echo' signatures, for example.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the group heights of reflection of 150KC radio waves vertically incident on the ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Davids; R. Lindquist

    1952-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical and experimental determination of the group heights of reflection of long radio waves vertically incident on the ionosphere. The theoretically expected group heights for 250-microsecond Gaussian shaped pulses are determined utilizing: (1) a wave theory treatment including coupling, (2) a Chapman-like ionospheric model including all variables and their height variations and (3)a fundamental

  17. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  18. Solar type II radio bursts associated with CME expansions as shown by EUV waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Silva, R. D.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Selhorst, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical conditions of the sources of two metric type II bursts associated with coronal mass ejection (CME) expansions with the aim of verifying the relationship between the shocks and the CMEs by comparing the heights of the radio sources and of the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves associated with the CMEs. Methods: The heights of the EUV waves associated with the events were determined in relation to the wave fronts. The heights of the shocks were estimated by applying two different density models to the frequencies of the type II emissions and compared with the heights of the EUV waves. For the event on 13 June 2010 that included band-splitting, the shock speed was estimated from the frequency drifts of the upper and lower frequency branches of the harmonic lane, taking into account the H/F frequency ratio fH/fF = 2. Exponential fits on the intensity maxima of the frequency branches were more consistent with the morphology of the spectrum of this event. For the event on 6 June 2012 that did not include band-splitting and showed a clear fundamental lane on the spectrum, the shock speed was directly estimated from the frequency drift of the fundamental emission, determined by linear fit on the intensity maxima of the lane. For each event, the most appropriate density model was adopted to estimate the physical parameters of the radio source. Results: The event on 13 June 2010 had a shock speed of 590-810 km s-1, consistent with the average speed of the EUV wave fronts of 610 km s-1. The event on 6 June 2012 had a shock speed of 250-550 km s-1, also consistent with the average speed of the EUV wave fronts of 420 km s-1. For both events, the heights of the EUV wave revealed to be compatible with the heights of the radio source, assuming a radial propagation of the type-II-emitting shock segment.

  19. Review of radio wave for power transmission in medical applications with safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, John; Geddis, Demetris; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.

  20. GEOTAIL Observations of a Moving Type IV Solar Radio Burst, Type III Solar Radio Bursts, Type II Solar Radio Bursts, and Solar Wind and Magnetospheric Plasma Wave Emissions During the May 19-25 Solar Wind Event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Anderson; H. Matsumoto; K. Hashimoto; H. Kojima; I. Nagano; M. L. Kaiser; J. Bougeret

    2002-01-01

    The GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) continuously detected a moving Type IV solar radio burst from 800 kHz down to as low as 400 kHz from May 19-23, 2002. The emissions were almost without vertical structure in contrast to that from the leading edge onsets of the Type III solar radio bursts observed before, during, and after the event. Type

  1. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidojevic, S.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Drazic, M.; Hoang, S.; Atanckovic, O.

    2010-12-01

    Interplanetary electron beams, produced by CMEs and flares, are unstable in the solar wind and generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency (fp) or its harmonic (2fp). Radio observations of the waves in a range of 4 - 256 kHz from the WAVES experiment on-board the WIND spacecraft have been statistically analyzed. From the radio observations starting from November 1994 to the beginning of 2010 a subset of about 180 events, with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurred at the same time, has been selected. In order to exclude events that do not originate directly from the Sun and events that do not coincide with energetic electrons events, we have used measurements of interplanetary magnetic field vector, three-dimensional distribution of supra-thermal electrons and ions and three-dimensional velocity, density and temperature of the solar wind ions -- all taken simultaneously by the four experiments on-board the WIND spacecraft. The measurements allow qualitative analysis of the events which led to the final subset of 36 events that has been selected for this study. In order to remove the background consisting of thermal noise, type III bursts and Galactic background, we have developed a heuristic algorithm based on numerical techniques with a few parameters only. After background has been removed, the remaining power spectral density has been modeled by Pearson system of probability distributions. The coefficients of the probability distributions have been calculated by using two methods: method of moments and maximum likelihood estimation method. We have shown that the probability distributions of the power spectral density of the Langmuir waves belong to the three main types of Pearson probability distributions: type I, type IV and type VI. In order to compare the goodness of the fits, a few statistical tests have been applied, showing for all of the considered events that the Pearson probability distributions fit the data better than the Gaussian ones.

  2. Ultracold atoms in radio-frequency-dressed potentials beyond the rotating wave approximation

    E-print Network

    S. Hofferberth; B. Fischer; T. Schumm; J. Schmiedmayer; I. Lesanovsky

    2007-08-01

    We study dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in an atom chip radio-frequency trap. We show that in this system sufficiently strong dressing can be achieved to cause the widely used rotating wave approximation (RWA) to break down. We present a full calculation of the atom - field coupling which shows that the non-RWA contributions quantitatively alter the shape of the emerging dressed adiabatic potentials. The non-RWA contributions furthermore lead to additional allowed transitions between dressed levels. We use RF spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in the dressed state potentials to directly observe the transition from the RWA to the beyond-RWA regime.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidojevic, S.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Atanackovic, O.; Hoang, S.; Drazic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary electron beams, produced by CMEs and flares, are unstable in the solar wind and generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency (f_p) or its harmonic (2f_p). Radio observations of the waves in the range 4 - 256 kHz from the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft have been statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events has been selected for this study. The background consisting of thermal noise, type III bursts and Galactic background has been removed and the remaining power spectral density has been fitted by Pearsons system of probability distributions. The coefficients of the probability distributions have been calculated by using two methods: method of moments and maximum likelihood estimation method. We have shown that the probability distributions of the power spectral density of the Langmuir waves belong to three different types of Pearsons probability distributions: type I, type IV and type VI. In order to compare the goodness of the fits, a few statistical tests have been applied, showing for all of the considered events that the Pearsons probability distributions fit the data better than the Gaussian ones. This is in contradiction with the Stochastic Growth Theory which predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectral density of the Langmuir waves. The uncertainty analysis that has been performed also goes in favor of the use of Pearsons system of distributions to fit the data.

  4. Forecasting Equatorial Scintillation Activity in Real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, R.; Anderson, D.; Caton, R. G.; Bullett, T. W.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known that the generation of equatorial, F-region plasma density irregularities, via the Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism is critically dependent on the magnitude of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) in upward ExB drift velocity after sunset. These plasma density "bubbles" that are generated after sunset lead to the "scintillation" of trans-ionospheric radio wave signals that pass through these bubbles and is commonly referred to as "scintillation activity". Communication and Navigation systems can be severely disrupted by these plasma density irregularities. A measure of scintillation activity is given by the "S4 Index" and a network of Air Force, ground-based UHF and L-band receivers measuring the S4 Index is called the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) network. This paper describes a technique for automatically forecasting, in real-time, the occurrence or non-occurrence of scintillation activity that relies on real-time data from a ground-based ionospheric sounder at or near the geomagnetic equator. After sunset, the height-rise with time of the bottom-side of the F-layer reflects the magnitude of the upward ExB drift velocity. The value of the ionospheric parameter, h'f (the virtual height of the bottom-side F-layer) at 1930 LT reflects the integrated ExB drift effect on lifting the F-layer to an altitude where the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism becomes important. Incorporating observed h'f values from the Jicamarca, Peru digital sounder at 1930 LT and relating these values to the Total Hourly S4 Index (THS4) observed by the UHF receiver at the Ancon, Peru SCINDA site, it is found that a "threshold" in h'f exists below which, THS4 < 1 (no scintillation activity) and above which THS4 > 1 (scintillation activity). Examples of Jicamarca sounder observations and h'f values prior to the onset of scintillation activity are given. We present results that describe how the threshold value of h'f changes with solar cycle activity and how these results have been incorporated into a real-time capability for automatically forecasting scintillation activity that is available on Google Earth to all interested parties.

  5. Radio Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tenenbaum, David

    This article is a Why Files short piece on how astronomers use information from radio astronomy. Contrary to popular belief, large radio telescopes are not looking for signs of life outside our solar system, but are making images of black holes, centers of galaxies, and gamma ray bursts. These phenomena cannot be seen in visible light, but emit radio waves which can be translated into images. The article discusses how this process works, and the information gathered from radio waves.

  6. High Power Radio Wave Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we have seen a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We have identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  7. Solar type II radio bursts associated with CME expansions as shown by EUV waves

    E-print Network

    Cunha-Silva, R D; Selhorst, C L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the sources of two metric Type-II bursts associated with CME expansions with the aim of verifying the relationship between the shocks and the CMEs, comparing the heights of the radio sources and the heights of the EUV waves associated with the CMEs. The heights of the EUV waves associated with the events were determined in relation to the wave fronts. The heights of the shocks were estimated by applying two different density models to the frequencies of the Type-II emissions and compared with the heights of the EUV waves. For the 13 June 2010 event, with band-splitting, the shock speed was estimated from the frequency drifts of the upper and lower branches of the harmonic lane, taking into account the H/F frequency ratio fH/fF = 2. Exponential fits on the intensity maxima of the branches revealed to be more consistent with the morphology of the spectrum of this event. For the 6 June 2012 event, with no band-splitting and with a clear fundamental lane on the spectrum, ...

  8. Radio occultation measurements and MGCM simulations of Kelvin waves on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, D. P.; Pätzold, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Häusler, B.; Tellmann, S.; Tyler, G. L.

    2008-01-01

    We have derived new results concerning thermal tides on Mars from a combination of radio occultation measurements and numerical simulations by a Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). This investigation exploits a set of concurrent observations by Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in mid-2004, when the season on Mars was midspring in the northern hemisphere. The MEX occultations sampled the atmosphere near the evening terminator at latitudes ranging from 54° N to 15° S. The MGS occultations provided complementary coverage near the morning terminator at latitudes of 35° N and 71° S. The geopotential field derived from these measurements contains distinctive modulation caused by solar-asynchronous thermal tides. Through careful analysis of the combined observations, we characterized two prominent wave modes, obtaining direct solutions for some properties, such as the amplitude and phase, as well as constraints on others, such as the period, zonal wave number, and meridional structure. We supplemented these observations with MGCM simulations. After evaluating the performance of the MGCM against the measurements, we used the validated simulation to deduce the identity of the two tidal modes and to explore their behavior. One mode is a semidiurnal Kelvin wave with a zonal wave number of 2 (SK2), while the other is a diurnal Kelvin wave with a zonal wave number of 1 (DK1). Both modes are known to be close to resonance in the martian atmosphere. Our observations of the SK2 are more complete and less ambiguous than any previous measurement. The well-known DK1 is the dominant solar-asynchronous tide in the martian atmosphere, and our results confirm and extend previous observations by diverse instruments.

  9. Time-resolved photo and radio-luminescence studies demonstrate the possibility of using InGaN/GaN quantum wells as fast scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the recent publication by Hospodková et al, the authors investigate III-N quantum well structures as potential fast scintillators (Hospodková et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 455501). The InGaN/GaN quantum well structures are grown using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate and the fast carrier decay times are characterized by time resolved photo and radioluminescence.

  10. Radio Occultation Measurements of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Kelvin Waves on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, David P.; Pätzold, M.; Wilson, R. J.

    2006-09-01

    The Radio Science (RS) investigations of both Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) include radio occultation experiments that sound the neutral atmosphere from the surface to an altitude of 40-50 km. Each experiment yields profiles of temperature and geopotential versus pressure with a vertical resolution of <1; km. We are using selected data from these RS experiments along with simulations by the GFDL Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to investigate thermal tides on Mars. During June-July 2004, MEX occultations sounded the atmosphere at latitudes of 40°N to 20°S during midspring of the northern hemisphere (Ls = 40°-70°) at a fixed local time of 1700. Simultaneous MGS occultations provided complementary results near 35°N at a fixed local time of 0400. Geopotential measurements at these two local times contain distinctive modulation caused by solar-asynchronous thermal tides, including both diurnal and semidiurnal components. Through MGCM simulations of the observed zonal, meridional, and vertical structure, we identify two eastward-propagating tidal modes. Both appear to be Kelvin waves. One has a diurnal period and a zonal wave number of 1 (DK1), and the other has a semidiurnal period and a zonal wave number of 2 (SK2). These are the most direct observations to date of the SK2 mode in the lower atmosphere. Its amplitude increases steadily with increasing height, resulting in large zonal variations of density at aerobraking altitudes (110-160 km) [e.g., Withers et al., Icarus, 164, 14-32, 2003].

  11. Scintillating Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Riddle

    2003-02-01

    Often, a bright planet that is visible over the horizon will be mistaken for a star. Some believe they can tell the difference between a star and a planet because stars twinkle, or scintillate , and planets do not. In actuality however, both will twinkle because any light that passes through our atmosphere, whether it be reflected from a planet or generated by a star, will be interfered with by the atmospheric elements. This month's column sheds light on this "scintillating" subject and engages students in a research activity that revolves around the question: Is Pluto a planet?

  12. Dispersion effects of FBG filter and optical SSB filtering in DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-Ichi Kitayama; Toshiaki Kuri; Kiyoshi Onohara; Tomotada Kamisaka; Kiyotaka Murashima

    2002-01-01

    We study the optical filtering technique for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) channel allocation of millimeter-wave fiber-radio signals in the optical double-sideband (DSB) format. First, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally the dispersion effect of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) used as the filter on DWDM millimeter-wave optical signal transmissions. This result suggests that the dispersion effect has to be considered

  13. Centralized Lightwave Radio-Over-Fiber System With Photonic Frequency Quadrupling for High-Frequency Millimeter-Wave Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Yu; Zhensheng Jia; Ting Wang; Gee Kung Chang

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a novel radio-over-fiber architecture to reduce the system cost at both central office (CO) and base station (BS). In this architecture, by incorporating the proper dc bias and optical filtering techniques in CO, the optical millimeter- wave (mm-wave) carriers are generated with four times frequency of the local oscillator signal. The BS is simplified by using the

  14. Global morphology of ionospheric scintillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Aarons

    1982-01-01

    A radio wave traversing the upper and lower atmosphere of the earth suffers a distortion of phase and amplitude. When it traverses drifting ionospheric irregularities, the radio wave experiences fading and phase fluctuation which vary widely with frequency, magnetic and solar activity, time of day, season, and latitude. This review has the objective to organize the experimental and theoretical studies

  15. The Quasi-periodic Occurrence of Solar Radio Bursts, Auroral Kilometric Radiation, and Other Plasma Wave Phenomena Observed by the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Anderson; I. Nagano; S. Yagitani; H. Matsumoto; K. Hashimoto; H. Kojima; H. Takano

    2004-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are among the most common phenomena observed by the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Investigation in more than eleven years of operation. The occurrence of Type III bursts, generated in the solar wind by energetic electrons ejected from the sun by solar flares, varies from less than one per day to nearly

  16. The quasi-periodic occurrence of Type III solar radio bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and other plasma wave phenomena observed by the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Anderson; I. Nagano; S. Yagitani; H. Matsumoto; K. Hashimoto; H. Kojima; M. G. Henderson; M. F. Thomsen; G. D. Reeves

    2004-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are among the most common phenomena observed by the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) in nearly twelve years of operation. The occurrence of Type III bursts, generated in the solar corona and solar wind at the fundamental and harmonics of the local electron plasma frequency by energetic electrons ejected from

  17. Radio Echoes observed during Auroræ and Terrestrial Magnetic Storms using 35 and 74 Mc.\\/s. Waves Simultaneously

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Harang; B. Landmark

    1953-01-01

    IN an undisturbed and extended ionosphere, the maximum value of the frequency of radio waves which can be reflected by regular refraction processes is determined by the maximum electron density of the layer. The maximum value of the critical frequency at vertical incidence seldom exceeds 15 Mc.\\/s.

  18. The effect of the troposphere on radio wave propagation in a ground-satellite-ground communications system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ogulewicz

    1979-01-01

    The principal effects of the troposphere on radio wave propagation at centimeter wavelengths are described, with emphasis on space communications systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. These effects include: absorption by atmospheric gases, absorption and scattering by hydrometeors, noise emission from absorbing media, antenna beam divergence due to normal refraction, slow fading due to large-scale variations of refractive index,

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSIVENESS OF MICE IRRADIATED WITH CONTINUOUS WAVE OR PULSE-MODULATED 425-MHZ RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of female BALB/C mice were irradiated with 425-MHz radio frequency (RF) radiation either continuous wave (CW) or pulse modulated (PM, 1-ms pulse width, 250 pulses/s). Mice were irradiated in a rectangular strip-transmission line at average forward powers of 78, 17.7, or 5 ...

  20. Wavelength dependence in radio-wave scattering and specular-point theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Radio-wave scattering from natural surfaces contains a strong quasispecular component that at fixed wavelengths is consistent with specular-point theory, but often has a strong wavelength dependence that is not predicted by physical optics calculations under the usual limitations of specular-point models. Wavelength dependence can be introduced by a physical approximation that preserves the specular-point assumptions with respect to the radii of curvature of a fictitious, effective scattering surface obtained by smoothing the actual surface. A uniform low-pass filter model of the scattering process yields explicit results for the effective surface roughness versus wavelength. Interpretation of experimental results from planetary surfaces indicates that the asymptotic surface height spectral densities fall at least as fast as an inverse cube of spatial frequency. Asymptotic spectral densities for Mars and portions of the lunar surface evidently decrease more rapidly.

  1. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown. PMID:19811403

  2. The radio source counts at 15 GHz and their implications for cm-wave CMB imaging

    E-print Network

    Angela C. Taylor; Keith Grainge; Michael E. Jones; G. G. Pooley; Richard Saunders; E. M. Waldram

    2001-02-28

    We present the preliminary results of a new survey of radio sources using the Ryle telescope at 15.2 GHz. This is the highest frequency at which a survey has been done that is relevant to the issue of radio source contamination in CMB experiments. The differential source count of the 66 sources found in 63 sqdeg is 80(S/Jy)^-2 /Jy/sr from about 20 to 500 mJy. Extrapolating this to 34 GHz (where many cm-wave CMB experiments operate) gives an estimated temperature contribution from sources of 9 microK in a CMB image, with a beam corresponding to multipole l=500. A means of source subtraction is evidently necessary, otherwise the signal-to-noise ratio in CMB images will be limited to 4 or 5, becoming worse at higher resolution. We compare the population of sources observed in this new survey to that predicted by extrapolation from lower frequency surveys, finding that source fluxes, and indeed the existence of many sources, cannot be determined by extrapolation.

  3. FDTD analysis of ELF radio waves propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Volodymyr; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    We developed an FDTD model of electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. We present the results of FDTD calculations assuming axisymmetric system with the source located at the north pole and with no dependence on azimuthal coordinate. Therefore we reduced the Maxwell equations to 2D spherical system of Maxwell equations. To model the conductivity profile of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide we used two models, namely one- and two-exponential profiles [Mushtak and Williams, 2002]. The day-night asymmetry was introduced by setting different model parameters for the north and south hemispheres. The ground was modeled as a perfect electric conductor. Also the upper boundary for the model was a perfect conductor but it was placed at a high enough altitude to make sure there is no reflection of the waves from this boundary. We obtained the results for the electric and magnetic field components of the propagating wave in the time and frequency domains and for various locations on Earth along the meridian. In the time domain we analyzed the evolution of the electric and magnetic field components of the radio wave generated by lighting for different probe position, the penetration of the ionosphere by the electromagnetic waves and the reflection of the waves on the terminator. In the frequency domain we analyzed the Schumann resonance spectra in different field components for different location in the computational space, the behavior of the Poynting vector and the wave impedance. We also calculated real and imaginary parts of the characteristic electric and magnetic altitudes for the daytime and nighttime ionosphere. The analysis in the frequency domain was performed up to 1 kHz. We compared the results of numerical calculations with our analytical model and found a reasonably good agreement between them. The results can be used in the analysis of global thunderstorm activity based on measurements of Schumann resonance spectra. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the National Science Centre grant 2012/04/M/ST10/00565. The numerical computations were done using the PL-Grid infrastructure.

  4. Determining radio wave delay by non-hydrostatic atmospheric modelling of water vapour over mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webley, P. W.; Wadge, G.; James, I. N.

    Meteorological modelling of tropospheric water vapour over and around Mount Etna, Sicily is used to determine the atmospheric delay on radio waves used in synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR). The model, NH3D, is used to simulate a non-hydrostatic three-dimensional representation of the troposphere over and around Mount Etna. It has radiative lateral boundary conditions, a bottom boundary derived from a 30? DEM of Sicily and an `absorption' layer above 10 km to act as a non-reflective upper boundary. The simulations have a horizontal spatial resolution of 1.7 km over a domain of 180 km and 30 vertical levels. Water vapour is treated as a passive tracer and the model diagnostics include three-dimensional fields of specific humidity, wind speed and the column integrated water vapour (IWV). The IWV results from the NH3D models are converted to equivalent delays in radio wave propagation at the time of radar imaging by the ERS-2 satellite. Initialisation of the model uses data from radiosonde launches or numerical weather prediction (NWP) model output. Results are sensitive to the source and timing of these initialisations, particularly when frontal systems are involved. Six water vapour delay difference fields are simulated and compared to the differential interferogram for the 6th September-11th October 2000. The field initialised by NWP data closest in space and time to the radar acquisitions best represents the interferogram. The NWP initialisations will generally give more opportunity to get the initial conditions close to the optimum.

  5. Developments in photonic and mm-wave component technology for fiber radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezekiel, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    A review of photonic component technology for fiber radio applications at 60 GHz will be given. We will focus on two architectures: (i) baseband-over-fiber and (ii) RF-over-fiber. In the first approach, up-conversion to 60 GHz is performed at the picocell base stations, with data being transported over fiber, while in the second both the data and rum­ wave carrier are transported over fiber. For the baseband-over-fiber scheme, we examine techniques to improve the modulation efficiency of directly­ modulated fiber links. These are based on traveling-wave structures applied to series cascades of lasers. This approach combines the improvement in differential quantum efficiency with the ability to tailor impedance matching as required. In addition, we report on various base station transceiver architectures based on optically-controlled :tvfMIC self­ oscillating mixers, and their application to 60 GHz fiber radio. This approach allows low cost optoelectronic transceivers to be used for the baseband fiber link, whilst minimizing the impact of dispersion. For the RF-over-fiber scheme, we report on schemes for optical generation of 100 GHz. These use modulation of a Mach-Zehnder modulator at V? bias in cascade with a Mach-Zehnder driven by 1.25 Gb/s data. One of the issues in RF-over-fiber is dispersion, while reduced modulation efficiency due to the presence of the optical carrier is also problematic. We examine the use of silicon nitride micro-ring resonators for the production of optical single sideband modulation in order to combat dispersion, and for the reduction of optical carrier power in order to improve link modulation efficiency.

  6. Investigating raindrop shapes, oscillation modes, and implications for radio wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurai, M.; Bringi, V. N.; Mani?, A. B.; Å ekelji?, N. J.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2014-10-01

    Studies of raindrop shapes, oscillation modes, and implications for radio wave propagation are presented. Drop shape measurements in natural rain using 2-D video disdrometers (2DVDs) are discussed. As a representative exception to vast majority of the cases where the "most probable" shapes conform to the axisymmetric (2,0) oscillation mode, an event with a highly organized line convection embedded within a larger rain system is studied. Measurements using two collocated 2DVD instruments and a C-band polarimetric radar clearly show the occurrence of mixed-mode drop oscillations within the line, which in turn is attributed to sustained drop collisions. Moreover, the fraction of asymmetric drops determined from the 2DVD camera data increases with the calculated collision probability when examined as time series. Recent wind-tunnel experiments of drop collisions are also discussed. They show mixed-mode oscillations, with (2,1) and (2,2) modes dramatically increasing in oscillation amplitudes, in addition to the (2,0) mode, immediately upon collision. The damping time constant of the perturbation caused by the collision is comparable to the inverse of the collision frequency within the line convection. Scattering calculations using an advanced method of moments numerical technique are performed to accurately and efficiently determine the pertinent parameters of electrically large oscillating raindrops with asymmetric shapes needed for radio wave propagation. The simulations show that the scattering matrix and differential reflectivity of drops are dependent on the particular oscillation modes and different time instants within the oscillation cycle. The technique can be utilized in conjunction with 3-D reconstruction of drop shapes from 2DVD data.

  7. Applications of a travelling wave-based radio-frequency-only stacked ring ion guide.

    PubMed

    Giles, Kevin; Pringle, Steven D; Worthington, Kenneth R; Little, David; Wildgoose, Jason L; Bateman, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    The use of radio-frequency (RF)-only ion guides for efficient transport of ions through regions of a mass spectrometer where the background gas pressure is relatively high is widespread in present instrumentation. Whilst multiple collisions between ions and the background gas can be beneficial, for example in inducing fragmentation and/or decreasing the spread in ion energies, the resultant reduction of ion axial velocity can be detrimental in modes of operation where a rapidly changing influx of ions to the gas-filled ion guide needs to be reproduced at the exit. In general, the RF-only ion guides presently in use are based on multipole rod sets. Here we report investigations into a new mode of ion propulsion within an RF ion guide based on a stack of ring electrodes. Ion propulsion is produced by superimposing a voltage pulse on the confining RF of an electrode and then moving the pulse to an adjacent electrode and so on along the guide to provide a travelling voltage wave on which the ions can surf. Through appropriate choice of the travelling wave pulse height, velocity and gas pressure it will be shown that the stacked ring ion guide with the travelling wave is effective as a collision cell in a tandem mass spectrometer where fast mass scanning or switching is required, as an ion mobility separator at pressures around 0.2 mbar, as an ion delivery device for enhancement of duty cycle on an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass analyser, and as an ion fragmentation device at higher wave velocities. PMID:15386629

  8. High Latitude Scintillation Monitoring at UHF with the COMMX Experiment on TACSat4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Akins, K.; Nurnberger, M.

    2013-12-01

    UHF Beacon Transmissions at 253 MHz have provided high latitude scintillation monitoring from Gakona Alaska using the COMMX instrument on TACSat4. TACSat4 was constructed by the Naval Research Laboratory and was launched in September 2011 as an experimental communications satellite. Ground UHF transmissions are uplinked to TACSat4 using the 4 meter diameter antenna deployed to view the earth. These signals are coherently translated to other UHF frequency to be rebroadcast to the ground. Scintillation monitoring is achieved by taking the 401.25 MHz signals from ground DORIS beacons located in Cold Bay, Alaska; Yellowknife, Canada; Kauai, Hawaii; and Soccoro Island, Mexico. These signals are translated to 253 MHz and broadcast with the 4 meter antenna pointed to the UHF receiver located at Gakona, Alaska. The satellite antenna gain is 18 dB in this UHF band and the transmitter power is 2 Watts. The satellite is in an elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63 degrees and a perigee of 12,000 km. Doppler frequency shifts allow separation of each uplink from the ground DORIS beacons. This new scintillation monitoring system has been used to detect natural and artificial field aligned irregularity effects on the amplitude and phase of UHF carriers where typical scintillation amplitudes are 2dB or less. Using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska, TACSat4 was used to discover the artificial ionization clouds produce scintillation with as much as 16 dB and amplitude indices S4 greater than unity. This is the first demonstration of significant effects on radio scintillations using high power HF radio waves to disturb the ionosphere.

  9. An Evaluation of a Numerical Prediction Method for Electric Field Strength of Low Frequency Radio Waves based on Wave-Hop Ionospheric Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitauchi, H.; Nozaki, K.; Ito, H.; Kondo, T.; Tsuchiya, S.; Imamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ishii, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present our recent efforts on an evaluation of the numerical prediction method of electric field strength for ionospheric propagation of low frequency (LF) radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012), "Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz," made by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). As part of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE), we conduct on-board measurements of the electric field strengths and phases of LF 40 kHz and 60 kHz of radio signals (call sign JJY) continuously along both the ways between Tokyo, Japan and Syowa Station, the Japanese Antarctic station, at 69° 00' S, 39° 35' E on East Ongul Island, Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The measurements are made by a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system installed on board the Japanese Antarctic research vessel (RV) Shirase. We obtained new data sets of the electric field strength up to approximately 13,000-14,000 km propagation of LF JJY 40 kHz and 60 kHz radio waves by utilizing a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system, comprised of an orthogonally crossed double-loop antenna and digital-signal-processing lock-in amplifiers, on board RV Shirase during the 55th JARE from November 2013 to April 2014. We have made comparisons between those on-board measurements and the numerical predictions of field strength for long-range propagation of low frequency radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012) to show that our results qualitatively support the recommended wave-hop theory for the great-circle paths approximately 7,000-8,000 km and 13,000-14,000 km propagations.

  10. Observation of Beat Oscillation Generation by Coupled Waves Associated with Parametric Decay during Radio Frequency Wave Heating of a Spherical Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hanashima, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Takuya [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Tojo, Hiroshi [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); An, Byung Il; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Wakatsuki, Takuma [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kasahara, Hiroshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  11. Wave activity at ionospheric heights above the Andes Mountains detected from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, A.; Alexander, P.; Llamedo, P.; Hierro, R.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    2014-03-01

    An estimation of the ionospheric wave activity, derived from 4 years of FORMOSAT-3/ COSMIC GPS (Taiwan's Formosa Satellite Mission 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology—Global Positioning System) radio occultation electron density data, is presented. A systematic enhancement at the eastern side of the Andes range with respect to the western side is observed. A fitting method to remove the wavelike component from each measured profile and estimate the wave activity is described. The differential effect introduced by the action of orography on the generation, to the eastern side of the Andes, of mountain waves, deep convection waves, or even secondary waves aloft after momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere, is suggested.

  12. Forecasting Ionospheric Real-time Scintillation Tool (FIRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Redmon, R.; Bullett, T.; Caton, R. G.; Retterer, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    It is well-known that the generation of equatorial, F-region plasma density irregularities, via the Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism is critically dependent on the magnitude of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) in upward ExB drift velocity after sunset. These plasma density bubbles that are generated after sunset lead to the scintillation of trans-ionospheric radio wave signals that pass through these bubbles and is commonly referred to as scintillation activity. Communication and Navigation systems can be severely disrupted by these plasma density irregularities. A measure of scintillation activity is given by the S4 Index and a network of Air Force, ground-based UHF and L-band receivers measuring the S4 Index is called the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) network. After sunset, the height-rise with time of the bottom- side of the F-layer reflects the magnitude of the upward ExB drift velocity. The value of the ionospheric parameter, h'F (the virtual height of the bottom-side F-layer) at 1930 LT reflects the integrated ExB drift effect on lifting the F-layer to an altitude where the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability mechanism becomes important. It is found that there exists a threshold in the h'F value at 1930 LT and the onset of scintillation activity as measured by the S4 Index value in the Peruvian longitude sector. This h'F threshold value is found to decrease with decreasing F10.7 cm fluxes in a linear manner (R = 0.99). T o examine this relationship, theoretically, we incorporate a suite of first-principle models of the ambient ionosphere (PBMOD) developed at the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) to investigate R-T growth rates and threshold h'F (1930 LT) values as a function of solar cycle activity. In addition, this paper describes a technique for automatically forecasting, in real-time, the occurrence or non-occurrence of scintillation activity that relies on real-time data from a ground-based ionospheric sounder at or near the geomagnetic equator. We describe how FIRST has been developed into a real-time capability for automatically forecasting scintillation activity that is available on Google Earth to all interested parties.

  13. Evidence of long-term correlation between clear-air attenuation and scintillation in microwave and millimeter-wave satellite links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Silvio Marzano; Carlo Riva

    1999-01-01

    Long-term correlation between microwave scintillation and path attenuation in clear-air troposphere is quantitatively evaluated carrying out a numerical and experimental analysis on a monthly basis. Amplitude scintillation variance is simulated by means of a weak-fluctuation propagation model, while path attenuation is obtained from ground-based brightness temperature data using a radiative transfer model. Both the scintillation and radiative transfer models are

  14. Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Luo, Y.; Paskvan, D.; Perry, A.; Schrage, D.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Sommer, R.; Toter, W.; Zinkann, G.

    2012-11-01

    The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW) RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75?? was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE) copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O5+ ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.

  15. A theory for narrow-banded radio bursts at Uranus - MHD surface waves as an energy driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A possible scenario for the generation of the narrow-banded radio bursts detected at Uranus by the Voyager 2 planetary radio astronomy experiment is described. In order to account for the emission burstiness which occurs on time scales of hundreds of milliseconds, it is proposed that ULF magnetic surface turbulence generated at the frontside magnetopause propagates down the open/closed field line boundary and mode-converts to kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) deep within the polar cusp. The oscillating KAW potentials then drive a transient electron stream that creates the bursty radio emission. To substantiate these ideas, Voyager 2 magnetometer measurements of enhanced ULF magnetic activity at the frontside magnetopause are shown. It is demonstrated analytically that such magnetic turbulence should mode-convert deep in the cusp at a radial distance of 3 RU.

  16. Study of electron content depletions associated with amplitude scintillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. S. Rama Rao; B. V. Ramana Rao; D. S. V. V. D. Prasad

    1988-01-01

    Faraday rotation data on scintillations obtained using VHF radio beacon signals at 136 MHz from the ERS-II and Sirio satellites for 1980 and 1983-1984 are used to study TEC depletions associated with scintillations. Consideration is given to the diurnal, seasonal, and solar cycle variations in the parameters of these TEC depletions. Variations in the occurrence, durations, and amplitudes of depeletions

  17. Radio-Frequency Wave Excitation and Damping on a High Beta Plasma Column.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuth, Hermann

    Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k(,z) are investigated on the High-Beta Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T (GREATERTHEQ) 200 eV, n (DBLTURN) 10('15)cm('-3)) fast rising (0.4 (mu)s) compression field. The (k(,z) = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MWatt, 1 to 1.3-MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k(,z) = 0.314 cm('-1)). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k (NOT=) 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. In the first case, the damping is determined from the e-folding time of the decaying oscillations. In the latter case, the phases and amplitudes indicate a broad resonance structure, from which we extract the damping constant. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements. We compare these experimental results with damping phenomena as predicted by MHD-like collisional (viscous) and collisionless (ion-Landau and cyclotron) damping models. It is found that the viscous model overestimates the observed (k = 0) damping by at least an order of magnitude, while both the viscous and kinetic models underestimate the (k (NOT=) 0) damping by at least an order of magnitude. The characteristic and resonant frequencies, as well as the oscillatory radial mode structure, can be understood within the ideal MHD description. The experimentally observed damping and wave-energy deposition are consistent with the magnitude of the density oscillations. The efficiency of the RF energy deposition is at least 27%, somewhat exceeding that observed in other high-beta magnetoacoustic experiments.

  18. In-flight calibration of the Cassini-Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) antenna system for direction-finding and

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    In-flight calibration of the Cassini-Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) antenna system objective of the Cassini mission is the analysis of Saturnian radio emissions of magnetospheric (auroral orientation and length information). For that purpose, roll maneuvers of the Cassini spacecraft were performed

  19. Optical Front-Ends to Generate Optical Millimeter-Wave Signal in Radio-Over-Fiber Systems With Different Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Chen; Shuangchun C. Wen; Ying Li; Jing He; Hong Wen; Yufeng Shao; Ze Dong; Yazhi Pi

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated three different optical front-ends to implement in wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (ROF) networks to minimize the cost of the ROF system. When the number of WDM channels is small, such as smaller than four channels, the simplest front-end to generate WDM optical millimeter (mm)-wave signals is to use only broadband direct-modulation laser (DML) for each

  20. Radio-electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldin, Viktor A.; Gorgonov, Gennadii I.; Konovalov, Viktor D.; Kurilov, N. N.; Levonchuk, V. V.

    The fundamentals of radio electronics are first elaborated, with attention given to the principles of circuits and signals, semiconductor devices, computing techniques, radio transmitters and receivers, and wave propagation. The principles of operation of onboard radio-electronic devices are then described, with emphasis on radio communication systems, radar systems, radio navigation systems, radio control systems, and electronic countermeasures. The maintenance of radio-electronic devices is also discussed.

  1. GPS and ionospheric scintillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kintner; B. M. Ledvina; E. R. de Paula

    2007-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillations are one of the earliest known effects of space weather. Caused by ionization density irregularities, scintillating signals change phase unexpectedly and vary rapidly in amplitude. GPS signals are vulnerable to ionospheric irregularities and scintillate with amplitude variations exceeding 20 dB. GPS is a weak signal system and scintillations can interrupt or degrade GPS receiver operation. For individual signals,

  2. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches the F _{_2} layer critical frequency. High-power periodic radio transmissions are capable of enhancing/damping natural wave perturbations generated by the solar terminator. 3. The study has demonstrated that the generation and propagation of AGWs with periods close to the natural oscillation periods of the atmosphere is possible. The duration of AGW oscillation trains does not dependent on the duration of turn-on/-off trains, but it is determined by changes in the current state of the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system in general. The period of the AGW oscillation trains is determined by the period or semi-period of the pumping. It means that the mechanism of AGW generation in this case is distinct from the agreed-upon mechanism developed earlier. The AGWs, whose periods are 5 - 10% greater than the Brunt-Vaisala period, exhibit group velocities less than the speed of sound that is of about 80 - 160 m/s. They induce electron density perturbations of about 1.1 - 1.5%. The AGW generation has the following features. When the effective radiated power (ERP) is 50 MW or less, AGWs are not detected; they are reliably observed when the ERP is equal or larger than about 100 MW. Geomagnetic storms play a dual role in the AGW generation because they: (i) increase amplitudes of AGWs with 4 - 6-min and 8 - 12-min periods and (ii) yet enhance background oscillations. The latter hampers the identification of the HF-induced oscillations. Moderate magnetic storms do not markedly exert an influence on the amplitudes of oscillations with 13 - 17-min periods. 4. The quasi-periodic variations in the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field with 8 - 12-min periods become observable near Kharkiv 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 40 - 90 min in duration when the [5-min on, 5-min off] or [10-min on, 10-min off] heater timing is used. The 12 - 18-min period variations become observable 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 55 - 90 min in duration when the

  3. Long-Range Transhorizon Lunar Surface Radio Wave Propagation in the Presence of a Regolith and a Sparse Exospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Long-range, over-the-horizon (transhorizon) radio wave propagation is considered for the case of the Moon. In the event that relay satellites are not available or otherwise unwarranted for use, transhorizon communication provides for a contingency or backup option for non line-of-sight lunar surface exploration scenarios. Two potential low-frequency propagation mechanisms characteristic of the lunar landscape are the lunar regolith and the photoelectron induced plasma exosphere enveloping the Moon. Although it was hoped that the regolith would provide for a spherical waveguide which could support a trapped surface wave phenomena, it is found that, in most cases, the regolith is deleterious to long range radio wave propagation. However, the presence of the plasma of the lunar exosphere supports wave propagation and, in fact, surpasses the attenuation of the regolith. Given the models of the regolith and exosphere adopted here, it is recommended that a frequency of 1 MHz be considered for low rate data transmission along the lunar surface. It is also recommended that further research be done to capture the descriptive physics of the regolith and the exospheric plasma so that a more complete model can be obtained. This comprehensive theoretical study is based entirely on first principles and the mathematical techniques needed are developed as required; it is self-contained and should not require the use of outside resources for its understanding.

  4. Plasma wave phenomena at interplanetary shocks observed by the Ulysses URAP experiment. [Unified Radio and Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.

  5. Identification and radio vision of the vertical structure of the layers and wave activity in the atmoshere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Pavelyev; Kefei, Zhang; Vladimir, Gubenko; Erjiang, Fu; Chuan-Sheng, Wang; Yuei-An, Liou; Yuriy, Kuleshov

    2010-05-01

    Identification and radio vision of the vertical structure of the layers and wave activity in the atmosphere Alexander Pavelyev, Vladimir Gubenko Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Russia Kefei Zhang, Erjiang Fu and Chuan-Sheng Wang School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia Yuei-An Liou Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research (CSRSR), National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan Yuriy Kuleshov National Climate Centre, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia From an analysis of the CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload, Germany) and the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (FORMOSA Satellite Constellation Observing Systems for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate mission, USA -Taiwan) satellite data it follows that the second-order time derivative of the eikonal (eikonal acceleration) and the Doppler frequency shift are two most important parameters indispensable for the radio vision of layers in the atmosphere and the ionosphere. Measurements of the temporal evolution of the Doppler shift permit one to study the vertical structure of the atmosphere under the condition of its spherical symmetry. Analysis of the amplitude and phase of interrelated variations in the eikonal acceleration and radio-wave intensity permits one to detect and identify the layers in the atmosphere and ionosphere. Therefore the eikonal acceleration/intensity technique can be applied to separate the influence of layered structures from contributions of irregularities and turbulence in the atmosphere. In many cases the layered structures in the atmosphere indicate quasi-periodical altitude dependence that reveals their wave origin. The altitude profile of the vertical gradient of refractivity in the layered structures can be used to find the main characteristics of the internal wave activity with a global coverage. When the type of internal waves are not known, the height dependence of the vertical gradient of refractivity can be applied for monitoring the temporal and spatial distributions of wave activity at different levels in the atmosphere. In the case of the internal gravity waves one can measure their important parameters by use of the vertical profile of the refractivity: the intrinsic phase speed, the horizontal wind perturbations and, under some assumptions, the intrinsic frequency as functions of height in the atmosphere. Advantages of the eikonal acceleration/intensity technique are validated by means of analysis of the CHAMP and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC RO data. Eikonal variations may be converted into refraction attenuation variations, which allows the integral absorption to be determined with the refraction effect on the radio-wave intensity cancelled out. This is necessary for measurements of the water-vapor density and gas minorities during multifrequency radio-occultation sounding along the satellite-to-satellite paths. The obtained results can be of common value for other remote-sounding paths, as well.

  6. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC equatorial spread-F and global scintillation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. P.; Bilitza, D.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Radio scintillation of receiving signal is a sensitive detector of ionospheric density irregularity or Equatorial spread-F (ESF), it is been defined as a random modulation imported to propagating wave by density irregularity in the propagation medium. Thus, scintillation observations have been vice versa employed to identify irregular structure in highly varied propagation media. However, the limitation of ground-based receiver confines the research range and caused the shortage of oceanic data. Since the launch of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) in 2006, the constellation formed by six LEO satellites continuing receiving L1-band (1.5 GHz) signal from GPS system. The occultation scintillation index S4 has already been calculated and recorded for 7 years, and 72° orbital inclination makes F3/C occultation profiles capable to establishing globally observation coverage. In this report, we'll display and discuss the result from both equatorial spread-F occurrence rate and global scintillation S4 index empirical model calculated from F3/C profile data. A comparison with IRI-2012 ESF occurrence rate is also provided as reference.

  7. The Standing Wave Phenomenon in Radio Telescopes; Frequency Modulation of the WSRT Primary Beam

    E-print Network

    Attila Popping; Robert Braun

    2007-12-14

    Inadequacies in the knowledge of the primary beam response of current interferometric arrays often form a limitation to the image fidelity. We hope to overcome these limitations by constructing a frequency-resolved, full-polarization empirical model for the primary beam of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Holographic observations, sampling angular scales between about 5 arcmin and 11 degrees, were obtained of a bright compact source (3C147). These permitted measurement of voltage response patterns for seven of the fourteen telescopes in the array and allowed calculation of the mean cross-correlated power beam. Good sampling of the main-lobe, near-in, and far-side-lobes out to a radius of more than 5 degrees was obtained. A robust empirical beam model was detemined in all polarization products and at frequencies between 1322 and 1457 MHz with 1 MHz resolution. Substantial departures from axi-symmetry are apparent in the main-lobe as well as systematic differences between the polarization properties. Surprisingly, many beam properties are modulated at the 5 to 10% level with changing frequency. These include: (1) the main beam area, (2) the side-lobe to main-lobe power ratio, and (3) the effective telescope aperture. These semi-sinusoidsal modulations have a basic period of about 17 MHz, consistent with the natural 'standing wave' period of a 8.75 m focal distance. The deduced frequency modulations of the beam pattern were verified in an independent long duration observation using compact continuum sources at very large off-axis distances. Application of our frequency-resolved beam model should enable higher dynamic range and improved image fidelity for interferometric observations in complex fields. (abridged)

  8. Potential Spacecraft-to-Spacecraft Radio Observations with EJSM: Wave of the Future? (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Marouf; P. Tortora; S. W. Asmar; W. M. Folkner; D. Hinson; L. Iess; I. R. Linscott; R. D. Lorenz; I. C. Mueller-Wodarg

    2010-01-01

    Future active radio observations of planetary and satellite atmospheres and surfaces could significantly benefit form the presence of two or more spacecraft in orbit around a target object. Traditionally, radio occultation and bistatic surface scattering experiments have been conducted using a single spacecraft operating in the Downlink (DL) configuration, with the spacecraft transmitting and at least one Earth-based station receiving.

  9. Theory of the propagation of UHF radio waves in coal mine tunnels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALFRED G. EMSLIE; ROBERT L. LAGACE; PETER F. STRONG

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical study of UHF radio communication in coal mines, with particular reference to the rate of loss of signal strength along a tunnel, and from one tunnel to another around a corner is the concern of this paper. Of prime interest are the nature of the propagation mechanism and the prediction of the radio frequency that propagates with the

  10. Measurement of radio wave reflection due to temperature rising from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for an ultra-high-energy neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Takahiro; Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Akiyama, Hidetoshi; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2012-11-01

    An ultra-high-energy neutrino (UHE?) gives temperature rise along the hadronic and electromagnetic shower when it enters into rock salt or ice. Permittivities of them arise with respect the temperatures at ionization processes of the UHE? shower. It is expected by Fresnel's formula that radio wave reflects at the irregularity of the permittivity in the medium. We had found the radio wave reflection effect in rock salt. The reflection effect and long attenuation length of radio wave in rock salt and ice would yield a new UHE? detection method. An experiment for ice was performed to study the reflection effect. A coaxial tube was filled with rock salt powder or ice. Open end of the coaxial tube was irradiated by a 2 MeV electron beam. Radio wave of 435 MHz was introduced to the coaxial tube. We measured the reflection wave from the open end. We found the radio wave reflection effect due to electron beam irradiation in ice as well as in rock salt.

  11. Measurement of radio wave reflection due to temperature rising from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for an ultra-high-energy neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tanikawa, Takahiro; Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Akiyama, Hidetoshi; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Department of Applied Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); School of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo-shi, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    An ultra-high-energy neutrino (UHE{nu}) gives temperature rise along the hadronic and electromagnetic shower when it enters into rock salt or ice. Permittivities of them arise with respect the temperatures at ionization processes of the UHE{nu} shower. It is expected by Fresnel's formula that radio wave reflects at the irregularity of the permittivity in the medium. We had found the radio wave reflection effect in rock salt. The reflection effect and long attenuation length of radio wave in rock salt and ice would yield a new UHE{nu} detection method. An experiment for ice was performed to study the reflection effect. A coaxial tube was filled with rock salt powder or ice. Open end of the coaxial tube was irradiated by a 2 MeV electron beam. Radio wave of 435 MHz was introduced to the coaxial tube. We measured the reflection wave from the open end. We found the radio wave reflection effect due to electron beam irradiation in ice as well as in rock salt.

  12. Study of zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) and equatorial scintillation with low-latitude GRBR network over Southeast Asia and African sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Sudarsanam, Tulasi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Tsunoda, Roland

    2012-07-01

    The day-to-day variability of Equatorial Spread-F, when and where the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) may initiate, were the challenging problems that puzzling the space weather researchers for several decades. The zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) at the base of F-layer is the earliest manifestation of seed perturbation for the evolution of EPBs by R-T instability processes, hence, found to play deterministic role on the development of ESF. Yet, only a little is known about LSWS with lack of sufficient observations, primarily because of inability to detect the LSWS with the currently existing instruments except with steerable incoherent scatter radar such as ALTAIR radar. This situation, however, was recently changed with launch of C/NOFS in a unique low-inclination (13 ^{o}) orbit. With the availability of CERTO beacon transmissions from C/NOFS in a near equatorial orbit, it is now possible to detect and resolve the roles by LSWS on a regular basis. A ground based low-latitude GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) Network has been recently established that provide coverage of Southeast Asia, Pacific and African low-latitude regions. Recent observations suggest that these wave structures with zonal wave lengths varying between 200 and 800 km can be earliest detected even before E-region sunset and found to grow significantly after sunset, probably, aided by the polarization electric fields. Further, these zonal structures consistently found to be aligned with field lines for several hundreds of kilometers and EPBs were found to grow from the westward walls of upwellings. The characteristic differences on the strength of LSWS between the Asian and African longitudes were identified during the recent increasing solar activity and discussed in this paper.

  13. What is Radio Astronomy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains information on radio astronomy, the NRAO, how telescopes work, the history and discovery of radio astronomy, and the radio communication process. This website has activites like "Make your own Radio Image", and visual aids on topics such as: free-free emission, spectral lines, synchrotron emission, masers, and how radio communication works. The site is also a resource for blackbody radiation, the Cosmic Microwave Backround, and the mechanisms of radio wave emission.

  14. Ionospheric scintillation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Freemouw, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The diffracted field of a monochromatic plane wave was characterized by two complex correlation functions. For a Gaussian complex field, these quantities suffice to completely define the statistics of the field. Thus, one can in principle calculate the statistics of any measurable quantity in terms of the model parameters. The best data fits were achieved for intensity statistics derived under the Gaussian statistics hypothesis. The signal structure that achieved the best fit was nearly invariant with scintillation level and irregularity source (ionosphere or solar wind). It was characterized by the fact that more than 80% of the scattered signal power is in phase quadrature with the undeviated or coherent signal component. Thus, the Gaussian-statistics hypothesis is both convenient and accurate for channel modeling work.

  15. Search for millimeter-wave emission from UHURU X-ray sources and radio binary stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. McDonald

    1975-01-01

    A search has been made for radio emission at wavelengths of 9.6 and 3.5 mm from 28 X-ray sources listed in the Uhuru catalog and the three radio binary stars, beta Persei (Algol), beta Lyrae and Antares B. No emission was detected from any object to a flux density limit of 10 to the minus 26 W per sq m

  16. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2014-07-15

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  17. Scintillation light emission studies of LSO scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saoudi; C. Pepin; D. Houde; R. Lecomte

    1999-01-01

    UV and ?-ray excited luminescence and nuclear spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between the scintillation mechanisms of LSO and the spectroscopic characteristics obtained with PMT and APD readouts at room temperature. No correlation was found between scintillation decay time and light output. Like other investigators, we observed the existence of two distinct luminescence centers, Ce1 and Ce2, that

  18. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  19. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    1998-11-09

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  20. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-08-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  1. Long-term statistics related to evaporation duct propagation of 2 GHz radio waves in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunashekar, S. D.; Warrington, E. M.; Siddle, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents long-term statistics additional to those previously published pertaining to evaporation duct propagation of UHF radio waves in the British Channel Islands, with particular focus on a completely over-sea 50 km transhorizon path. The importance of the evaporation duct as an anomalous propagation mechanism in marine and coastal regions is highlighted. In particular, the influence of various atmospheric parameters on the performance of a popular operational evaporation duct model is examined. The strengths and weaknesses of this model are evaluated under specific atmospheric conditions. The relationship between the continually varying evaporation duct height and transmitter-receiver antenna geometries is analyzed, and a range of statistics related to the implications of this relationship on the received signal strength is presented. The various issues under investigation are of direct relevance in the planning of long-range, over-sea radio systems operating in the UHF band, and have implications for the radio regulatory work carried out by organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union.

  2. Probing the ionosphere with rockets and radio waves: Studies of plasma waves and instabilities in the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Bernhardt

    2011-01-01

    The ionosphere is a low temperature (0.1 eV) and low-beta plasma layer that surrounds the Earth and affects a wide range of radio systems that involve communications, navigation, and radar. The unmodified ionosphere is in an equilibrium state defined by the balance of production, transport and loss of plasma subject to variations in solar irradiation and other natural effects. Artificial

  3. Multi-PSPMT scintillation camera

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Trotta, G.; Scopinaro, F. [Univ. of Rome (Italy). Dept. of Experimental Medicine] [Univ. of Rome (Italy). Dept. of Experimental Medicine; Soluri, A.; Vincentis, G. de [CNR (Italy). Inst. of Biomedical Technologies] [CNR (Italy). Inst. of Biomedical Technologies; Scafe, R. [ENEA-INN, Rome (Italy)] [ENEA-INN, Rome (Italy); Pergola, A. [PSDD, Rome (Italy)] [PSDD, Rome (Italy)

    1999-06-01

    Gamma ray imaging is usually accomplished by the use of a relatively large scintillating crystal coupled to either a number of photomultipliers (PMTs) (Anger Camera) or to a single large Position Sensitive PMT (PSPMT). Recently the development of new diagnostic techniques, such as scintimammography and radio-guided surgery, have highlighted a number of significant limitations of the Anger camera in such imaging procedures. In this paper a dedicated gamma camera is proposed for clinical applications with the aim of improving image quality by utilizing detectors with an appropriate size and shape for the part of the body under examination. This novel scintillation camera is based upon an array of PSPMTs (Hamamatsu R5900-C8). The basic concept of this camera is identical to the Anger Camera with the exception of the substitution of PSPMTs for the PMTs. In this configuration it is possible to use the high resolution of the PSPMTs and still correctly position events lying between PSPMTs. In this work the test configuration is a 2 by 2 array of PSPMTs. Some advantages of this camera are: spatial resolution less than 2 mm FWHM, good linearity, thickness less than 3 cm, light weight, lower cost than equivalent area PSPMT, large detection area when coupled to scintillating arrays, small dead boundary zone (< 3 mm) and flexibility in the shape of the camera.

  4. Validating the use of scintillation proxies to study ionospheric scintillation over the Ugandan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we compare the standard scintillation indices (S4 and ??) from a SCINDA receiver with scintillation proxies (S4p and | sDPR |) derived from two IGS GPS receivers. Amplitude (S4) and phase (??) scintillation data were obtained from the SCINDA installed at Makerere University (0.34°N, 32.57°E). The corresponding amplitude (S4p) and phase (| sDPR |) scintillation proxies were derived from data archived by IGS GPS receivers installed at Entebbe (0.04°N, 32.44°E) and Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E). The results show that for most of the cases analysed in this study, ?? and | sDPR | are in agreement. Amplitude scintillation occurrence estimated using the S4p are fairly consistent with the standard S4, mainly between 17:00 UT and 21:00 UT, despite a few cases of over and under estimation of scintillation levels by S4p. Correlation coefficients between ?? and the | sDPR | proxy revealed positive correlation. Generally, S4p and S4 exhibits both moderate and strong positive correlation. TEC depletions associated with equatorial plasma bubbles are proposed as the cause of the observed scintillation over the region. These equatorial plasma bubbles were evident along the ray paths to satellites with PRN 2, 15, 27 and 11 as observed from MBAR and EBBE. In addition to equatorial plasma bubbles, atmospheric gravity waves with periods similar to those of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances were also observed as one of the mechanisms for scintillation occurrence. The outcome of this study implies that GPS derived scintillation proxies can be used to quantify scintillation levels in the absence of standard scintillation data in the equatorial regions.

  5. Density fluctuations measured by ISEE 1-2 in the Earth's magnetosheath and the resultant scattering of radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, C.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Harvey, C. C.; Hubert, D.; Mangeney, A.; Moncuquet, M.

    1997-04-01

    Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp) simeq 0.5 - 4 × 10-9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE) just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.

  6. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul (Naperville, IL); Para, Adam (St. Charles, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  7. Coronal Shock Waves, EUV waves, and Their Relation to CMEs. I. Reconciliation of "EIT waves", Type II Radio Bursts, and Leading Edges of CMEs

    E-print Network

    Grechnev, V V; Chertok, I M; Kuzmenko, I V; Afanasyev, A N; Meshalkina, N S; Kalashnikov, S S; Kubo, Y

    2011-01-01

    We show examples of excitation of coronal waves by flare-related abrupt eruptions of magnetic rope structures. The waves presumably rapidly steepened into shocks and freely propagated afterwards like decelerating blast waves that showed up as Moreton waves and EUV waves. We propose a simple quantitative description for such shock waves to reconcile their observed propagation with drift rates of metric type II bursts and kinematics of leading edges of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Taking account of different plasma density falloffs for propagation of a wave up and along the solar surface, we demonstrate a close correspondence between drift rates of type II bursts and speeds of EUV waves, Moreton waves, and CMEs observed in a few known events.

  8. Inertia gravity wave generation by the tropospheric midlatitude jet as given by the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment radio soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plougonven, R.; Teitelbaum, H.; Zeitlin, V.

    2003-11-01

    Generation of inertia gravity waves by the midlatitude tropospheric jet is studied on the basis of the data obtained from the radio soundings over the North Atlantic during the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment campaign. A sample of 224 radio soundings is used to analyze the wave activity as a function of the distance to the jet. It is shown that radio soundings displaying the most intense gravity wave activity, both in the stratosphere and in the troposphere, are the ones closest to the jet axis. Thus the jet region is the dominant source of gravity waves in this region far from orography. Further examination allows for identification of two specific regions of the flow that are associated with intense gravity wave activity: the vicinity of the maximum of the jet velocity and the regions of strong curvature of the jet. The detailed case studies we provide suggest that geostrophic adjustment is the dynamical mechanism responsible for the generation of large-amplitude inertia gravity waves in the regions of the strong curvature of the wind. The generation of waves in the vicinity of the regions where the wind veers, in the deep troughs of the geopotential, appears to be systematic.

  9. Measurement of a phase of a radio wave reflected from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Tanikawa, Takahiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Watanabe, Souichirou; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2013-05-01

    We have found a radio-wave-reflection effect in rock salt for the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos (UHE?'s) which are expected to be generated in Greisen, Zatsepin, and Kuzmin (GZK) processes in the universe. When an UHE? interacts with rock salt or ice as a detection medium, a shower is generated. That shower is formed by hadronic and electromagnetic avalanche processes. The energy of the UHE? shower converts to thermal energy through ionization processes. Consequently, the temperature rises along the shower produced by the UHE?. The refractive index of the medium rises with temperature. The irregularity of the refractive index in the medium leads to a reflection of radio waves. This reflection effect combined with the long attenuation length of radio waves in rock salt and ice would yield a new method to detect UHE?'s. We measured the phase of the reflected radio wave under irradiation with an electron beam on ice and rock salt powder. The measured phase showed excellent consistence with the power reflection fraction which was measured directly. A model taking into account the temperature change explained the phase and the amplitude of the reflected wave. Therefore the reflection mechanism was confirmed. The power reflection fraction was compared with that calculated with the Fresnel equations, the ratio between the measured result and that obtained with the Fresnel equations in ice was larger than that of rock salt.

  10. Full-wave computation of characteristics of VHF radio link over random and nonstationary irregular terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Le Palud; CREE St-Cyr

    2002-01-01

    Previously we described a method, based on a parabolic equation algorithm, for the computation of the impulse response of stationary deterministic channels. We focus now on random and nonstationary situations, extending our former approach to give efficient predictions when the propagation environment is partially undetermined and\\/or fluctuating with time. In the case of a radio link over a random irregular

  11. Field strength variations of LF radio waves prior to earthquakes in central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Bella; P. F Biagi; M. Caputo; E Cozzi; G Della Monica; A. Ermini; W. Plastino; V. Sgrigna

    1998-01-01

    The electric field strength of the LF radio broadcasting RMC (Principality of Monaco) which operates at 216 kHz has been recorded since January 1991 by two receivers in central Italy. During the monitoring period we observed two evident attenuations of the field strength in one receiver, with durations of 6–10 days. The geomagnetic and ionospheric observations carried out in the

  12. Oxygen and water vapor absorption of radio waves in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Bean; R. Abbott

    1957-01-01

    Summary Calculated values of the gaseous atmospheric absorption are presented for the frequency range 100 to 50,000 Mc at elevations above ground up to at least 130,000 feet, for average conditions during February and August at Bismarck, N. D. and Washington, D. C. Total radio path absorptionsare presented for tropospheric forward scatter communication links for distances of 100, 300 and

  13. Dynamic of Langmuir and Ion-Sound Waves in Type 3 Solar Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Willes, A. J.; Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type 3 sources is investigated, incorporating linear growth, linear damping, and nonlinear electrostatic decay. Improved estimates are obtained for the wavenumber range of growing waves and the nonlinear coupling coefficient for the decay process. The resulting prediction for the electrostatic decay threshold is consistent with the observed high-field cutoff in the Langmuir field distribution. It is shown that the conditions in the solar wind do not allow a steady state to be attained; rather, bursty linear and nonlinear interactions take place, consistent with the highly inhomogeneous and impulsive waves actually observed. Nonlinear growth is found to be fast enough to saturate the growth of the parent Langmuir waves in the available interaction time. The resulting levels of product Langmuir and ion-sound waves are estimated theoretically and shown to be consistent with in situ ISEE 3 observations of type 3 events at 1 AU. Nonlinear interactions slave the growth and decay of product sound waves to that of the product Langmuir waves. The resulting probability distribution of ion-sound field strengths is predicted to have a flat tail extending to a high-field cutoff. This prediction is consistent with statistics derived here from ISEE 3 observations. Agreement is also found between the frequencies of the observed waves and predictions for the product S waves. The competing processes of nonlinear wave collapse and quasilinear relaxation are discussed, and it is concluded that neither is responsible for the saturation of Langmuir growth. When wave and beam inhomogeneities are accounted for, arguments from quasi-linear relaxation yield an upper bound on the Langmuir fields that is too high to be relevant. Nor are the criteria for direct wave collapse of the beam-driven waves met, consistent with earlier simulation results that imply that this process is not responsible for saturation of the beam instability. Indeed, even if the highest observed Langmuir fields are assumed to he part of a long-wavelength 'condensate' produced via electrostatic decay, they still fall short of the relevant requirements for wave collapse. The most stringent requirement for collapse is that collapsing wave packets not be disrupted by ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. Fields of several mV m(exp -1) extending over several hundred km would be needed to satisfy this requirement; at 1 AU such fields are rare at best.

  14. Simplification of millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system employing heterodyning of uncorrelated optical carriers and self-homodyning of RF signal at the receiver.

    PubMed

    Islam, A H M Razibul; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Town, Graham E

    2012-02-27

    A simplified millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing a combination of optical heterodyning in signal generation and radio frequency (RF) self-homodyning in data recovery process is proposed and demonstrated. Three variants of the system are considered in which two independent uncorrelated lasers with a frequency offset equal to the desired mm-wave carrier frequency are used to generate the transmitted signal. Uncorrelated phase noise in the resulting mm-wave signal after photodetection was overcome by using RF self-homodyning in the data recovery process. Theoretical analyses followed by experimental results and simulated characterizations confirm the system's performance. A key advantage of the system is that it avoids the need for high-speed electro-optic and electronic devices operating at the RF carrier frequency at both the central station and base stations. PMID:22418378

  15. Simulation on Generation of Electromagnetic Waves from Electron Beam: Application to Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Sugiyama; Jun-Ichi Sakai; Mitsuhiro Nambu

    2000-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional electromagnetic and relativistic particle-in-cell (2-D EM PIC) code, we show that electromagnetic waves are excited with near fundamental plasma frequency from relativistic electron beam instability. It is also shown that electromagnetic waves with almost second harmonics can be emitted after a little time delay.

  16. Morphological features of the winter anomaly in ionospheric absorption of radio waves at middle latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruo Sato

    1980-01-01

    The spatial extent and duration of the winter anomaly, i.e., the anomalous and large enhancement in ionospheric absorption of hf and mf waves occurring on groups of winter days at middle latitudes, are examined on the basis of data of the minimum frequency at which reflected waves are recorded on ionograms at 18 stations in USSR, Japan, and North America

  17. Centralized Lightwave Radio-over-Fiber System with High-Frequency Optical Millimeter-Wave Generation by Low-Frequency and Low-Bandwidth Optical and Electrical Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Yu; Ting Wang; Zhensheng Jia; Gee Kung Chang

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a novel radio-over-fiber (ROF) architecture to reduce the system cost at both central office (CO) and base station (US). In this architecture, by incorporating the proper DC bias and optical filtering techniques in CO, the optical millimeter-wave (mm-wave) carriers are generated with four times frequency of the local oscillator (LO) signal. The BS is simplified by using

  18. Dynamics of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III solar radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Willes, A. J.; Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The study traces the evolution of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III sources, incorporating linear growth, linear damping, and nonlinear electrostatic decay. Improved estimates are obtained for the wavenumber range of growing waves and the nonlinear coupling coefficient for the decay process. It is shown that the conditions in the solar wind do not allow a steady state to be attained; instead, bursty linear and nonlinear interactions take place, consistent with the highly inhomogeneous and impulsive waves actually observed. Nonlinear growth is found to be rapid enough to saturate the growth of the parent Langmuir waves in the available interaction time. The competing processes of nonlinear wave collapse and quasi-linear relaxation are discussed, and it is concluded that neither is responsible for the saturation of Langmuir growth.

  19. Coordinated Radio, Electron, and Waves Experiment (CREWE) for the NASA Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    The Coordinated Radio, Electron, and Waves Experiment (CREWE) was designed to determine density, bulk velocity and temperature of the electrons for the NASA Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby Spacecraft, to define the MHD-SW IMF flow configuration; to clarify the role of impact ionization processes, to comment on the importance of anomalous ionization phenomena (via wave particle processes), to quantify the importance of wave turbulence in the cometary interaction, to establish the importance of photoionization via the presence of characteristic lines in a structured energy spectrum, to infer the presence and grain size of significant ambient dust column density, to search for the theoretically suggested 'impenetrable' contact surface, and to quantify the flow of heat (in the likelihood that no surface exists) that will penetrate very deep into the atmosphere supplying a good deal of heat via impact and charge exchange ionization. This final report provides an instrument description, instrument test plans, list of deliverables/schedule, flight and support equipment and software schedule, CREWE accommodation issues, resource requirements, status of major contracts, an explanation of the non-NASA funded efforts, status of EIP and IM plan, descope options, and Brinton questions.

  20. Low/Mid-latitude Ionospheric irregularities and scintillation climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Amr; Groves, K. M.; Mahrous, Ayman; Hussein, Fayrouz

    Ionospheric scintillation occur when radio signals propagate through an irregular ionosphere (e.g., plasma bubbles). Since plasma bubbles are regions of depleted ion and electron densities, a plasma bubble located on the satellite-to-ground signal path will cause radio signals to fluctuate in phase and amplitude. Ionospheric scintillation data were analyzed in the magnetic latitudinal field-of-view 29° N -13.4° N, observed by a stand-alone SCINDA (Scintillation Network Decision Aid) - GPS receiver at Helwan, Egypt (29.86° N, 31.32° E). A minimum 20° elevation cut off angle has been set in order to minimize the multipath effect. During the enhancing phase of the current solar cycle 24 (years 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013), the behaviour of the scintillation occurrence were characterized. The seasonal, annual and solar cycle variation of scintillation occurrence is investigated together with the Total Electron Content (TEC), to put in evidence the relation between the electron density gradients and the ionospheric irregularities causing scintillation. This study considers a first step to develop a scintillation climatology over Northern Africa.

  1. Onboard Signal Processing: Wave of the Future for Planetary Radio Science?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marouf, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Future spacecraft-based radio observations of planetary surfaces, rings, and atmospheres could significantly benefit from recent technological advances in real-time digital signal processing (DSP) hardware. Traditionally, the radio observations have been carried out in a 'down link' configuration in which about 20-W spacecraft transmitted RF power illuminates the target of interest and the perturbed signal is collected at an Earth receiving station. The down link configuration was dictated by the large throughput of received data, corresponding to a relatively large recording band width (about 50 kHz) needed to capture the coherent and scattered signal components in the presence of trajectory, ephemeris, and measurement uncertainties. An alternative 'up link' configuration in which powerful Earth-based radio transmitters (20-200 kW) are used to illuminate the target and data are recorded on board a spacecraft could enhance the measurements' signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of about 1000, allowing a quantum leap in scientific capabilities. Various aspects of alternative signal processing technologies are discussed.

  2. Impact of the Ulysses velocity on the diagnosis of the electron density by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave sounder in the outskirts of the Io torus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Le Sager; Patrick Canu; Nicole Cornilleau-Wehrlin

    1998-01-01

    The resonance spectra collected on February 8, 1992, in the outskirts of the Io plasma torus by the Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) relaxation sounder on board the Ulysses spacecraft present significant differences from the active spectra gathered by earthbound spacecraft in similar plasma conditions. The most striking anomaly is the lack of resonances at the harmonics of the

  3. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An extensive set of ground-based measurements of the diurnal variation of medium frequency radio wave adsorption and virtual height is analyzed in terms of current understanding of the D- and lower E-region ion production and loss process. When this is done a gross discrepancy arises, the source of which is not known.

  4. Detection of Transionospheric SuperDARN HF Waves by the Radio Receiver Instrument on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Canadian small-satellite was launched in September 2013. Included in this suite of eight scientific instruments is the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). The RRI has been used to measure VLF and HF radio waves from various ground and spontaneous ionospheric sources. The first dedicated ground transmission that was detected by RRI was from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar on Nov. 7, 2013 at 14 MHz. Several other passes over the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar have been recorded since then. Ground transmissions have also been observed from other radars, such as the SPEAR, HAARP, and SURA ionospheric heaters. However, the focus of this study will be on the results obtained from the SuperDARN passes. An analysis of the signal recorded by the RRI provides estimates of signal power, Doppler shift, polarization, absolute time delay, differential mode delay, and angle of arrival. By comparing these parameters to similar parameters derived from ray tracing simulations, ionospheric electron density structures may be detected and measured. Further analysis of the results from the other ground transmitters and future SuperDARN passes will be used to refine these results.

  5. Extruded plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

    1999-04-16

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  6. The effect of plasma inhomogeneities on (i) radio emission generation by non-gyrotropic electron beams and (ii) particle acceleration by Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-12-01

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [1]. Here recent progress in an alternative to the plasma emission model using Particle-In-Cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts will be presented. In particular, (i) Fourier space drift (refraction) of non-gyrotropic electron beam-generated wave packets, caused by the density gradient [1,2], (ii) parameter space investigation of numerical runs [3], (iii) concurrent generation of whistler waves [4] and a separate problem of (iv) electron acceleration by Langmuir waves in a background magnetised plasma with an increasing density profile [5] will be discussed. In all considered cases the density inhomogeneity-induced wave refraction plays a crucial role. In the case of non-gyrotropic electron beam, the wave refaction transforms the generated wave packets from standing into freely escaping EM radiation. In the case of electron acceleration by Langmuir waves, a positive density gradient in the direction of wave propagation causes a decrease in the wavenumber, and hence a higher phase velocity vph=?/k. The k-shifted wave is then subject to absorption by a faster electron by wave-particle interaction. The overall effect is an increased number of high energy electrons in the energy spectrum. [1] D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011) [2] H. Schmitz, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013) [3] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012) [4] M. Skender, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 042904 (2014) [5] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 012903 (2014)

  7. Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources - Comparison of stochastic-growth theory with observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed comparisons are made between the Langmuir-wave properties predicted by the recently developed stochastic-growth theory of type III sources and those observed by the plasma wave experiment on ISEE 3, after correcting for the main instrumental and selection effects. Analysis of the observed field-strength distribution confirms the theoretically predicted form and implies that wave growth fluctuates both spatially and temporally in sign and magnitude, leading to an extremely clumpy distribution of fields. A cutoff in the field-strength distribution is seen at a few mV/m, corresponding to saturation via nonlinear effects. Analysis of the size distribution of Langmuir clumps yields results in accord with those obtained in earlier work and with the size distribution of ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. This confirms that the inhomogeneities in the Langmuir growth rate are determined by the density fluctuations and that these fluctuations persist during type III events.

  8. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  9. Numerical modelling of VLF radio wave propagation through earth-ionosphere waveguide and its application to sudden ionospheric disturbances

    E-print Network

    Pal, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we theoretically predict the normal characteristics of Very Low Frequency (3~30 kHz) radio wave propagation through Earth-ionosphere waveguide corresponding to normal behavior of the D-region ionosphere. We took the VLF narrow band data from the receivers of Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) to validate our models. Detection of sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are common to all the measurements. We apply our theoretical models to infer the D-region characteristics and to reproduce the observed VLF signal behavior corresponding to such SIDs. We develop a code based on ray theory to simulate the diurnal behavior of VLF signals over short propagation paths (2000~3000 km). The diurnal variation from this code are comparable to the variation obtained from a more general Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code which is based on mode theory approach. We simulate the observational results obtained during the Total Solar Eclipse of July 22, 2009 in India. We also report and simulate a h...

  10. Nonaxisymmetrical beaming cone of radio waves produced by cyclotron maser instability in inhomogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galopeau, Patrick; Boudjada, Mohammed; Rucker, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    The results we have recently obtained about the beaming of the Io-controlled decameter Jovian radio emission allow us to conclude that this radiation is emitted in a hollow cone flattened in a particular direction linked to the local magnetic field. The existence of such an emission cone leads us to understand the location of the Io-controlled sources (Io-A, Io-B, Io-C, and Io-D) in the CML-Io phase diagram and to interpret their dependence on the longitude as the manifestation of a Jovian active longitude sector, where the emission mechanism is the most efficient. We study the origin of the flattening of the emission cone in the framework of a radio emission produced by the cyclotron maser instability in an inhomogeneous medium where the local magnetic field B and the gradient of its modulus downtriangleB are not parallel, i.e., in a geometry without axial symmetry. We consider that the radiation propagates in the source region in the X-mode near its cutoff frequency.

  11. A multi-instrument technique for localization of scintillation-causing regions in the equatorial ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Miller; J. J. Makela

    2008-01-01

    Scintillation of transionospheric radio signals is a phenomenon of great practical consequence for users of satellite communication and navigation systems, often rendering these systems inaccurate or simply useless for periods of time. In order to understand the occurrence and underlying physics of the plasma instabilities that generate scintillation-causing irregularities, it is necessary to study the scale and velocity of these

  12. Plasma ionization through wave-particle interaction in a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Vender, D.; Czarnetzki, U.; Boswell, R. [Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, CPST, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Port Arthur, Tasmania (Australia); Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, CPST, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); SP3/RSPhysSE, ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    Phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy, with high temporal resolution, shows that wave-particle interactions play a fundamental role in sustaining capacitively coupled rf plasmas. The measurements are in excellent agreement with a simple particle-in-cell simulation. Excitation and ionization mechanisms are dominated by beam-like electrons, energized through the advancing and retreating electric fields of the rf sheath. The associated large-amplitude electron waves, driven by a form of two-stream instability, result in power dissipation through electron trapping and phase mixing.

  13. Tracking with scintillating fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, R.

    1995-11-01

    The parametric performance of scintillating fiber tracking elements is reviewed and compared with recent measurements. Topics include performance of scintillation materials, single-clad and multiclad fiber waveguide structures, optical splicing, and photosensors. A brief description of fiber trackers utilized in several experiments is provided, and an extended bibliography is included for detailed reference.

  14. Global estimates of gravity wave parameters from GPS radio occultation temperature data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang; M. J. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play critical roles in the global circulation and the temperature and constituent structures in the middle atmosphere. They also play significant roles in the dynamics and transport and mixing processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and can affect tropospheric weather. Despite significant advances in our understanding of GWS and their effects in different regions of

  15. Radio-frequency bulk acoustic wave duplexer with a differential receiver port

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Zhang; Wei Pang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bulk acoustic wave (BAW) duplexer with a single-ended to differential receiver (Rx) filter. The single-ended to differential Rx filter uses a single-ended ladder section on the antenna side of the Rx path to provide the proper impedance in the transmitter (Tx) band as to not load the Tx hurting its performance in the duplexer. Then

  16. The thresholds of ionospheric plasma instabilities pumped by high-frequency radio waves at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryers, C. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2013-11-01

    We test the existing theories regarding the thresholds for the parametric decay instability (PDI), the oscillating two-steam instability (OTSI), and the thermal parametric instability (TPI) using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility's ionospheric heater. In these processes, the pump wave can couple to various electrostatic waves in the F layer ionosphere, which can be observed using the EISCAT UHF radar (PDI and OTSI) or by HF radar (TPI). On 19 October 2012, the heater power was stepped from ˜0.5 MW to ˜100 MW effective radiated power in seven steps using a 1 min on, 1 min off cycle. We use an electric field model, taking into account D region absorption, to compare theory with our observations. In all three cases, we find good agreement. In addition, the growth of striations formed during the TPI causes anomalous absorption of the heater wave, which we observe as decreased UHF ion line and plasma line backscatter power. We show evidence that heating for a prolonged period of time reduces the UHF ion line intensity throughout the experiment.

  17. Broadband meter-wavelength observations of ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, R. A.; Coles, W. A.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Vierinen, J.; Virtanen, I. I.; Postila, M.; Ulich, Th.; Enell, C.-F.; Kero, A.; Iinatti, T.; Lehtinen, M.; Orispää, M.; Raita, T.; Roininen, L.; Turunen, E.; Brentjens, M.; Ebbendorf, N.; Gerbers, M.; Grit, T.; Gruppen, P.; Meulman, H.; Norden, M. J.; de Reijer, J.-P.; Schoenmakers, A.; Stuurwold, K.

    2014-12-01

    Intensity scintillations of cosmic radio sources are used to study astrophysical plasmas like the ionosphere, the solar wind, and the interstellar medium. Normally, these observations are relatively narrow band. With Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) technology at the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) station in northern Finland we have observed scintillations over a three-octave bandwidth. "Parabolic arcs," which were discovered in interstellar scintillations of pulsars, can provide precise estimates of the distance and velocity of the scattering plasma. Here we report the first observations of such arcs in the ionosphere and the first broadband observations of arcs anywhere, raising hopes that study of the phenomenon may similarly improve the analysis of ionospheric scintillations. These observations were made of the strong natural radio source Cygnus-A and covered the entire 30-250 MHz band of KAIRA. Well-defined parabolic arcs were seen early in the observations, before transit, and disappeared after transit although scintillations continued to be obvious during the entire observation. We show that this can be attributed to the structure of Cygnus-A. Initial results from modeling these scintillation arcs are consistent with simultaneous ionospheric soundings taken with other instruments and indicate that scattering is most likely to be associated more with the topside ionosphere than the F region peak altitude. Further modeling and possible extension to interferometric observations, using international LOFAR stations, are discussed.

  18. Statistical Survey of Type III Radio Bursts at Long Wavelengths Observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/ Waves Instruments: Goniopolarimetric Properties and Radio Source Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Santolik, O.; Cecconi, B.; Kruparova, O.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed a statistical analysis of a large number of Type III radio bursts observed by STEREO between May 2007 and February 2013. Only intense, simple, and isolated cases have been included in our data set. We focused on the goniopolarimetric (GP, also referred to as direction-finding) properties at frequencies between 125 kHz and 2 MHz. The apparent source size ? is very extended (? 60?) for the lowest analyzed frequencies. Observed apparent source sizes ? expand linearly with a radial distance from the Sun at frequencies below 1 MHz. We show that Type III radio bursts statistically propagate in the ecliptic plane. The calculated positions of radio sources indicate that scattering of the primary beam pattern plays an important role in the propagation of Type III radio bursts in the interplanetary medium.

  19. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  20. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Xiong; A. R. Breen; M. M. Bisi; M. J. Owens; R. A. Fallows; G. D. Dorrian; J. A. Davies; P. Thomasson

    2010-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and\\u000astereoscopic heliospheric imagers (HIs) are significant to continuously track\\u000athe propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary\\u000aspace. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational\\u000asignatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of\\u000athe macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the\\u000amicro-scale electron-density fluctuation are

  1. The scintillating grid illusion.

    PubMed

    Schrauf, M; Lingelbach, B; Wist, E R

    1997-04-01

    Disk-shaped luminance increments were added to the intersections of a Hermann grid consisting of medium grey bars on a black background. Illusory spots, darker than the background, were perceived as flashing within the white disks with each flick of the eye. This striking phenomenon may be referred to as the scintillating grid illusion. We determined the conditions necessary for cancelling the Hermann grid illusion, as well as the luminance requirements and the size ratio between disks and bars that elicits the scintillation effect. The fact that scanning eye movements are necessary to produce the scintillation effect sets it apart from the Hermann grid illusion. PMID:9196721

  2. Radio wave diffraction during the passage of an acoustic shock through a sporadic E layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.; Argo, P.E.; Rickel, D.G.

    1986-08-01

    Bistatic HF Doppler measurements of the ionospheric disturbance arising from a large ground-level chemical explosion have revealed a peculiar HF return which begins at large positive Doppler (greater than +5 Hz) and linearly evolves to large negative Doppler (less than -5 Hz). Various pieces of evidence in the data suggest that an HF wave which is diffracted from the intersection of the acoustic shock and an extensive plane of sporadic E ionization at 110 km was observed. From these measurements the horizontal trace velocity of the locus of intersection is estimated. 16 references.

  3. Measurement and modeling of auroral absorption of HF radio waves using a single receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, E. M.; LaBelle, J.

    2002-03-01

    We develop a new method of measuring auroral absorption using only a single passive HF receiver detecting a large number of existing HF transmissions. Although the locations, strengths, and timetables of these sources are not known, their large number allows them to be treated statistically. Modeling the distribution of the sources and using the Foppiano and Bradley [1983] model for the propagation of the waves leads to a simulated pattern of received signals at the receiver as a function of time of day which agrees well with the observed pattern.

  4. Extended ionospheric amplitude scintillation model for GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Moraes, Alison; Costa, Emanoel; Paula, Eurico Rodrigues; Perrella, Waldecir João.; Monico, João. Francisco Galera

    2014-05-01

    Ionospheric scintillation is a phenomenon that occurs after sunset, especially in the low-latitude region, affecting radio signals that propagate through the ionosphere. Depending on geophysical conditions, ionospheric scintillation may cause availability and precision problems to Global Navigation Satellite System users. The present work is concerned with the development of an extended model for describing the effects of the amplitude ionospheric scintillation on GPS receivers. Using the ?-? probabilistic model, introduced by previous authors in different contexts, the variance of GPS receiver tracking loop error may be estimated more realistically. The proposed model is developed with basis on the ?-? parameters and also considering correlation between amplitude and phase scintillation. Its results are interpreted to explain how a receiver may experience different error values under the influence of ionospheric conditions leading to a fixed scintillation level S4. The model is applied to a large experimental data set obtained at São José dos Campos, Brazil, near the peak of the equatorial anomaly during high solar flux conditions, between December 2001 and January 2002. The results from the proposed model show that depending on the ?-? pair, moderate scintillation (0.5 ? S4 ? 0.7) may be an issue for the receiver performance. When S4 > 0.7, the results indicate that the effects of scintillation are serious, leading to a reduction in the receiver availability for providing positioning solutions in approximately 50% of the cases.

  5. Conditioning Matrices of Liquid Scintillation Cocktails Contaminated with Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Dianu, Magdalena [Institute for Nuclear Research (Romania)

    2005-07-15

    This paper describes a viable solidification technology to convert the liquid scintillation cocktail into a stable form which minimizes the probability to release tritium in the environment.This radioactive waste type is generated by the radio-chemical analysis lab of a CANDU nuclear power plant.

  6. Radio-wave depolarization and scattering within ice sheets: a matrix-based model to link radar and ice-core measurements and its application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Fujita; Hideo Maeno; Kenichi Matsuoka

    2006-01-01

    Crystal-orientation fabric (COF) has a large influence on ice-sheet flow. Earlier radar studies have shown that COF-based birefringence occurs within ice sheets. Radio-wave scattering in polar ice results from changing physical properties of permittivity and conductivity that arise from differing values of density, acidity and COF. We present an improved mathematical model that can handle all these phenomena together. We

  7. A Novel Radio-Over-Fiber Configuration Using Optical Phase Modulator to Generate an Optical mm-Wave and Centralized Lightwave for Uplink Connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Yu; Zhensheng Jia; Ting Wang; Gee-Kung Chang

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a novel radio-over-fiber configuration using an optical phase modulator along with optical filtering to generate an optical millimeter-wave for carrying downstream data and centralized lightwave for carrying upstream data. Since the remaining optical carrier with high power has been reused, the optical power is effectively utilized; therefore, the system cost can be reduced. We have calculated the

  8. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  9. Large scale atmospheric waves in the Venus mesosphere as seen by the VeRa Radio Science instrument on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Häusler, Bernd; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Andert, Thomas P.; Bird, Michael K.; Imamura, Takeshi; Pätzold, Martin; Remus, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric waves on all spatial scales play a crucial role in the redistribution of energy, momentum, and atmospheric constituent in planetary atmosphere and are thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the atmospheric superrotation on Venus. The Venus Express Radio-Science Experiment VeRa sounded the Venus neutral atmosphere and ionosphere in Earth occultation geometry using the spacecraft radio subsystem at two coherent frequencies. Radial profiles of neutral number density, covering the altitude range 40-90 km, are then converted to vertical profiles of temperature and pressure, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The extensive VeRa data set enables us to study global scale atmospheric wave phenomena like thermal tides in the mesosphere and troposphere. A pronounced local time dependency of the temperature is found in the mesosphere at different altitude levels. Wave-2 structures dominate the low latitude range in the upper mesosphere while the higher latitudes show a strong wave-1 structure at the top of the cloud layer. The investigation of these wave structures provides valuable information about the energy transport in the atmosphere.

  10. Study of effects of radio-wave frequency radiation emitted from cellular telephones on embryonic development of danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary; Harkless, Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Radio wave frequency (RF) radiation emitted from cellular telephones has become increasingly ubiquitous as a result of the popularity of these phones. With the increasing and unavoidable exposure to RF radiation a reality, it is imperative that the effects of such radiation on living tissue be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand any effects that RF radiation may have as a carcinogen and on embryonic development, as pregnant women are not exempt from such exposure. As a model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been studied extensively, and their value in studies of gene expression cannot be overstated. This study observed the effects of RF radiation on the embryonic development of zebrafish. The expression of two genes, shha and hoxb9a, that are key to the early development of the fish was examined. Both genes have homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Preliminary results suggest that exposure to cell phone radiation might have an effect on the expression of shha in zebrafish embryos, causing under expression. More trials are necessary to validate these results.

  11. Electron-ion temperature ratio estimations in the summer polar mesosphere when subject to HF radio wave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo, H.; La Hoz, C.; Havnes, O.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-10-01

    We have inferred the electron temperature enhancements above mesospheric altitudes under Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) conditions when the ionosphere is exposed to artificial HF radio wave heating. The proposed method uses the dependence of the radar cross section on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio to infer the heating factor from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) power measurements above 90 km. Model heating temperatures match our ISR estimations between 90 and 130 km with 0.94 Pearson correlation index. The PMSE strength measured by the MORRO MST radar is about 50% weaker during the heater-on period when the modeled electron-to-ion mesospheric temperature is approximately 10 times greater than the unperturbed value. No PMSE weakening is found when the mesospheric temperature enhancement is by a factor of three or less. The PMSE weakening and its absence are consistent with the modeled mesospheric electron temperatures. This consistency supports to the proposed method for estimating mesospheric electron temperatures achieved by independent MST and ISR radar measurements.

  12. Influence of an inhomogeneous structure of the high-latitude ionosphere on the long-distance propagation of high-frequency radio waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.

    2012-09-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of the features of long-distance propagation of high-frequency radio waves on the large-extent subauroral Magadan-Rostov-on-Don and midlatitude Khabarovsk-Rostov-on-Don and Irkutsk-Rostov-on-Don paths, which were obtained using the ionosonde-finder with a chirp output signal. Anomalous (lateral) signals with delays of about 1-2 ms with respect to a direct signal, which arrive from the azimuths 10°-20°, are observed on the Magadan-Rostov-on-Don path. The lateral signals were observed in the morning and antemeridian hours in the time interval 08:00-10:40 MSK. In the evening and night hours, the lateral signals were not observed. During magnetic activity, the amplitude of the lateral signals was greater than that observed prior to a magnetic storm by 5-10 dB. Location of the ionospheric-perturbation regions responsible for the appearance of the lateral signals was determined as ?geogr ? 69°-71°N (?magn ? 65°-66°N), and ? ? 51°-58°E. The mechanisms of the lateral-signal propagation due to lateral refraction of radio waves on patches with enhanced electron number density and due to scattering of radio waves from small-scale irregularities are considered.

  13. Spatial gain profiles of a continuous wave radio-frequency pumped atomic xenon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tskhai, S.N.; Blok, F.J.; Udalov, Y.B.; Peters, P.J.; Witteman, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics Group, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (the Netherlands)] [Department of Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics Group, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (the Netherlands); Ochkin, V.N. [Low Temperature Plasma Optics Department, P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117924 Moscow (Russia)] [Low Temperature Plasma Optics Department, P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117924 Moscow (Russia)

    1997-04-01

    Spatially dependent small signal gain measurements in a continuous wave rf excited Ar{endash}He{endash}Xe (59.5/40/0.5) gas discharge are presented. Maximum values for the small signal gain of the 2.03 and 2.65 {mu}m xenon transitions of about 22{percent} and 37{percent}/cm, respectively, were obtained at a total pressure of 120 mbar, an input power per unit electrode area of 20 W/cm{sup 2} and at a rf driving frequency of 115 MHz. With a spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm, a strongly inhomogeneous gain distribution in the transverse direction was measured. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. 27/10/2010 12:48AGU: Highlatitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave receiver systems Page 1 of 2http://europa.agu.org/?view=article&uri=/journals/rs/rs1002/2009RS004215/2009RS004215.xml&t=

    E-print Network

    Ulich, Thomas

    frequency radio wave receiver systems Page 1 of 2http://europa.agu.org/?view=article&uri=/journals/rs/rs1002 Abstract Highlatitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave. Kavanagh (2010), Highlatitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio

  15. Rare earth ceramic scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    DiBianca, F. A.; Cusano, D. A.; Georges, J.-P. J.; Greskovich, C. D.

    1985-06-25

    An improved scintillator for a solid state radiation detector useful in CT (computed tomography), DR (digital radiography), and related technologies. The scintillator, rather than being grown as a single crystal, is formed by means of hot pressing or sintering, as a polycrystalline ceramic. Rare earth oxides doped with rare earth activators are selected to yield a cubic crystal structure of high density and transmittance, which satisfies radiation detector requirements better than crystals utilized heretofore.

  16. Design and multiphysics analysis of a 176Â MHz continuous-wave radio-frequency quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsaev, S. V.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Schrage, D.; Rodnizki, J.; Berkovits, D.

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a new design for a 176 MHz cw radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the SARAF upgrade project. At this frequency, the proposed design is a conventional four-vane structure. The main design goals are to provide the highest possible shunt impedance while limiting the required rf power to about 120 kW for reliable cw operation, and the length to about 4 meters. If built as designed, the proposed RFQ will be the first four-vane cw RFQ built as a single cavity (no resonant coupling required) that does not require ?-mode stabilizing loops or dipole rods. For this, we rely on very detailed 3D simulations of all aspects of the structure and the level of machining precision achieved on the recently developed ATLAS upgrade RFQ. A full 3D model of the structure including vane modulation was developed. The design was optimized using electromagnetic and multiphysics simulations. Following the choice of the vane type and geometry, the vane undercuts were optimized to produce a flat field along the structure. The final design has good mode separation and should not need dipole rods if built as designed, but their effect was studied in the case of manufacturing errors. The tuners were also designed and optimized to tune the main mode without affecting the field flatness. Following the electromagnetic (EM) design optimization, a multiphysics engineering analysis of the structure was performed. The multiphysics analysis is a coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical analysis. The cooling channels, including their paths and sizes, were optimized based on the limiting temperature and deformation requirements. The frequency sensitivity to the RFQ body and vane cooling water temperatures was carefully studied in order to use it for frequency fine-tuning. Finally, an inductive rf power coupler design based on the ATLAS RFQ coupler was developed and simulated. The EM design optimization was performed using cst Microwave Studio and the results were verified using both hfss and ansys. The engineering analysis was performed using hfss and ansys and most of the results were verified using the newly developed cst Multiphysics package.

  17. Scintillation light emission studies of LSO scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Saoudi, A.; Pepin, C.; Houde, D.; Lecomte, R.

    1999-12-01

    UV and {gamma}-ray excited luminescence and nuclear spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between the scintillation mechanisms of LSO and the spectroscopic characteristics obtained with PMT and APD readouts at room temperature. No correlation was found between scintillation decay time and light output. Like other investigators, the authors observed the existence of two distinct luminescence centers, Ce1 and Ce2, that mainly give rise to short (420 nm) and long (440 nm) emission wavelengths. The measurements showed that different LSO crystals excited by {gamma}-rays have emission spectra with largely different shapes and maxima depending on the relative population and luminescence efficiency of these centers. It was also found that the poor energy resolution of LSO and YSO scintillators is well correlated with the coexistence of the two competing luminescence mechanisms. The prevalence of either Ce1 or Ce2 luminescence tends to reduce the variance of light emission and, thus, to improve energy resolution. Inversely, the coexistence of the two centers increases variance and degrades energy resolution.

  18. The effect of plasma inhomogeneities on (i) radio emission generation by non-gyrotropic electron beams and (ii) particle acceleration by Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2015-04-01

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [1]. Here recent progress in an alternative to the plasma emission model using Particle-In-Cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts will be presented. In particular, (i) Fourier space drift (refraction) of non-gyrotropic electron beam-generated wave packets, caused by the density gradient [1,2], (ii) parameter space investigation of numerical runs [3], (iii) concurrent generation of whistler waves [4] and a separate problem of (iv) electron acceleration by Langmuir waves in a background magnetised plasma with an increasing density profile [5] will be discussed. In all considered cases the density inhomogeneity-induced wave refraction plays a crucial role. In the case of non-gyrotropic electron beam, the wave refraction transforms the generated wave packets from standing into freely escaping EM radiation. In the case of electron acceleration by Langmuir waves, a positive density gradient in the direction of wave propagation causes a decrease in the wavenumber, and hence a higher phase velocity vph = ?/k. The k-shifted wave is then subject to absorption by a faster electron by wave-particle interaction. The overall effect is an increased number of high energy electrons in the energy spectrum. [1] D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3590928 [2] H. Schmitz, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4812453 [3] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4768429 [4] M. Skender, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 042904 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4871723 [5] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 012903 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4863494 This research is funded by the Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant RPG-311

  19. Innovative traveling-wave optoelectronic devices for radio over fiber and terahertz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazy, Ebrahim

    The structure of conventional optoelectronic devices for new high frequency applications as well as the integration with other devices may be modified by using low-loss microwave waveguides. Also the concept of substrate integrated circuits (SICs), which has widely been used in the microwave domain, can be utilized for the integration of optoelectronic devices at millimetre wave (mmW) and sub-mmW frequency ranges. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) derived from the general SICs concept is a planar form of rectangular waveguide (RWG) with some metalized via holes instead of metallic side walls of RWG. New optoelectronic devices and in particular TW photodetector and modulator can be proposed based on SIW structure for mmW frequency, terahertz (THz) photonics and electro-optical applications. SIW is considered to propose new types of TW electro-optical modulators. Band-pass LiNbO3 electro-optical phase and amplitude SIW and hybrid SIW-CPW modulators are two types of the proposed devices in this work. The field overlap integral, half-wave voltage, modulation depth and bandwidth are the most important parameters in the design and characterisation of optical modulators which can be optimized for our proposed modulators. For the design of the SIW modulator, the field interaction between the microwave/mmW and optical signals in wide thick SIW and in narrow optical waveguide, respectively, is not considerable and thus low field overlap integral is obtained. This is also because of the half-sinusoidal field distribution of TE10 mode in the transverse cross-section of SIW. Furthermore, the microwave/mmW loss of a thin layer SIW to increase the overlap integral is significantly high which affects the modulation depth and bandwidth of the modulator. Therefore, to improve the overlap integral or half-wave voltage and to have simultaneously acceptable mmW loss or bandwidth of the new phase modulator, a structure with a thin LiNbO3 layer including the use of an optical waveguide array in the top of a thick LiNbO3 layer is designed and optimized. Different structures for array optical waveguides are designed and then modulator parameters are calculated. Also, an optical band-pass LiNbO3 amplitude modulator is introduced based on the SIW phase modulator. The hybrid SIW-CPW modulator is another type of our new designed band-pass electro-optical amplitude modulators using a special coupling mechanism between CPW and SIW for mmW frequencies. This structure preserves the advantages of high field interaction between the optical and microwave signals along CPW electrode structure as well as the advantages of low-loss SIW structure. This is in particular important for mmW packaging, which is critical for practical applications of electro-optical devices. Coupling from SIW to CPW is increased in the half first part of the modulation region and maximized in the middle of the proposed modulator. In the second half part, this coupling happens from CPW to SIW and the output microwave signal can be used in the integrated systems. Overlap integral of this device increases gradually while the microwave signal is transferred to the CPW along the propagation path. The mode coupling mechanism between CPW and SIW in this structure results in a band-pass amplitude modulator for mmW applications. For the probing-station measurement and the validation of the simulated results, CPW to SIW transitions are designed and optimized. THz source generation using photodetectors and photomixing techniques are also studied and realized in this thesis. Surface-type photoconductive as a photomixer as well as the integration of this photomixer with a spiral antenna are designed and fabricated for THz frequencies. Optical signal from dual-wavelength laser diode is detected by the photomixer with interdigitated fingers and the generated THz signal is then radiated from the back side of the substrate. Design and optimization of the photodetector and spiral antenna, design of multi-layer masks, fabrication and measurement of integrated circuits are presented in this work. (A

  20. MEXART. Interplanetary Scintillation Array in Mexico in the IHY2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Carrillo, A.; Andrade, E.; Jeyakumar, S.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Kurtz, S.

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope MEXART consists of a 64x64 4096 full wavelength dipole antenna array operating at 140 MHz occupying 9 500 square meters 70 m x 140 m to carry out interplanetary scintillation IPS observations This is a dedicated radio array for IPS observations located in the state of Michoacan 350 km north-west from Mexico City lat 19° 48 N long 101° 41 W and 1964 m above sea level We report the system testings radio source measurements and the collaboration plans for the International Heliophysical Year 2007

  1. MEXART. Interplanetary Scintillation Array in Mexico in the IHY2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.; Kurtz, S.; Jeyakumar, S.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Sierra, P.; Vazquez, S.; Manoharan, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) consists of a 64x64 (4096) full wavelength dipole antenna array, operating at 140 MHz, occupying 9,500 square meters (70 m x 140 m) to carry out interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. This is a dedicated radio array for IPS observations located in the state of Michoacan (350 km north-west from Mexico City, lat. 19^ 48' N, long. 101^ 41' W and 1964 m above sea level). We report the system testings, radio source measurements and the collaboration plans for the International Heliophysical Year 2007.

  2. Laboratory studies on the removal of radon-born lead from KamLAND's organic liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, G.; Grant, C.; Piepke, A.; Ebihara, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kibe, Y.; Koseki, Y.; Ogawa, M.; Shirai, J.; Takeuchi, S.; Mauger, C.; Zhang, C.; Schweitzer, G.; Berger, B. E.; Dazeley, S.; Decowski, M. P.; Detwiler, J. A.; Djurcic, Z.; Dwyer, D. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Gratta, G.; Hatakeyama, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Inoue, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Koga, M.; Kozlov, A.; Lane, C. E.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D. M.; Matsuno, S.; McKee, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Miletic, T.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, M.; Nakajima, Kyo; Nakajima, Kyohei; Nakamura, K.; O`Donnell, T.; Ogawa, H.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Shimizu, I.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Svoboda, R.; Tajima, O.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Tolich, K.; Tornow, W.; Watanabe, Hideki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Winslow, L. A.; Yoshida, S.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of radioactivity from liquid scintillator has been studied in preparation of a low background phase of KamLAND. This paper describes the methods and techniques developed to measure and efficiently extract radon decay products from liquid scintillator. We report the radio-isotope reduction factors obtained when applying various extraction methods. During this study, distillation was identified as the most efficient method for removing radon-born lead from liquid scintillator.

  3. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    For this review, a selection has been made of a number of topics which are current active areas of both observational and theoretical research. Observations of Type III bursts are examined, taking into account ground-based observations (above approximately 8 MHz), spacecraft observations (below 1 MHz), and Langmuir waves and electron streams. Microwave bursts are considered along with Type II bursts, moving Type IV bursts, and Type I noise storms. The theory of Type III radio bursts (radio emission from electron streams) is discussed, giving attention to quasi-linear theory, induced scatter of ions, wave-wave effects of the nonlinear refractive and self-focusing variety, the second harmonic emission from Langmuir waves, fundamental emission from Langmuir waves, and density irregularities and ion-acoustic waves. Aspects of radio emission from shock waves and current sheets are also studied.

  4. Dust Impacts Detected by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument Near Saturn's Ring Plane on July 1, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Gurnett, D.; Averkamp, T.; Persoon, A.; Kurth, W.; Moncuquet, M.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Lecacheux, A.

    2005-05-01

    During the inbound and outbound passes of the Cassini spacecraft through Saturn's ring plane on July 1, 2004, the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument detected many small particles striking the spacecraft. When a small particle strikes the spacecraft at a high velocity it is instantly vaporized, producing a small cloud of plasma that expands outward from the impact site. As the plasma cloud sweeps over the RPWS electric field antennas it produces a voltage pulse, the amplitude of which is believed to be proportional to the mass of the impacting particle. Two types of measurements are made: waveform measurements from the x-axis dipole antenna, and spectrum measurements from the w-axis monopole antenna. The waveform measurements provide a determination of the impact rate and the relative mass distribution, and the spectrum measurements provide a determination of the rms particle mass. The impact rate at both ring plane crossings provides a good fit to the sum of two Gaussians, with a peak impact rate of about 1000 per second (the exact value depends on the voltage threshold used), and a north-south thickness (at half the peak rate) of about 300 km. The mass distribution depends on the distance from the ring plane, varying from about m-2 near the ring plane, at z=0 ±100 km, to m-4 well away from the ring plane, at z=500 ±100 km, where z is the north-south distance from the ring plane. We are still working on estimates of the rms mass and the typical size of the dust grains, and will present preliminary results on these estimates.

  5. Atmospheric Scintillation in Astronomical Photometry

    E-print Network

    Osborn, J; Dhillon, V S; Wilson, R W

    2015-01-01

    Scintillation noise due to the Earth's turbulent atmosphere can be a dominant noise source in high-precision astronomical photometry when observing bright targets from the ground. Here we describe the phenomenon of scintillation from its physical origins to its effect on photometry. We show that Young's (1967) scintillation-noise approximation used by many astronomers tends to underestimate the median scintillation noise at several major observatories around the world. We show that using median atmospheric optical turbulence profiles, which are now available for most sites, provides a better estimate of the expected scintillation noise and that real-time turbulence profiles can be used to precisely characterise the scintillation noise component of contemporaneous photometric measurements. This will enable a better understanding and calibration of photometric noise sources and the effectiveness of scintillation correction techniques. We also provide new equations for calculating scintillation noise, including ...

  6. Detection of fundamental and harmonic type III radio emission and the associated Langmuir waves at the source region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Reiner; R. G. Stone; J. Fainberg

    1992-01-01

    Type III radio emission generated in the vicinity of the Ulysses spacecraft has been detected at both the fundamental and harmonic of the local plasma frequency. The observations represent the first clear evidence of locally generated type III radio emission. This local emission shows no evidence of frequency drift, exhibits a relatively short rise time, is less intense than the

  7. Results of refraction-angle measurement of radio waves in the Venus atmosphere on the basis of bistatic radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Salimzyanov; D. A. Pavel'Ev

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of refraction in the Venus atmosphere using bistatic radar data have been obtained. To describe the refraction effects, a theoretical model is developed that makes it possible to determine the parameters for calculating radio communication lines in the Venus troposphere from the height dependence of the refractive index. Expressions are obtained relating the phase path length of radio

  8. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  9. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  10. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  11. Boron loaded scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Brown, Gilbert Morris (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-20

    A scintillating composition for detecting neutrons and other radiation comprises a phenyl containing silicone rubber with carborane units and at least one phosphor molecule. The carbonate units can either be a carborane molecule dispersed in the rubber with the aid of a compatibilization agent or can be covalently bound to the silicone.

  12. Polysiloxane scintillator composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.K.

    1992-05-05

    A plastic scintillator useful for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a matrix which comprises an optically transparent polysiloxane having incorporated therein at least one ionizing radiation-hard fluor capable of converting electromagnetic energy produced in the polysiloxane upon absorption of ionizing radiation to detectable light.

  13. The Scintillating Grid Illusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL SCHRAUF; BERND LINGELBACH; EUGENE R WIST

    1997-01-01

    Disk-shaped luminance increments were added to the intersections of a Hermann grid consisting of medium grey bars on a black background. Illusory spots, darker than the background, were perceived as flashing within the white disks with each flick of the eye. This striking phenomenon may be referred to as the scintillating grid illusion. We determined the conditions necessary for cancelling

  14. A refracting radio telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bernhardt; A. V. da Rosa

    1977-01-01

    Observations of extraterrestrial radio sources at the lower end of the radio frequency spectrum are limited by reflection of waves from the topside ionosphere and by the large size of antenna apertures necessary for the realization of narrow beamwidths. The use of the ionosphere as a lens is considered. The lens is formed by the release of chemicals such as

  15. Characteristics of dust particles detected near Saturn's ring plane with the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Gurnett, D. A.; Averkamp, T. F.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.

    2006-08-01

    During the inbound and outbound passes of the Cassini spacecraft through Saturn's ring plane on July 1, 2004, the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument detected many small particles striking the spacecraft. When a small particle strikes the spacecraft at a high velocity, it is instantly vaporized and produces a small cloud of plasma that expands radially outward from the impact site. As the plasma cloud expands away from the spacecraft it produces a voltage pulse on the RPWS electric field antennas, the amplitude of which is proportional to the mass of the impacting particle. Two types of measurements are made: waveform measurements from the x-axis dipole antenna, and spectrum measurements from the w-axis monopole antenna. The waveform measurements from the dipole antenna provide a determination of the impact rate and the relative mass distribution, and the spectrum measurements from the monopole antenna provide a determination of the root-mean-square particle mass. The impact rate at both ring plane crossings provides a good fit to the sum of two Gaussians, with an average impact rate of about 1200 per second (the exact value depends on the voltage threshold used), and a north-south thickness of about 300 km. The mass distribution depends on the distance from the ring plane, varying from about m-2 near the ring plane at z=0±100km, where z is the north-south distance from the ring plane, to as steep as m-4 well away from the ring plane at z=500±100km. The mechanisms involved in the impact detection are discussed and a formula relating the root-mean-square particle mass to the root-mean-square voltage on the w-axis monopole is derived. Using this formula, the root-mean-square mass is estimated to be 7.7×10 -11 g, which for water ice particles with a density of 0.92 g cm -3 gives a root-mean-square radius of about 2.6 ?m.

  16. C/NOFS: a mission to forecast scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardière, O.; the C/NOFS Science Definition Team

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the science to be pursued during the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory. The primary purpose of C/NOFS is to forecast the presence of ionospheric irregularities that adversely impact communication and navigation systems. A satellite, scheduled for launch in May 2005 into a low inclination (13?), elliptical (˜375×710 km) orbit, is the most significant component of the C/NOFS program. Complementary ground-based measurements are also critical to the success of the mission. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electro-magnetic waves. C/NOFS is the first satellite solely dedicated to forecasting ionospheric irregularities and radio wave scintillations. It will be equipped with sensors that measure the following parameters: ambient and fluctuating electron densities; ion and electron temperatures; AC and DC electric fields; magnetic fields; neutral winds; ionospheric scintillations; and electron content along the lines of sight between C/NOFS and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Thus, the sensor suite on C/NOFS is richer than on any previously flown equatorial satellite. A broad range of ground-based measurements will complement the space data. In addition, data from several other satellites and rocket experiments will augment the C/NOFS observations. Several campaigns are planned to validate operational forecasts, acquire data to achieve the science goals, and test the theoretical models. We anticipate that by the end of the C/NOFS mission, our understanding of the physics controlling the equatorial ionosphere will have advanced to the point that we will be able to nowcast and forecast the formation of ionospheric irregularities to a high degree of accuracy. However, this is not an easy task because a 2-6 h forecast is required, as well as an extended prediction—a three-day "outlook".

  17. CME Propagation Characteristics from Radio Observations

    E-print Network

    S. Pohjolainen; L. van Driel-Gesztelyi; J. L. Culhane; P. K. Manoharan; H. A. Elliott

    2007-11-20

    We explore the relationship among three coronal mass ejections (CMEs), observed on 28 October 2003, 7 November 2004, and 20 January 2005, the type II burst-associated shock waves in the corona and solar wind, as well as the arrival of their related shock waves and magnetic clouds at 1 AU. Using six different coronal/interplanetary density models, we calculate the speeds of shocks from the frequency drifts observed in metric and decametric radio wave data. We compare these speeds with the velocity of the CMEs as observed in the plane-of-the-sky white-light observations and calculated with a cone model for the 7 November 2004 event. We then follow the propagation of the ejecta using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) measurements, which were available for the 7 November 2004 and 20 January 2005 events. Finally, we calculate the travel time of the interplanetary (IP) shocks between the Sun and Earth and discuss the velocities obtained from the different data. This study highlights the difficulties in making velocity estimates that cover the full CME propagation time.

  18. CME Propagation Characteristics from Radio Observations

    E-print Network

    Pohjolainen, S; Culhane, J L; Manoharan, P K; Elliott, H A

    2007-01-01

    We explore the relationship among three coronal mass ejections (CMEs), observed on 28 October 2003, 7 November 2004, and 20 January 2005, the type II burst-associated shock waves in the corona and solar wind, as well as the arrival of their related shock waves and magnetic clouds at 1 AU. Using six different coronal/interplanetary density models, we calculate the speeds of shocks from the frequency drifts observed in metric and decametric radio wave data. We compare these speeds with the velocity of the CMEs as observed in the plane-of-the-sky white-light observations and calculated with a cone model for the 7 November 2004 event. We then follow the propagation of the ejecta using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) measurements, which were available for the 7 November 2004 and 20 January 2005 events. Finally, we calculate the travel time of the interplanetary (IP) shocks between the Sun and Earth and discuss the velocities obtained from the different data. This study highlights the difficulties in making velo...

  19. Radio Astronomy Radio astronomy

    E-print Network

    Metchev, Stanimir

    ;#12;Arecibo 300m telescope #12;Radio interferometer #12;Radio interferometer Very Large Array (VLA) (New;WestVirginia) #12;Centimeter radio astronomy HI 21cm line emission traces the distribution of atomic hydrogen. Dust: far-Infrared (60-240micron) map NASA/GSFC Atomic hydrogen (HI): 21cm emission-line Dickey & Lockman

  20. Adaptive photonic-assisted M²-QAM millimeter-wave synthesis in multi-antenna radio-over-fiber system using M-ASK modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Xin, Xiangjun

    2014-11-01

    A novel method for generating an adaptive photonic-assisted M2-quadrature amplitude modulation (M2-QAM) millimeter-wave signal in a multiantenna radio-over-fiber system using M-ray amplitude-shift keying (M-ASK) modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It takes full advantage of high-density small cells without introducing additional complexity into remote antenna units (RAUs) or mobile users. The 4, 8, and 12 Gb/s 4QAM millimeter-wave signals are obtained from two independent 2, 4, and 6 Gb/s on-off-keying 40 GHz channels, respectively. The experimental results show that a double bit rate can be received without additional digital signal processing in RAUs and mobile users. The results, including the constellation diagrams and bit error rate, show that the transmitted signals are received successfully. PMID:25361290

  1. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Effects over L1 Scintillation at Low Latitude During Quiet and Magnetically Disturbed Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paula, E. R.; Jonah, O. F.; Moraes, A. O.; Kherani, E. A.; Fejer, B. G.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Negreti, P. M. D. S.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Paes, R. D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Small scale irregularities of hundred of meters, associated with bubbles cause scattering and diffraction of radio waves crossing the ionosphere and produces scintillation in amplitude and/or phase of the GNSS signal that can cause loss of lock of its code and/or carrier, affecting the positioning determination. The L1 band GPS amplitude scintillation intensities, represented by the S4 scintillation index, at the low latitude station of São José dos Campos (23.1º S, 45.8º W, dip latitude 17.3º S), located under the southern crest of the EIA, were analyzed during two northern hemisphere Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events. These events occurred during the northern winter months of 2003/2004 marked by moderate magnetic disturbances and 2012/2013 during a very quiet magnetic period. Normally during these months (January to February) moderate to strong scintillation occurs in this Brazilian station for moderate and high solar flux. Long lasting weakening of the scintillation amplitude at this low latitude station was observed during these two SSW events, compared to the pre-SSW periods, however stronger S4 weakening was observed during 2003/2004. The main mechanisms that can lead to scintillation weakening are the meridional neutral wind and the equatorial vertical plasma drift. Since no wind data is available during pre-SSW and SSW periods, we have sought to identify its signature in the latitudinal distribution of the TEC along the 60o magnetic meridian and we suggest that a SSW induced southward meridional wind had a large contribution to the S4 weakening. The other mechanism that could have contributed to S4 weakening is the vertical plasma drift. This parameter, inferred from São Luís (2.52°S, 44.3°W, dip latitude 1.73°S) digisonde data for the 17 to 21 LT period during the SSW events, showed predominant decreases around the prereversal hours relative to their pre-SSW periods. The vertical drift during the period of the 2003/2004 SSW event presented a large flattening and remained constant at about 10 m/s. We suggest that this larger drift decrease during the magnetic storm, compared to the 2012/2013 SSW period, is caused by the SSW effects reinforced by the disturbance dynamo and overshielding westward polarity electric fields associated with the storm.

  2. Kinematics of ICMEs Deduced From Remote Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Low-frequency radio emissions, generated at the driven shock wave at the fundamental and harmonic of the plasma frequency, can directly reveal the kinematics of ICMEs as they propagate through the inner heliosphere. The reason is that the frequency of the radio emissions varies in a predictable way as a function of heliocentric distance. Hence, the observed frequency drift of these radio emissions is essentially a plot of the height above the Sun as a function of time. The derivative of the observed frequency-time curve at each point then gives the instantaneous speed of the propagating interplanetary shock. We have used these remote radio observations to determine the speed profiles for some 40 fast CMEs observed during solar cycle 23. The speed profiles for these fast ICMEs were found to imply an initial rapid deceleration at a constant rate, followed by a constant propagation speed to 1 AU (Reiner et al. ApJ 663, 1369, 2007), consistent with some earlier Doppler scintillation measurements (Woo et al., JGR 90, 154, 1985). Because of the large number of CME events for which this analysis was carried out, we were further able to study the correlations of the deceleration parameters of the ICME speed profiles. For most of those remote radio observations, there were no corresponding white-light observations beyond the 32 Rs (0.15 AU) limit of the LASCO coronagraph. After 2003, the all-sky camera SMEI permitted the first direct comparison between the remote radio and the white-light observations in interplanetary space (Reiner et al. JGR 110, A09S14, 2005). The STEREO spacecraft, launched in October of 2006, provide a new and unique opportunity to make direct comparisons between the radio and white-light observations of the ICME kinematics. The STEREO observations also allow the locations of the radio sources along the shock front to be directly deduced from two or three spacecraft triangulation measurement from STEREO and Wind (Reiner et al. Solar Physics 10.1007/s11207-009-9404-z, 2009). However, due to solar minimum, to date no CMEs observed by STEREO were fast enough to produce measurable radio emissions. As we approach solar maximum that situation will surely change. Nevertheless, some height-time data for fast CMEs that were observed in the Heliospheric Imagers on STEREO do seem to confirm the general characteristics of the speed profile previously deduced from radio tracking (Wood et al., ApJ 694, 707, 2009). In this talk, we will summarize our previous remote radio results, and show how they can be used to provide improved algorithms for space weather predictions.

  3. Measurements of a solar flare-generated shock wave at 13.1 R/0/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The first measurements of the structure of wind speed, electron density, and electron density fluctuations are reported for a shock wave propagating through the acceleration region of the solar wind. Radio scattering observations, consisting of spectral broadening, mean phase and amplitude scintillations, were made on August 18, 1979, 13.1 solar radii east of the sun near the ecliptic plane, using the 2.3 and 8.4 GHz radio signals of Voyager 1. The results show a shock wave speed of about 3,500 km/sec; which, when compared with average transit time speed to 1 AU, shows that substantial deceleration took place with outward propagation from the sun. This result is consistent with a blast wave.

  4. Association of depletions, enhancements and quasi-periodic variations in TEC with amplitude scintillations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. S. Rama Rao; B. V. Ramana Rao; D. S. V. V. D. Prasad

    1990-01-01

    Several TEC depletions associated with amplitude scintillations are reported from the Waltair observing station located between the equator and the anomaly-crest region. The characteristics of the TEC depletions are discussed, and statistics are given regarding the amplitude and duration of the depletions and their diurnal, seasonal, and solar-cycle dependences. Faraday rotation and scintillation data are derived from 136-MHz radio-beacon signals,

  5. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Ce-doped sodium calcium lutetium complex fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Wakahara; Yuki Furuya; Takayuki Yanagida; Yuui Yokota; Jan Pejchal; Makoto Sugiyama; Noriaki Kawaguchi; Daisuke Totsuka; Akira Yoshikawa

    0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 3% Ce doped scintillation crystals based on NaF-CaF2-LuF3 solid solutions were grown from the melt using Micro-Pulling-Down (?-PD) method. The grown crystals were transparent and their transmittance was approximately 80% for the wavelengths longer than 320 nm. Concerning the scintillation properties, radio-luminescence peaks of the crystals were detected at approximately 330 nm. The light yield of

  6. Tilt Estimation in Moderate-to-Strong Scintillation.

    PubMed

    Burl, J B; Roggemann, M C; Welsh, B

    2001-06-20

    Adaptive optics systems are being applied in ever more challenging environments, for example, the projection of lasers over long horizontal paths through the atmosphere. These long atmospheric paths corrupt the signal received from the beacon and typically yield highly scintillated received wave fronts. Tilt estimation for controlling the fast steering mirror in these systems is complicated by the presence of branch points in the scintillated received wave fronts. In particular, correlation between the tilt and the projected beam's centroid error at the target has been observed in horizontal laser beam projection experiments. The presence of this correlation indicates that better tracking performance should be achievable. We compare the performance of four estimation schemes applied to tilt estimation in a horizontal laser projection system. It is demonstrated that all four schemes underestimate the tilt required to return the laser beam to a target in highly scintillated environments. A method of correcting this tilt is presented, and the expected performance improvement is quantified. PMID:18357314

  7. Wave represents displacement Wave represents pressure Source -Sound Waves

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Wave represents displacement Wave represents pressure Source - Sound Waves Distance between crests students connect physics to the real world. The representation of sound in the Sound Waves simulation. The Sound Waves simulation becomes the source of an analogical mapping to Radio Waves. Concepts

  8. A comparison of H-alpha intensity and radio wave scattering on eight low-latitude lines of sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Reynolds, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    Radio scattering and H-alpha measurements for eight sources in Cygnus are compared. The diameter of the radio scattering disk at 1 GHz is found to be correlated with emission measure as determined from the H-alpha measurements, and that strong radio scattering characterized by a diameter of about 30 milliarcsec is produced in regions with emission measures of about 100/cm exp 6 pc or less. The slope of diameter-emission measure correlation is steeper than would be the case if all lines of sight were characterized by the same turbulent outer scale and modulation index. It is suggested that the lines of sight to unscattered or lightly scattered sources traverse only a diffuse medium which is revealed by H-alpha observations at high latitudes. Heavily scattered sources are viewed through an additional component of interstellar H II which has turbulence with different properties.

  9. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D. (1687 Peach St., Memphis, TN 38112)

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  10. Scintillator spent fuel monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.; Nixon, K.V.; Bernard, W.

    1980-01-01

    A monitor for rapidly measuring the gross gamma-ray flux immediately above spent fuel assemblies in underwater storage racks has been developed. It consists of a plastic scintillator, photomultiplier, collimator, and a small battery-powered electronics package. The crosstalk from an isolated fuel assembly to an adjacent void is only about 2%. The mean difference between the measured gamma-ray flux and the flux estimated from the declared burnup and cooling time with a simple formula is 22%.

  11. Experimental investigation of ULF/VLF radio wave generation and propagation in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere during EISCAT heating experiment in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryakhovskiy, Iliya; Gavrilov, Boris; Zetzer, Julius; Rietveld, Michael; Poklad, Yuriy; Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly

    Powerful high frequency radio waves transmitted from high-power HF heating facilities modify the ionospheric plasma. The X-mode HF pump wave generates strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities in the F region of the ionosphere when the heater frequency is near or above the critical frequency of F2 layer [Blagoveshchenskaya et al]. One of the tasks of the Russian EISCAT heating campaign in February 2012 was an investigation of the generation and propagation of ULF/VLF signals generated as the result of HF radiation modulation. Despite the numerous attempts of long-range detection of such signals, there are a few successful results. The most reliable and important results were obtained by [Barr et al.] more than 20 years ago. They measured the VLF radio waves in Lindau, Germany at the distance of about 2000 km from EISCAT Heater. We present the results of the ULF/VLF registrations at the same distance during heating campaign of February 2012. The measurements were conducted at Mikhnevo Geohysical Observatory located in 80 km to the south of Moscow and at the distance of about 1900 km from Tromsø. For measurements were used a sensitive receivers with crossed air-coil loop antennas in the frequency range from 800 Hz to 30 kHz in the femtotesla amplitude range. We recorded the radial and azimuthal magnetic component of the signals and from their ratio obtained the mode polarization. The radiated heater frequency was modulated by 517, 1017, 2017, 3017, 4017 and 6017 Hz. It was shown the signals with frequency less than 2 kHz propagate in the QTEM mode, and signals at the frequency from 2 to 4 kHz are in the QTE mode. Observed magnetic field strengths and waveguide polarizations are found to be in line with the predictions of simple waveguide models. Qualitative coincidence of the signals polarization character and its dependence on the frequency specifies adequacy of numerical models and reliability of the data received in campaign 2012. Blagoveshchenskaya N. F., M. T. Rietveld et al. Artificial field-aligned irregularities in the high-latitude F region of the ionosphere induced by an X-mode HF heater wave. // Geophys. Res. Lett. - 2011. V. 38, doi: 10.1029/2011GL046724. Barr, R., P. Stubbe, and H. Kopka, 1991, Long-range detection of VLF radiation produced by heating the auroral electrojet. Radio Science, Volume 26, Number 4, Pages 871-879, July-August 1991

  12. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, David [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of the presented results, the ratio of electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies is close to unity near the beam injection location, in order to prove that the electromagnetic emission, generated by the non-zero pitch angle beam, oscillates at the plasma frequency, we also consider a case when the magnetic field (and the cyclotron frequency) is ten times smaller. Within the limitations of the model, the study presents the first attempt to produce synthetic (simulated) dynamical spectrum of the type III radio bursts in the fully kinetic plasma model. The latter is based on 1.5D non-zero pitch angle (non-gyrotropic) electron beam that is an alternative to the plasma emission classical mechanism for which two spatial dimensions are needed.

  13. METHODS OF RADIO-FREQUENCY CURRENT DRIVE

    E-print Network

    METHODS OF RADIO-FREQUENCY CURRENT DRIVE N. J. FISCH* Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory-670 Radio-frequency waves can penetrate thermonuclear plasmas, depositing momentum and energy with great. INTRODUCTION Using radio-frequency (rf) waves to drive the toroidal current in tokamak reactors is attractive

  14. Observational Aspects of Wave Acceleration in Open Magnetic Regions

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2003-09-24

    This paper reviews the latest observational evidence for the existence of propagating waves in the open magnetic flux tubes of the solar corona. SOHO measurements have put tentative limits on the fluxes of various types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the acceleration region of the solar wind. Also, continually improving measurements of fluctuations at larger distances (i.e., in situ detection and radio scintillation) continue to provide significant constraints on the dominant types of plasma oscillation throughout the corona and wind. The dissipation of MHD fluctuations of some kind, probably involving anisotropic turbulent cascade, is believed to dominate the heating of the extended corona. Spectroscopic observations from the UVCS instrument on SOHO have helped to narrow the field of possibilities for the precise modes, generation mechanisms, and damping channels. This presentation will also review some of the collisionless, kinetic aspects of wave heating and acceleration that are tied closely to the observational constraints.

  15. IPS studies using the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Hernandez, E.; Mejía, J.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Villanueva, P.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.; Mexart

    2011-12-01

    The MEXART is an array devoted to observations of radio sources to study solar wind densities and velocities employing the Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) technique. We report the current configuration of the array and an updated catalogue of IPS radio sources. We report the power spectral analysis procedure of the intensity fluctuations. We apply the power spectrum fitting model to infer solar wind velocities.

  16. On orbit performance of radio spectrometers of Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (JEM/SMILES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Mizobuchi, Satoko; Tamaki, Kenta; Kikuchi, Ken-ichi; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Shiotani, Masato; Mitsuda, Chihiro

    2011-11-01

    On-orbit performance of the radio spectrometer of SMILES is discussed. We focused on the telemetry data of photodiode current, laser diode current, and laser diode operating temperature. The data showed degradation trend as the mission went on. This is due to a wear-out phenomenon of commercially available laser diode, which is used as the light source of the radio spectrometer. Since the laser diodes have a certain lifetime, both screening procedure and operating condition for them must be properly defined and implemented for ensuring a good performance of the spectrometer throughout designed mission life. For these purposes, we conducted several kinds of qualification tests including an accelerated life time test during design phase, and expected life time of the laser diode was derived on the basis of these test results. In this paper, the results from the qualification tests at ground and the actual performance on orbit with the telemetry and mission data will be presented.

  17. The weighting function for scintillation on a folded path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, B. G.

    1984-12-01

    In the case of a spherical beam wave propagating in a weakly inhomogeneous medium which has a Kolmogorov spectrum, Dr. Ze'evi derived a weighting function for scintillation for a direct and for a folded path with respect to the position of the turbulent medium. Experiments were performed to verify Ze'evi's weighting function for a folded path for three different types of reflectors. The experimental results did not support Dr. Ze'evi's theory. We found that the scintillation weighting functions are less weighted near the detector and have an unexpected increase near the reflector. These results are discussed by using a geometric optical model of the turbulence.

  18. MEXART observations at 140 MHz: Calibration to perform the Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, P.; Mejia Ambriz, J. C.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Carrillo Vargas, A.; Andrade Mascote, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) is an array of 64 X 64 dipoles, covering 9600 square meters, located in Michoacan, Mexico at a latitude of 19° and 101° longitude. The telescope has 16 beams at different declinations to detect stellar radio sources at 140 MHz in a declination range of -40° to 80°. We report the sensitivity of the instrument, by using a list of radio sources characterized at 140 MHz. We also present an analysis of the scintillation index versus the elongation angle for some IPS radio sources.

  19. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  20. Scintillation light transport and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    The MORSE neutron gamma-ray transport code has been modified to allow for the transport of scintillation light. This modified code is used to analyze the light collection characteristics of a large liquid scintillator module (18 x 18 x 350 cm/sup 3/).

  1. Scintillation light transport and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Lillie, R. A.

    1987-08-01

    The MORSE neutron gamma-ray transport code has been modified to allow for the transport of scintillation light. This modified code is used to analyze the light collection characteristics of a large liquid scintillator module (18 × 18 × 350 cm 3).

  2. Spectrally efficient simultaneous delivery of 112Gbps baseband wireline and 60 GHz MM-wave carrying 10Gbps optical wireless signal in radio-over-fiber WDM-PON access systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chowdhury; Jianjun Yu; Hung-Chang Chien; Ming-Fang Huang; Ting Wang; Gee-Kung Chang

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate a novel scheme to deliver 112 Gbps PolMux-RZ-QPSK baseband and 10 Gbps optical wireless signals at 60 GHz millimeter-wave in downstream links and 10 Gbps centralized lightwave upstream for the super-broadband radio-over-fiber 100 GHz spaced WDM-PON networks.

  3. Waves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hansen

    2010-11-12

    The following websites are useful tools in understanding how energy is transferred from place to place through waves. Start by downloading the assignment and then begin with website number 1 and continue until you have visited all three websites. Begin by downloading the IA Waves Internet Assignment: IA Waves Internet Assignment You will answer the questions in Microsoft Word and then e-mail the assignment to me. Website #1: Read about basic information on waves and answer the questions from part 1 of the IA Waves Guide: Basic Wave Information Website #2: Follow the instructions for the following ...

  4. A Novel Cost-effective OFDM WDM-PON Radio Over Fiber System Employing FBG to Generate Optical mm-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, HoangViet

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated and demonstrated a novel scheme to generate 2.5 Gbit/s 64 QAM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals for Radio Over Fiber (ROF) systems. We employ Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) because the repetitive frequency of the RF source and the bandwidth of the optical modulator are largely reduced and the architecture of the ROF system is simpler. Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) has been considered as a promising solution for future broadband access networks. Principle of WDM-PON access network compatible with OFDM-ROF systems is investigated. This novel scheme which has multiple double-frequency technique to generate mm-wave signal to carry OFDM signals is a practical scheme to be applied for future broadband access networks.

  5. The 27-day versus 13.5-day variations in the solar Lyman-alpha radiation and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamorena, B. A.; Lastovicka, Jan; Rapoport, Z. TS.; Alberca, L.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the question of solar periods in absorption, the pattern was studied of the solar Lyman-alpha radiation (the principal ionizing agent of the lower ionosphere) and of the radio wave absorption at five widely spaced places in Europe. When the solar Lyman-alpha flux variability is very well developed, then it dominates in the lower ionospheric variability. The most pronounced Lyman-alpha variation on time scale day-month is the solar rotation variation (about 27 days). When the Lyman-alpha variability is developed rather poorly, as it is typical for periods dominated by the 13.5 day variability, then the lower ionospheric variability appears to be dominated by variations of meteorological origin. The conclusions hold for all five widely spaced placed in Europe.

  6. All-optical frequency downconversion technique utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2012-03-26

    An all-optical frequency downconversion utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was experimentally demonstrated for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) applications. Two WDM optical radio frequency (RF) signals having 155 Mbps differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data at 28.5 GHz were simultaneously down-converted to two WDM optical intermediate frequency (IF) signals having an IF frequency of 4.5 GHz by mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a LO frequency of 24 GHz in the SOA. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the RoF up-links with different optical fiber lengths employing all-optical frequency downconversion was investigated. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with a 6 km single mode fiber and an optical IF signal in an optical double-sideband format was approximately -8.5 dBm and the power penalty for simultaneous frequency downconversion was approximately 0.63 dB. The BER performance showed a strong dependence on the fiber length due to the fiber dispersion. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with the optical IF signal in the optical single-sideband format was reduced to approximately -17.4 dBm and showed negligible dependence on the fiber length. PMID:22453476

  7. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Vesecky, J. F.; Plume, M. A.; Howard, H. T.; Barnes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths by means of the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the earth during the Nov. 25, 1976 solar conjunction of Mars, which occurred near the beginning of solar cycle 21; Mariner 10 solar activity observations during 1974 are also used. It is found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma, and the spectral index of electron density turbulence is obtained. The measurements of solar wind velocity and spectral index cover 78 days for Viking and 49 days for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance, solar latitude, and solar longitude as well as solar activity. It is concluded that the observational velocity profile differs significantly from the theoretical profiles in two ways: (1) the theoretical profile does not show the abrupt change in velocity at about 15 solar radii, and (2) the observational profile shows acceleration at larger radial distances than the model profiles. The observational profiles indicate velocities of less than about 150 km/sec out to 15 solar radii.

  8. Remote sensing and modeling of lightning caused long recovery events within the lower ionosphere using VLF/LF radio wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2014-11-01

    On the 4 November 2012 at 3:04:27 UT a strong lightning in the midst of the North Sea affected the propagation conditions of VLF/LF transmitter radio signals from NRK (Iceland, 37.5 kHz) and GBZ (UK, 19.58 kHz) received at 5246° N 8° E (NW Germany). The amplitude and phase dips show a recovery time of 6-12 min pointing to a LOng Recovery Early VLF (LORE) event. Clear assignment of the causative return stroke in space and time was possible with data from the WWLLN (Worldwide Lightning Location Network). Based on a return stroke current model the electric field is calculated and an excess electron density distribution which decays over time in the lower ionosphere is derived. Ionization, attachment and recombination processes are modeled in detail. Entering the electron density distribution in VLF/LF radio wave propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wavelength Propagation Capability) code allows to model the VLF/LF amplitude and phase behavior by adjusting the return stroke current moment. The results endorse and quantify the conception of lower ionosphere EMP heating by strong - but not necessarily extremely strong - return strokes of both polarities.

  9. Improving the sensitivity of gravitational wave detection by applying a magnetic field evolution model to high cadence observational data of millisecond radio pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Yi, Shuxu

    Radio pulsars are the most stable natural clocks in the universe, yet their timing noises can still be substantial when the times of arrivals of their pulses are fitted with some well accepted spin-down models or templates of pulsars. We have recently developed a model of the magnetic field evolution of neutron stars, which includes a long-term power-law decay modulated by periodic oscillations of the surface magnetic fields of neutron stars. Our model can explain the statistical properties of their timing noises. We find that the spin-down evolutions of young and old pulsars are dominated by the power-law decay and periodic oscillations, respectively. By applying this model to fit the high cadence observational data of millisecond radio pulsars with the Monte-Carlo Markov Chain method, we are able to improve the sensitivity of gravitational wave detection, because their timing residuals are reduced substantially. In the mean time, accurate parameters of pulsars' spi-down and magnetic fields are also obtained.

  10. Solar Wind observations using the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hernandez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Villanueva, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Mexart

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART) is an instrument devoted to observations of radio sources to study large-scale structures in the solar wind employing the Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) technique. We report recent IPS observations, from January to April of 2013, including an analysis of the scintillation index and the estimation of solar wind velocities for a set of radio sources. We track the first ICMEs registered by the MEXART. We are initiating a continuos operation for a complete monitoring of IPS radio sources that will complement solar wind studies based on in-situ observations.

  11. Observations of IPS radio sources at 140 MHz with the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ambriz, Julio-Cesar; Villanueva-Hernandez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mendoza-Torrez, Jose Eduardo; Carrillo-Vargas, Armando; Andrade-Mascote, Ernesto

    The MEXART is a dedicated transit station to perform Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) ob-servations. The array of 4096 full wavelenght dipoles has a collecting area of 9600 square meters, the operation frequency is 140 MHz with a bandwidth of 2 MHz. Recently we began the IPS observations with the instrument. We report a list of IPS radio sources observed at 140 MHz. We perform an analysis of the scintillation index (m) versus the elongation angle to obtain the first g values given by the instrument for some radio sources. We report the single station solar wind velocity fitting model adapted at 140 MHz based on Manoharan and Ananthakrishnan (1990).

  12. Climatology of ionospheric scintillations and TEC trend over the Ugandan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant Bertillas; Edward, Jurua; Cilliers, Pierre J.; Habarulema, John Bosco

    2014-03-01

    This study presents results on the investigation of the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variability of Total Electron Content (TEC), phase (??) and amplitude (S4) scintillation indices over Ugandan (Low latitude) region. Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) data was obtained from Makerere (0.34°N, 32.57°E) station, Uganda for two years (2011 and 2012). Data from two dual frequency GPS receivers at Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E) and Entebbe (0.04°N, 32.44°E) was used to study TEC climatology during the same period of scintillation study. The results show that peak TEC values were recorded during the months of October-November, and the lowest values during the months of July-August. The diurnal peak of TEC occurs between 10:00 and 14:00 UT hours. Seasonally, the ascending and descending phases of TEC were observed during the equinoxes (March and September) and solstice (June and December), respectively. The scintillations observed during the study were classified as weak (0.1?S4,???0.3) and strong (0.3scintillation pattern showed peaks between 17:00 and 22:00 UT hour, while the seasonal pattern follows the TEC pattern mentioned above. Amplitude scintillation was more dominant than phase scintillation during the two years of the study. Scintillation peaks occur during the months of March-April and September-October, while the least scintillations occur during the months of June-July. Therefore, the contribution of this study is filling the gap in the current documentation of amplitude scintillation without phase scintillation over the Ugandan region. The scintillations observed have been attributed to wave-like structures which have periods of about 2-3 h, in the range of that of large scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs).

  13. DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Yu; Zhensheng Jia; Lei Xu; Lin Chen; Ting Wang; Gee-Kung Chang

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a novel scheme to generate a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) optical millimeter-wave source by using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver. The stability of the DWDM optical millimeter wave generation is largely improved because we use an optical phase modulator without a dc-bias controller and an optical interleaver is subsequently employed to

  14. Intensity Scintillation and Astronomical Quantum Observation

    E-print Network

    Jiang Dong

    2009-11-02

    Holography is 3D imaging which can record intensity and phase at the same time. The importance of construct hologram is holographic recording and wavefront reconstruction. It is surprised that holography be discovered in study interstellar scintillation for pulsar provide a coherent light source recently. I think that is speckle hologram and speckle interference(i.e. intensity interference), and use modern technique which include phased array,CCD, digital signal processing and supercomputer can achieve that digital and computer holography from radio to X-ray astronomy. This means we can use it to image the universe and beyond the limited of telescope for cosmos provide much coherent light from pulsar,maser, black hole to 21cm recombination line. It gives a probe to the medium of near the black hole et al. From those coherent light sources in the sky, we can uncover one different universe that through astronomical quantum observation which use intensity interference.

  15. Model-based prediction of amplitude scintillation variance due to clear-air tropospheric turbulence on Earth-satellite microwave links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Marzano; Giovanni d'Auria

    1998-01-01

    A statistical method to predict tropospheric amplitude scintillation parameters along Earth-space microwave links from meteorological data is proposed. The evaluation of the mean value and the variance of the refractive-index structure constant and of the scintillation power (i.e. the variance of the log-amplitude fluctuations of the received electromagnetic field) is carried out from conventional radio-sounding measurements. A large radio-sounding data

  16. Observations of tri-band beacon signal scintillation in the Taiwan zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung-Yuan, H.; Lung-Chih, T.; Chao-Han, L.

    2007-12-01

    By applying the differential Doppler technique on three quadrature components of tri-band beacon signals, we were able to obtain total electric contents (TEC) values and scintillation along the radio path through the ionosphere. Such measurements can be used to derive the regional ionospheric irregularity and tomography (P. A. Bernhardt et. al, 2000). There are 83 scintillation days from April 2006 to April 2007 (395 days) and occurred usually at 18~05 LT in the night time, especially at pre-midnight or post-midnight. Scintillations at low-latitude have high correlation with months when Kp less than 3. They are usually happened at May-June and December- February less than the other months. On the contrary, scintillations are normally more frequent during the equinoctial months of August¡VOctober and March¡VApril. Meanwhile there are 16 scintillation days happened when Kp large than 3. During the equinoctial months of August¡VOctober and Mar¡VApril, when scintillations are normally more frequent, the generation of equatorial irregularities is in general absent during magnetic disturbances. Meanwhile, we show a typical blob event at 150N MLAT near the midnight, and approach the correctly location of the F region step by step by a simple optical model when the radio signals traveled through them, where they were subsequently compared the irregularity structure with the results of the Chung-Li Dynasonde (MF/HF radar) and the ionospheric tomography reconstruction.

  17. 1506 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 46, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1998 Model-Based Prediction of Amplitude Scintillation

    E-print Network

    Marzano, Frank Silvio

    and millimeter-wave communication sys- tems is represented by tropospheric scintillation, i.e., rapid-Based Prediction of Amplitude Scintillation Variance Due to Clear-Air Tropospheric Turbulence on Earth-Satellite Microwave Links Frank S. Marzano and Giovanni d'Auria Abstract--A statistical method to predict tropospheric

  18. Planetary radio lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1988-01-01

    Both the Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) and Jupiter's decametric radio S-bursts are attributed to natural radio lasing. Presumably consisting of self-excited, closed-loop wave feedback oscillations between local irregularities of the source plasma density, this radio lasing is comparable to that which occurs in man-made optical lasers, although at radio, rather than optical wavelengths. As a result, it should produce a multiple discrete emission spectrum and intense, coherent beams. Recent observations of the AKR's discreteness and coherence have clearly ruled out the previous open-loop amplifier model for such emissions, and recent observations of the Jovian S-bursts have shown the expected, regularly-spaced, longitudinal laser modes. These new observations thus confirm the proposed planetary cyclotron radio lasing at both planets.

  19. Electromagnetic noise and radio wave propagation below 100 kHz in the Jovian atmosphere. I - The equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinnert, K.; Axford, W. I.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Krider, E. P.; Uman, M. A.; Dehmel, G.; Gliem, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo satellite program includes the delivery of an entry probe to the Jovian equatorial atmosphere in mid-1985. Optical and RF sensors for a lightning detection system are included as a part of the probe experimental payload. In this paper, calculations of the RF wave propagation and reflection characteristics of the equatorial Jovian atmosphere and ionosphere for frequencies less than 100 kHz are presented. It is shown that wave propagation is limited to line-of-sight and one-hop from the ionosphere. Results are also presented of a statistical treatment of the RF wave power densities for the case of a finite number of events and for the case of a uniformly distributed source. The results can be applied to specific RF experiment configurations concerned with establishing the statistical characteristics of Jovian lightning.

  20. Scintillating double beta decay bolometers

    E-print Network

    S. Pirro; J. W. Beeman; S. Capelli; M. Pavan; E. Previtali; P. Gorla

    2005-10-27

    We present the results obtained in the development of scintillating Double Beta Decay bolometers. Several Mo and Cd based crystals were tested with the bolometric technique. The scintillation light was measured through a second independent bolometer. A 140 g CdWO_4 crystal was run in a 417 h live time measurement. Thanks to the scintillation light, the alpha background is easily discriminated resulting in zero counts above the 2615 keV gamma line of Thallium 208. These results, combined with an extremely easy light detector operation, represent the first tangible proof demonstrating the feasibility of this kind of technique.

  1. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF[sub 3] and CeF[sub 3] as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF[sub 3] and the remainder CeF[sub 3] have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography. 2 figures.

  2. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF.sub.3 and CeF.sub.3 as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF.sub.3 and the remainder CeF.sub.3 have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography.

  3. Timing characteristics of scintillator bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S.; Dzierba, A.; Heinz, R.; Klimenko, A.; Samoylenko, V.; Scott, E.; Shchukin, A.; Smith, P.; Steffen, C.; Teige, S.

    2002-02-01

    The proposed Hall D detector at Jefferson Lab will have a time-of-flight detector composed of long and narrow scintillator bars. We have evaluated the time resolution of two bar prototypes in particle beams at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino, Russia. The bars are 2.0 m long and have square cross-sections of size 2.5 and 5.0 cm2. In this paper, we present results on how the time resolution of each of these bars depends on the entry position of the beam into the scintillator, on the material used for scintillator wrapping and on the phototube used for the readout.

  4. A multi-instrument case study of high-latitude ionospheric GNSS scintillation due to drifting plasma irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, C.; Oksavik, K.; Moen, J. I.; Romano, V.

    2013-12-01

    For this study, GPS receiver scintillation and Total Electron Content (TEC) data from high-latitude locations on Svalbard have been combined with several other data sets, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and allsky cameras, to perform a multi-instrument case study of high-latitude GPS ionospheric scintillations in relation to drifting plasma irregularities at night over Svalbard on 31 October 2011. Scintillations are rapid amplitude and phase fluctuations of electromagnetic signals. GNSS-based systems may be disturbed by ionospheric plasma irregularities and structures such as plasma patches (areas of enhanced electron density in the polar cap) and plasma gradients. When the GNSS radio signals propagate through such areas, in particular gradients, the signals experience scintillations that at best increases positioning errors and at worst may break the receiver's signal lock, potentially resulting in the GNSS receiver losing track of its position. Due to the importance of many GNSS applications, it is desirable to study the scintillation environment to understand the limitations of the GNSS systems. We find scintillation mainly localised to plasma gradients, with predominantly phase scintillation at the leading edge of patches and both phase and amplitude scintillation at the trailing edge. A single edge may also contain different scintillation types at different locations.

  5. Modelling Radio-Wave Propagation in Buildings Solving 19th Century Physics with 21st Century Computers

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    -wave propagation is governed by Maxwell's equations (formulated by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861). These equations, analytical solutions to Maxwell's equations are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain for anything other numerical solutions to Maxwell's equations. Contributions of this Research This research focuses on applying

  6. An experimental study of the propagation of 55 GHz millimeter waves in an urban mobile radio environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Thomas; R. S. Cole; G. L. Siqueira

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study of the propagation of 55 GHz millimeter waves between a fixed transmitter and a mobile receiver in an urban environment is described. Ranges up to 400 m are used and measurements of the received signal's “fast fading” envelope, “local mean,” signal versus distance power law, and coherence bandwidth are obtained in the presence of traffic

  7. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field measurements for direct detection of electron Bernstein waves in a torus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Kinjo, Kiyotake; Morikawa, Junji; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2009-02-01

    To identify the mode-converted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in a torus plasma directly, we have developed an interferometry system, in which a diagnostic microwave injected outside of the plasma column was directly detected with the probing antenna inserted into the plasma. In this work, plasma production and heating are achieved with 2.45 GHz, 2.5 kW electron cyclotron heating (ECH), whereas diagnostics are carried out with a lower power (10 W) separate frequency (1-2.1 GHz) microwave. Three components, i.e., two electromagnetic (toroidal and poloidal directions) and an electrostatic (if refractive index is sufficiently higher than unity, it corresponds to radial component), of ECRF electric field are simultaneously measured with three probing antennas, which are inserted into plasma. Selectivities of each component signal were checked experimentally. Excitation antennas have quite high selectivity of direction of linear polarization. As probing antennas for detecting electromagnetic components, we employed a monopole antenna with a length of 35 mm, and the separation of the poloidal (O-wave) and toroidal (X-wave) components of ECRF electric field could be available with this antenna. To detect EBW, which is an electrostatic wave, a small tip (1 mm) antenna was used. As the preliminary results, we detected signals that have three characteristics of EBW, i.e., short wavelength, backward propagation, and electrostatic. PMID:19256646

  8. The experimental verification of the diffraction analysis of the relation between height and gain for radio waves of medium lengths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Eckersley; G. Millington

    1939-01-01

    Some {height, gain} curves obtained by von Handel and Pfister from observations taken in an aeroplane on medium-wave broadcasting stations show that initially there is a diminution of signal-strength on going up from the ground. This feature is predicted by the complete diffraction theory of propagation from a vertical aerial over an imperfectly conducting curved earth, and can be represented

  9. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field measurements for direct detection of electron Bernstein waves in a torus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Kinjo, Kiyotake; Morikawa, Junji; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2009-02-01

    To identify the mode-converted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in a torus plasma directly, we have developed an interferometry system, in which a diagnostic microwave injected outside of the plasma column was directly detected with the probing antenna inserted into the plasma. In this work, plasma production and heating are achieved with 2.45GHz, 2.5kW electron cyclotron heating (ECH), whereas diagnostics are carried out with a lower power (10W) separate frequency (1-2.1GHz) microwave. Three components, i.e., two electromagnetic (toroidal and poloidal directions) and an electrostatic (if refractive index is sufficiently higher than unity, it corresponds to radial component), of ECRF electric field are simultaneously measured with three probing antennas, which are inserted into plasma. Selectivities of each component signal were checked experimentally. Excitation antennas have quite high selectivity of direction of linear polarization. As probing antennas for detecting electromagnetic components, we employed a monopole antenna with a length of 35mm, and the separation of the poloidal (O-wave) and toroidal (X-wave) components of ECRF electric field could be available with this antenna. To detect EBW, which is an electrostatic wave, a small tip (1mm) antenna was used. As the preliminary results, we detected signals that have three characteristics of EBW, i.e., short wavelength, backward propagation, and electrostatic.

  10. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  11. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, Tom (Sterling, VA); Spector, Garry B. (Fairfax, VA)

    1994-01-01

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

  12. Scintillating fiber ribbon - tungsten calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, A.; Crisler, M.; Kross, B.; Wrbanek, J.

    1989-07-01

    An ultra-high density scintillating fiber and tungsten calorimeter used as an active beam-dump for electrons are described. Data showing the calorimeter response to electrons with momenta between 50 and 350 GeV/c are presented.

  13. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; /Northern Illinois U.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  14. First IPS Radio Sources Detected By MEXART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Carrillo-Vargas, A.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Andrade-Mascote, E.; Vazquez-Hernandez, S.; Sierra-Figueredo, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Manoharan, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present a first study of strong radio sources that are known to exhibit interplanetary scintillations (IPS) detected by the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART). These observations were made using one quarter of the total antenna (16 rows of 64 dipoles each) and a Butler Matrix (BM) of 16X16 ports. The BM displays 16 beams at different declinations (from -48 to +88 degrees). We report the directionality and efficiency of the beams. These first observations of radio IPS sources and the calibration of the BM is the first step to initiate MEXART IPS maps in the near future.

  15. Spectrum of Galactic Radio Emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Graham Smith

    1961-01-01

    THE general radio emission, from the Galaxy has now been accounted for as the synchrotron radiation of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field. An unsatisfactory aspect of this explanation is the relation between the observed radio spectral index alpha, where radio flux is proportional to (wave-length)alpha, and the expected energy spectrum of the cosmic-ray electrons, the number density of which

  16. Radio science investigations with Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Tyler, G. L.; Anderson, J. D.; Fjeldbo, G.; Levy, G. S.; Wood, G. E.; Croft, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    Radio links to and from the Voyager spacecraft will be used for occultation measurements of planetary and satellite atmospheres and ionospheres, the rings of Saturn, the solar corona, and the general-relativistic time delay for radio wave propagation through the solar gravity field. In addition, the radio link measurements may provide information on the gravity fields of the planets, the masses of the satellites, properties of the interplanetary medium, and long-wavelength gravitational radiation propagation in the solar system.

  17. Forward modelling to determine the observational signatures of white-light imaging and interplanetary scintillation for the propagation of an interplanetary shock in the ecliptic plane

    E-print Network

    Xiong, Ming; Bisi, M M; Owens, M J; Fallows, R A; Dorrian, G D; Davies, J A; Thomasson, P

    2011-01-01

    Recent coordinated observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and stereoscopic heliospheric imagers (HIs) are significant to continuously track the propagation and evolution of solar eruptions throughout interplanetary space. In order to obtain a better understanding of the observational signatures in these two remote-sensing techniques, the magnetohydrodynamics of the macro-scale interplanetary disturbance and the radio-wave scattering of the micro-scale electron-density fluctuation are coupled and investigated using a newly-constructed multi-scale numerical model. This model is then applied to a case of an interplanetary shock propagation within the ecliptic plane. The shock could be nearly invisible to an HI, once entering the Thomson-scattering sphere of the HI. The asymmetry in the optical images between the western and eastern HIs suggests the shock propagation off the Sun-Earth line. Meanwhile, an IPS signal, strongly dependent on the local electron density, is insensitive to the density cavity...

  18. Radio telescopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Findlay

    1964-01-01

    A radio telescope is used in radio astronomy to measure the intensity of the radiation received from various parts of the sky. Such a telescope must be able both to detect and to locate faint radio sources of small angular size, and also to measure the brightness distribution across extended radio sources or over large sky areas. Ideally the telescope

  19. Ganymede: A New Radio Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Observations by the Galileo plasma wave receiver during the first two flybys of Ganymede revealed that this Jovian moon is the source of narrowband electromagnetic radio waves, making it the only satellite in the solar system known to generate non-thermal radio emissions. The emissions are the result of mode-coupling from electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions mu the upper hybrid resonance frequency, similar to non-thermal continuum radiation found at the known magnetized planets.

  20. Waves

    E-print Network

    LaCure, Mari Mae

    2010-04-29

    travel as waves through space and time. Waves can also manifest visibly through other mediums, water for example, as they travel outward from where an object disturbs the surface. As the title of my thesis exhibit, Waves refers to my aim to imbue.... As a viewer approaches a drawing from different angles the light reflected by the image subtly changes intensity. 4 Sewing by hand further adds dimension where it is seen in the front, and creates a shadow where it can be seen through the back...

  1. Scintillation index of a multiwavelength beam in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2004-08-01

    We characterize the scintillation index of a multiwavelength plane-wave optical beam that is subjected to a turbulent optical channel. It is assumed that the level of turbulence in the atmosphere ensures a weak-turbulence scenario and that the turbulence is due to the fluctuations in the index of refraction of the medium. It is assumed that the propagation path is nearly horizontal and that the heights of the transmitter and receiver justify a near-ground propagation assumption. PMID:15330473

  2. The big ears of radio astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Graham-Smith

    2002-01-01

    The special value of radio astronomy lies in the probing of extreme conditions in the universe, including the highest energies and the lowest temperatures. Radio waves can penetrate clouds of gas and dust to reveal objects in the universe and, in particular, in our Galaxy that cannot be seen by visible light. To achieve the highest resolution, radio telescopes in

  3. A comparison of field-strengths of 164 kHz radio waves transmitted from Tashkent and received at Ahmedabad with flare-time solar X-ray emissions measured in satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Chakravarty; K. R. Ramanathan

    1972-01-01

    Conclusion  The comparison of X-ray flares observed in satellites and their manifestation in the field-strength records of 164 kHz radio\\u000a waves received at Ahmedabad from Tashkent show that almost all the flares between 0200–1200 hr U.T. during the period 27 October\\u000a to 3 November, 1968, were able to influence the signal intensity. The starting time and peak time of the X-ray

  4. A multidisciplinary study of planetary, solar and astrophysical radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Calvert, W.; Fielder, R.; Goertz, C.; Grabbe, C.; Kurth, W.; Mutel, R.; Sheerin, J.; Mellott, M.; Spangler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Combination of the related fields of planetary, solar, and astrophysical radio emissions was attempted in order to more fully understand the radio emission processes. Topics addressed include: remote sensing of astrophysical plasma turbulence; Alfven waves; astrophysical shock waves; surface waves; very long base interferometry results; very large array observations; solar magnetic flux; and magnetohydrodynamic waves as a tool for solar corona diagnostics.

  5. Impairment of radio wave signal by rainfall on fixed satellite service on earth-space path at 37 stations in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotosho, T. V.; Oluwafemi, C. O.

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of rainfall on horizontally polarized radio waves for fixed satellite service at Ku, Ka and V bands for links to the recently launched Nigeria Communication Satellite one (NigComSat-1), for annual time availabilities of 99-99.99% in an average year for 37 stations in Nigeria. The results obtained at Ku-band downlink shows that 99.99% availability is possible in all the 37-stations in Nigeria. At Ka-band downlink the results also show that only 99.9% availability is practicable in all the 37 stations in Nigeria. At V-band downlink, 99.99% availability is also not possible in all the 37 stations in Nigeria. An availability level of 99.9% is only practicable in the North-West (NW) and North-East (NE) regions, where the attenuation is between 14 and 17.9 dB. Total fade out of signals during rainfall are probable in the South-South (SS), South-East (SE), South-West (SW) and Middle-Belt (MB) regions at 99.9% availability.

  6. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  7. Cassini Radio Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Kliore; J. D. Anderson; J. W. Armstrong; S. W. Asmar; C. L. Hamilton; N. J. Rappaport; H. D. Wahlquist; R. Ambrosini; F. M. Flasar; R. G. French; L. Iess; E. A. Marouf; A. F. Nagy

    2004-01-01

    Cassini radio science investigations will be conducted both during the cruise (gravitational wave and conjunction experiments) and the Saturnian tour of the mission (atmospheric and ionospheric occultations, ring occultations, determinations of masses and gravity fields). New technologies in the construction of the instrument, which consists of a portion on-board the spacecraft and another portion on the ground, including the use

  8. Radio Communication in Tunnels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIRO CHIBA; TATSUO INABA; YOSHITOMO KUWAMOTO; OSAMU BANNO; RISABURO SATO

    1978-01-01

    The attenuation constant of radio waves in tunnels was obtained experimentally and theoretically. According to this study, the tunnel is a transmission channel of high-pass type. It is found that the higher the frequency, the smaller the attenuation constant. The experimental values of attenuation constants are similar to the theoretical values of the the TE01 and EH11 and modes when

  9. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  10. Numerical Modeling of the Heliosphere Using Interplanetary Scintillation Data as Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. K.; Borovikov, S. N.; Hayashi, K.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2011-12-01

    Radio waves from distant, astronomical sources are scattered as they propagate through turbulent medium, such as the solar wind. The resulting random fluctuation in intensity observed is called interplanetary scintillation (IPS), which can be used in determining the solar wind properties, such as density and velocity. To numerically determine the plasma properties in the outer-heliosphere, such as the heliosheath where the Voyager spacecrafts are, we need the boundary conditions at some fixed distance from the Sun that are time-dependent and three-dimensional (3-D). Since IPS measurements cover a wide range of radial distances and latitudes, they fit the profile very well as such boundary conditions. The Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed a package of numerical codes called Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) that are designed for solving ideal MHD equations with multiple discontinuities and simulating the complex flow of partially-ionized plasma in the outer heliosphere. In this study, we implement IPS data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory at Nagoya University in Japan as boundary conditions in MS-FLUKSS and compare the results with in situ measurements by spacecrafts for accuracy.

  11. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  12. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  13. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Blackburn, R. (Michigan Univ., Nuclear Reactor Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  14. 3D Printing of Scintillating Materials

    E-print Network

    Mishnayot, Y; Cooperstein, I; Magdassi, S; Ron, G

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of 3D printing technique to the manufacture of scintillation detectors. We report of a formulation, usable in stereolithographic printing, that exhibits scintillation efficiency on the order of 30\\% of that of commercial polystyrene based scintillators. We discuss the applicability of these techniques and propose future enhancements that will allow tailoring the printed scintillation detectors to various application.

  15. 3D Printing of Scintillating Materials

    E-print Network

    Y. Mishnayot; M. Layani; I. Cooperstein; S. Magdassi; G. Ron

    2014-06-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of 3D printing technique to the manufacture of scintillation detectors. We report of a formulation, usable in stereolithographic printing, that exhibits scintillation efficiency on the order of 30\\% of that of commercial polystyrene based scintillators. We discuss the applicability of these techniques and propose future enhancements that will allow tailoring the printed scintillation detectors to various application.

  16. Characteristics of High Latitude Ionosphere Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to characterize scintillation signal parameters and ionosphere irregularities. While there are numerous GPS receivers deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations, most of them are commercial receivers whose signal processing mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. As a result, they may distort scintillation signal parameters or lose lock of satellite signals under strong scintillations. Since 2008, we have established and continuously improved a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska. The array contains high ends commercial receivers and custom RF front ends which can be automatically triggered to collect high quality GPS and GLONASS satellite signals during controlled heating experiments and natural scintillation events. Custom designed receiver signal tracking algorithms aim to preserve true scintillation signatures are used to process the raw RF samples. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array since its inception have been analyzed to characterize high latitude scintillation phenomena. Daily, seasonal, and solar events dependency of scintillation occurrence, spectral contents of scintillation activities, and plasma drifts derived from these measurements will be presented. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  17. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  18. Advantages and Problems of Nanocrystalline Scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Klassen; V. V. Kedrov; V. N. Kurlov; Yu. A. Ossipyan; S. Z. Shmurak; I. M. Shmyt'ko; G. K. Strukova; N. P. Kobelev; E. A. Kudrenko; O. A. Krivko; A. P. Kiselev; A. V. Bazhenov; T. N. Fursova

    2008-01-01

    Our experiments with nanocrystalline scintillating rare earth oxides and rare earth fluorides have shown that in some cases nanoscopic dimensions provide essential improvement of the most important scintillation parameters: light yield, kinetics of scintillations, radiation hardness, etc. We found that in the range from 20 to 100-nm of the oxide and fluoride particles there are 3 types of layered structures:

  19. Gaussian beam weak scintillation: low-order turbulence effects and applicability of the Rytov method.

    PubMed

    Baker, Gary J

    2006-02-01

    A generally applicable and computationally efficient description of random irradiance fluctuations induced by single scattering from distributed low-order turbulence (LOT) phase fluctuations is developed for Gaussian beams in the weak scintillation regime. The LOT solution describes irradiance statistics resulting from coarse beam irradiance fluctuations such as beam wander and beam breathing and will generally underestimate the true scintillation owing to the neglect of higher orders. For a subset of beam and turbulence settings that naturally result in non-log-normal irradiance behavior in the weak regime, the LOT solution closely approaches the exact solution and accurately describes the irradiance statistics for any point on the observation plane. For the same settings, beam-wave scintillation theory derived from the Rytov perturbation method yields inaccurate predictions owing to an inherent confinement to log-normal behavior. Examples that naturally exhibit non-log-normal irradiance behavior include focused beams on horizontal paths and collimated beams on ground-to-space paths. The complementary nature of the two scintillation theories (LOT and Rytov) enables a hybrid combination that yields accurate and convenient scintillation predictions for any case exhibiting weak scintillation regardless of irradiance behavior. Comparison of hybrid model predictions with wave optics simulation data reveals excellent agreement. PMID:16477844

  20. Forecasting of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassiotis, A.; Kane, T.; Gerrard, A.

    2005-12-01

    Model studies have shown that gravity waves excited by the thermal forcing mechanism in convection excite high-frequency waves (10-100 min) with long vertical wavelengths (greater than 20 km). Source spectra for various spatial and temporal scales of thermal forcing are now available above convective sources. When these energetic source spectra are propagated through synoptic background fields via ray-tracing methods they are able to reach middle and upper atmospheric altitudes before dissipating, and subsequently influencing the momentum budget of the region. Waves that manage to propagate deeper into the thermosphere can potentially seed instabilities such as equatorial spread-F (ESF). ESF causes scintillation in radio communications and GPS signals. The current realism of the convective source parameterizations has motivated the use of ray-tracing methods to predict some of the already observed effects of convectively-generated gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere. For this reason, a unique global gravity wave forecasting model called FOREGRATS (FOREcasting of Gravity waves via Ray-tracing algorithms with prescribed Tropospheric Sources) is being developed. The model will identify convective gravity wave sources in the troposphere, prescribe a realistic source spectrum, and then propagate the spectrum of waves up into the middle and upper atmosphere. In conjunction with observations at the Arecibo Observatory, which is located in a tropical convection zone, the predictability of these high-frequency/long vertical wavelength waves in the middle and upper atmosphere will be explored with FOREGRATS.

  1. Scintillating lustre induced by radial fins

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Radial lines of Ehrenstein patterns induce illusory scintillating lustre in gray disks inserted into the central gaps (scintillating-lustre effect). We report a novel variant of this illusion by replacing the radial lines with white and black radial fins. Both white and gray disks inserted into the central gaps were perceived as scintillating, if the ratio of the black/white fin width were balanced (ie, close to 1.0). Thus, the grayness of the central disk is not a prerequisite for the scintillation. However, the scintillation was drastically reduced when the ratio was imbalanced. Furthermore, the optimal ratio depended on the color of the center disks. PMID:23145270

  2. Method of making a scintillator waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  3. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  4. Advances in Yield Calibration of Scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan T. M. de Haas; Pieter Dorenbos

    2008-01-01

    By means of a photomultiplier tube, a Si-photodiode, and a Si-avalanche photodiode, the absolute scintillation yield of recently developed LaBr3:Ce, LaCl3:Ce, and (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce scintillators and traditional Lu2SiO5:Ce, Bi4Ge3O12, NaI:Tl, CsI:Tl, and CsI:Na scintillators were determined. These are all well known scintillators that cover emission wavelengths from 250 nm to 750 nm. By comparing the scintillation yield independently measured with the

  5. Cerium doped elpasolite halide scintillators.

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Shah, Kanai Subodhbhai (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA); Noda, Frank T.; Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiao Wang (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2010-05-01

    Low-cost, high-performance gamma-ray spectrometers are urgently needed for proliferation detection and homeland security. The cost and availability of large scintillators used in the spectrometer generally hinge on their mechanical property and crystal symmetry. Low symmetry, intrinsically brittle crystals, such as these emerging lanthanide halide scintillators, are particularly difficult to grow in large sizes due to the development of large anisotropic thermomechanical stresses during solidification process. Isotropic cubic scintillators, such as alkali halides, while affordable and can be produced in large sizes, are poor spectrometers due to severe nonproportional response and modest light yield. This work investigates and compares four new elpasolite based lanthanide halides, including Cs2LiLaBr6, Cs2NaLaBr6, Cs2LiLaI6, and Cs2NaLaI6, in terms of their crystal symmetry, characteristics of photoluminescence and optical quantum efficiency. The mechanical property and thermal expansion behavior of the cubic Cs2LiLaBr6 will be reported. The isotropic nature of this material has potential for scaled-up crystal growth, as well as the possibility of low-cost polycrystalline ceramic processing. In addition, the proportional response with gamma-ray energy of directionally solidified Cs2LiLaBr6 will be compared with workhorse alkali halide scintillators. The processing challenges associated with hot forged polycrystalline elpasolite based lanthanide halides will also be discussed.

  6. Scintillation materials for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lempicki, A.; Wojtowicz, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillators are beginning to attract renewed attention because modern High Energy Physics accelerators are placing unprecedented demands of quantity and quality of detector materials and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), used by the medical field. Both applications required materials for scintillator detectors with properties beyond those delivered by traditional scintillators. Thallium doped halides are very efficient, but slow and chemically unstable. Two modern developments, namely the very fast BaF[sub 2], which owed its success to the newly discovered crossover transitions, and CeF[sub 3], which carried a promise of fast components, more practical wavelengths and attractive efficiency. Since traditional scintillators (Tl doped halides) are very efficient, and could be even more efficient at larger concentrations of Tl, if it were not for concentration quenching. However Tl transitions are spin forbidden and slow. Both ills could be remedied by replacing Tl with Ce, whose transitions are allowed and which is known to form fully concentrated compounds of high photoluminescent efficiency and no quenching. These materials, plus new Ce-doped materials, exhibiting highly promising properties for medical applications, became the target of our studies.

  7. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  8. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah

    2007-03-06

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized.

  9. Scintillators for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Like most applications that utilize scintillators for gamma detection, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) desires materials with high light output, short decay time, and excellent stopping power that are also inexpensive, mechanically rugged, and chemically inert. Realizing that this ``ultimate`` scintillator may not exist, this paper evaluates the relative importance of these qualities and describes their impact on the imaging performance of PET. The most important PET scintillator quality is the ability to absorb 511 keV photons in a small volume, which affects the spatial resolution of the camera. The dominant factor is a short attenuation length ({le} 1.5 cm is required), although a high photoelectric fraction is also important (> 30% is desired). The next most important quality is a short decay time, which affects both the dead time and the coincidence timing resolution. Detection rates for single 511 keV photons can be extremely high, so decay times {le} 500 ns are essential to avoid dead time losses. In addition, positron annihilations are identified by time coincidence so {le}5 ns fwhm coincidence pair timing resolution is required to identify events with narrow coincidence windows, reducing contamination due to accidental coincidences. Current trends in PET cameras are toward septaless, ``fully-3D`` cameras, which have significantly higher count rates than conventional 2-D cameras and so place higher demands on scintillator decay time. Light output affects energy resolution, and thus the ability of the camera to identify and reject events where the initial 511 keV photon has undergone Compton scatter in the patient. The scatter to true event fraction is much higher in fully-3D cameras than in 2-D cameras, so future PET cameras would benefit from scintillators with a 511 keV energy resolution < 10--12% fwhm.

  10. Certain aspects of tropospheric propagation in planning of transhorizon radio-relay and space telecommunication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Basu

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of radio signal transmission in the troposphere are considered in the context of planning a radio communication system. Attention is given to the effects of refraction including ray bending, variation in the refractive index gradient, and amplitude, phase, and angular scintillations; the effects of diffraction; the effects of scattering; and the effects of absorption including absorption by oxygen and

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic solitons and radio knots in jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, R.

    1986-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear surface waves are examined in the context of the beam model for jetlike radio sources. By introducing a finite scale length, viz. the beam radius, geometrical dispersion can act to balance nonlinear wave growth and thereby produce solitons, localized wave packets of stable waveform. A method for obtaining a soliton equation from the MHD equations is presented and then applied to radio knots in jets.

  12. A multi-instrument study of high-latitude ionospheric irregularities and their effects on GPS ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, Christer; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Moen, Jøran; Romano, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    Scintillations are rapid amplitude and phase fluctuations of electromagnetic signals. GNSS-based systems may be disturbed by plasma irregularities and structures such as plasma patches (areas of enhanced electron density) and plasma gradients in the ionosphere. When the GNSS radio signals propagate through such areas, in particular gradients, the signals experience scintillations that at best increases positioning errors and at worst may break the receiver's signal lock, potentially resulting in the GNSS receiver losing track of its position. Due to the importance of many GNSS applications, it is desirable to study the scintillation environment to understand the limitations of the GNSS systems. For this study, GPS receiver scintillation and Total Electron Content (TEC) data from high-latitude locations will be combined with several other data sets, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and allsky cameras to perform a multi-instrument case study of GPS ionospheric scintillations. The EISCAT data provides a means to determine the altitude and density of the F layer, which can then be used to calibrate allsky projections as well as coordinates of ionospheric piercing points of the GPS signals. The focus will be studying any connection between scintillations and polar cap patches; however, other interesting and related findings will also be presented, herein statistical long-timespan studies of GPS TEC and/or scintillation data.

  13. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (?106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  14. Nanodosemeters based on gel scintillators.

    PubMed

    Grau Carles, A

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of a nanodosemeter based on a liquid scintillator cocktail of four components (ethoxylated nonylphenol, pseudocumene, water and a lipophilic mixture) is studied. The dosemeter can work in distinct gel phases, for which the radioactive substance can be confined inside aqueous nanoscale structures of different size. For water volumes ranging 0-15%, it results in a gel with micelles of 4 nm radius. For water volumes ranging 30-50%, the resulting liquid-crystal gel contains nanostructures of approximately 20 nm radius. The low-energy electron emission arising from the decay of (3)H and (55)Fe is counted in a commercial liquid-scintillation counting spectrometer for both homogeneous and gel samples. The counting efficiency gap between the two phases is used to compute the average energy deposited inside the micelle. PMID:17213221

  15. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Seventy years of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation (IZMIRAN) (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) (Troitsk, Moscow region) was held in the conference hall of IZMIRAN on 25 November 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Gurevich A V (Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow) "The role of cosmic rays and runaway electron breakdown in atmospheric lightning discharges"; (2) Aleksandrov E B (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Advances in quantum magnetometry for geomagnetic research"; (3) Dorman L I (IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow region, CR & SWC, Israel) "Cosmic ray variations and space weather"; (4) Mareev E A (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhnii Novgorod) "Global electric circuit research: achievements and prospects"; (5) Tereshchenko E D, Safargaleev V V (Polar Geophysical Institute, Kola Research Center, RAS, Murmansk) "Geophysical research in Spitsbergen Archipelago: status and prospects"; (6) Gulyaev Yu V, Armand N A, Efimov A I, Matyugov S S, Pavelyev A G, Savich N A, Samoznaev L N, Smirnov V V, Yakovlev O I (Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino, Moscow region) "Results of solar wind and planetary ionosphere research using radiophysical methods"; (7) Kunitsyn V E (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Satellite radio probing and the radio tomography of the ionosphere"; (8) Kuznetsov V D (IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Space Research at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences." Papers based on reports 2-8 are published below. The main contents of report 1 are reproduced in A V Gurevich's review, "Nonlinear effects in the ionosphere" [Phys. Usp. 50 1091 (2007)] and in the paper by A V Gurevich et al., "Nonlinear phenomena in the ionospheric plasma. Effects of cosmic rays and runaway breakdown on thunderstorm discharges" [Phys. Usp. 52 735 (2009)]. • Advances in quantum magnetometry for geomagnetic research , E B Aleksandrov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 487-496 • Cosmic ray variations and space weather, L I Dorman Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 496-503 • Global electric circuit research: achievements and prospects, E A Mareev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 504-511 • Geophysical research in Spitsbergen Archipelago: status and prospects, V V Safargaleev, E D Tereshchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 511-517 • Results of solar wind and planetary ionosphere research using radiophysical methods, N A Armand, Yu V Gulyaev, A L Gavrik, A I Efimov, S S Matyugov, A G Pavelyev, N A Savich, L N Samoznaev, V M Smirnov, O I Yakovlev Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 517-523 • Satellite radio probing and radio tomography of the ionosphere, V E Kunitsyn, E D Tereshchenko, E S Andreeva, I A Nesterov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 523-528 • Space research at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences , V D Kuznetsov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 5, Pages 528-534

  16. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G. A.; D'Olivo, J. C.; et al.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  17. BL LAC OBJECT PKS B1144-379: AN EXTREME SCINTILLATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Shabala, S. S.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Cimo, G. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Rapid variability in the radio flux density of the BL Lac object PKS B1144-379 has been observed at four frequencies, ranging from 1.5 to 15 GHz, with the Very Large Array and the University of Tasmania's Ceduna antenna. Intrinsic and line-of-sight effects were examined as possible causes of this variability, with interstellar scintillation best explaining the frequency dependence of the variability timescales and modulation indices. This scintillation is consistent with a compact source 20-40 {mu}as or 0.15-0.3 pc in size. The inferred brightness temperature for PKS B1144-379 (assuming that the observed variations are due to scintillation) is 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} K at 4.9 GHz, with approximately 10% of the total flux in the scintillating component. We show that scintillation surveys aimed at identifying variability timescales of days to weeks are an effective way to identify the active galactic nuclei with the highest brightness temperatures.

  18. Echo scintillation index affected by cat-eye target's caliber in FSO communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhang, Lai-xian

    2013-08-01

    Cat-eye effect has been widely used in active laser detection, optical target identification and free space optical (FSO) communication, but atmospheric turbulence makes laser beam fluctuate, which limits the use of cat-eye effect. The optical aperture has the aperture averaging effect to the detecting laser, which can be used to identify optical targets. Using the flashing theory of spherical wave in the weak atmospheric turbulence, the circular aperture filter function and the Kolmogorov power spectrum, the analytic expression of the echo scintillation index of the cat-eye target of the horizontal path two-way transmission was given in which the cat-eye target were equivalent to a combination of two circular apertures and the detector of cat-eye target was equivalent to a reflecting plane with the reflectivity ? when the light is normal incidence. Then the impact of turbulence inner and outer scales to the echo scintillation index and the analytic expression of the echo scintillation index at the receiving aperture were presented using the modified Hill spectrum and the modified Von Karman spectrum. The simulation results show that scintillation index of considering the inner scale is larger compared with that of without considering the inner and outer scales and considering the inner and outer scales. Echo scintillation index shows the tendency of decreasing with the target aperture increases. The echo scintillation index increases with the transmission distance increasing.

  19. Comparative study of transparent ceramic and single crystal Ce doped LuAG scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Yanagida; Yutaka Fujimoto; Yuui Yokota; Kei Kamada; Satoko Yanagida; Akira Yoshikawa; Hideki Yagi; Takagimi Yanagitani

    Transparent ceramic Ce 0.5% doped Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) scintillator grown by the sintering method and single crystalline Ce doped LuAG grown by the Czochralski method are prepared. They are cut to the physical dimensions 4 × 4 × 2 mm3. Their transmittance and radio luminescence spectra are evaluated. They are both transmissive in wavelength longer than 500 nm and intense Ce3+ 5d–4f emission appears around 520 nm. When

  20. Secondary scintillation yield in pure xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Coelho, L. C. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Giboni, K.; Aprile, E.

    2007-05-01

    The xenon secondary scintillation yield was studied as a function of the electric field in the scintillation region, in a gas proportional scintillation counter operated at room temperature. A large area avalanche photodiode was used for the readout of the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, together with the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The latter was used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, thus, the number of VUV photons impinging the photodiode. A value of 140 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter. The attained results are in good agreement with those predicted, for room temperature, by Monte Carlo simulation and Boltzmann calculations, as well as with those obtained for saturated xenon vapour, at cryogenic temperatures, and are about a factor of two higher than former results measured at room temperature.

  1. Scintillation Reduction Method for Photometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, P.; Sandler, D.

    1998-10-01

    We explore the reduction of scintillation via differencing signals from binary stars. Theory has been extended to include temporal and angular separation effects simultaneously. For meter-class telescopes, scintillation for a 2" binary is reduced by greater than a factor of 3. Aperture averaging for differential scintillation had a D^-1.4+/-0.1 dependence for exposure times <=0.25 s versus D^-1.1+/-0.1 for absolute scintillation. For 1.5 m diameter telescopes, the influence of binary separation on differential scintillation for theta<5^'' went as theta^0.6 for instantaneous scintillation and rose slightly with exposure time. If the deconvolution problem can be solved, differencing signals from binary stars offers the potential for increased photometric accuracy.

  2. Mapping the radio sky with an interferometric network of low-frequency radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezentsev, Andrew; Füllekrug, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The structure of the 100 kHz radio sky is determined with two interferometric networks of 10 radio receivers which are distributed over local areas of ˜1 × 1 km2 and ˜10 × 10 km2. The radio waves arrive at individual receiver pairs with small time differences which are used to determine the arrival direction of the electromagnetic waves including both the bearing and the elevation angle. The results show that the major part of the 100 kHz radio wave energy comes from the horizon at bearings which are consistent with known locations of Long Range Navigation (LORAN) transmitters. Some part of the radio wave energy arrives from the sky at elevation angles which are consistent with the first and second sky hop waves of LORAN transmissions. A minor part of the 100 kHz radio wave energy comes from lightning discharges at distances up to ˜1000 km with bearings which are consistent with lightning locations reported by the arrival time difference (ATD) lightning detection network of the UK Met Office. The angular resolution for mapping the radio sky depends on the network geometry, the instrumental timing accuracy, and on the signal-to-noise ratio of the radio waves. The resulting angular resolution of the interferometric networks used in this study is ˜1° in bearing at zero elevation and several degrees in elevation.

  3. Low frequency turbulence in the solar corona and fundamental radiation of type III solar radio burst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takakura

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of the previous numerical simulations, a new mechanism for the emission of the fundamental radio waves of solar radio type III bursts is presented. This hypothesis is to attribute the fundamental radio emission to the coalescence of the plasma waves with the low frequency turbulence, whistler or ion acoustic waves, pre-existing on the way of the electron

  4. Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.

  5. Kinematics of ICMEs/shocks: blast wave reconstruction using type II emissions

    E-print Network

    Corona-Romero, P; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E; de-la-Luz, V; Mejia-Ambriz, J C

    2015-01-01

    We present a physical methodology to reconstruct the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using type II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this Blast Wave Reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with type II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the type II frequency drifts, and calculates shock onset speed, shock transit time and shock speed at 1~AU. There were good agreements comparing the BWR results with the type II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, {\\it in situ} measurements, and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Perturbations on the type II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing TII emissions in real-time, to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1~AU.

  6. Recording of relativistic particles in thin scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstukhin, I A.; Somov, Alexander S. [JLAB; Somov, S. V.; Bolozdynya, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    Results of investigating an assembly of thin scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for registering relativistic particles with the minimum ionization are presented. A high efficiency of registering relativistic particles using an Ej-212 plastic scintillator, BSF-91A wavelength-shifting fiber (Saint-Gobain), and a silicon photomultiplier (Hamamtsu) is shown. The measurement results are used for creating a scintillation hodoscope of the magnetic spectrometer for registering ? quanta in the GlueX experiment.

  7. Longitudinal correlation of equatorial ionospheric scintillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Caton; Keith Groves

    2006-01-01

    Studies at the Air Force Research Laboratory are investigating methods for the incorporation of expected data sets from the Communication\\/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C\\/NOFS) satellite into existing scintillation specification models for an improved knowledge of the regional scintillation environment. Results from this research will form the basis for ground-based empirical scintillation forecast algorithms. One such study involves a determination of

  8. Waveshifters and Scintillators for Ionizing Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    B.Baumgaugh; J.Bishop; D.Karmgard; J.Marchant; M.McKenna; R.Ruchti; M.Vigneault; L.Hernandez; C.Hurlbut

    2007-12-11

    Scintillation and waveshifter materials have been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation in an STTR program between Ludlum Measurements, Inc. and the University of Notre Dame. Several new waveshifter materials have been developed which are comparable in efficiency and faster in fluorescence decay than the standard material Y11 (K27) used in particle physics for several decades. Additionally, new scintillation materials useful for fiber tracking have been developed which have been compared to 3HF. Lastly, work was done on developing liquid scintillators and paint-on scintillators and waveshifters for high radiation environments.

  9. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F. (630 Sylvan Pl., Batavia, IL 60510); Sparrow, Robert W. (28 Woodlawn Dr., Sturbridge, MA 01566)

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  10. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  11. Modeling of the turbulent phase in strong scintillation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Monte-Carlo models of the turbulent phase are widely used in the studies of the optical propagation through turbulence atmosphere. However all algorithms, that are currently in use, generate continuous smooth phase samples. Meanwhile, it is well-known that under strong scintillation conditions turbulent phase has singularities, and phase is discontinuous across the branch cuts connecting the singularities. Markov approximation for wave propagation through random inhomogeneous media 1, 2 predicts that under the strong scintillation conditions optical field asymptotically has normal distribution 3. We propose to generate the phase samples under strong scintillation conditions by first producing a complex normal random field with a given coherence function, and then recovering the random phase as the argument of this field. This approach allows generation of the two-dimensional discontinuous random phase samples that include phase singularities. Phase simulation algorithm is based on the Sparse Spectrum concept that was introduced in our earlier works, and can be modified to fit any desired shape of the turbulence spectrum. We verify the accuracy of the phase samples statistics by comparison with the theoretical results presented in the companion paper.

  12. Calibration Test of an Interplanetary Scintillation Array in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Andrade, E.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Praveen-Kumar, A.; Balasubramanian, V.

    We report the calibration test of a radiotelecope to carry out interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations in Mexico. This will be a dedicate (24 hrs) radio array for IPS observations of nearly 1000 well know radio sources in the sky to perform solar wind studies. The IPS array is located in the state of Michoacan at 350 km north-west from Mexico City, (19'48 degrees north and 101'41 degrees west, 2000 meters above the sea level). The radiotelescope operates in 140 MHz with a bandwith of 1.5 MHz. The antenna is a planar array with 64 X 64 full wavelength dipoles along 64 east-west rows of open wire transmission lines, occupying 10,000 square meters (70 x 140 m). We report the final testings of the antenna array, the matrix Butler and receivers. This work is a collaboration between the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) and the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), India. We expect to initiate the firs IPS observations by the end of this year.

  13. Small-scale variations in the galactic magnetic field - The rotation measure structure function and birefringence in interstellar scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonetti, J. H.; Cordes, J. M.; Spangler, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The structure function of rotation measures of extragalactic sources and birefringence in interstellar scintillations are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of about 0.01-100 pc and 10 to the 11th cm, respectively. Model structure functions are derived for the case of a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in the quantity (n(e)B), and an estimate for the structure function is computed for several regions of the sky using data on extragalactic sources. The results indicate an outer angular scale for rotation measure (RM) variations of not less than about 5 deg (a linear scale of about 9-90 pc at a distance of 0.1-1 kpc). There is also evidence for RM variations on angular scales as small as 1 arcmin, but it cannot be determined whether these are intrinsic to the source or caused by the interstellar medium. The effect of a random, Faraday-active medium on the diffraction of radio waves is derived, and an upper limit to the variations in n(e)B on a length scale of 10 to the 11th cm is obtained from available observations.

  14. Photodetectors for Scintillator Proportionality Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, J.D.

    2010-10-18

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  15. A scintillator based muon and KLong detector for the Belle II experiment

    E-print Network

    T. Aushev; D. Z. Besson; K. Chilikin; R. Chistov; M. Danilov; P. Katrenko; R. Mizuk; G. Pakhlova; P. Pakhlov; V. Rusinov; E. Solovieva; E. Tarkovsky; I. Tikhomirov; T. Uglov

    2015-04-03

    A new muon and K_Long detector based on scintillators will be used for the endcap and inner barrel regions in the Belle II experiment, currently under construction. The increased luminosity of the e+e- SuperKEKB collider entails challenging detector requirements. We demonstrate that relatively inexpensive polystyrene scintillator stips with wave length shifting fibers ensure a sufficient light yield at the Silcon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) photodetector, are robust and provide improved physics performance for the Belle II experiment compared to its predecessor, Belle.

  16. Comparison of LSO, LGSO and MLS scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Pepin; P. Berard; R. Lecomte

    2001-01-01

    The luminescence and nuclear spectroscopic properties of recent LSO, LGSO and MLS scintillators were investigated and compared to those of older LSO and LGSO crystals. UV-excited luminescent spectra outline important similarities between these scintillators. The two distinct luminescence mechanisms previously identified in LSO appear to be present in all crystals. The relative light yield and energy resolution were assessed using

  17. Binderless composite scintillator for neutron detection

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Jason P [Knoxville, TN; Crow, Jr; Lowell, M [Oak Ridge, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-03-10

    Composite scintillator material consisting of a binderless sintered mixture of a Lithium (Li) compound containing .sup.6Li as the neutron converter and Y.sub.2SiO.sub.5:Ce as the scintillation phosphor, and the use of this material as a method for neutron detection. Other embodiments of the invention include various other Li compounds.

  18. Luminescence and Scintillation Properties at the Nanoscale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Dujardin; David Amans; Andrei Belsky; Frederic Chaput; Gilles Ledoux; Anne Pillonnet

    2010-01-01

    This contribution is a review of the luminescence and scintillation properties of nanoparticles (NP), particularly doped insulators. Luminescence spectroscopy is an appropriate tool to probe matter at the nanoscale. Luminescence is also the last stage of the scintillation process. Specific surface and structural effects occurring in NP are reported. Their consequences on the NP luminescence properties are discussed. Parts of

  19. Scintillation Counters for the CDF Muon Upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pauletta

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of triggering on muons at higher luminosities and smaller bounch spacings has been preserved in the central region and ectended to the forward (eta < 1.5) by constructing new scintillation counters and refurbishing existing ones. The new counters are made of polystyrene - based scintillator produced by Monokristall under JINR supervision and employ a readout technique which is

  20. OVERCOMING IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION FOR WORLDWIDE GPS AVIATION

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    OVERCOMING IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION FOR WORLDWIDE GPS AVIATION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED decades, its impact on GPS aviation has not been well understood. As a result, the current GPS aviation to mitigate the impact of scintillation. Although current aviation receivers do not protect against

  1. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  2. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  3. Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, V. S.; Chernov, S. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Tchekhovskoy, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  4. Radio Pulsars

    E-print Network

    Beskin, V S; Gwinn, C R; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2015-01-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  5. Comparison of SAR in realistic fetus models of two fetal positions exposed to electromagnetic wave from business portable radio close to maternal abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimpei Akimoto; Tomoaki Nagaoka; Kazuyuki Saito; Soichi Watanabe; Masaharu Takahashi; Koichi Ito

    2010-01-01

    Since the diversification of the electromagnetic (EM) environment is spreading, it is essential to estimate the EM energy absorption rate [specific absorption rate (SAR)] of a pregnant woman's body and her fetus under various exposure situations. For example, if pregnant women work in jobs where they might wear business portable radios around their abdomens, they should also be concerned about

  6. The MASIV Legacy: Surveying AGN Intra-day Variability at Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.-P.; Rickett, B. J.; Bignall, H. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Reynolds, C.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.

    2014-07-01

    The Micro-arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey and its follow-up observations have provided large datasets of AGN intra-day variability (IDV) at radio wavelengths. These data have shown that IDV arises mainly from scintillation caused by scattering in the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, based on correlation with Galactic latitudes and line-of-sight Galactic electron column densities. The sensitivity of interstellar scintillation (ISS) towards source angular sizes has provided a new tool for studying the most compact components of radio-loud AGNs at microarcsecond (?as) scale resolution - much higher than any ground-based radio interferometer. We present here key results from the MASIV Survey and its follow-up observations, and point to relevant papers where these results have been published.

  7. SOME UNSOLVED CHALLENGES IN RADIO-FREQUENCY HEATING AND

    E-print Network

    SOME UNSOLVED CHALLENGES IN RADIO-FREQUENCY HEATING AND CURRENT DRIVE N. J. FISCH* Princeton Plasma, 2013 doi:10.13182/FST13-682 Several unsolved challenges in radio-frequency heating and current drive in the electronic version. I. INTRODUCTION There are many methods by which radio-frequency (rf) waves drive

  8. (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 7: Radio Telescopes etc.

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 7: Radio Telescopes etc. #12; Lab # 3: new data coming Several need telescopes? If a simple dipole antenna can detect radio waves... ...why do we need a telescope! Lab Report # 3 will now be due on Monday, March 31st. #12; Beware: radio frequency interference

  9. A Simple Radio Receiver Aids Understanding of Wireless Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Orlando, A.

    2012-01-01

    The basic theory of radio broadcasting is discussed from an experimental point of view. First, concepts like wave modulation and tuning are explained with the use of instruments in the physics laboratory. Then, a very basic radio receiver is described and assembled, whose most important feature, like in the old "crystal radios", is the absence of…

  10. Olfar orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Bentum; Albert Jan Boonstra

    2009-01-01

    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very low frequencies are hampered by the ionospheric plasma, which scatters impinging celestial radio waves. This effect is larger at lower

  11. Development of new solar radio telescope in NICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yuki; Watari, Shinichi; Ishii, Mamoru; Ishibashi, Hiromitsu; Iwai, Kazumasa

    Solar radio burst is one of the most important events for not only space weather forecasting but also investigating high-energy phenomena in solar corona. The GHz solar radio waves are synchrotron radiation emitted by high energy electrons at lower corona. On the other hand, the MHz solar radio bursts, especially type II and III bursts, are radiated via mode conversion of Langmuir waves excited by high energy electrons. These high energy electrons are accelerated at reconnection regions in solar flare and shock waves in solar corona. Therefore, MHz and GHz solar radio waves are closely related each other through the accelerated high energy electrons. So, wide frequency range (MHz to GHz) radio wave observations with high time resolution are required to comprehensively understand high energy phenomena in solar corona. We have been operating solar radio spectrograph called HiRAS for over twenty years in Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), but the system has been decrepit and radio wave environment in Hiraiso is getting worse. So, we have developed a new solar radio telescope in Yamagawa radio observation facility, NICT. The frequency range and time resolution in the system is 70MHz to 9.0GHz and 8 msec. In this presentation, we introduce status in progress for our new solar radio telescope.

  12. Exploring the Dynamic Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, Kunal P.; Hallinan, Gregg; Frail, Dale A.; Myers, Steven T.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Bourke, Stephen; Horesh, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Most of what is currently known about slow radio transients (supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, stellar flares, etc.) has come via radio follow-up of objects identified by synoptic telescopes at optical, X-ray or gamma-ray wavelengths. However, with the ability to capture obscured, unbeamed and magnetically-driven phenomena, radio surveys offer unique discovery strong diagnostic for cosmic transients. For the first time, we are systematically exploring the dynamic radio sky on timescales between one day to several years using multi-epoch large surveys with the Karl G. Jansky Array (VLA). We have carried out surveys in the COSMOS deep field as well as wide fields like Stripe 82. I have developed a unique infrastructure for near-real-time calibration, imaging, transient search, transient vetting, rapid multiwavelength follow-up, and contemporaneous optical surveys to better characterize radio transient phenomena. A large part of my thesis includes the commissioning of a new observing mode at the VLA: On-The-Fly Mosaicking. This mode has significantly improved the survey efficiency of the VLA, and it is a driver for VLASS, the future all-sky survey planned with this telescope. Through our radio surveys we have discovered several fascinating transients that are unique to the radio. These surveys have established the VLA as an efficient transient discovery machine. My thesis has enormous implications for how to design efficient transient surveys for the next generation of radio interferometer facilities like ASKAP, MeerKAT, WSRT/Apertif and LOFAR. My work has also provided answers to key problems such as the rates of transients, demographics of variability of radio sources including AGN, and false-positive foreground for future searches for the radio counterparts of gravitational-wave (GW) sources.

  13. A multifrequency scintillation method for ocean flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Fuks, I; Charnotskii, M; Naugolnykh, K

    2001-06-01

    The transverse flow of inhomogeneous fluid produces fluctuation of the acoustic signal passing through it. The coherence of frequency-spaced signal fluctuation is related to the advection of the inhomogeneous medium through the sound path, thus providing a basis for the current velocity measurement. This method can be considered to be the "frequency-domain" version of the conventional scintillation approach to the current velocity registration based on the measurement of the signal correlation transmitted from the source to the two separated in space receivers (space-domain scintillation) [S. Clifford and D. Farmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 1826-1832 (1983)]. The sensitivity of the method depends on the features of the ocean fine structure, which is determined mainly by the internal waves and turbulence. To estimate the sensitivity of the multifrequency method of transverse current probing, the coherence function of two signals propagating through a frozen and moving internal wave field and through the turbulence is considered. The application of the multifrequency signal allows estimation of the fine-structure parameters as well as the current velocity. PMID:11425115

  14. Blast-wave density measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ritzel

    1986-01-01

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and

  15. Comparison of ionospheric scintillation models with experimental data for satellite navigation applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Forte; S. M. Radicella

    2003-01-01

    When traversing drifting ionospheric irregularities, a radio wave experiences fluctuations in its amplitude and phase: the fluctuations characteristics depend on the radio frequency, magnetic and solar activity, time of day, season of the year and magnetic latitude of the observation point in the case of satellite to ground links. Nowadays, one of the most important field where knowledge of ionospheric

  16. Comparison of Scintillating Fiber and Diamond Detector Data

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    .77 Avalanche photodiode plastic scintillating fiber Saint-Gobain BCF-20 1/e length >3.5 meter fluorescenceComparison of Scintillating Fiber and Diamond Detector Data T. Tsang BNL (Nov 9 2009)(Nov. 9, 2009) #12;Scintillating fiber channel #0 Feb. 6, 2008 scintillating fiber 2 meter long, BCF-20, 1-mm

  17. Cerium oxidation state in LSO:Ce scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Melcher; Stephan Friedrich; Stephen P. Cramer; Merry A. Spurrier; Piotr Szupryczynski; Ron Nutt

    2005-01-01

    Trivalent cerium ions form the luminescence centers in several important families of scintillation materials including the rare earth oxyorthosilicates, pyrosilicates, and aluminates. When comparing the experimentally determined scintillation properties of cerium-doped scintillators to theoretical models of scintillation mechanisms, there is often speculation regarding the fraction of the total cerium that exists in the radiative trivalent charge state (Ce3+) rather than

  18. GPS Observations of Plasma Bubbles and Scintillations over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Valladares, C. E.; Semala, G. K.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Adeniyi, J.; Amaeshi, L. L.; Damtie, B.; D'Ujanga Mutonyi, F.; Ndeda, J. D.; Baki, P.; Obrou, O. K.; Okere, B.; Tsidu, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored in part by the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program, Boston College, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and several universities in Africa have collaborated to deploy a network of GPS receivers throughout equatorial Africa, a region which has been largely devoid of ground-based ionospheric monitoring instruments. High date-rate GPS receivers capable of measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) and GPS scintillations were installed at Abidjan, Ivory Coast (5.3°N, 4.0°W, dip 3.5°S); Addis Ababa (9.0°N, 38.8°E, dip 0.1°N ); Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (26.1°N, 50.6°E, dip 20.1°N); Cape Verde (16.6°S, 22.9°W, dip 4.9°N); Ilorin, Nigeria (8.4°S, 4.7°E, dip 1.9°S); Kampala, Uganda (0.3°S, 32.6°E, dip 9.2°S); Lagos, Nigeria (6.5°N, 3.4°E, dip 3.1°S); Nairobi, Kenya (1.3°S, 36.8°W, dip 10.7°S); Nsukka, Nigeria (6.8°S, 7.4°W, dip 3.0°S); and Zanzibar, Tanzania (6.2°S, 39.2°E, dip 15.9°S). In this paper we report on the longitudinal, local time and seasonal occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over equatorial Africa in 2009 and 2010, as a first step toward establishing the climatology of ionospheric irregularities over Africa. The scintillation intensity is obtained by measuring the standard deviation of normalized GPS signal power. The plasma bubbles are detected using an automated technique, whereby the GPS TEC is detrended to remove the diurnal variation and excursions exceeding a particular threshold are extracted for further analysis. A harmonic analysis (FFT) of these extracted events is performed to exclude wavelike features indicative of gravity waves or traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the remaining events are identified as plasma bubbles. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over Africa are well correlated, but that some discrepancies in their morphologies are evident. While plasma bubbles and scintillations are generally observed during equinoctial periods, there are some longitudinal differences in their local time and seasonal occurrence statistics.

  19. Optical Variability of the Radio Source J 1128+5925

    E-print Network

    Jianghua Wu; Xu Zhou; Jun Ma; Zhenyu Wu; Zhaoji Jiang; Jiansheng Chen

    2007-10-08

    Very recently, J 1128+5925 was found to show strong intraday variability at radio wavelengths and may be a new source with annual modulation of the timescale of its radio variability. Therefore, its radio variability can be best explained via interstellar scintillation. Here we present the properties of its optical variability for the first time after a monitoring program in 2007 May. Our observations indicate that in this period J 1128+5925 only showed trivial optical variability on internight timescale, and did not show any clear intranight variability. This behavior is quite different from its strong radio intraday variability. Either this object was in a quiescent state in optical in this period, or it is intrinsically not so active in optical as it is in radio regimes.

  20. Secondary scintillation yield in pure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2008-10-01

    The secondary scintillation yield is of great importance for simulating double phase detectors, which are used in several of the ongoing Dark Matter search experiments, as well as in the future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as the next generation underground observatories. The argon secondary scintillation yield is studied, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collects the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas, as well as the 5.9 keV x-rays directly absorbed in the photodiode. The direct x-rays were used as a reference for the determination of the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, so, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. A value of 81 photons/kV was obtained for the scintillation amplification parameter, defined as the number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt. The scintillation yields obtained in this work are in agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo calculations and a factor of ?10 higher than those determined by the WARP experiment.

  1. Optical and scintillation properties of Cd-doped ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Miyuki; Sekiwa, Hideyuki

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed high crystalline quality Cd2+-doped ZnO (Cd:ZnO) scintillator by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method to enhance the defect related emission in ZnO for ?-ray detectors. In order to imitate the scintillator application, we investigated ?-ray induced radio luminescence spectrum and emission bands peaking around 380 and 500 nm were observed, and the latter one was largely enhanced when compared with pure ZnO. Then, we optically coupled the sample with PMT R7600 by Silicone grease, and irradiated 241Am 5.5 MeV ?-ray. Cd:ZnO showed about 700% light yield of pure ZnO scintillator and the total light yield turned out to be 18000 photons/5.5 MeV-?. The main component of the scintillation decay time constants turned out to be ˜1 ns and 2 µs due to the free exciton and the defect related emissions, respectively.

  2. Scintillating double-beta-decay bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Milano-Bicocca and INFN (Italy)], E-mail: Stefano.Pirro@mib.infn.it; Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Capelli, S.; Pavan, M.; Previtali, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Milano-Bicocca and INFN (Italy); Gorla, P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    We present the results obtained in the development of scintillating double-beta-decay bolometers. Several Mo and Cd based crystals were tested with the bolometric technique. The scintillation light was measured through a second independent bolometer. A 140-g CdWO{sub 4} crystal was run in a 417-h live time measurement. Thanks to the scintillation light, the {alpha} background is easily discriminated, resulting in zero counts above the 2615-keV {gamma} line of {sup 208}Tl. These results, combined with an extreme easy light detector operation, represent the first tangible proof demonstrating the feasibility of this kind of technique.

  3. Cosmic-ray cascades photographed in scintillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowes, S. C.; Huggett, R. W.; Levit, L. B.; Porter, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Light produced by nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in a plastic scintillator can be photographed, and the resulting images on film used to measure both the energy content of the cascades and also the positions at which the cascades passed through the scintillator. The energy content of a cascade can be measured to 20% and its position determined to plus or minus 0.8 cm in each scintillator. Techniques for photographing the cascades and analyzing the film are described. Sample data are presented and discussed.

  4. Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

    2011-09-12

    The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

  5. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  6. Scintillation of partially coherent Gaussian—Schell model beam propagation in slant atmospheric turbulence considering inner- and outer-scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya-Qing; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Based on the modified Rytov theory and the international telecommunication union-radio (ITU-R) slant atmospheric structure constant model, the uniform scintillation index of partially coherent Gaussian—Schell model (GSM) beam propagation in the slant path is derived from weak- to strong-turbulence regions considering inner- and outer-scale effects. The effects of wavelength of beams and inner- and outer-scale of turbulence on scintillation are analyzed numerically. Comparison between the scintillation of GSM beams under the von Karman spectrum and that of beams under the modified Hill spectrum is made. The results obtained show that the scintillation index obtained under the von Karman spectrum is smaller than that under the modified Hill spectrum. This study can find theory bases for the experiments of the partially coherent GSM beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

  7. Investigation of the properties of new scintillator LYSO and recent LSO scintillators for phoswich PET detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Michelle Pepin; Anne-Laure Perrot; Philippe Bérard; Claude Pépin; Daniel Houde; Roger Lecomte; Charles L. Melcher; Henri Dautet

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence and nuclear spectroscopic properties of the new cerium-doped rare-earth scintillator lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (Lu0.6Y1.4SiO5:Ce, LYSO) were investigated and compared to those of both recent and older LSO crystals. UV-excited luminescent spectra outline important similarities between LYSO and LSO scintillators. The two distinct Ce1 and Ce2 luminescence mechanisms previously identified in LSO are also present in LYSO scintillators. The energy

  8. Propagation of cosmic rays in extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A model of extragalactic radio sources is considered which assumes that relativistic electrons carry energy from the central galaxy to the radio lobes and also emit the radio waves. It is suggested that the radio emission is confined to an axis because electrons propagate parallel to the magnetic field more readily than perpendicular to it and that symmetric radio lobes appear on this axis because electrons are deposited at supercoherent transitions far from the central galaxy, where they propagate diffusively. The slow drift velocities that characterize this propagation are shown to explain the secondary structure between the main lobes and to establish a relationship between double sources and galactic radio trails.

  9. An Analysis on the TEC Variability and Ionospheric Scintillation at Los Alamos, New Mexico Derived from FORTE-Received LAPP Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    2003-12-01

    The total electron content (TEC) of ionosphere and its electron density irregularities (scintillation) have effects of degradation and disruption on radio signals passed between ground stations and orbiting man-made satellites. With the rapid increase in operational reliance on UHF/VHF satellite communication, it is desirable to obtain understandings of ionosphere TEC variability and scintillation characteristics to improve our ability of predicting satellite communication outages. In this work, data collected from FORTE satellite received LAPP (Los Alamos Portable Pulser) signals during 1998-2002 are used to derive TEC and ionospheric scintillation index at Los Alamos, New Mexico. To characterize in-situ TEC variability at Los Alamos, the FORTE-LAPP derived TECs are analyzed against diurnal, seasonal, solar activity, magnetic storm, and stratospheric warming. The results are also compared with the TEC estimates from the Los Alamos ionospheric transfer function (ITF) implemented with the global ionospheric models (IRI, PIM), and GPS -derived TEC maps. The FORTE-LAPP signals are also analyzed against two important measures of the effect of scintillation on broadband signals, the mean time delay and the time delay jitter. The results are used to examine coherence frequency bandwidth and compared with the predictions from a global scintillation model (WBMOD). The FORTE-LAPP analyzed and WBMOD predicted scintillation characteristics are used to investigate temporal and seasonal behavior of scintillation at Los Alamos.

  10. New observations of scintillation climatology from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Caton, R. G.; Wiens, K.; Groves, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) was established with three ground sites in the mid-1990's by the Air Force Research Laboratory and has continued to grow into a global scintillation observation network. This system consists of an array of VHF and GPS receivers which continually measure scintillation in the equatorial region. In the past few years, the extended network of ground stations has expanded into the African sector. Initial results from yearly scintillation data obtained from two VHF receivers in Narobi, Kenya and Bahir Dar, Ethiopia in 2011 indicate the presence of scintillation activity throughout the June-July -August (northern summer) season which is inconsistent with current state-of-the-art ionospheric climatology models. It is well known that seasonal equatorial scintillation patterns vary with longitude based on geographical location. For example, the scintillation activity at VHF frequencies are absent in the Pacific sector during the months of November to February while observations from South America show nearly continuous scintillation during this same time period. With little to no ground-based observations, the scintillation climatology over the African region has not been well understood. In the paper, we will present S4 measurements various longitudinal sectors, including the first look at solar maximum type conditions over the African sector, and provide comparisons with output from a global climatology model.

  11. Scintillation of a laser beam propagation through non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Peng; Yuan, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Dexiu

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric turbulence causes strong irradiance fluctuations of propagating optical wave under the severe weather conditions in long-distance free space optical communication. In this paper, the scintillation index for a Gaussian beam wave propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere is derived in strong fluctuation regime, using non-Kolmogorov spectrum with a generalized power law exponent and the extended Rytov theory with a modified spatial filter function. The analytic expressions are obtained and then used to analyze the effect of power law, refractive-index structure parameter, propagation distance, phase radius of curvature, beam width and wavelength on scintillation index of Gaussian beam under the strong atmospheric turbulence. It shows that, with the increasing of structure parameter or propagation distance, scintillation index increases sharply up to the peak point and then decreases gradually toward unity at rates depending on power law. And there exist optimal value of radius of curvature and beam width for minimizing the value of scintillation index and long wavelength for mitigating the effect of non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence on link performance.

  12. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  13. The Scintillating Optical Fiber Isotope Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. Robert

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Scintillating Optical Fiber Isotope Experiment (SOFIE) which is being developed by Washington University and the University of New Hampshire to study the abundances of cosmic ray isotopes in the iron charge region. This detector system is a Cerenkov-Range-dE/dx experiment and utilizes range and trajectory detectors made of scintillating optical fibers, a fused silica Cerenkov counter, and plastic scintillator dE/dx counters to determine the charge and mass of cosmic ray nuclei. A brief description of the balloon flight instrument presently being developed will be given followed by initial results of an engineering model calibration at the LBL Bevalac heavy ion accelerator. In addition a brief discussion of the potential of scintillating fiber trajectory detectors for use in experiments requiring precise trajectory determination such as those being planned for the NASA Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag) program is presented.

  14. GEM scintillation readout with avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, A. S.; Requicha Ferreira, L. F.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Coelho, L. C. C.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Lopes, J. A. M.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2007-09-01

    The use of the scintillation produced in the charge avalanches in GEM holes as signal amplification and readout is investigated for xenon. A VUV-sensitive avalanche photodiode has been used as photosensor. Detector gains of about 4 × 104 are achieved in scintillation readout mode, for GEM voltages of 490 V and for a photosensor gain of 150. Those gains are more than one order of magnitude larger than what is obtained using charge readout. In addition, the energy resolutions achieved with the scintillation readout are lower than those achieved with charge readout. The GEM scintillation yield in xenon was measured as a function of GEM voltage, presenting values that are about a half of those achieved for the charge yield, and reach about 730 photons per primary electron at GEM voltages of 490 V.

  15. Scintillating fiber ribbon-tungsten calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, A.; Crisler, M.; Kross, B.; Wrbanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    We describe an ultra-high density scintillating fiber and tungsten calorimeter used as an active beam-dump for electrons. Data showing the calorimeter response to electrons with momenta between 50 and 350 GeV/ c are presented.

  16. Cerium fluoride, a new fast, heavy scintillator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Moses; S. E. Derenzo

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the scintillation properties of Cerium Fluoride (CeFâ), a newly discovered, heavy (6.16 g\\/cm³), inorganic scintillator. Its fluorescence decay lifetime, measured with the delayed coincidence method, is described by a single exponential with a 27 +- 1 ns time constant. The emission spectrum peaks at a wavelength of 340 nm, and drops to less than 10% of its

  17. Current status on plastic scintillators modifications.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Guillaume H V; Hamel, Matthieu; Sguerra, Fabien

    2014-11-24

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from 2000 to March 2014, distributed in two different chapters. First chapter deals with the chemical modifications of the polymer backbone, whereas modifications of the fluorescent probe are presented in the second chapter. All examples are provided with the scope of detection of various radiation particles. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. PMID:25335882

  18. Fast digitizing techniques applied to scintillation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bertalot; B. Esposito; Y. Kaschuck; D. Marocco; M. Riva; A. Rizzo; D. Skopintsev

    2006-01-01

    A 200 MHz 12-bit fast transient recorder card has been used for the digitization of pulses from photomultipliers coupled to organic scintillation detectors. Two modes of operation have been developed at ENEA-Frascati: a) continuous acquisition up to a maximum duration of ˜ 1.3 s corresponding to the full on-board memory (256 MSamples) of the card: in this mode, all scintillation

  19. Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

  20. Liquid scintillators for optical fiber applications

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 1, 2, 4, 5, 3H, 6H, 1 OH, tetrahydro-8-trifluoromethyl (1) benzopyrano (9, 9a, 1-gh) quinolizin-10-one (Coumarin) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol or pseudo-cumene. The use of BIBUQ as an additional or primary solute is also disclosed.

  1. Radio polarimetry: A historical development at Effelsberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, R.; Lochner, O.; Reich, W.; Mattes, H.

    2002-03-01

    To measure radio polarization one needs to analyze the incoming wave by means of a polarimeter. This is the crucial device that allows to determine the Stokes parameters after abstraction of the incoming wave in two orthogonal planes. The development of polarimeters in Effelsberg over the past 30 years is described in the present paper. .

  2. Effects of the troposphere on radio communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. M. Hall

    1980-01-01

    The book is concerned primarily with the effects of the troposphere and the ground on wave propagation at frequencies greater than about 30 MHz, although reference is made also to ionospheric phenomena where these are relevant. Consideration is given to the nature of atmospheric refractive index variations and of hydrometeor characteristics and their effects on radio waves. The characteristics of

  3. Remote Sensing of Solar Wind Velocities using Interplanetary Scintillation with MEXART and STELab Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Jackson, B. V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Tokumaru, M.; Yu, H.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P.

    2013-05-01

    Radio signals from compact radio sources are scattered by electron density irregularities in the solar wind. This effect is registered by radio telescopes as intensity fluctuations of the observed radio source amplitude and known as Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS). The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) and the antennas of Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab) are instruments dedicated to studies of IPS signals. In this work we present a technique (Manoharan and Ananthakrishnan, 1990) used to estimate solar wind velocities applied to observations of MEXART and STELab using single station spectra. Currently STELab uses a multi-station IPS technique to determinate solar wind speeds. Here we compare velocities obtained with a single station to those obtained using the multi-station technique for a few strong radio sources using both techniques and with both instruments. At the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences - University of California, San Diego (CASS-UCSD), a tomography program is able to reconstruct the dynamics of the inner heliosphere globally using IPS measurements to give solar wind densities and velocities. We show the incorporation of velocities provided by MEXART into this program that has been used successfully for over a decade with STELab IPS measurements.

  4. Damping of Electron Density Structures and Implications for Interstellar Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Terry, P. W.

    2011-04-01

    The forms of electron density structures in kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) turbulence are studied in connection with scintillation. The focus is on small scales L ~ 108-1010 cm where the KAW regime is active in the interstellar medium, principally within turbulent H II regions. Scales at 10 times the ion gyroradius and smaller are inferred to dominate scintillation in the theory of Boldyrev et al. From numerical solutions of a decaying KAW turbulence model, structure morphology reveals two types of localized structures, filaments and sheets, and shows that they arise in different regimes of resistive and diffusive damping. Minimal resistive damping yields localized current filaments that form out of Gaussian-distributed initial conditions. When resistive damping is large relative to diffusive damping, sheet-like structures form. In the filamentary regime, each filament is associated with a non-localized magnetic and density structure, circularly symmetric in cross section. Density and magnetic fields have Gaussian statistics (as inferred from Gaussian-valued kurtosis) while density gradients are strongly non-Gaussian, more so than current. This enhancement of non-Gaussian statistics in a derivative field is expected since gradient operations enhance small-scale fluctuations. The enhancement of density gradient kurtosis over current kurtosis is not obvious, yet it suggests that modest density fluctuations may yield large scintillation events during pulsar signal propagation. In the sheet regime the same statistical observations hold, despite the absence of localized filamentary structures. Probability density functions are constructed from statistical ensembles in both regimes, showing clear formation of long, highly non-Gaussian tails.

  5. Preparation of paper scintillator for detecting 3H contaminant.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Toshiji

    2013-09-01

    Liquid scintillator (LS)-encapsulated silica was prepared by the sol-gel method and then was added dropwise onto a wipe paper to form a paper scintillator. First, the efficiencies of wipe were determined for both the paper scintillator and the wipe paper using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The efficiencies of wipe using the paper scintillator and the wipe paper were 88 and 36 %, respectively. The detection efficiencies were 5.5 % for the paper scintillator, 46 % for the wipe paper using an LS and 0.08 % for the (3)H/(14)C survey meter, respectively, compared with that of a melt-on scintillator of 47 %. Second, an (3)H contaminant on the paper scintillator was successfully detected using a photomultiplier without an LSC or an (3)H/(14)C survey meter. Finally, the paper scintillator was able to detect beta rays of the (3)H contaminant easily without an LS. PMID:23554426

  6. Impact of ionospheric scintillation on GNSS receiver tracking performance over Latin America: Introducing the concept of tracking jitter variance maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.

    2011-10-01

    Scintillations are rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of transionospheric radio signals caused by small-scale ionospheric plasma density irregularities. In the case of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, scintillations can cause cycle slips, degrade the positioning accuracy and when severe enough can even lead to complete loss of signal lock. This study presents for the first time an assessment of GNSS receiver signal tracking performance under scintillating conditions, by the analysis of receiver phase lock loop (PLL) jitter variance maps. These maps can potentially assist users when faced with such conditions; a potential application envisaged for these maps would be in the form of a tool to provide users with information about "current (or expected, if some sort of prediction can be developed in follow on research) tracking conditions" under scintillation; another possibility would be to use the technique described by Aquino et al. (2009) to mitigate against the effects of ionospheric scintillation. In this paper these maps were constructed for scintillation events that were observed in the field during 9-11 March 2011 over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. Results show that the jitter variances estimated for all the simultaneously observed satellite-to-receiver links during the premidnight hours on 9 and 11 March 2011 increase during the enhanced scintillation levels, indicating the likelihood for cycle slips, loss of signal lock, and degraded accuracy in the observations.

  7. Quenching of the beam-plasma instability by large-scale density fluctuations in 3 dimensions. [Langmuir waves in type 3 solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschietti, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D.

    1985-01-01

    The highly variable, yet low, level of Langmuir waves measured in situ by spacecraft when electron beams associated with type III solar bursts are passing by are addressed by a model based on the existence of large scale density fluctuations capable of sufficiently diffusing small-k beam-unstable Langmuir waves in phase space. The model is also informed by the presence of a significant isotropic nonthermal tail in the distribution function of the background electron population, which is capable of stabilizing larger k modes. The model is able to predict various levels of Langmuir waves, depending on the parameters; calculations indicate that, for realistic parameters, the most unstable small k modes are fully stabilized, while some oblique mode with higher k and lower growth rate may remain unstable.

  8. A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. II. CMEs, Shock Waves, and Drifting Radio Bursts

    E-print Network

    Grechnev, V V; Chertok, I M; Slemzin, V A; Filippov, B P; Egorov, Ya I; Fainshtein, V G; Afanasyev, A N; Prestage, N P; Temmer, M

    2013-01-01

    We continue our study (Grechnev et al. (2013), doi:10.1007/s11207-013-0316-6; Paper I) on the 18 November 2003 geoffective event. To understand possible impact on geospace of coronal transients observed on that day, we investigated their properties from solar near-surface manifestations in extreme ultraviolet, LASCO white-light images, and dynamic radio spectra. We reconcile near-surface activity with the expansion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and determine their orientation relative to the earthward direction. The kinematic measurements, dynamic radio spectra, and microwave and X-ray light curves all contribute to the overall picture of the complex event and confirm an additional eruption at 08:07 - 08:20 UT close to the solar disk center presumed in Paper I. Unusual characteristics of the ejection appear to match those expected for a source of the 20 November superstorm but make its detection in LASCO images hopeless. On the other hand, none of the CMEs observed by LASCO seem to be a promising candidate...

  9. Scintillations in the imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Fluctuations in the images of scenes viewed over large distances are the most obvious manifestation of the turbulence effects on the imaging of the incoherent objects. While the average or long-exposure imaging is arguably the most well studied topic of the optical propagation in turbulence, and substantial progress was also made in understanding the average short-exposure imaging, the image scintillations for complex extended scenes are not well understood. We discuss some available results of the image scintillation theory and report on some recent progress. We introduce the concept of the scintillation imaging, when unlike the conventional turbulence imaging techniques the variance of the series of images of the scene is calculated and used to gain information either about the object or about the turbulence on the propagation path. The third constraint in the turbulent PSF [1] plays a critical role in the scintillation imaging making scintillation images insensitive to the constant background and emphasizing the areas with higher local contrast. The bilinear structure of the Object-to-Variance (O2V) maps makes it impossible to use the analogues of the PSF or MTF for scintillation images and precludes development of the general theory of scintillation imaging. We discuss the fundamental properties of the O2V kernel and discuss four examples of scintillation images of simple objects. We present the measurement data where colored scintillation images of the edge were obtained. The variance distributions are normalized using the traditional long-exposure images to remove dependence on the object brightness. In this case scintillations are concentrated near the edge and carry information about the turbulence on the imaging path. The amplitude and width of these variance distributions are sensitive to the turbulence level and can be used as passive scintillometer without the need to deploy the laser source and receiver at both ends of the propagation path. Variance images of the object with sinusoidal brightness distribution consists of the uniform background and doublefrequency sinusoidal oscillations. It has the features consistent with turbulent super-resolution originally described in [2]. Namely, for unresolved object oscillating components disappears while the background persevere.

  10. Twenty and thirty GHz millimeter wave experiments with the ATS-6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies at 11 locations in the continental United States were directed at an evaluation of rain attenuation effects, scintillations, depolarization, site diversity, coherence bandwidth, and analog and digital communications techniques using the Applications Technology Satellite-6(ATS-6). In addition to direct measurements on the 20- and 30-GHz links, methods of attenuation prediction with radars, rain gages, and radiometers were developed and compared with the directly measured attenuation. Initial data results of the ATS-6 millimeter wave experiment were presented. The first section describes the experiment objectives, flight hardware, and modes of operation. The remaining six sections present papers prepared by the major participating organizations in the experiment. The papers present a comprehensive summary of the significant results of the initial 11 months of ATS-6 experiment measurements and related radiometric, radar, and radio-meteorology studies.

  11. 15-March 2007 1 A Scintillating Fibre TrackerA Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    E-print Network

    SFT 1SFT 1 SFT 2SFT 2 Weilin Yu, DPG Frühjahrstagung,Gießen #12;15-March 2007 11 Scintillating Fibre Tracker(SFT) Built by JLU Giessen 2 cylinders of 2 X 2 layers, 100 stereo angle 1 mm Kuraray fibres Scintillating Fibre Tracker(SFT) Momentum measured in full azimuthal angle and reconstructed by bending 1 Tesla

  12. Proton irradiation test to scintillator-directory-coupled CCD onboard FFAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagino, Ryo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sadamoto, Masaaki; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2013-09-01

    FFAST is a large area sky survey mission at hard X-ray region by using a spacecraft formation flying. It consists of two small satellites, a telescope satellite, carrying a multilayer super mirror, and a detector satellite, carrying scintillator-deposited CCDs (SD-CCDs). SD-CCD is the imaging device which realized sensitivity to 80 keV by pasting up a scintillator on CCD directly. Soft X-ray events are directly detected in the CCD. On the other hand, Hard X-ray events are converted to optical photons by the scintillator and then the CCD detects the photons. We have obtained the spectrum with 109Cd and successfully detected the events originated from the CsI. For a space use of a CCD, we have to understand aged deterioration of CCD in high radiative environments. In addition, in the case of SD-CCD, we must investigate the influence of radio-activation of a scintillator. We performed experiments of proton irradiation to the SD-CCD as space environmental tests of cosmic rays. The SD-CCD is irradiated with the protons with the energy of 100 MeV and neglected for about 150 hours. As a result, the derived CTI profile of SD-CCD is similarly to ones of XIS/Suzaku and NeXT4 CCD/ASTRO-H. In contrast, CTIs derived from the data within 4 hours after irradiation is 10 times or more larger than the ones after 150 hours. This may be due to influence of an annealing. We also report a performance study of SD-CCD, including the detection of scintillation events, before proton irradiation.

  13. Optical isotropy in structurally anisotropic halide scintillators: Ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.

    2012-09-01

    The present study explores the structural, electronic, and optical properties of XSrI3 (X=K, Rb, and Cs) compounds within the framework of density functional theory. The ground state properties are calculated using the pseudopotential method with the inclusion of van der Waals interactions, which we find inevitable in reproducing the experimental structural properties of the above mentioned compounds with layered crystal structure. The electronic and optical properties are calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method and the band structures are plotted with various functionals and we find the newly developed Tran and Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential to improve the band gap significantly. From the band structures of these compounds, it is clearly seen that I-p states dominate the valence band. The optical properties such as complex dielectric function, refractive index, absorption spectra, and electron energy loss spectra are calculated which clearly reveal the optically isotropic nature of these materials though being structurally anisotropic, which is the key requirement for ceramic scintillators. The present study suggests that among the three compounds studied, CsSrI3 can act as a fast scintillating compound, which is well explained from the band structure calculations.

  14. Plasma Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Piel

    \\u000a The interest in wave propagation in plasmas has different roots. One of these was the reflection of electromagnetic waves\\u000a by the ionosphere [91]. Stimulated by Guglielmo Marconi’s (1874–1937) experiments on long-distance radio in 1901, Oliver Heaviside\\u000a (1850–1925) [92] and, independently, Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861–1939) [93] postulated, in 1902, that the Earth’s atmosphere\\u000a at high altitude must contain an electrically conducting

  15. Numerical simulation of type III solar radio bursts caused by high-density electron beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takakura

    1979-01-01

    Numerical simulation for the type III solar radio bursts in meter wavelengths was made with the electron beam of a high number density enough to emit fundamental radio waves comparable in intensity with the second harmonic.

  16. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  17. The Radio Jove Project: Citizen Science Contributes to Jupiter Decametric Radio Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Higgins, C. A.; Sky, J.; Cecconi, B.; Garcia, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build a simple radio telescope, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth. Regular monitoring of Jupiter and solar radio storms is typical, and Radio Jove amateur observations have improved in their scientific utility. Some observers have upgraded their equipment to make spectroscopic observations in the frequency band from 15-30 MHz. These observations can be particularly useful when made in conjunction with professional telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), the Nancay Decametric Array, the Ukrainian UTR-2 Radio Telescope, etc. The coming Juno mission to Jupiter will observe the radio emissions while in orbit at Jupiter and will benefit from the Earth-based perspective provided by frequent monitoring of the emissions. With these goals in mind work is now underway to provide simple methods of archiving the Radio Jove observations for use by the amateur and professional radio science community in scientifically useful and easily analyzed formats. The data will be ingested to both Radio Jove specific databases and to archives containing a variety of "waves" data. Methods are being developed to assure the scientific validity of contributed data such as certification of the observers. Amateur scientists have made overwhelming contributions to optical astronomy and we believe the same is possible within the radio astronomy community as well.

  18. Study of Radio sources and interferences detected by MEXART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva Hernandez, P.; Gonzalez Esparza, J. A.; Carrillo, A.; Andrade, E.; Jeyacumar, S.; Kurtz, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) is a radio telescope that will perform studies of solar wind disturbances using the Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) technique. The radiotelescope is its final calibration stage, and in this work we report two testings: the interference signals detected around the operation frequency, and the transit of the main radio sources detected by individual lines of 64 dipoles. These radio sources are: Sun, Casiopea, Crab nebula, Cygnus and Virgo. These testings allow us to know the response of the array elements in order to calibrate them. The final operation of the MEXART requires that the signal detected and transmitted by each East-West line of 64 dipoles arrives at the butler matrix (control room) with the same phase and amplitude.

  19. Review on photonic crystal coatings for scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapitsch, Arno; Lecoq, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The amount of light and its time distribution are key factors determining the performance of scintillators when used as radiation detectors. However most inorganic scintillators are made of heavy materials and suffer from a high index of refraction which limits light extraction efficiency. This increases the path length of the photons in the material with the consequence of higher absorption and tails in the time distribution of the extracted light. Photonic crystals are a relatively new way of conquering this light extraction problem. Basically they are a way to produce a smooth and controllable index matching between the scintillator and the output medium through the nanostructuration of a thin layer of optically transparent high index material deposited at the coupling face of the scintillator. Our review paper discusses the theory behind this approach as well as the simulation details. Furthermore the different lithography steps of the production of an actual photonic crystal sample will be explained. Measurement results of LSO scintillator pixels covered with a nanolithography machined photonic crystal surface are presented together with practical tips for the further development and improvement of this technique.

  20. PARAXIAL COUPLING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN RANDOM MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Garnier, Josselin

    . We consider the propagation of temporally pulsed electromagnetic waves in a three- dimensional random and the statistical analysis of important wave propagation problems, such as scintillation [20]. When the paraxialPARAXIAL COUPLING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN RANDOM MEDIA JOSSELIN GARNIER AND KNUT SÃ?LNA Abstract