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1

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

2

Neutron sources and applications  

SciTech Connect

Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-01-01

3

Pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-05-01

4

The Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Hayter, J.B.

1989-01-01

5

Ultrashort pulsed neutron source.  

PubMed

We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50??ps) and high peak flux (>10^{18}??n/cm^{2}/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3???m) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory. PMID:25396373

Pomerantz, I; McCary, E; Meadows, A R; Arefiev, A; Bernstein, A C; Chester, C; Cortez, J; Donovan, M E; Dyer, G; Gaul, E W; Hamilton, D; Kuk, D; Lestrade, A C; Wang, C; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

2014-10-31

6

Ultrashort Pulsed Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps ) and high peak flux (>1018 n /cm2/s ), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3 ? m ) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

Pomerantz, I.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A. R.; Arefiev, A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Chester, C.; Cortez, J.; Donovan, M. E.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E. W.; Hamilton, D.; Kuk, D.; Lestrade, A. C.; Wang, C.; Ditmire, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

2014-10-01

7

Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline Spallation Neutron Source  

E-print Network

Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source Overview and Status 21 that can utilize the full cold neutron energy spectrum. ­ The external facility will be appropriate for experiments that need ultra cold neutrons generated in superfluid Helium. · The beamlines consist of

8

Coded source neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

2011-01-01

9

SNS: Spallation Neutron Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source currently being built by the United States Department of Energy. Users can find out about upcoming workshops, conferences, and other events dealing with the accelerator, which is scheduled to be completed in 2006. By downloading a series of materials, users can learn about SNS's benefits and mechanisms. Researchers can discover SNS's mission, instrumentation, moderators, and detectors. The website provides live video of the construction site. Visitors can also learn about employment opportunities.

10

RTGs - The powering of Ulysses. [Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for Ulysses' electronic supply is described noting that lack of sufficient sunlight renders usual solar cell power generation ineffective due to increased distance from sun. The history of the RTG in the U.S.A. is reviewed citing the first RTG launch in 1961 with an electrical output of 2.7 W and the improved Ulysses RTG, which provides 285 W at mission beginning and 250 W at mission end. The RTG concept is discussed including the most recent RTG technology developed by the DOE, the General Purpose Heat Source RTG (GPHS-RTG). The system relies upon heat generated by radioactive decay using radioactive plutonium-238, which is converted directly to energy using the Seebeck method.

Mastal, E. F.; Campbell, R. W.

1990-01-01

11

Ultracold Neutron Sources and Experiments  

E-print Network

Ultracold Neutron Sources and Experiments Jeff Martin The University of Winnipeg FPUA11 OkayamaLangevin, Grenoble, France, www.ill.fr Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, www.sns.gov Reactor) in cold (20 K) D2 O. Cold neutrons then "downscatter" to near zero energy (4 mK) in superfluid helium

Martin, Jeff

12

ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

2003-03-25

13

Ukraine experimental neutron source facility.  

SciTech Connect

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an experimental neutron source facility. The facility has been developed for producing medical isotopes, training young nuclear professionals, supporting the Ukraine nuclear industry, providing capability for performing reactor physics, material research, and basic science experiments. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA is collaborating with KIPT on developing this facility. A driven subcritical assembly utilizing the KIPT electron accelerator with a target assembly is used to generate the neutron source. The target assembly utilizes tungsten or uranium for neutron production through photonuclear reactions with 100-KW of electron beam power. The neutron source intensity, spectrum, and spatial distribution have been studied to maximize the neutron yield and satisfy different engineering requirements. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux intensity with a subcriticality of 0.98. Low enrichment uranium is used for the fuel material because it enhances the neutron source performance. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. Horizontal neutron channels are incorporated for performing basic research including cold neutron source. This paper describes the conceptual design and summarizes some of the related analyses.

Gohar, Y.; Bolshinsky, I.; Nekludov, I.; Karnaukhov, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology)

2008-01-01

14

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

15

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

16

Spallation Neutron Sources Around the World  

E-print Network

Spallation Neutron Sources Around the World Bernie Riemer Thanks to others for the many shamelessly Laboratory #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Spallation Neutron Source Facilities Spallation Neutron Source Facilities Serve Neutron Science Programs · Neutron beams to suites

McDonald, Kirk

17

Materials for spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

1996-03-01

18

Design of a Neutron Source for Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron spectra produced by an isotopic neutron source located at the center of moderating media were calculated using Monte Carlo method in the aim to design a neutron source for calibration purposes. To improve the evaluation of the dosimetric quantities, is recomended to calibrate the radiation protection devices with calibrated neutron sources whose neutron spectra being similar to those met in practice. Here, a 239Pu-Be neutron source was inserted in H2O, D2O and polyethylene cylindrical moderators in order to produce neutron spectra that resembles spectra found in workplaces.

Carrillo-Nuez, Aureliano; Vega-Carrillo, Hctor Ren

2002-08-01

19

FIGARO : measuring neutron emission spectra with a white neutron source /.  

SciTech Connect

Neutron emission spectra from reactions induced by fast neutrons are of importance in basic physics and applications. Very few data are available in the literature over a wide range of incident neutron energies such as produced with a white neutron source. The FIGARO facility at the WNR/LANSCE neutron source has been established to measure such neutron emission over a range of incident neutron energies from 1 to over 100 MeV. Using the time-of-flight technique twice (once to determine the incident neutron energy and again to determine the outgoing neutron energy), we are measuring neutron emission spectra for several reactions such as (n,n') and (n,f). Neutron emission from inelastic scattering gives information on the level density of excited states of the target nucleus. Our first measurements are on structural materials such as iron.

Haight, Robert C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Zanini, L.; Devlin, M.; Rochman, D. (Dimitri)

2002-01-01

20

Neutron spallation sources in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of presentday accelerator technology.

Bryant, P. J.

1996-11-01

21

Neutron spallation sources in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of present day accelerator technology.

Bryant, P. J.

1996-11-01

22

Neutron sources and spectra from cold fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic methods are used to calculate the neutron and photon sources and spectra that would develop if fusion reactions were occurring in cold fusion experimental devices. The results from the calculations give the neutron and gamma spectra resulting from a 2.45-MeV and a 14.1 MeV neutron source. The neutron source strength from certain (gamma,n) and (alpha,n) reactions are also determined.

T. A. Parish; R. T. Perry; W. B. Wilson

1990-01-01

23

Z-pinch plasma neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deuterium gas-puff load imploded by a multi-MA current driver from a large initial diameter could be a powerful source of fusion neutrons, a plasma neutron source (PNS). Unlike the beam-target neutrons produced in Z-pinch plasmas in the 1950s and deuterium-fiber experiments in the 1980s, the neutrons generated in deuterium gas-puffs with current levels achieved in recent experiments on the

A. L. Velikovich; R. W. Clark; J. Davis; Y. K. Chong; C. Deeney; C. A. Coverdale; C. L. Ruiz; G. W. Cooper; A. J. Nelson; J. Franklin; L. I. Rudakov

2007-01-01

24

Overview of Polarized Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized neutrons have applications in materials science and weak interactions studies. Several methods exist for polarizing neutrons, such as supermirrors for cold neutron energies, Heusler alloy for thermal neutron beams, and polarized proton filters for epithermal energies. While each of these devices are quite useful for different applications, there are also several applications that need a new method. After surveying the basic characteristics of these devices, this talk will focus on the present state of the art for neutron polarizers that are based on the large spin dependence of the cross section for neutron absorption by 3He. The status of applications to neutron scattering and fundamental physics will be also be discussed.

Gentile, T. R.

2002-04-01

25

Switchable radioactive neutron source device  

DOEpatents

This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons.

Boyar, Robert E. (La Grange, IL); DeVolpi, Alexander (Bolingbrook, IL); Stanford, George S. (Downers Grove, IL); Rhodes, Edgar A. (Woodridge, IL)

1989-01-01

26

Switchable radioactive neutron source device  

DOEpatents

This invention is a switchable neutron generating apparatus comprised of a pair of plates, the first plate having an alpha emitter section on it and the second plate having a target material portion on it which generates neutrons when its nuclei absorb an alpha particle. In operation, the alpha portion of the first plate is aligned with the neutron portion of the second plate to produce neutrons and brought out of alignment to cease production of neutrons. 3 figs.

Stanford, G.S.; Rhodes, E.A.; Devolpi, A.; Boyar, R.E.

1987-11-06

27

The Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with an anticipated start-up in early 2006, will provide the most intense pulsed beams of cold neutrons in the world. At a projected power of 1.4 MW, the time averaged fluxes and fluences of the SNS will approach those of high flux reactors. One of the flight paths on the cold, coupled moderator will be devoted to fundamental neutron physics. The fundamental neutron physics beamline is anticipated to include two beam-lines; a broad band cold beam, and a monochromatic beam of 0.89 nm neutrons for ultracold neutron (UCN) experiments. The fundamental neutron physics beamline will be operated as a user facility with experiment selection based on a peer reviewed proposal process. An initial program of five experiments in neutron decay, hadronic weak interaction and time reversal symmetry violation have been proposed.

Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Greene, Geoffrey L [ORNL; Cianciolo, Vince [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Snow, William M [ORNL; Huffman, P. [North Carolina State University; Gould, C. [North Carolina State University; Bowman, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cooper, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Doyle, J.-C. [Harvard University

2005-05-01

28

A multitask neutron beam line for spallation neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a new concept for a time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument allowing for simultaneous application of three different techniques: time-of-flight neutron diffraction, neutron resonance capture analysis and Bragg edge transmission analysis. The instrument can provide average resolution neutron radiography too. The potential of the proposed concept was explored by implementing the necessary equipment on INES (Italian Neutron Experimental Station) at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed instrument to acquire relevant quantitative information in a non-invasive way on a historical metallurgical sample, namely a Japanese hand guard (tsuba). The aforementioned neutron techniques simultaneously exploited the extended neutron energy range available from 10 meV to 1 keV. This allowed a fully satisfactory characterization of the sample in terms of metal components and their combination in different phases, and forging and assembling methods.

Pietropaolo, A.; Festa, G.; Grazzi, F.; Barzagli, E.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Civita, F.

2011-08-01

29

Neutron sources: present practice and future potential  

SciTech Connect

The present capability and future potential of accelerator-based monoenergetic and white neutron sources are outlined in the context of fundamental and applied neutron-nuclear research. The neutron energy range extends from thermal to 500+ MeV, and the time domain from steady-state to pico-second pulsed sources. Accelerator technology is summarized, including the production of intense light-ion, heavy-ion and electron beams. Target capabilities are discussed with attention to neutron-production efficiency and power-handling capabilities. The status of underlying neutron-producing reactions is summarized. The present and future use of neutron sources in: (i) fundamental neutron-nuclear research, (ii) nuclear-data acquisition, (iii) materials-damage studies, (iv) engineering test, and (v) biomedical applications are discussed. Emphasis is given to current status, near-term advances well within current technology, and to long-range projections.

Cierjacks, S.; Smith, A.B.

1988-01-01

30

Spallation Neutron Source reaches megawatt power  

ScienceCinema

The Department of Energy's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already the world's most powerful facility for pulsed neutron scattering science, is now the first pulsed spallation neutron source to break the one-megawatt barrier. "Advances in the materials sciences are fundamental to the development of clean and sustainable energy technologies. In reaching this milestone of operating power, the Spallation Neutron Source is providing scientists with an unmatched resource for unlocking the secrets of materials at the molecular level," said Dr. William F. Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science.

Dr. William F. Brinkman

2010-01-08

31

Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT  

SciTech Connect

Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

2013-04-19

32

Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

2013-04-01

33

Neutron fan beam source for neutron radiography purpose  

SciTech Connect

The development of the DIANE neutron radiography system included a sealed-tube neutron generator for this purpose and the optimization of the system's neutron beam quality in terms of divergence and useful thermal neutron yield for each 14-MeV neutron produced. Following this development, the concept of a DIANE fan beam source is herewith introduced. The goal which drives this design is one of economy: by simply increasing the aperture dimension of a conventional DIANE beam in one plane of its collimator axis to a small-angle, fan-shaped output, the useful beam area for neutron radiography would be substantially increased. Thus with the same source, the throughput, or number of objects under examination at any given time, would be augmented significantly. Presented here are the design of this thermal neutron source and the initial Monte Carlo calculations. Taking into account the experience with the conventional DIANE neutron radiography system, these result are discussed and the potential of and interest in such a fan-beam source are explored.

Le Tourneur, P.; Bach, P.; Dance, W. E. [SODERN, 20, avenue Descartes, 94451 Limeil Brevannes (France); Consultant, Dallas, Texas (United States)

1999-06-10

34

Neutron dosimetry at SLAC: Neutron sources and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes in detail the dosimetric characteristics of the five radioisotopic type neutron sources ({sup 238}PuBe, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 238}PuB, {sup 238}PuF{sub 4}, and {sup 238}PuLi) and the neutron instrumentation (moderated BF{sub 3} detector, Anderson-Braun (AB) detector, AB remmeter, Victoreen 488 Neutron Survey Meter, Beam Shut-Off Ionization Chamber, {sup 12}C plastic scintillator detector, moderated indium foil detector, and moderated and bare TLDs) that are commonly used for neutron dosimetry at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). 36 refs,. 19 figs.

Liu, J.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; McCall, R.C.; Ipe, N.E.

1991-10-01

35

Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

2013-09-01

36

Pulsed neutron sources and condensed matter research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of neutron sources for research is outlined, with emphasis on the dependence of future progress on the successful exploitation of the new breed of pulsed sources. The principles and instrumentation of scattering experiments at pulsed sources using the time-of-flight method are described in detail. Examples of novel scientific results, recently obtained at the ISIS source, are presented

W. G. Williams; S. W. Lovesey

1989-01-01

37

10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39.55... 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities not...

2010-01-01

38

10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 ...LOGGING Equipment 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source,...

2012-01-01

39

10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 ...LOGGING Equipment 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source,...

2013-01-01

40

10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 ...LOGGING Equipment 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source,...

2011-01-01

41

Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2011-12-13

42

Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >1011 n?s-1. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

Franklyn, C. B.

2011-12-01

43

Neutron scattering instruments for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a 1 MW pulsed spallation source for neutron scattering planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This facility is being designed as a 5-laboratory collaboration project. This paper addresses the proposed facility layout, the process for selection and construction of neutron scattering instruments at the SNS, the initial planning done on the basis of a reference set of ten instruments, and the plans for research and development (R and D) to support construction of the first ten instruments and to establish the infrastructure to support later development and construction of additional instruments.

Crawford, R.K.; Fornek, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Herwig, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-07-01

44

Hand-held radio-isotope detection and identification instrument  

SciTech Connect

An instrument combining an array of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors, a NaI scintillator, and two {sup 3}He neutron detectors has been constructed. The instrument uses the CZT array to identify radioactive materials. As an example of this application, the 3 {sigma} Minimum Detectable Activity for the 375 keV peak of {sup 238}Pu is less than 1 gram at a distance of 20 cm for a 100-second counting time. The 2 x 2 NaI scintillator has a dual purpose. First, it is used to supplement the CZT array for identification of high-energy gammas, such as those from {sup 60}Co. Second, the principle use of the NaI scintillator is to help search for radioactive material and to find a suitable measurement location on a suspect package for the CZT-based isotope-identification measurement. This detector also produces energy-corrected exposure-rate data. The {sup 3}He neutron detectors provide an additional confirmation of the presence of some plutonium isotopes. The neutron sensitivity is 90 counts per second at 20 cm from a moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron source.

W. M. Quam

2000-04-30

45

Modulating the Neutron Flux from a Mirror Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A 14-MeV neutron source based on a Gas-Dynamic Trap will provide a high flux of 14 MeV neutrons for fusion materials and sub-component testing. In addition to its main goal, the source has potential applications in condensed matter physics and biophysics. In this report, the author considers adding one more capability to the GDT-based neutron source, the modulation of the neutron flux with a desired frequency. The modulation may be an enabling tool for the assessment of the role of non-steady-state effects in fusion devices as well as for high-precision, low-signal basic science experiments favoring the use of the synchronous detection technique. A conclusion is drawn that modulation frequency of up to 1 kHz and modulation amplitude of a few percent is achievable. Limitations on the amplitude of modulations at higher frequencies are discussed.

Ryutov, D D

2011-09-01

46

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 {times} 10{sup 10} neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

47

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 x 10(exp 10) neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.

1995-01-01

48

Improved neutron sources for neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Fast neutron radiotherapy (FNT) can be combined with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The selective incremental absorbed dose in the target volume that is thus obtained may be sufficient to produce a significant improvement in tumor control probability in some cases. Potential applications include certain non-small-cell lung tumors; head and neck tumors; prostate tumors; and possibly also glioblastoma multiform, an extremely refractory type of primary brain tumor. A class of modified neutron production targets has been developed to provide improved performance of the cyclotron-based clinical FNT facility at the University of Washington (UW) Medical Center for applications involving BNCT-enhanced FNT. The new targets produce neutron beams that feature essentially the same fast neutron physical depth-dose performance as the current UW system but with an increased fraction of BNCT enhancement.

Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Risler, R.; Hartwell, J.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Laramore, G.E.

2000-07-01

49

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N.; Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, G. P.

2014-01-01

50

MANUFACTURE OF PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacture of several neutron sources by the reduction of PuO with beryllium is outlined, the handling techniques discussed and compared with those developed by other laboratories, and the problem of setting up a production routine considered. (auth)

M. J. F. Notley; J. Sheldon

1961-01-01

51

Simulation of pulsed neutron source reactivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

A model has been developed to simulate pulsed neutron source experiments which combines a Green`s function approach with the statistical samplings of the generation of neutrons by the source and the detection of them by the detector. The response pulse, measured by a multiscaler, is thus simulated allowing confirmation of experimental procedures and analysis of data for measuring the subcriticality of nuclear reactors. The results were applied to the preparation of experiments currently underway at the PROTEUS facility.

Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Caro, M.; Williams, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1993-03-01

52

Simulation of pulsed neutron source reactivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

A model has been developed to simulate pulsed neutron source experiments which combines a Green's function approach with the statistical samplings of the generation of neutrons by the source and the detection of them by the detector. The response pulse, measured by a multiscaler, is thus simulated allowing confirmation of experimental procedures and analysis of data for measuring the subcriticality of nuclear reactors. The results were applied to the preparation of experiments currently underway at the PROTEUS facility.

Difilippo, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caro, M.; Williams, T. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland))

1993-01-01

53

DIRECTIONAL DETECTION OF A NEUTRON SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

Advantages afforded by the development of new directional neutron detectors and imagers are discussed. Thermal neutrons have mean free paths in air of about 20 meters, and can be effectively imaged using coded apertures. Fission spectrum neutrons have ranges greater than 100 meters, and carry enough energy to scatter at least twice in multilayer detectors which can yield both directional and spectral information. Such strategies allow better discrimination between a localized spontaneous fission source and the low, but fluctuating, level of background neutrons generated by cosmic rays. A coded aperture thermal neutron imager will be discussed as well as a proton-recoil double-scatter fast-neutron directional detector with time-of-flight energy discrimination.

VANIER, P.E.; FORMAN, L.

2006-10-23

54

An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

Blue, Thomas, E

2006-03-14

55

Alternatives to the Americium-Beryllium Neutron Source for the Compensated Neutron Porosity Log.  

E-print Network

??Monte Carlo simulations of neutron porosity logs were performed to examine the possibility of replacing the standard Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The candidate replacement sources were (more)

Peeples, Cody Ryan

2007-01-01

56

07-G00050D/gim SpallationNeutronSource  

E-print Network

operation; installa- tion of a liquid hydrogen cold source; a new neutron guide hall that can house seven07-G00050D/gim SpallationNeutronSource SNS is an accelerator-based neutron source. This one is the highest-flux reactor-based source of neutrons for condensed mat- ter research in the United States. Ther

Pennycook, Steve

57

A telescope for monitoring fast neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of nuclear waste management, highly radiotoxic long-lived fission products and minor actinides are planned to be transmuted in a sub-critical reactor coupled with an intense external neutron source. The latter source would be created by a high-energy proton beam hitting a high atomic number target. Such a new system, termed an accelerator-driven system (ADS), requires on-line and robust reactivity monitoring. The ratio between the beam current delivered by the accelerator and the reactor power level, or core neutron flux, is the basis of one method which could give access to a core reactivity change. In order to test reactivity measurement technique, some experimental programs use 14-MeV neutrons originating from the interaction of a deuteron beam with a tritium target as an external neutron source. In this case, the target tritium consumption over time precludes use of the beam current for reactivity monitoring and the external neutron source intensity must be monitored directly. A range telescope has been developed for this purpose, consisting of the assembly of a hydrogenous neutron converter and three silicon stages where the recoiling protons are detected. In this article, the performances of such a telescope are presented and compared to Monte-Carlo simulations.

Ban, G.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lecouey, J. L.; Marie, N.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; Le Brun, C.; Liatard, E.

2007-07-01

58

Concrete enclosure for shielding a neutron source.  

PubMed

In the aim to design a shielding for a 0.185 TBq (239)PuBe isotopic neutron source several Monte Carlo calculations were carried out using MCNP5 code. First, a point-like source was modeled in vacuum and the neutron spectrum and ambient dose equivalent were calculated at several distances ranging from 5 cm up to 150 cm, these calculations were repeated modeling a real source, including air, and a 111 m(3) enclosure with 5, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 80 cm-thick Portland type concrete walls. At all the points located inside the enclosure neutron spectra from 10(-8) up to 0.5 MeV were the same regardless the distance from the source showing the room-return effect in the enclosure, for energies larger than 0.5 MeV neutron spectra are diminished as the distance increases. Outside the enclosure it was noticed that neutron spectra becomes "softer" as the concrete thickness increases due to reduction of mean neutron energy. With the ambient dose values the attenuation curve in terms of concrete thickness was calculated. PMID:23722073

Vega-Carrillo, H R; Villagrana-Muoz, L E; Rivera-Perez, E; de Leon-Martinez, H A; Soto-Bernal, T G; Hernndez-Davila, V M

2013-09-01

59

Science Opportunities at ORNL Neutron Sources  

SciTech Connect

The Neutron Sciences Directorate at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates two of the most advanced neutron scattering research facilities in the world: the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Our vision is to provide unprecedented capabilities for understanding structure and properties across the spectrum of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering, and to stay at the leading edge of neutron science by developing new instruments, tools, and services. This talk will provide an update on the operations of the two research facilities and highlight the significant research that is emerging. For example, scientists from ORNL are at the forefront of research on a new class of iron-based superconductors based on experiments performed at the Triple-Axis Spectrometer at HFIR and ARCS at SNS. The complementary nature of neutron and x-ray techniques will be discussed to spark discussion among attendees.

Anderson, Ian (ORNL, SNS) [ORNL, SNS

2010-02-03

60

Z-pinch plasma neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deuterium gas-puff load imploded by a multi-MA current driver from a large initial diameter could be a powerful source of fusion neutrons, a plasma neutron source (PNS). Unlike the beam-target neutrons produced in Z-pinch plasmas in the 1950s and deuterium-fiber experiments in the 1980s, the neutrons generated in deuterium gas-puffs with current levels achieved in recent experiments on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories could contain a substantial fraction of thermonuclear origin. For recent deuterium gas-puff shots on Z, our analytic estimates and one- and two-dimensional simulations predict thermal neutron yields 31013, in fair agreement with the yields recently measured on Z [C. A. Coverdale et al., Phys. Plasmas (to be published)]. It is demonstrated that the hypothesis of a beam-target origin of the observed fusion neutrons implies a very high Z-pinch-driver-to-fast-ions energy transfer efficiency, 5 to 10%, which would make a multi-MA deuterium Z-pinch the most efficient light-ion accelerator. No matter what mechanism is eventually determined to be responsible for generating fusion neutrons in deuterium gas-puff shots on Z, the deuterium neutron yield is shown to scale as YnIm4, where Im is the peak current of the pinch. Theoretical estimates and numerical modeling of deuterium gas-puff implosions demonstrate that the yields of thermonuclear fusion neutrons that can be produced on ZR and the next-generation machines are sufficiently high to make PNS the most powerful, cost- and energy-efficient laboratory sources of 2.5-14MeV fusion neutrons, just like plasma radiation sources are the most powerful sources of soft and keV x rays. In particular, the predicted deuterium-tritium thermal neutron-producing capability of PNS driven by the next-generation ZR and ZX accelerators is 51016 and 1018, respectively.

Velikovich, A. L.; Clark, R. W.; Davis, J.; Chong, Y. K.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Franklin, J.; Rudakov, L. I.

2007-02-01

61

Neutron science opportunities at pulsed spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Using the IPNS Upgrade plan developed at Argonne National Laboratory as a worked example of the design of a pulsed spallation neutron source, this paper explores some of the scientific applications of an advanced facility for materials science studies and the instrumentation for those purposes.

Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

1996-12-31

62

THERMAL NEUTRON INTENSITIES IN SOILS IRRADIATED BY FAST NEUTRONS FROM POINT SOURCES. (R825549C054)  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal-neutron fluences in soil are reported for selected fast-neutron sources, selected soil types, and selected irradiation geometries. Sources include 14 MeV neutrons from accelerators, neutrons from spontaneously fissioning 252Cf, and neutrons produced from alp...

63

WHITE PAPER A "VolumetricNeutron Source" -  

E-print Network

WHITE PAPER A "VolumetricNeutron Source" - an Industrially Led, U.S.B.F. Initiative Having Reactor (ITER) as a plausible next step in fusion development and have embarked on the Engineering Design of a "demonstration"(DEMO) reactor, would occur in the time interval -CY 2026-2028 - after the tentatively scheduled

64

TRIUMF Ultra-cold Neutron Source Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source is planned for installation at TRIUMF, Canada, aiming to produce the world's highest density of UCNs using down-scattering of cold neutrons in superfluid helium. This project is a collaboration of Japan and Canada funded by JSPS (KEK) and CFI (University of Winnipeg). The first experiment using this UCN source will be the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). Development of the UCN source and the prototype nEDM experiment will be done at RCNP, Japan in 2013-14. After that, the UCN source and the EDM apparatus will be moved and installed at TRIUMF. Beam commissioning is scheduled for 2015 and neutron EDM experiment is scheduled to start in 2016 at TRIUMF. The goal is to improve the current upper limit of nEDM of dn< 2.9x10-26e-cm by two order of magnitude at TRIUMF. An overview of the TRIUMF UCN facility including design of a new beam line, development of a spallation target, and re-configuring of the shielding arrangement will be presented in this talk.

Shin, Yun Chang

2012-10-01

65

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

1998-04-28

66

Secondary electron ion source neutron generator  

DOEpatents

A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

67

Ultracold Neutron Source Technology: Status in 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the state of the art for ultracold neutron (UCN) sources. Driven by the need for increased UCN density for fundamental physics experiments, there has been a signficant growth in the number and variety of UCN sources either planned or in operation over the past decade. All of these new sources rely either on solid deuterium or superfluid helium converters to produce UCN, so we review the basic principles of UCN production and identify common challenges in extracting useful UCN. Methods for producing the primary neutron flux and premoderating neutrons to optimize the UCN output from the solid deuterium or superfluid He vary, however, with most of these sources taking a unique strategy towards meeting the technological challenge of reaching high useful UCN densities. We survey existing and planned sources, highlighting the achievements of those already operational and the prospects for increased UCN density in each case. We also identify some promising technologies which may provide further gains in UCN production and density in future sources.

Young, Albert

2012-10-01

68

Spallation Neutron Sources and Accelerator-Driven Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spallation neutron sources are the primary accelerator-driven source of intense neutrons. They require high power proton accelerators in the GeV energy range coupled to heavy metal targets for efficient neutron production. They form the basis of large scale neutron scattering facilities, and are essential elements in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors. Demanding technology has been developed which is enabling the next generation of spallation neutron sources to reach even higher neutron fluxes. This technology sets the stage for future deployment in accelerator-driven systems and neutron sources for nuclear material irradiation.

Henderson, Stuart D.

2014-02-01

69

Spallation-Driven Cold Neutron Sources Dr. Bradley J. Micklich  

E-print Network

Spallation-Driven Cold Neutron Sources Dr. Bradley J. Micklich Senior Physicist, Physics Division 2009 2 Accelerator-Driven Spallation Sources Produce neutrons for use in condensed matter and basic Cold Neutrons? Cold neutron production at the IPNS Ep = 450 MeV Ep = 50 MeV En = 5 meV (~25 collisions

McDonald, Kirk

70

Characteristics of polyethylene-moderated 252Cf neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene-moderated 252Cf neutron sources were designed to produce neutron reference fields' spectra that simulate the spectra observed in the workplaces within nuclear reactors and accelerators. The paper describes the neutron sources and fields. Neutron spectra were calculated by the Monte Carlo method and compared with experimental data.

Aleinikov, V. E.; Beskrovnaja, L. G.; Florko, B. V.

2002-01-01

71

Applied Nuclear Physics at Spallation Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research opportunities offered by spallation neutron sources for applied nuclear physics are reviewed, in particular having in mind the SNS machine under construction at Oak Ridge. Discussion is focused on nuclear data needs for 4 groups of applications. These include nuclear power (energy production, transmutation), defense (criticality safety, radiochemical diagnostics), and other applications (material analysis, medical, standards and resonance parameters), as well as needs for nuclear reaction model calculations (level densities, photon and neutron strength functions). It is concluded that the new SNS machine represents an important tool to meet future nuclear data needs in the U.S.

Oblozinsky, Pavel

2002-12-01

72

Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity: Neutrons and Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstruct and analyze the path leading from James Chadwicks discovery of the neutron in February 1932 through Frdric Joliot and Irne Curies discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 to Enrico Fermis discovery of neutron-induced artificial radioactivity in March 1934. We show, in particular, that Fermis innovative construction and use of radon-beryllium neutron sources permitted him to make his discovery.

Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

2006-09-01

73

Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources  

SciTech Connect

This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

Weiren Chou

2003-02-06

74

Compact, inexpensive, epithermal neutron source for BNCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new rf-focused linac structure, designed specifically to increase the acceleration efficiency and reduce the cost of linac structures in the few-MeV range, may win the role as the optimum accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for the BNCT application. This new linac structure resembles a drift tube linac (DTL) with radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) focusing incorporated into each "drift tube," hence the name R_f F_ocused D_TL, or RFD. It promises superior acceleration properties, focusing properties, and CW capabilities. We have a proposal under consideration for the development of an epithermal neutron source, based on the 2.5-MeV RFD linac system with an average current of 10 mA, having the following components: an ion source, a short low-energy transport system, a short RFQ linac section, an RFD linac section, an rf power system, a high-energy beam transport system, a proton beam target, and a neutron beam moderator system. We propose to develop a solid lithium target for this application in the form of a thin lithium layer on the inner surface of a truncated aluminum cone, cooled by the heavy water moderator, where the proton beam is expanded to a diameter of 3 cm and scanned along a circular path, striking the lithium layer at the cone's half-angle of 30 degrees. We propose to develop a moderator assembly designed to transmit a large fraction of the source neutrons from the target to the patient treatment port, while shifting the neutron energies to an appropriate epithermal energy spectrum and minimizing the gamma-ray dose. The status of this proposal and these plans are presented.

Swenson, D. A.

1999-06-01

75

Portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source provides increased experimental accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small portable, high intensity isotopic neutron source combines twelve curium-americium beryllium sources. This high intensity of neutrons, with a flux which slowly decreases at a known rate, provides for increased experimental accuracy.

Mohr, W. C.; Stewart, D. C.; Wahlgren, M. A.

1968-01-01

76

HIGH FLUENCE NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF NUCLEAR WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose to research the basic plasma physics necessary to develop a high fluence neutron source based on the inertial electrostatically confined (IEC) plasma. An intense neutron source directly addresses the capability to characterize nuclear materials under difficult measurem...

77

Compact neutron source development at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

A compact neutron generator based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions is being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced in a radio-frequency (RF) driven multicusp plasma source. Seven beamlets are extracted and are accelerated to energy of 100 keV by means of a three-electrode electrostatic accelerator column. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium coated copper target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated by fusion reaction. The development of the neutron tube is divided into three phases. First, the accelerator column is operated at hydrogen beam intensity of 15 mA. Second phase consists of deuterium beam runs at pulsed, low duty cycle 150 mA operation. The third phase consists of deuterium or tritium operation at 1.5 A beam current. Phase one is completed and the results of hydrogen beam testing are discussed. Low duty cycle 150 mA deuterium operation is being investigated. Neutron flux will be measured. Finally the phase three operation and the advance neutron generator designs are described.

Reijonen, Jani; Lou, Tak Pui; Tolmachoff, Bryan; Leung, K.N.

2001-07-25

78

Physics design of a cold neutron source for KIPT neutron source facility.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of a neutron source facility. It is based on the use of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility with low enriched uranium fuel, using the existing electron accelerators at KIPT of Ukraine [1]. The neutron source of the subcritical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100-KW electron beam, which has a uniform spatial distribution and the electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV, with a natural uranium target [2]. The main functions of the facility are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Neutron beam experiments and material studies are also included. Over the past two-three decades, structures with characteristic lengths of 100 {angstrom} and correspondingly smaller vibrational energies have become increasingly important for both science and technology [3]. The characteristic dimensions of the microstructures can be well matched by neutrons with longer vibrational wavelength and lower energy. In the accelerator-driven subcritical facility, most of the neutrons are generated from fission reactions with energy in the MeV range. They are slowed down to the meV energy range through scattering reactions in the moderator and reflector materials. However, the fraction of neutrons with energies less than 5 meV in a normal moderator spectrum is very low because of up-scattering caused by the thermal motion of moderator or reflector molecules. In order to obtain neutrons with energy less than 5 meV, cryogenically cooled moderators 'cold neutron sources' should be used to slow down the neutrons. These cold moderators shift the neutron energy spectrum down because the thermal motion of moderator molecules as well as the up-scattering is very small, which provides large gains in intensity of low energy neutrons, E < 5 meV. The accelerator driven subcritical facility is designed with a provision to add a cryogenically cooled moderator system. This cold neutron source could provide the neutrons beams with lower energy, which could be utilized in scattering experiment and material structures analysis. This study describes the performed physics analyses to define and characterize the cold neutron source of the KIPT neutron source facility. The cold neutron source is designed to optimize the cold neutron brightness to the experimental instruments outside the radial heavy concrete shield of the facility. Liquid hydrogen or solid methane with 20 K temperature is used as a cold moderator. Monte Carlo computer code MCNPX [4], with ENDF/B-VI nuclear data libraries, is utilized to calculate the cold neutron source performance and estimate the nuclear heat load to the cold moderator. The surface source generation capability of MCNPX code has been used to provide the possibility of analyzing different design configurations and perform design optimization analyses with reasonable computer resources. Several design configurations were analyzed and their performance were characterized and optimized.

Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y.; Kellogg, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-02-17

79

Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts  

SciTech Connect

During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

Cho, Y.

1998-07-01

80

Crystal Driven Neutron Source: A New Paradigm for Miniature Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron interrogation techniques have specific advantages for detection of hidden, shielded, or buried threats over other detection modalities in that neutrons readily penetrate most materials providing backscattered gammas indicative of the elemental composition of the potential threat. Such techniques have broad application to military and homeland security needs. Present neutron sources and interrogation systems are expensive and relatively bulky, thereby making widespread use of this technique impractical. Development of a compact, high intensity crystal driven neutron source is described. The crystal driven neutron source approach has been previously demonstrated using pyroelectric crystals that generate extremely high voltages when thermal cycled [1-4]. Placement of a sharpened needle on the positively polarized surface of the pyroelectric crystal results in sufficient field intensification to field ionize background deuterium molecules in a test chamber, and subsequently accelerate the ions to energies in excess of 100 keV, sufficient for either D-D or D-T fusion reactions with appropriate target materials. Further increase in ion beam current can be achieved through optimization of crystal thermal ramping, ion source and crystal accelerator configuration. The advantage of such a system is the compact size along with elimination of large, high voltage power supplies. A novel implementation discussed incorporates an independently controlled ion source in order to provide pulsed neutron operation having microsecond pulse width.

Tang, V.; Morse, J.; Meyer, G.; Falabella, S.; Guethlein, G.; Kerr, P.; Park, H. G.; Rusnak, B.; Sampayan, S.; Schmid, G.; Spadaccini, C.; Wang, L.

2009-03-01

81

Crystal Driven Neutron Source: A New Paradigm for Miniature Neutron Sources  

SciTech Connect

Neutron interrogation techniques have specific advantages for detection of hidden, shielded, or buried threats over other detection modalities in that neutrons readily penetrate most materials providing backscattered gammas indicative of the elemental composition of the potential threat. Such techniques have broad application to military and homeland security needs. Present neutron sources and interrogation systems are expensive and relatively bulky, thereby making widespread use of this technique impractical. Development of a compact, high intensity crystal driven neutron source is described. The crystal driven neutron source approach has been previously demonstrated using pyroelectric crystals that generate extremely high voltages when thermal cycled. Placement of a sharpened needle on the positively polarized surface of the pyroelectric crystal results in sufficient field intensification to field ionize background deuterium molecules in a test chamber, and subsequently accelerate the ions to energies in excess of {approx}100 keV, sufficient for either D-D or D-T fusion reactions with appropriate target materials. Further increase in ion beam current can be achieved through optimization of crystal thermal ramping, ion source and crystal accelerator configuration. The advantage of such a system is the compact size along with elimination of large, high voltage power supplies. A novel implementation discussed incorporates an independently controlled ion source in order to provide pulsed neutron operation having microsecond pulse width.

Tang, V.; Meyer, G.; Falabella, S.; Guethlein, G.; Kerr, P.; Park, H. G.; Rusnak, B.; Sampayan, S.; Schmid, G.; Spadaccini, C.; Wang, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-229, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Morse, J. [National Nanomanufacturing Network, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01027 (United States)

2009-03-10

82

Crystal Driven Neutron Source: A New Paradigm for Miniature Neutron Sources  

SciTech Connect

Neutron interrogation techniques have specific advantages for detection of hidden, shielded, or buried threats over other detection modalities in that neutrons readily penetrate most materials providing backscattered gammas indicative of the elemental composition of the potential threat. Such techniques have broad application to military and homeland security needs. Present neutron sources and interrogation systems are expensive and relatively bulky, thereby making widespread use of this technique impractical. Development of a compact, high intensity crystal driven neutron source is described. The crystal driven neutron source approach has been previously demonstrated using pyroelectric crystals that generate extremely high voltages when thermal cycled [1-4]. Placement of a sharpened needle on the positively polarized surface of the pyroelectric crystal results in sufficient field intensification to field ionize background deuterium molecules in a test chamber, and subsequently accelerate the ions to energies in excess of {approx}100 keV, sufficient for either D-D or D-T fusion reactions with appropriate target materials. Further increase in ion beam current can be achieved through optimization of crystal thermal ramping, ion source and crystal accelerator configuration. The advantage of such a system is the compact size along with elimination of large, high voltage power supplies. A novel implementation discussed incorporates an independently controlled ion source in order to provide pulsed neutron operation having microsecond pulse width.

Tang, V; Morse, J; Meyer, G; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Kerr, P; Park, H G; Rusnak, B; Sampayan, S; Schmid, G; Spadaccini, C; Wang, L

2008-08-08

83

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul-  

E-print Network

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul- taneousT is the thermal neutron velocity, l is the decay constant, Ns is the s-process abun- dance, bs� is the maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross-section, and t0 is the average neutron exposure (21). The branching decay of 186Re

West, Stuart

84

Condensed Matter Research Using the Spallation Neutron Source ISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron scattering technique has been applied in earnest to condensed matter and materials research following the construction of reactor neutron sources in the mid-1940s. Today reactor sources are used to obtain results that pervade these subjects and applications in biology and physical chemistry are growing rapidly. The development of accelerator-based spallation sources, in which protons liberate neutrons from a

Paola Bisanti; Stephen W. Lovesey

1987-01-01

85

INVESTIGATION ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF DESORPTION THERAPY BY MEANS OF RADIO ISOTOPE INCORPORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introductory remarks of the report outline the problems of a ; successful desorption therapy with special regard to the radio-isotopes with bone-; affinity. The group of chelate-forming substances is of particular importance in ; this connection. The animal tests described by the authors are based on the ; working hypothesis io combine the possibilities of a decalcification therapy with

E. H. Graul; H. Hundeshagen; W. Schomer

1958-01-01

86

Source term considerations for spallation neutron targets  

SciTech Connect

A potentially attractive concept for disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes involves transmuting them by exposure to an intense neutron source produced by bombarding a tungsten target with protons from a high energy accelerator. Safety assessments for such systems require evaluation of the potential for release of radionuclides produced by spallation and neutron capture reactions in the target. Scoping analyses of the potential for release of radionuclides from a severely overheated target is evaluated using a model which includes production of volatile species by reactions with steam, hydrogen, and/or oxygen. The slowness of diffusion within the tungsten is shown to limit releases of even volatile species to small values in a chemically inert or reducing environment. However, oxidative ablation of tungsten could permit considerably larger releases of volatile species in steam-rich or oxygen-rich environments. Tungsten radionuclides would dominate the source term for accident conditions considered the most plausible.

Williams, D.C.; Kelly, J.E.

1993-07-01

87

Qualification tests of materials for spallation neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several existing and planned facilities worldwide use protons in the 650- to 2000-MeV energy range to produce neutrons by spallation reactions. Research applications such as neutron scattering are pursued at the intense proton neutron source at Argonne National Laboratory, the ISIS facility at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Swiss Neutron Source

1996-01-01

88

Miniature neutron sources: Thermal neutron sources and their users in the academic field  

SciTech Connect

The three levels of thermal neutron sources are introduced - University laboratory sources infrastructure sources and world-class sources - and the needs for each kind and their inter-dependence will be emphasized. A description of the possibilities for University sources based on {alpha}-Be reactions or spontaneous fission emission is given, and current experience with them is described. A new generation of infrastructure sources is needed to continue the regional programs based on small reactors. Some possibilities for accelerator sources that could meet this need are considered.

Egelstaff, P.A. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-09-01

89

Miniature neutron sources: Thermal neutron sources and their users in the academic field  

SciTech Connect

The three levels of thermal neutron sources are introduced - University laboratory sources infrastructure sources and world-class sources - and the needs for each kind and their inter-dependence will be emphasized. A description of the possibilities for University sources based on {alpha}-Be reactions or spontaneous fission emission is given, and current experience with them is described. A new generation of infrastructure sources is needed to continue the regional programs based on small reactors. Some possibilities for accelerator sources that could meet this need are considered.

Egelstaff, P.A. (Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Carpenter, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

90

Magnified neutron radiography with coded sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coded source imaging system has been developed to improve resolution for neutron radiography through magnification and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D instrument. Without magnification, the current resolution at CG-1D is 80?m using a charge-coupled device (CCD) equipped with a lens. As for all neutron imaging instruments, magnification is limited by a large source size. At CG-1D the size is currently limited to 12mm with a circular aperture. Coded source imaging converts this large aperture into a coded array of smaller apertures to achieve high resolution without the loss of flux for a single pinhole aperture, but requires a decoding step. The developed system has demonstrated first magnified radiographic imaging at magnifications as high as 25x using coded apertures with holes as small as 10?m. Such a development requires a team with a broad base of expertise including imaging systems design, neutron physics, microelectronics manufacturing methods, reconstruction algorithms, and high performance computing. The paper presents the system design, discusses implementation challenges, and presents imaging results.

Bingham, Philip R.; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Lavrik, Nickolay; Bilheux, Hassina; Gregor, Jens

2013-03-01

91

Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

Not Available

1990-07-01

92

The Advanced Neutron Source liquid deuterium cold source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source will employ two cold sources to moderate neutrons to low energy (<10 meV). The cold neutrons produced are then passed through beam guides to various experiment stations. Each cold source moderator is a sphere of 410-mm internal diameter. The moderator material is liquid deuterium flowing at a rate of 1 kg/s and maintained at subcooled temperatures at all points of the circuit, to prevent boiling. Nuclear beat deposited within the liquid deuterium and its containment structure totals more than 30 kW. All of this heat is removed by the liquid deuterium, which raises its temperature by 5 K. The liquid prime mover is a cryogenic circulator that is situated in the return leg of the flow loop. This arrangement minimizes the heat added to the liquid between the heat exchanger and the moderator vessel, allowing the moderator to be operated at the minimum practical temperature. This report describes the latest thinking at the time of project termination. It also includes the status of various systems at that time and outlines anticipated directions in which the design would have progressed. In this regard, some detail differences between this report and official design documents reflect ideas that were not approved at the time of closure but are considered noteworthy.

Lucas, A.T.

1995-08-01

93

Intrinsic neutron source strengths in uranium solutions  

SciTech Connect

The presence of a source of neutrons to initiate persistent fission chains has long been recognized as an important element in the behavior of a critical assembly or reactor. The start-up source is a familiar part of most reactor loading or start-up operations. The problem of assembling fissionable material without the presence of an adequate source was reported in 1960 by Hansen, who analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation of a persistent fission chain during the assembly of a critical mass of material with a ramp reactivity addition. The stochastic nature of the first chain initiation was shown to provide the possibility of large reactivity availability even where modest ramp rates were assumed. At the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility, the authors have made experimental measurements of the intrinsic source strength for uranyl-nitrate and uranyl-fluoride solutions using a high-efficiency well counter system. These results are surprisingly similar, with the uranyl fluoride showing only a factor of 2 higher neutron production rate, and will be compared with the results of a recently developed theoretical model.

Seale, R.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Anderson, R.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

94

Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 1212 cm2: the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H2, to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses.

Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

2013-11-01

95

Inertial electro-magnetostatic plasma neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Two types of systems are being studied experimentally as D-T plasma neutron sources. In both concepts, spherical convergence of either electrons or ions or both is used to produce a dense central focus within which D-T fusion reactions produce 14 MeV neutrons. One concept uses nonneutral plasma confinement principles in a Penning type trap. In this approach, combined electrostatic and magnetic fields provide a vacuum potential well within which electrons are confined and focused. A small (6 mm radius) spherical machine has demonstrated a focus of 30 {micro}m radius, with a central density of up to 35 times the Brillouin density limit of a static trap. The resulting electron plasma of up to several 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} provides a multi-kV electrostatic well for confining thermonuclear ions as a neutron source. The second concept (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, or IEC) uses a high-transparence grid to form a global well for acceleration and confinement of ions. Such a system has demonstrated steady neutron output of 2 {times} 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1}. The present experiment will scale this to >10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. Advanced designs based on each concept have been developed recently. In these proposed approaches, a uniform-density electron sphere forms an electrostatic well for ions. Ions so trapped may be focused by spherical convergence to produce a dense core. An alternative approach produces large amplitude spherical oscillations of a confined ion cloud by a small, resonant modulation of the background electrons. In both the advanced Penning trap approach and the advanced IEC approach, the electrons are magnetically insulated from a large (up to 100 kV) applied electrostatic field. The physics of these devices is discussed, experimental design details are given, present observations are analyzed theoretically, and the performance of future advanced systems are predicted.

Barnes, D.C.; Nebel, R.A.; Schauer, M.M.; Pickrel, M.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-12-31

96

Superfluid-helium Ultracold Neutron Sources: Concepts for the European Spallation Source?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of ultracold neutrons by conversion of cold neutrons in superfluid helium can be implemented in several ways, with the converter located either in-pile close to the core of a nuclear reactor or closely coupled to a neutron spallation source, or at the end of a neutron guide. This paper shall contribute to a discussion about source concepts for the ESS.

Zimmer, Oliver

97

Dual-mode operation of a neutron source, a concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed neutron source operates in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube coupled to a gamma ray scintillation crystal. This allows measurements of gamma radiation from both inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture in a single experiment.

Givens, W. W.; Mills, W. R., Jr.

1969-01-01

98

Status of the intense pulsed neutron source  

SciTech Connect

IPNS is not unique in having concerns about the level of funding, and the future looks good despite these concerns. This report details the progress made at IPNS during the last two years. Other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the status of the enriched uranium Booster target, the two instruments that are under construction, GLAD and POSY II, and a proposal for research on an Advanced Pulsed Neutron Source (ASPUN) that has been submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE). Further details on IPNS are available in the IPNS Progress Report 1987--1988, available by writing the IPNS Division Office. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Crawford, R.K.; Rauchas, A.V.; Schulke, A.W.; Worlton, T.G.

1988-01-01

99

Neutronic Design and Measured Performance of the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) Target Moderator Reflector Assembly  

E-print Network

The Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) is an accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron facility under construction at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). The idea behind LENS is to produce pulsed cold neutron beams starting with ~MeV neutrons from (p,n) reactions in Be which are moderated to meV energies and extracted from a small solid angle for use in neutron instruments which can operate efficiently with relatively broad (~1 msec) neutron pulse widths. Although the combination of the features and operating parameters of this source is unique at present, the neutronic design possesses several features similar to those envisioned for future neutron facilities such as long-pulsed spallation sources (LPSS) and very cold neutron (VCN) sources. We describe the underlying ideas and design details of the target/moderator/reflector system (TMR) and compare measurements of its brightness, energy spectrum, and emission time distribution under different moderator configurations with MCNP simulations. Brightnes...

Lavelle, C M; Bogdanov, A; Derenchuk, V P; Kaiser, H; Leuschner, M B; Lone, M A; Lozowski, W; Nann, H; Von Przewoski, B; Remmes, N; Rinckel, T; Shin, Y; Snow, W M; Sokol, P E

2008-01-01

100

Status of the intense pulsed neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Fortunately in spite of some premature reports of its impending demise, IPNS has passed the fourth anniversary of the first delivery of protons to the targets (May 5, 1981) and is approaching the fourth anniversary of its operation as a scattering facility (August 4, 1981). On June 10, 1984, the RCS delivered its one billionth pulse to the IPNS target - the total number of protons delivered to the targets amounted then to 75 stp cm/sup 3/ of H/sub 2/ gas. Since startup IPNS has improved steadily in terms of the performance of the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, the source and its moderators and the scattering instruments, and a substantial and productive user program has evolved. This report summarizes the current status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We include reference to recent accelerator operating experience, neutron facility operating experience, improvements to these systems, design work on the ASPUN high-current facility, booster target design, the new solid methane moderator, characterization of the room temperature moderators, and provide some examples of recent results from several of the spectrometers.

Carpenter, J.M.; Brown, B.S.; Kustom, R.L.; Lander, G.H.; Potts, C.W.; Schulke, A.W.; Wuestefeld, G.

1985-01-01

101

Field Ion Source Development for Neutron Generators  

SciTech Connect

An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

B. Bargsten Johnson; P. R. Schwoebel; C. E. Holland; P. J. Resnick; K. L. Hertz; D. L. Chichester

2012-01-01

102

Novel neutron focusing mirrors for compact neutron sources  

E-print Network

We demonstrated neutron beam focusing and neutron imaging using axisymmetric optics, based on pairs of confocal ellipsoid and hyperboloid mirrors. Such systems, known as Wolter mirrors, are commonly used in x-ray telescopes. ...

Gubarev, M.V.

103

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

2010-02-01

104

Conventional sources of fast neutrons in ``cold fusion'' experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ``cold fusion'' experiments with heavy water a source of neutrons is the dissociation of deuterium induced by alpha particles emitted by natural occurring radioisotopes. We evaluate the rate of fast neutron emission as a function of the concentration of U, Th, Rn in contact with deuterium and discuss the possibility that the neutrons claimed to have been observed in

M. Cribier; M. Spiro; J. Favier

1989-01-01

105

The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O'Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

2014-11-01

106

Cryogenic System for the Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built at Oak Ridge, TN for the US Department of Energy. The SNS accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in cryostats (cryomodules). The linac cryomodules are cooled to 2.1 K by a 2300 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. As an SNS partner laboratory, Jefferson Lab is responsible for the installed integrated cryogenic system design for the SNS linac accelerator consisting of major subsystem equipment engineered and procured from industry. Jefferson Lab's work included developing the major vendor subsystem equipment procurement specifications, equipment procurement, and the integrated system engineering support of the field installation and commissioning. The major cryogenic system components include liquid nitrogen storage, gaseous helium storage, cryogen distribution transfer line system, 2.1-K cold box consisting of four stages of cold compressors, 4.5-K cold box, warm helium compressors with its associated oil removal, gas management, helium purification, gas impurity monitoring systems, and the supportive utilities of electrical power, cooling water and instrument air. The system overview, project organization, the important aspects, and the capabilities of the cryogenic system are described.

Arenius, D.; Chronis, W.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

2004-06-01

107

H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ?38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ?90%. H(-) beam pulses (?1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ?60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ?0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ?99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ?75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance?installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ?100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence. PMID:22380234

Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Gawne, K R; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Roseberry, R T; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

2012-02-01

108

Depth-graded Multilayers as Neutron Doppler Converts At Pulsed Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A moving diffractor changes the energy of elastically diffracted neutrons by the Doppler effect. Depth-graded multilayers can diffract neutrons over a large band of energy. Using a pulsed neutron source, such a depth-graded multilayer, decelerating synchronously with the incident neutron pulse, can shift the reflected neutrons into a compressed energy window. This focusing in energy is associated with a broadening of the pulse in time, but the process does not involve a significant decrease in the neutron phase-space density. The proposed method can be used to design long pulse or quasi-continuous sources of cold, very cold or ultra cold neutrons (UCN). The analysis concentrates on enhanced production of UCN at pulsed neutron sources.

Stoica, A.D.

2001-07-26

109

Neutronic Design and Measured Performance of the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) Target Moderator Reflector Assembly  

E-print Network

The Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) is an accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron facility under construction at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). The idea behind LENS is to produce pulsed cold neutron beams starting with ~MeV neutrons from (p,n) reactions in Be which are moderated to meV energies and extracted from a small solid angle for use in neutron instruments which can operate efficiently with relatively broad (~1 msec) neutron pulse widths. Although the combination of the features and operating parameters of this source is unique at present, the neutronic design possesses several features similar to those envisioned for future neutron facilities such as long-pulsed spallation sources (LPSS) and very cold neutron (VCN) sources. We describe the underlying ideas and design details of the target/moderator/reflector system (TMR) and compare measurements of its brightness, energy spectrum, and emission time distribution under different moderator configurations with MCNP simulations. Brightness measurements using an ambient temperature water moderator agree with MCNP simulations within the 20% accuracy of the measurement. The measured neutron emission time distribution from a solid methane moderator is in agreement with simulation and the cold neutron flux is sufficient for neutron scattering studies of materials. We describe some possible modifications to the existing design which would increase the cold neutron brightness with negligible effect on the emission time distribution.

C. M. Lavelle; D. V. Baxter; A. Bogdanov; V. P. Derenchuk; H. Kaiser; M. B. Leuschner; M. A. Lone; W. Lozowski; H. Nann; B. v. Przewoski; N. Remmes; T. Rinckel; Y. Shin; W. M. Snow; P. E. Sokol

2008-03-28

110

First neutron generation in the BINP accelerator based neutron source.  

PubMed

Pilot innovative facility for neutron capture therapy was built at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. This facility is based on a compact vacuum insulation tandem accelerator designed to produce proton current up to 10 mA. Epithermal neutrons are proposed to be generated by 1.915 MeV protons bombarding a lithium target using (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be threshold reaction. The results of the first experiments on neutron generation are reported and discussed. PMID:19375928

Bayanov, B; Burdakov, A; Chudaev, V; Ivanov, A; Konstantinov, S; Kuznetsov, A; Makarov, A; Malyshkin, G; Mekler, K; Sorokin, I; Sulyaev, Yu; Taskaev, S

2009-07-01

111

Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

2012-08-01

112

Pulsed neutron sources for condensed-matter research  

SciTech Connect

The efforts around the world to provide higher neutron intensities are now focussed on accelerator-driven spallation sources in which neutrons are produced by bombardment of heavy metal targets with high energy protons. Spallation sources can be pulsed or quasi-continuous depending on the nature of the proton accelerator. Pulsed spallation sources, based on rapid cycling synchrotrons or storage rings, are especially attractive since a moderate average proton current (10/sup -5/ - 10/sup -3/A) can produce high instantaneous neutron intensities which can be used with time-of-flight methods to provide powerful neutron spectrometers.

Price, D.L.

1980-01-01

113

Accelerator-Based Neutron Source for BNCT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of our research project is to develop an Accelerator-based Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (AENIF) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembl...

2006-01-01

114

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. UCN interactions  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. UCN interactions 2. UCN physics experiments 3. Source-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 port Grenoble 60MW reactor 0.5K He-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K

Martin, Jeff

115

Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.  

PubMed

The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations. PMID:11003521

Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

2000-01-01

116

The national spallation neutron source target station: A general overview  

SciTech Connect

The technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

1997-06-01

117

Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for  

E-print Network

therapy [1, 2]. Lithium targets for two modes of neutron beam production are developed. The first one system. A stand was prepared to investigate thermal modes of neutron generating stationary target 5 cm was prepared and tested. Thermal mode of the target was tested by heating with powerful electron beam

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

118

A capture-gated neutron spectrometer for characterization of neutron sources and their shields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable capture-gated neutron spectrometer was designed and built. The spectrometer consists of a boron-loaded scintillator. Data acquisition is performed in list-mode. 252Cf and AmBe sources and various neutron and gamma shields were used to characterize the response of the device. It is shown that both the unfolded capture-gated neutron spectrum and the singles spectrum up to 5 MeV should be utilized. Source identification is then possible and important information is revealed regarding the surroundings of the source. The detector's discrimination of neutrons from photons is relatively good; specifically, one out of 105 photons is misclassified as a neutron and, more importantly, this misclassification rate can be calculated precisely for different measurement environments and can be taken into account in setting alarm limits for neutron detection. The source and source shield identification capabilities of the detector make it an interesting asset for security applications.

Holm, Philip; Perjrvi, Kari; Ristkari, Samu; Siiskonen, Teemu; Toivonen, Harri

2014-07-01

119

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN)  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) 2. UCN physics at experimental port Grenoble 60MW reactor 0.5K He-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0-induced spallation. Moderate (thermalize) in cold (20 K) D2 O. Cold neutrons then "downscatter" to near zero energy

Martin, Jeff

120

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN)  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) 2. UCN physics in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 in He-II Munich 20MW reactor SD2 Ec cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 in He-II Munich 20MW reactor SD2 Ec = 250 ne

Martin, Jeff

121

Studies in neutron phase space cooling for cold and ultra-cold neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses problems in the phase space compression of neutrons in two different energy regimes. The first part applies to the cold neutron regime. We constructed a microscopic model for the neutron dynamic structure factor S(Q, o) of solid methane in phase II. The model treats the effects of molecular translations, intra-molecular vibrations and intra-molecular rotations as uncoupled. Total scattering cross sections were calculated from the model for the incident neutron energies of 0.1 meV 1 meV and compared with existing data. This model was tested by calculating and measuring the neutron brightness from the solid methane cold neutron moderator of the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) at 4K and 20K. Within the expected accuracy of our approximate approach, the model matches the measured neutron spectral intensity. We have also used the model to guide future investigations into other cold neutron moderator media in an attempt to reach the "very cold neutron" (VCN) energy regime. The second part describes the study of solid oxygen as an ultra-cold neutron moderating medium. Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are neutrons with energy of a few hundred neV. A UCN source with higher intensity is necessary to measure fundamental properties of the neutron such as the neutron lifetime or the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). Solid oxygen may be an attractive choice as a UCN source. Theoretical calculations for a perfect solid crystal predict high UCN brightness is possible from solid oxygen. However, it has been experimentally shown that the UCN production rate from solid oxygen depends strongly on the crystal condition, especially at low temperature. We tested crystal growth of solid oxygen over a wide range of temperatures and in external magnetic fields. In addition, the UCN production rate in solid oxygen was measured on FP-12 at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE).

Shin, Yunchang

122

Superthermal Source of Ultracold Neutrons for Fundamental Physics Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) play an important role for precise measurements of the properties of the neutron and its interactions. During the past 25 years, a neutron turbine coupled to a liquid deuterium cold neutron source at a high-flux reactor has defined the state of the art for UCN production, despite a long history of efforts towards a new generation of UCN sources. This Letter reports a world-best UCN density available for users, achieved with a new source based on conversion of cold neutrons in superfluid helium. A conversion volume of 5 liters provides at least 274 000 UCN in a single accumulation run. Cyclically repeated operation of the source has been demonstrated, as well.

Zimmer, Oliver; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ivanov, Sergey N. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2011-09-23

123

Superthermal source of ultracold neutrons for fundamental physics experiments.  

PubMed

Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) play an important role for precise measurements of the properties of the neutron and its interactions. During the past 25 years, a neutron turbine coupled to a liquid deuterium cold neutron source at a high-flux reactor has defined the state of the art for UCN production, despite a long history of efforts towards a new generation of UCN sources. This Letter reports a world-best UCN density available for users, achieved with a new source based on conversion of cold neutrons in superfluid helium. A conversion volume of 5 liters provides at least 274,000 UCN in a single accumulation run. Cyclically repeated operation of the source has been demonstrated, as well. PMID:22026860

Zimmer, Oliver; Piegsa, Florian M; Ivanov, Sergey N

2011-09-23

124

A Dipole Assisted IEC Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A potential opportunity to enhance Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion exists by augmenting it with a magnetic dipole configuration. The theory is that the dipole fields will enhance the plasma density in the center region of the IEC and the combined IEC and dipole confinement properties will reduce plasma losses. To demonstrate that a hybrid Dipole-IEC configuration can provide an improved neutron source vs. a stand alone IEC, a first model Dipole-IEC experiment was benchmarked against a reference IEC. A triple Langmuir probe was used to find the electron temperature and density. It was found that the magnetic field increases the electron density by a factor of 16, the electron temperature decreases in the presence of a magnetic field, the discharge voltage decreases in the presence of a magnetic field, the potential of the dipole strongly influences the densities obtained in the center. The experimental set-up and plasma diagnostics are discussed in detail, as well as the results, and the developmental issues.

Prajakti Joshi Shrestha

2005-11-28

125

Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of\\u000a brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for\\u000a BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators\\u000a that are injectors to larger machines

Thomas E. Blue; Jacquelyn C. Yanch

2003-01-01

126

Accelerator-based Epithermal Neutron Sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines

Thomas E. Blue; Jacquelyn C. Yanch

2003-01-01

127

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN)  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) 2. UCN physics-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 experiments 3. Source work at RCNP for TRIUMF 4. TRIUMF facility 5. CFI, relationship, collaboration, KEK Jeff

Martin, Jeff

128

PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCES THEIR FABRICATION AND THEIR YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigntion of the plutonium-beryllium phase diagram demonstrates ;\\u000a the suitability of these alloys and most particularly the intermetallic compound ;\\u000a PuBe for stable neutron sources. These sources are superior to polonium-;\\u000a beryllium sources in respect to sthbility of neutron yield as a iunction of time ;\\u000a and the prediotability of neutroc yield as a function of mass. The gamma-ray

R. E. Tate; A. S. Coffinberry

1958-01-01

129

Pulsed neutron source cold moderators --- concepts, design and engineering  

SciTech Connect

Moderator design for pulsed neutron sources is becoming more and more an interface area between source designers and instrument designers. Although there exists a high degree of flexibility, there are also physical and technical limitations. This paper aims at pointing out these limitations and examining ways to extend the current state of moderator technology in order to make the next generation neutron sources even more versatile and flexible tools for science in accordance with the users' requirements. (auth)

Bauer, Guenter S.

1997-01-01

130

A clean, bright, and versatile source of neutron decay products  

E-print Network

We present a case study on a new type of cold neutron beam station for the investigation of angular correlations in the beta-decay of free neutrons. With this beam station, called PERC, the 'active decay volume' lies inside the neutron guide, and the charged neutron decay products are magnetically guided towards the end of the neutron guide. Hence, the guide delivers at its exit a beam of decay electrons and protons, under well-defined and precisely variable conditions, which can be well separated from the cold neutron beam. In this way a general-purpose source of neutron decay products is obtained which can be used for various different experiments in neutron decay correlation spectroscopy. A gain in phase space density of several orders of magnitude can be achieved with PERC, as compared to existing neutron decay spectrometers. Neutron beam related background is separately measurable in PERC, and magnetic mirror effects on the charged neutron decay products and edge effects in the active neutron beam volume...

Dubbers, D; Baessler, S; Maerkisch, B; Schumann, M; Soldner, T; Zimmer, O

2007-01-01

131

A clean, bright, and versatile source of neutron decay products  

E-print Network

We present a case study on a new type of cold neutron beam station for the investigation of angular correlations in the beta-decay of free neutrons. With this beam station, called PERC, the 'active decay volume' lies inside the neutron guide, and the charged neutron decay products are magnetically guided towards the end of the neutron guide. Hence, the guide delivers at its exit a beam of decay electrons and protons, under well-defined and precisely variable conditions, which can be well separated from the cold neutron beam. In this way a general-purpose source of neutron decay products is obtained which can be used for various different experiments in neutron decay correlation spectroscopy. A gain in phase space density of several orders of magnitude can be achieved with PERC, as compared to existing neutron decay spectrometers. Neutron beam related background is separately measurable in PERC, and magnetic mirror effects on the charged neutron decay products and edge effects in the active neutron beam volume are both strongly suppressed. Therefore the spectra and angular distributions of the emerging decay particles will be distortion-free on the level of 10^-4, more than 10 times better than achieved today.

D. Dubbers; H. Abele; S. Baessler; B. Maerkisch; M. Schumann; T. Soldner; O. Zimmer

2007-09-27

132

Calculated dose equivalent rates from PuBe source neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safeguard functions often require neutron sources to verify the proper operation of assay instruments or to obtain induced signals from irradiated samples. Compact and portable sources emitting random neutrons can be made by intimately mixing an alpha-emitting radionuclide with a suitable light element target material. Research has shown that an actinide and beryllium can take the stable molecular form M{sub 1}Be{sub 13}, where the actinide metal is M. While {sup 239}PuBe is one of the most widely used neutron sources, {sup 238}PuBe sources are also employed. In terms of radiation protection, an obvious goal is to ensure that individuals do not receive an unnecessary exposure to radiation under the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle. Consequently, in planning an activity requiring the use of PuBe sources, it is advantageous to know that dose rates exist in the direct vicinity of the source. Unfortunately, however, the literature does not contain many measured neutron dose rate references for PuBe sources, and size and geometry limitations of neutron detectors make measurements near the source difficult to obtain. As a result, neutron dose equivalent rates have been calculated for both {sup 238}PuBe and {sup 239}PuBe sources using the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code.

Shores, E.F.

1999-07-01

133

Microtron MT 25 as a source of neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to describe Microtron MT25 as a source of neutrons generated by bremsstrahlung induced photonuclear reactions in U and Pb targets. Bremsstrahlung photons were produced by electrons accelerated at energy 21.6 MeV. Spectral fluence of the generated neutrons was calculated with MCNPX code and then experimentally determined at two positions by means of a Bonner spheres spectrometer in which the detector of thermal neutrons was replaced by activation Mn tablets or track detectors CR-39 with a {sup 10}B radiator. The measured neutron spectral fluence and the calculated anisotropy served for the estimation of neutron yield from the targets and for the determination of ambient dose equivalent rate at the place of measurement. Microtron MT25 is intended as one of the sources for testing neutron sensitive devices which will be sent into the space.

Kralik, M.; Solc, J. [Czech Metrology Institute, CZ-102 00 Prague 10 (Czech Republic); Chvatil, D.; Krist, P.; Turek, K. [Nuclear Physics Institute, p.r.i., AS CR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Granja, C. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Horska 3a/22, CZ-128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2012-08-15

134

Transmission Bragg edge spectroscopy measurements at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of neutron transmission Bragg edge spectroscopic experiments performed at the SNAP beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source are presented. A high resolution neutron counting detector with a neutron sensitive microchannel plate and Timepix ASIC readout is capable of energy resolved two dimensional mapping of neutron transmission with spatial accuracy of ~55 ?m, limited by the readout pixel size, and energy resolution limited by the duration of the initial neutron pulse. A two dimensional map of the Fe 110 Bragg edge position was obtained for a bent steel screw sample. Although the neutron pulse duration corresponded to ~30 m energy resolution for 15.3 m flight path, the accuracy of the Bragg edge position in our measurements was improved by analytical fitting to a few m level. A two dimensional strain map was calculated from measured Bragg edge values with an accuracy of ~few hundreds ?istrain for 300s of data acquisition time.

Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Molaison, J. J.; Tulk, C. A.; Crow, L.; Cooper, R. G.; Penumadu, D.

2010-11-01

135

Measurement of radiation skyshine with DT neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DT neutron skyshine experiments have been carried out at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI with the neutron yield of ?1.71011 n\\/s. The concrete thickness of the roof and the wall of a FNS target room are 1.15 and 2 m, respectively. The FNS skyshine port with a size of 0.90.9 m2 was open during the experimental period.

S. Yoshida; T. Nishitani; K. Ochiai; J. Kaneko; J. Hori; S. Sato; M. Yamauchi; R. Tanaka; M. Nakao; M. Wada; M. Wakisaka; I. Murata; C. Kutsukake; S. Tanaka; T. Sawamura; A. Takahashi

2003-01-01

136

Physical design of target station and neutron instruments for China Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first accelerator-based multidiscipline user facility to produce pulsed neutrons by tungsten target under collision of a pulsed proton beam with a beam power of 100 kW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. In this paper, we focus on the physical design of CSNS target station and neutron instruments. Under optimized design, the flat tungsten target and the compact target-moderator-reflector coupling enhance effective cold and thermal neutron output from moderators. Three wing-type moderators supply four different characteristics of neutrons to 19 beamlines primarily for neutron scattering applications. Layout of neutron instruments are conceptually planned for total 20 beamlines, the configuration and specification have been determined for three day-one neutron instruments. All designs are optimized for the Phase I of 100 kW with a upgradable capacity to 500 kW.

Wang, FangWei; Liang, TianJiao; Yin, Wen; Yu, QuanZhi; He, LunHua; Tao, JuZhou; Zhu, Tao; Jia, XueJun; Zhang, ShaoYing

2013-12-01

137

Neutron sources for test and calibration of neutron detectors for space research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on the current status of neutron sources in the Czech Republic as calibrated and ESA compliant stations for space related applications such as the testing and calibration of neutron detectors and neutron sensitive devices as well as for studies of radiation effects of electric and electronic components. The work was carried out as part of the preparatory accession activities of the Czech Republic with ESA. The goal and one of the tasks is to test and evaluate neutron sensitive devices, both conventional and prototypes, developed at ESA and at the IEAP CTU Prague. The facilities consist of both fast and thermal neutron sources providing testing and absolute calibration of a wide range of neutron detectors. The evaluation and calibration of the sources were carried out in cooperation with the Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, the Research Center Rez, and the Czech Metrology Institute in Prague.

Granja, C.; Kralik, M.; Kohout, Z.; Masek, P.; Pospisil, S.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Vykydal, Z.; Owens, A.; Vacik, J.; Chvatil, D.; Bem, P.; Krist, P.; Stursa, J.; Rypar, V.

2012-02-01

138

Inertial electrostatic confinement I(IEC) neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2*10 [10]. neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

139

Facility for fast neutron irradiation tests of electronics at the ISIS spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect

The VESUVIO beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source was set up for neutron irradiation tests in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV. The neutron flux and energy spectrum were shown, in benchmark activation measurements, to provide a neutron spectrum similar to the ambient one at sea level, but with an enhancement in intensity of a factor of 10{sup 7}. Such conditions are suitable for accelerated testing of electronic components, as was demonstrated here by measurements of soft error rates in recent technology field programable gate arrays.

Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Salsano, A. [Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Occhialini', Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Paccagnella, A.; Gerardin, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universita di Padova (Italy); Frost, C. D.; Ansell, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Platt, S. P. [School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancs. PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

2008-03-17

140

Summary of alpha-neutron sources in GADRAS.  

SciTech Connect

A common source of neutrons for calibration and testing is alpha-neutron material, named for the alpha-neutron nuclear reaction that occurs within. This material contains a long-lived alpha-emitter and a lighter target element. When the alpha particle from the emitter is absorbed by the target, neutrons and gamma rays are released. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) includes built-in alpha-neutron source definitions for AcC, AmB, AmBe, AmF, AmLi, CmC, and PuC. In addition, GADRAS users may create their own alpha-neutron sources by placing valid alpha-emitters and target elements in materials within their one-dimensional models (1DModel). GADRAS has the ability to use pre-built alpha-neutron sources for plotting or as trace-sources in 1D models. In addition, if any material (existing or user-defined) specified in a 1D model contains both an alpha emitter in conjunction with a target nuclide, or there is an interface between such materials, then the appropriate neutron-emission rate from the alpha-neutron reaction will be computed. The gamma-emissions from these sources are also computed, but are limited to a subset of nine target nuclides. If a user has experimental data to contribute to the alpha-neutron gamma emission database, it may be added directly or submitted to the GADRAS developers for inclusion. The gadras.exe.config file will be replaced when GADRAS updates are installed, so sending the information to the GADRAS developers is the preferred method for updating the database. This is also preferable because it enables other users to benefit from your efforts.

Mitchell, Dean James; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Harding, Lee T.

2012-05-01

141

Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

Westbrook, J.L.

1995-08-01

142

FAST NEUTRON DOSIMETRY OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM SOURCE (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>Investigations showed that using a combination of two ehambers, one ; composed of polythylene-- ethylene and the other of teflon-- CO, the doses ; delivered to a standard tissue'' by the fast neutrons and the gamma rays from ; a Pu--Be neutron source can be measured. The ionization currents were read on a ; vibrating reed electrometer. The probable errors

1958-01-01

143

MIXED RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose rate delivered to an assumed standard tissue by the fast-; neutron and gamma -radiation from a standard 1 c plutonium-beryllium neutron ; source was determined by measurements with ethylene-filled polyethylene and CO\\/; sub 2-\\/ filled Teflon ionization chambers. The resulting ionization currents as ; measured with a calibrated vibrating-reed electrometer were used to obtain a ; measure of

Donald C. Lawrence

1962-01-01

144

Materials compatibility studies for the Spallation Neutron Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. Type 316 SS has been selected as the container...

J. R. DiStefano, S. J. Pawel, E. T. Manneschmidt

1998-01-01

145

Materials Compatibility Studies for the Spallation Neutron Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. The energy deposited in the target is transpor...

J. R. DiStefano, E. T. Manneschmidt, S. J. Pawel

1998-01-01

146

Conceptual design studies of GDT-based neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis shows that the existing nuclear technology data bases are not sufficient to arrive at a DEMO with reasonable confidence in achieving target availability levels. In order to provide these data, a testing facility capable of simulating neutron environment in a fusion reactor is needed. A number of proposals for plasma-type neutron sources have been made recently to meet

A. A. Ivanov; E. P. Kruglyakov; Yu. A. Tsidulko; V. G. Krasnoperovt; V. V. Korshakovt

1995-01-01

147

Neutron dosimetry at the intense neutron source (INS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron monitoring consists of two parts: the spectral characterization and the fluence determination. The experimental measurements are combined with theoretical calculations. The following methods are proposed for determining the spectra: a telescope (np) spectrometer, a telescope ⁶Li(n..cap alpha..)T spectrometer, spectrometers needing unfolding, time-of-flight technique, and multiple foil technique. (MOW)

Dierckx

1977-01-01

148

An ultra-cold neutron source at the MLNSC  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have carried out the research and development of an Ultra-Cold Neutron (UCN) source at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC). A first generation source was constructed to test the feasibility of a rotor source. The source performed well with an UCN production rate reasonably consistent with that expected. This source can now provide the basis for further development work directed at using UCN in fundamental physics research as well as possible applications in materials science.

Bowles, T.J.; Brun, T.; Hill, R.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crow, L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Serebrov, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)

1998-11-01

149

Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications  

SciTech Connect

A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

2009-12-01

150

Slower, colder, longer : prospects for a very cold neutron source.  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for our study is to establish the prospects for a neutron source providing intense pulsed beams with spectra as cold as is realistic. The scientific motivation is to serve applications in nanoscience, biology and technology.

Micklich, B. J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

2007-01-01

151

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precip...

M. J. Palmer

1990-01-01

152

Spallation neutron source target station design, development, and commissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spallation neutron source target station is designed to safely, reliably, and efficiently convert a 1 GeV beam of protons to a high flux of about 1 meV neutrons that are available at 24 neutron scattering instrument beam lines. Research and development findings, design requirements, design description, initial checkout testing, and results from early operation with beam are discussed for each of the primary target subsystems, including the mercury target, neutron moderators and reflector, surrounding vessels and shielding, utilities, remote handling equipment, and instrumentation and controls. Future plans for the mercury target development program are also briefly discussed.

Haines, J. R.; McManamy, T. J.; Gabriel, T. A.; Battle, R. E.; Chipley, K. K.; Crabtree, J. A.; Jacobs, L. L.; Lousteau, D. C.; Rennich, M. J.; Riemer, B. W.

2014-11-01

153

Fission diamond detector tests at the ISIS spallation neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact device for monitoring of fast neutron fluxes is presented. The device is based on single crystal diamond obtained by the Chemical Vapor Deposition technique coupled to a uranium converter foil where neutron interaction results in emission of charged particles detected inside the diamond. Thermal and fast neutrons are detected using natural uranium containing both 235U and 238U. Biparametric (pulse height and time of flight) data collection was used at the ISIS pulsed neutron source to distinguish events from 235U, 238U and from carbon break-up reactions inside the diamond.

Rebai, M.; Andreani, C.; Fazzi, A.; Frost, C. D.; Giacomelli, L.; Gorini, G.; Milani, E.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Pietropaolo, A.; Prestopino, G.; Schooneveld, E.; Tardocchi, M.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.

2011-06-01

154

Advanced neutron source three-element-core fuel grading  

SciTech Connect

The proposed advanced neutron source (ANS) neutron research facility`s purpose is to provide unprecedented experimental capabilities in the areas of neutron scattering, materials research, and isotope production. The primary goals of the ANS project are to obtain neutron flux levels that are 5 to 10 times larger than any current existing facility and to provide isotope irradiation facilities that are at least as good as the High-Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design changes in the ANS are described.

Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

155

The PSI ultra-cold neutron source A. Anghel a  

E-print Network

The PSI ultra-cold neutron source A. Anghel a , F. Atchison a , B. Blau a , B. van den Brandt a , M on the spallation process is under construction at PSI. The essential elements are a pulsed proton beam with highest. & 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. The PSI UCN source The new UCN source under construction

Zejma, Jacek

156

Overview of target systems for the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and requirements of target systems as well as the technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis, and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

1997-12-31

157

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. UCN interactions  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. UCN interactions 2. UCN physics experiments 3. Source 60MW reactor 0.5K He-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec 60MW reactor 0.5K He-II Ec = 250 neV s = 150 s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec

Martin, Jeff

158

Design and demonstration of a quasi-monoenergetic neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a neutron source capable of producing 24 and 70 keV neutron beams with narrow energy spread is presented. The source exploits near-threshold kinematics of the 7Li (p,n)7Be reaction while taking advantage of the interference notches found in the scattering cross-sections of iron. The design was implemented and characterized at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Alternative filters such as vanadium and manganese are also explored and the possibility of studying the response of different materials to low-energy nuclear recoils using the resultant neutron beams is discussed.

Joshi, T. H.; Sangiorgio, S.; Mozin, V.; Norman, E. B.; Sorensen, P.; Foxe, M.; Bench, G.; Bernstein, A.

2014-08-01

159

Design and demonstration of a quasi-monoenergetic neutron source  

E-print Network

The design of a neutron source capable of producing 24 and 70 keV neutron beams with narrow energy spread is presented. The source exploits near-threshold kinematics of the $^{7}$Li(p,n)$^{7}$Be reaction while taking advantage of the interference `notches' found in the scattering cross-sections of iron. The design was implemented and characterized at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Alternative filters such as vanadium and manganese are also explored and the possibility of studying the response of different materials to low-energy nuclear recoils using the resultant neutron beams is discussed.

Joshi, T H; Mozin, V; Norman, E B; Sorensen, P; Foxe, M; Bench, G; Bernstein, A

2014-01-01

160

Design and demonstration of a quasi-monoenergetic neutron source  

E-print Network

The design of a neutron source capable of producing 24 and 70 keV neutron beams with narrow energy spread is presented. The source exploits near-threshold kinematics of the $^{7}$Li(p,n)$^{7}$Be reaction while taking advantage of the interference `notches' found in the scattering cross-sections of iron. The design was implemented and characterized at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Alternative filters such as vanadium and manganese are also explored and the possibility of studying the response of different materials to low-energy nuclear recoils using the resultant neutron beams is discussed.

T. H. Joshi; S. Sangiorgio; V. Mozin; E. B. Norman; P. Sorensen; M. Foxe; G. Bench; A. Bernstein

2014-03-05

161

Intrinsic neutron source strengths in uranium solutions  

SciTech Connect

Neutron production rates for 5% enriched uranyl fluoride and 93% uranyl nitrate solutions have been measured using a high-efficiency neutron well counter. Measurements were made for both solution types as a function of sample volume. These results were extrapolated to zero sample volume to eliminate sample size effects, such as multiplication and absorption. For the 5% enriched uranyl fluoride solution, a neutron production rate of 0.0414 {plus minus} 0.0041 n/s/ml was measured; for the 93% enriched uranyl nitrate solution, a neutron production rate of 0.0232 {plus minus} 0.0023 n/s/ml was measured. The biggest uncertainty is in measuring the detector efficiency, and further work on this aspect of the experiment is planned. Calculations for the neutron production rates based on measured thick-target (alpha, n) production rates and shown alpha stopping powers are in reasonable agreement with the data for the uranyl nitrate solution, but are in poor agreement with the data for the uranyl fluoride solution. 8 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Anderson, R.E.; Robba, A.A.; Seale, R.L.; Rutherford, D.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Brunson, G.S.

1991-01-01

162

Progress on Development of an Ultra-Cold Neutron Source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold neutrons (400 m\\/s) derived from the short pulse spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center are being used to create Ultra-Cold Neutrons (UCN) by Bragg scattering from a moving (rotating) package of mica crystals. Our objective is to develop a source with sufficient UCN densities to begin a research program to measure angular correlations in polarized neutron

Roger E. Hill; Thomas J. Bowles; Torben O. Brun; Christopher L. Morris; Susan J. Seestrom; Lowell Crow

1997-01-01

163

Outline of a proposal for a new neutron source: The pulsed neutron research facility  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron sources have been performing neutron scattering research for about fifteen years. During this time beam intensities have increased by a factor of 100 and more than 50 spectrometers are now operating on four major sources worldwide. The pulsed sources have proven to be highly effective and complementary to reactor-based sources in that there are important scientific areas for which each type of source has unique capabilities. We describe a proposal for a new pulsed neutron facility based on a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient synchrotron. The specifications for this new machine, which are now only being formulated, are for an accelerator that will produce (100 {divided_by} 200) {mu}A of time-averaged proton current at (500 {divided_by} 1000) MeV, in short pulses at 30 Hz. Appropriate target and moderator systems and an array of scattering instruments will be provided to make the facility a full-blown research installation. The neutron source, named the Pulsed Neutron Research Facility (PNRF), will be as powerful as any pulsed source now operating in the world and will also act as a test bed for the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Synchrotron concept as a basis for more powerful sources in the future. The peak thermal neutron flux in PNRF will be about 5{center_dot}10{sup 15}n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s.

Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Kustom, R.L.

1992-04-01

164

Outline of a proposal for a new neutron source: The pulsed neutron research facility  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron sources have been performing neutron scattering research for about fifteen years. During this time beam intensities have increased by a factor of 100 and more than 50 spectrometers are now operating on four major sources worldwide. The pulsed sources have proven to be highly effective and complementary to reactor-based sources in that there are important scientific areas for which each type of source has unique capabilities. We describe a proposal for a new pulsed neutron facility based on a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient synchrotron. The specifications for this new machine, which are now only being formulated, are for an accelerator that will produce (100 {divided by} 200) {mu}A of time-averaged proton current at (500 {divided by} 1000) MeV, in short pulses at 30 Hz. Appropriate target and moderator systems and an array of scattering instruments will be provided to make the facility a full-blown research installation. The neutron source, named the Pulsed Neutron Research Facility (PNRF), will be as powerful as any pulsed source now operating in the world and will also act as a test bed for the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Synchrotron concept as a basis for more powerful sources in the future. The peak thermal neutron flux in PNRF will be about 5{center dot}10{sup 15}n/cm{sup 2}{center dot}s.

Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Kustom, R.L.

1992-04-01

165

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron

R. A. Nebel; D. C. Barnes; E. J. Caramana; R. D. Janssen; W. D. Nystrom; T. N. Tiouririne; B. C. Trent; G. H. Miley; J. Javedani

1995-01-01

166

DEUTERIUM AND TRITIUM TARGETS FOR NEUTRON SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

tritium targets for low-energy generators. The preparation and ; characteristics of these targets at AERE, Harwell is described. (T.R.H.) 13379 ; The resonance integral for neutrons in spheres and cylinders of uranium was ; determined by a method which was modified from that of Gurevich and Pomeranchouk ; and which leads to the same general result. From the ratified form

E. J. Wilson; C. Evans

1958-01-01

167

GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitors for spallation sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new large area and high flux thermal neutron detectors for future neutron spallation sources, like the European Spallation Source (ESS) is motivated by the problem of 3He shortage. In the framework of the development of ESS, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) is one of the detector technologies that are being explored as thermal neutron sensors. A first prototype of GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitor (bGEM) has been built during 2012. The bGEM is a triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with an aluminum cathode coated by 1 ?m thick B4C layer used to convert thermal neutrons to charged particles through the 10B(n,7Li)? nuclear reaction. This paper describes the results obtained by testing a bGEM detector at the ISIS spallation source on the VESUVIO beamline. Beam profiles (FWHMx=31 mm and FWHMy=36 mm), bGEM thermal neutron counting efficiency (?1%), detector stability (3.45%) and the time-of-flight spectrum of the beam were successfully measured. This prototype represents the first step towards the development of thermal neutrons detectors with efficiency larger than 50% as alternatives to 3He-based gaseous detectors.

Croci, G.; Claps, G.; Caniello, R.; Cazzaniga, C.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Tardocchi, M.; Vassallo, E.; Gorini, G.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Stoermer, M.

2013-12-01

168

Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

SciTech Connect

There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

2003-04-30

169

An Ultracold Neutron Source for 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN)  

E-print Network

An Ultracold Neutron Source for TRIUMF 1. Introduction to Ultracold Neutrons (UCN) 2. UCN physics in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 in He-II Munich 20MW reactor SD2 Ec s 1000 in He-II SNS cold neutron beam 0.3K He-II Ec = 134 neV s = 500 s 430 in He-II Munich 20MW reactor

Martin, Jeff

170

RIS-M-2246 THE COLD NEUTRON SOURCE IN DR 3  

E-print Network

- 1 - RIS?-M-2246 THE COLD NEUTRON SOURCE IN DR 3 Knud Jensen and J.A. Leth Abstract. A description of the cold neutron source in DR 3 is given. The moderator of the cold neutron source is supercritical on extension of the facility to operate two cold sources is reported. IMS Descriptors COLD NEUTRONS, DR 3

171

Augmenting real data with synthetic data: an application in assessing radio-isotope identification algorithms  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Radio-Isotope Identification (RIID) algorithms using gamma spectroscopy is increasingly important. For example, sensors at locations that screen for illicit nuclear material rely on isotope identification to resolve innocent nuisance alarms arising from naturally occurring radioactive material. Recent data collections for RIID testing consist of repeat measurements for each of several scenarios to test RIID algorithms. Efficient allocation of measurement resources requires an appropriate number of repeats for each scenario. To help allocate measurement resources in such data collections for RIID algorithm testing, we consider using only a few real repeats per scenario. In order to reduce uncertainty in the estimated RIID algorithm performance for each scenario, the potential merit of augmenting these real repeats with realistic synthetic repeats is also considered. Our results suggest that for the scenarios and algorithms considered, approximately 10 real repeats augmented with simulated repeats will result in an estimate having comparable uncertainty to the estimate based on using 60 real repeats.

Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

172

Lithium neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source.  

PubMed

Pilot innovative accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. One of the main elements of the facility is lithium target, that produces neutrons via threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies 1.915 or 2.5 MeV. In the present report, the results of experiments on neutron producing target prototype are presented, the results of calculations of hydraulic resistance for heat carrier flow and lithium layer temperature are shown. Calculation showed that the lithium target could run up to 10 mA proton beam before melting. Choice of target variant is substantiated. Program of immediate necessary experiments is described. Target design for neutron source constructed at BINP is presented. Manufacturing the neutron producing target up to the end of 2004 and obtaining a neutron beam on BINP accelerator-based neutron source are planned during 2005. PMID:15308150

Bayanov, B; Belov, V; Kindyuk, V; Oparin, E; Taskaev, S

2004-11-01

173

Optimizing Moderator Dimensions for Neutron Scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigate the effect of neutron moderator dimensions on the performance of neutron scattering instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. In a recent study of the planned second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility [1,2], we have found that the dimensions of a moderator play a significant role in determining its surface brightness. A smaller moderator may be significantly brighter for a smaller viewing area [4]. One of the immediate implications of this finding is that for modern neutron scattering instrument designs, moderator dimensions and brightness have to be incorporated as an integrated optimization parameter. Here, we establish a strategy of matching neutron scattering instruments with moderators using analytical and Monte Carlo techniques. In order to simplify our treatment, we group the instruments into two broad categories, those with natural collimation and those that use neutron guide systems. We found that the cross-sections of the sample and the neutron guide, respectively, are the deciding factors for choosing the moderator. Beam divergence plays no role as long as it is within the reach of practical constraints. Namely, the required divergence is not too large for the guide or sample to be located close enough to the moderator on an actual spallation source.

Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL] [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL] [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

174

Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy  

SciTech Connect

We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

1989-01-01

175

Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

Graves, Van B [ORNL; Dayton, Michael J [ORNL

2011-01-01

176

New application of the superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source. The search for the neutron electric dipole moment  

E-print Network

L-321 New application of the superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source. I 2014 The search causes. Abstract. 2014 A superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron source containing a dilute solution of polarized~'ments [1-3] have confirmed the principles of the superthermal source of Ultra- Cold Neutrons j4-6] it now

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Absolute fluence measurement for a prototype neutron radiotherapy source.  

PubMed

An inexpensive recoil-proton counter telescope has been designed for absolute fluence measurements of a gas-target neutron source for radiation therapy. The detector has an absolute efficiency of 1.1 times 10-minus 9 at 20 cm from an isotropic source and is useful for production rates of 10-9 minus 10-13 neutrons per second. The telescope consists of a thin hydrogenous irradiator foil and a surface-barrier detector to count recoil protons within a defined solid angle. The telescope provides n-gamma discrimination as well as discrimination against scattered neutrons. Initial tests of the counter telescope were performed using the DD reaction employed in development stages of the gas target. A clear separation of full-energy recoil protons from background and scattered neutron events was evident in the pulse-height spectra without the use of coincidence gating techniques. PMID:806776

Beach, J L; McCullough, E C

1975-01-01

178

Considerations for an Intense Source of Ultracold Neutrons at the European Long Pulse Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While intense reactor based sources of ultra-cold neutrons have been in operation for approximately three decades, it is only in the last few years that practical sources of UCN have been realized at spallation sources. Existing and proposed spallation based UCN sources employ two distinct strategies. In the first, the UCN converter (superfluid 4He, or solid D2) is placed in the immediate vicinity of the spallation target. In the second, a converter (usually superfluid He) is placed at the output end of a cold neutron guide fed by the spallation target cold source. Both of these approaches are considered in relation to the European Long Pulse Spallation Source.

Pendlebury, J. M.; Greene, G. L.

179

Level-1 PRA of the advanced neutron source reactor  

SciTech Connect

The advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor is being designed to provide thermal and subthermal neutrons for neutron scattering, physics experiments, materials irradiation, analytical chemistry, and transuranium as well as other isotopic production. The ANS is currently in the preliminary design phase and will be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To be the world`s most intense neutron source available for continuous beams of low-energy neutrons, very high neutron flux and power density are required. This results in low thermal inertia and fast transient and accident responses. The current design of the ANS is a heavy-water-cooled, moderated, and reflected reactor housed in a large, double-walled containment dome and surrounded by thermal neutron beam experiments. It is designed with many safety features, including large heat sinks and a layout that maximizes natural circulation capabilities sufficient for decay heat removal; passive inventory control by accumulators, light water pools, and floodable cells; and fast, redundant, diverse shutdown systems. In parallel with the design efforts, a plant-specific level-1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for the ANS conceptual design as part of the overall safety program.

Lin, J.C.; Bley, D.C.; Ramsey, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

180

Triaxial Neutron Stars - a Possible Source of Gravitational Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation\\u000afor the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors\\u000asuch as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar\\u000amode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a\\u000aperturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic\\u000aaxisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the

J. Frieben; Eric Gourgoulhon

1996-01-01

181

The Spallation Neutron Source: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research  

SciTech Connect

The wavelengths and energies of thermal and cold neutrons are ideally matched to the length and energy scales in the materials that underpin technologies of the present and future: ranging from semiconductors to magnetic devices, composites to biomaterials and polymers. The Spallation Neutron Source will use an accelerator to produce the most intense beams of neutrons in the world when it is complete in 2006. The project is being built by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy laboratories. It will serve a diverse community of users drawn from academia, industry, and government labs with interests in condensed matter physics, chemistry, engineering materials, biology, and beyond.

Mason, T.E.; Abernathy, D.; Ankner, J.; Ekkebus, A.; Granroth, G.; Hagen, M.; Herwig, K.; Hoffmann, C.; Horak, C.; Klose, F.; Miller, S.; Neuefeind, J.; Tulk, C.; Wang, X.-L. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37830 (United States)

2005-06-08

182

Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (100 ?m) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-?m resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics.

Volegov, P.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Merrill, F. E.; Warrick, A. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.

2014-02-01

183

Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility.  

PubMed

The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (?100 ?m) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-?m resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics. PMID:24593362

Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Izumi, N; Ma, T; Merrill, F E; Warrick, A L; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

2014-02-01

184

Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy B. Bayanov, Yu. Belchenko, V. Belov, V. Davydenko, A. Donin, A. Dranichnikov, A. Ivanov,  

E-print Network

Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy B. Bayanov, Yu. Belchenko, V. Belov, V of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk) have proposed an accelerator based neutron source for neutron accelerator (VITA) and near threshold 7 Li(p,n)7 Be neutron generation. Pilot accelerator based neutron source

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

185

Spallation-driven Ultracold Neutron Sources: Concepts for a Next Generation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present concepts for a next-generation, spallation-driven ultracold neutron source. Our source is based on a 40 liter volume of liquid He held at 1.6 K, with heat removed by sub-cooled He technology developed for the Large Hadron Collider's magnet systems. We report on neutronics modeling for two geometries which utilize well-vetted scattering and absorption data developed for the Lujan Center Mark-3 target, as well as promising moderator materials for the cold neutron pre-moderator for this source.

Young, A. R.; Huegle, T.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.; Muhrer, G.; Saunders, A.

186

Subcritical Neutron Multiplication Measurements of HEU Using Delayed Neutrons as the Driving Source  

SciTech Connect

A new method for the determination of the multiplication of highly enriched uranium systems is presented. The method uses delayed neutrons to drive the HEU system. These delayed neutrons are from fission events induced by a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source. Between pulses, neutrons are detected within a medium efficiency neutron detector using {sup 3}He ionization tubes within polyethylene enclosures. The neutron detection times are recorded relative to the initiation of the 14-MeV neutron pulse, and subsequently analyzed with the Feynman reduced variance method to extract singles, doubles and triples neutron counting rates. Measurements have been made on a set of nested hollow spheres of 93% enriched uranium, with mass values from 3.86 kg to 21.48 kg. The singles, doubles and triples counting rates for each uranium system are compared to calculations from point kinetics models of neutron multiplicity to assign multiplication values. These multiplication values are compared to those from MC NP K-Code calculations.

Hollas, C.L.; Goulding, C.A.; Myers, W.L.

1999-09-20

187

Neutron dosimetry, moderated energy spectrum, and neutron capture therapy for californium-252 medical sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of neutron dosimetry for 252Cf has been conducted using calculative and experimental means. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used in a distributed computing environment as a parallel virtual machine (PVM) to determine the absorbed neutron dose and neutron energy spectrum from 252Cf in a variety of clinically relevant materials. Herein, a Maxwellian spectrum was used to model the 252Cf neutron emissions within these materials. 252Cf mixed-field dosimetry of Applicator Tube (AT) type sources was measured using 1.0 and 0.05 cm3 tissue-equivalent ion chambers and a miniature GM counter. A dosimetry protocol was formulated similar that of ICRU 45. The 252Cf AT neutron dosimetry was determined in the cylindrical coordinate system formalism recommended by the AAPM Task Group 43. These results demonstrated the overwhelming dependence of dosimetry on the source geometry factor as there was no significant neutron attenuation within the source or encapsulation. Gold foils and TLDs were used to measure the thermal flux in the vicinity of 252Cf AT sources to compare with the results calculated using MCNP. As the fast neutron energy spectrum did not markedly changed at increasing distances from the AT source, neutron dosimetry results obtained with paired ion chambers using fixed sensitivity factors agreed well with MCNP results and those in the literature. Calculations of moderated 252Cf neutron energy spectrum with various loadings of 10B and 157Gd were performed, in addition to analysis of neutron capture therapy dosimetry with these isotopes. Radiological concerns such as personnel exposure and shielding of 252Cf emissions were examined. Feasibility of a high specific-activity 252Cf HDR source was investigated through radiochemical and metallurgical studies using stand-ins such as Tb, Gd and 249Cf. Issues such as capsule burst strength due to helium production for a variety of proposed HDR sources were addressed. A recommended 252Cf source strength of at least 1mg was necessary for fabrication of a 252Cf HDR source.

Rivard, Mark Joseph

188

A high-fluence fusion neutron source  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design of a D-T fusion facility for continuous production of 14-MeV neutron wall loading from 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ at the plasma surface is presented. In this design, D-T neutrons are produced in a linear, two-component plasma formed by neutral beam irradiation of a fully ionized warm plasma target. The beam energy, which is deposited in the center, is transferred to the warm plasma mainly by electron drag and is conducted along the target plasma column to end regions where it is absorbed in neutral gas at high pressure. The target plasma is operated in a regime where electron thermal conduction along the column is the controlling energy-loss process. The loss rate is minimized by adjusting the diameter and length of the plasma column. A substantial gradient in T/sub e/ along the column results in recombination of the plasma to gas in the end-regions before impact on the end walls. The resultant hot gas is cooled by contact with large-area heat exchangers. In this way, the large steady-state heat load from the injected neutral beams is diffused and removed at tolerable heat flux levels. The reacting plasma is essentially an extrapolation of the 2XIIB high-..beta.. plasma to higher magnetic field, ion energy, and density. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Coensgen, F.H.; Casper, T.A.; Correll, D.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Logan, B.G.; Molvik, A.W.; Bulmer, R.H.

1988-02-17

189

The experimental program at the WNR neutron source at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

There are two white neutron sources at Los Alamos National Laboratory which are used in broad scientific program over the energy range from thermal to about seven hundred MeV. Largely because of the increased intensity over such an unprecedented energy range, use of these two facilities for nuclear science research has grown from 36 experimenters in 1987 to 118 in 1990. This paper focuses on research underway or recently completed at the high-energy neutron source of the WNR facility. 18 refs., 6 figs.

Lisowski, P.W.

1991-01-01

190

The new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source - Design and Performance  

E-print Network

The design and performance of the new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed to cover essentially the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM2, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

Ehlers, G; Niedziela, J L; Iverson, E B

2011-01-01

191

The new cold neutron chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source: design and performance.  

PubMed

The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments. PMID:21895276

Ehlers, G; Podlesnyak, A A; Niedziela, J L; Iverson, E B; Sokol, P E

2011-08-01

192

A neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source.  

PubMed

An innovative accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT has just started operation at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. One of the main elements of the facility is a lithium target producing neutrons via the threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies of 1.915 MeV or 2.5 MeV. The design of an optimal target and results of the investigation of radiation blistering of the lithium layer were presented at previous NCT Congresses. During the last two years the neutron target has been manufactured, assembled and placed in the facility. Optimization of the target is carried out with the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP. In this article, the design of the target is discussed, results of all previous investigations are summarized, results of target testing and neutron generation are described, and results of simulation of neutron spectra are presented. PMID:19376729

Bayanov, B; Kashaeva, E; Makarov, A; Malyshkin, G; Samarin, S; Taskaev, S

2009-07-01

193

The new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source -- Design and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Iverson, Erik B [ORNL; Sokol, Paul E [ORNL

2011-01-01

194

The new cold neutron chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source: Design and performance  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Niedziela, J. L.; Iverson, E. B. [Neutron Scattering Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sokol, P. E. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

2011-08-15

195

Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.  

PubMed

This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values. PMID:24448270

Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

2014-04-01

196

Proton Driver Linac for the Frankfurt Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) will deliver high neutron fluxes in the energy range of 1 to 500 keV. The Activation Mode provides a high averaged neutron flux created by a cw proton beam of up to 5 mA, while in the Compressor Mode intense neutron pulses of 1 ns length are formed with a repetition rate of up to 250 kHz. The Compressor Mode is well-suited for energy-dependent neutron capture measurements using the Time-of-Flight method in combination with a 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} detector array. The design of the proton driver linac for both operation modes is presented. This includes the volume type ion source, the ExB chopper located in the low energy section, the RFQ-IH combination for beam acceleration and the bunch compressor. Finally, the neutron production at the lithium-7 target and the resulting energy spectrum is described.

Wiesner, C.; Chau, L. P.; Dinter, H.; Droba, M.; Heilmann, M.; Joshi, N.; Maeder, D.; Metz, A.; Meusel, O.; Noll, D.; Podlech, H.; Ratzinger, U.; Reichau, H.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt, S.; Schweizer, W.; Volk, K.; Wagner, C. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Reifarth, R. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller, I.

2010-08-04

197

Neutron energy spectrum characterization on TMR-1 at the Indiana University neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy spectrum of the Neutron Radiation Effects Program (NREP) beam line, Target-Moderator-Reflector-1 (TMR-1), at Indiana University has not been previously characterized. The facility has a unique proton source with variable pulse length (15-600 ms) and energy (13 MeV). Thus, it can produce a unique and tailored neutron beam when incident on a beryllium target. Through a combination of MCNP-X particle simulations, neutron activation experiments, and application of a spectrum unfolding code (SAND-II), the neutron source is characterized. Eight activation foils and wires were irradiated in the target area and the gamma activity measured. This information was used in an unfolding code, SAND-II, to deconvolve the spectrum, using the MCNP simulations as a basis for the spectral fitting.

Halstead, Matthew R.; Lee, Sangjin; Petrosky, James; Bickley, Abigail; Sokol, Paul

198

China Spallation Neutron Source: Design, R&D, and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator based multidiscipline user facility planned to be constructed in Dongguan, Guangdong, China. The CSNS complex consists of an negative hydrogen linear accelerator, a rapid cycling proton synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV energy, a solid tungsten target station, and instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility operates at 25 Hz repetition rate with an initial design beam power of 120 kW and is upgradeable to 500 kW. The primary challenge is to build a robust and reliable user's facility with upgrade potential at a fraction of "world standard" cost. We report the status, design, R&D, and upgrade outlook including applications using spallation neutron, muon, fast neutron, and proton, as well as related programs including medical therapy and accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor (ADS) programs for nuclear waste transmutation.

Wei, Jie; Chen, Hesheng; Chen, Yanwei; Chen, Yuanbo; Chi, Yunlong; Deng, Changdong; Dong, Haiyi; Dong, Lan; Fang, Shouxian; Feng, Ji; Fu, Shinian; He, Lunhua; He, Wei; Heng, Yuekun; Huang, Kaixi; Jia, Xuejun; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiangcheng; Li, Jian; Liang, Tianjiao; Lin, Guoping; Liu, Zhenan; Ouyang, Huafu; Qin, Qing; Qu, Huamin; Shi, Caitu; Sun, Hong; Tang, Jingyu; Tao, Juzhou; Wang, Chunhong; Wang, Fangwei; Wang, Dingsheng; Wang, Qingbin; Wang, Sheng; Wei, Tao; Xi, Jiwei; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhongxiong; Yin, Wen; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zong; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhou, Min; Zhu, Tao

2009-02-01

199

High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept  

SciTech Connect

In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R. [and others

1998-05-01

200

Optimization of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

A modeling investigation was performed to choose moderator material and size for creating optimal epithermal neutron beams for BNCT based on a proton accelerator and the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction as a neutrons source. An optimal configuration is suggested for the beam shaping assembly made from polytetrafluoroethylene and magnesium fluorine to be placed on high current IPPE proton accelerator KG-2.5. Results of calculation were experimentally tested and are in good agreement with measurements. PMID:15308184

Kononov, O E; Kononov, V N; Bokhovko, M V; Korobeynikov, V V; Soloviev, A N; Sysoev, A S; Gulidov, I A; Chu, W T; Nigg, D W

2004-11-01

201

Optimization of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy  

SciTech Connect

A modeling investigation was performed to choose moderator material and size for creating optimal epithermal neutron beams for BNCT based on a proton accelerator and the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutrons source. An optimal configuration is suggested for the beam shaping assembly made from polytetrafluoroethylene and magnesium fluorine. Results of calculation were experimentally tested and are in good agreement with measurements.

Kononov, O.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Soloviev, A.N.; Chu, W.T.

2004-02-20

202

Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method  

DOEpatents

A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0.times.10.sup.9 neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use.

Yoon, Woo Y. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, James L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nigg, David W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

203

Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method  

DOEpatents

A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0{times}10{sup 9} neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use. 3 figs.

Yoon, W.Y.; Jones, J.L.; Nigg, D.W.; Harker, Y.D.

1999-05-11

204

Neutron Radiographic Inspection of Industrial Components using Kamini Neutron Source Facility  

SciTech Connect

Kamini (Kalpakkam Mini) reactor is a U{sup 233} fuelled, demineralised light water moderated and cooled, beryllium oxide reflected, low power (30 kW) nuclear research reactor. This reactor functions as a neutron source with a flux of 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at core centre with facilitates for carrying out neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis and neutron shielding experiments. There are two beam tubes for neutron radiography. The length/diameter ratio of the collimators is about 160 and the aperture size is 220 mmx70 mm. Flux at the outer end of the beam tube is {approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s. The north end beam tube is for radiography of inactive object while the south side beam tube is for radiography of radioactive objects. The availability of high neutron flux coupled with good collimated beam provides high quality radiographs with short exposure time. The reactor being a unique national facility for neutron radiography has been utilized in the examination of irradiated components, aero engine turbine blades, riveted plates, automobile chain links and for various types of pyro devices used in the space programme. In this paper, an overview of the salient features of this reactor facility for neutron radiography and our experience in the inspection of a variety of industrial components will be given.

Raghu, N.; Anandaraj, V.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Kalyanasundaram, P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India)

2008-03-17

205

Residual stress measurement using the pulsed neutron source at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can make spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in the crystalline interplanar spacing, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all the lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement which allows anisotropic effects to be studied. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr Neutron Scattering Centre (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 15 refs., 7 figs.

Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Holden, T.M. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada))

1991-01-01

206

Development of an IEC neutron source for NDE  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the development of a neutron so based on the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of a low density fusion plasma in a gridded, spherically-focusing device. With the motivation of using such sources for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, the focus of the development is on : Small size devices, sealed operation with D{sub 2} or D{sub 2}/T{sub 2} mixtures, Power-utilization and neutron-output optimization, and integration into an assay system. In this paper, we describe an experimental system that has been established for the development and testing of IEC neutron sources, and we present preliminary results of tests conducted for 25-cm and 15-cm diameter IEC devices.

Anderl, R.A,; Hartwell, J.K. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nadler, J.H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Fusion Studies Lab.

1995-12-01

207

Accelerator shield design of KIPT neutron source facility  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the design development of a neutron source facility at KIPT utilizing an electron-accelerator-driven subcritical assembly. Electron beam power is 100 kW, using 100 MeV electrons. The facility is designed to perform basic and applied nuclear research, produce medical isotopes, and train young nuclear specialists. The biological shield of the accelerator building is designed to reduce the biological dose to less than 0.5-mrem/hr during operation. The main source of the biological dose is the photons and the neutrons generated by interactions of leaked electrons from the electron gun and accelerator sections with the surrounding concrete and accelerator materials. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX serves as the calculation tool for the shield design, due to its capability to transport electrons, photons, and neutrons coupled problems. The direct photon dose can be tallied by MCNPX calculation, starting with the leaked electrons. However, it is difficult to accurately tally the neutron dose directly from the leaked electrons. The neutron yield per electron from the interactions with the surrounding components is less than 0.01 neutron per electron. This causes difficulties for Monte Carlo analyses and consumes tremendous computation time for tallying with acceptable statistics the neutron dose outside the shield boundary. To avoid these difficulties, the SOURCE and TALLYX user subroutines of MCNPX were developed for the study. The generated neutrons are banked, together with all related parameters, for a subsequent MCNPX calculation to obtain the neutron and secondary photon doses. The weight windows variance reduction technique is utilized for both neutron and photon dose calculations. Two shielding materials, i.e., heavy concrete and ordinary concrete, were considered for the shield design. The main goal is to maintain the total dose outside the shield boundary at less than 0.5-mrem/hr. The shield configuration and parameters of the accelerator building have been determined and are presented in this paper. (authors)

Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-07-01

208

Characterization of neutron sources from spent fuel casks. [Skyshine  

SciTech Connect

In the interim period prior to the acceptance of spent fuel for disposal by the USDOE, utilities are beginning to choose dry cask storage as an alternative to pool re-racking, transshipments, or new pool construction. In addition, the current MRS proposal calls for interim dry storage of consolidated spent fuel in concrete casks. As part of the licensing requirements for these cask storage facilities, calculations are typically necessary to determine the yearly radiation dose received at the site boundary. Unlike wet facilities, neutron skyshine can be an important contribution to the total boundary dose from a dry storage facility. Calculation of the neutron skyshine is in turn heavily dependent on the source characteristics and source model selected for the analysis. This paper presents the basic source characteristics of the spent fuel stored in dry casks and discusses factors that must be considered in evaluating and modeling the radiation sources for the subsequent skyshine calculation. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Parks, C.V.; Pace, J.V. III

1987-01-01

209

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precipitating as oxalate again. In most cases three dissolutions of the oxide are required to reduce beryllium content enough to meet specifications. We first introduced an ion-exchange process

1990-01-01

210

Research on fusion neutron sources M. P. Gryaznevich  

E-print Network

in reactor relevant neutral beam heated fusion plasmas Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D916 (2012) Full toroidal for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable in a steady-state regime. Keywords: Fusion, fusion reactor, fusion-fission, spherical tokamak, neutron source

211

Mercury Cavitation Phenomenon in Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative researches will be performed at Materials & Life Science Experimental Facility in J-PARC, in which a mercury target system will be installed as MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. Proton beams will be injected into mercury target to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because

Masatoshi Futakawa; Takashi Naoe; Masayoshi Kawai

2008-01-01

212

Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply.

Riedel, A.A.

1980-08-01

213

A Californium-252 Neutron Source for Student Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate chemistry experiment which utilizes small samples of Californium 252 as a neutron source for the activation of 12 other elements. The students prepare decay curves of the radioactive isotopes and perform nondestructive activation analyses for gram amounts of some elements. (MLH)

Bowen, H. J.

1975-01-01

214

International workshop on plasma-based neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The workshop was devoted to discussion of the status and future directions of work on plasma-based neutron sources. The workshop presentations demonstrated significant progress in development of the concepts of these sources and in broadening the required data base. Two main groups of neutron source designs were presented at the workshop: tokamak-based and mirror-based. Designs of the tokamak- based devices use the extensive data base generated during decades of tokamak research. Their plasma physics performance can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. On the other hand, they are relatively large and expensive, and best suited for Volumetric Neutron Sources (VNSes) or other large scale test facilities. They also have the advantage of being on the direct path to a power- producing reactor as presently conceived, although alternatives to the tokamak are presently receiving serious consideration for a reactor. The data base for the mirror-based group of plasma sources is less developed, but they are generally more flexible and, with appropriate selection of parameters, have the potential to be developed as compact Accelerated Test Facilities (ATFs) as well as full-scale VNSes. Also discussed at the workshop were some newly proposed but potentially promising concepts, like those based on the flow-through pinch and electrostatic ion-beam sources.

NONE

1996-12-09

215

Measurements of Neutron Beta-decay Using Ultra-Cold Neutrons Produced at a Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of our program to provide improved measurements of the neutron beta-asymmetry and other beta-decay observables using ultra-cold neutrons (UCNs) produced at LANSCE. Central to this effort is the recent development of a superthermal solid deuterium source coupled to a tungsten spallation target. Our preliminary production results indicate that ample UCN fluxes should be available for our proposed experiments. We briefly review the properties of this source, issues concerning UCN polarization and measured limits on UCN depolarization in material bottles, and our approach to beta-detection.

Young, A. R.; Hoedl, S.; Liu, C.-Y.; Smith, D.; Filippone, B.; Ito, T.; Jones, C.; McKeown, R.; Yuan, J.; Soyama, K.; Bowles, T.; Brun, T.; Fowler, M.; Hill, R.; Hime, A.; Hogan, G.; Lamoreaux, S.; Morris, C.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.; Walstrom, P.; Alduschenkov, A.; Kharitonov, A.; Lassakov, M.; Rudnev, Y.; Serebrov, A.; Vasilev, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Kitagaki, T.; Asahi, K.; Hino, M.; Kawai, T.; Utsuro, M.; Garcia, A.; Makela, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.

1999-10-01

216

Towards an integrated radio-isotopic and astronomical time scale for the Paleocene.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a reliable astronomical time scale for the Paleocene is hampered by uncertainties in the number of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in the stratigraphic record and in the independent radio-isotope age control. To address these ambiguities, we used core images to re-examine the cyclo-stratigraphic interpretation of ODP Leg 198 sites. Our re-interpretation of the cyclostratigraphy solves the previous inconsistency in the correlation of the top C27n carbon isotope event between ODP Site 1209 and the Zumaia section in Spain and is consistent with 25 x 405-kyr cycles in the entire Paleocene. It further results in an increased synchroneity of several important calcareous nanno-fossil events. This Paleocene astronomical time scale should be confirmed by independent age control (e.g. Ar/Ar or U-Pb ages). However, the accuracy Ar/Ar ages is often debated and the discussion is mainly focused on the absolute age of the commonly used Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine standard (FCs). Based on data obtained within the GTSnext network we will demonstrate that the age of FCs most likely centers around ~28.2ish Ma, and excludes both younger and older ages for this standard. In combination with new Ar/Ar sanidine dates for ash layers in continental succession of North America implications for Paleocene tuning will be discussed.

Kuiper, Klaudia; Hilgen, Frits; Abels, Hemmo; Lourens, Luc; Wolters, Mariette; GTSnext Team members

2013-04-01

217

Accelerator-based intense neutron source for materials R D  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-based neutron sources for R D of materials in nuclear energy systems, including fusion reactors, can provide sufficient neutron flux, flux-volume, fluence and other attractive features for many aspects of materials research. The neutron spectrum produced from the D-Li reaction has been judged useful for many basic materials research problems, and to be a satisfactory approximation to that of the fusion process. The technology of high-intensity linear accelerators can readily be applied to provide the deuteron beam for the neutron source. Earlier applications included the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility prototype. The key features of today's advanced accelerator technology are presented to illustrate the present state-of-the-art in terms of improved understanding of basic physical principles and engineering technique, and to show how these advances can be applied to present demands in a timely manner. These features include how to produce an intense beam current with the high quality required to minimize beam losses along the accelerator and transport system that could cause maintenance difficulties, by controlling the beam emittance through proper choice of the operating frequency, balancing of the forces acting on the beam, and realization in practical hardware. A most interesting aspect for materials researchers is the increased flexibility and opportunities for experimental configurations that a modern accelerator-based source could add to the set of available tools. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Jameson, R.A.

1990-01-01

218

AMERICIUM-BERYLLIUM AND PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN PROMPT-GAMMA ACTIVATION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The relative effectiveness in prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis ; of two Pu-Be isotopic neutron sources and an Am - Be neutron source is compared. ; Thermal neutron levels and the associated gamma radiation produced by these ; sources in a standard moderating system are normalized to the nominal neutron ; emission rate. The methods of measurement include a BF neutron

E. D. Jordan; H. E. Schierling

1962-01-01

219

A field evaporation deuterium ion source for neutron generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated an electrostatic field evaporation based deuterium ion source for use in compact, high-output deuterium-tritium neutron generators. The ion source produces principally atomic deuterium and titanium ions. More than 100 ML of deuterated titanium thin film can be removed and ionized from a single tip in less than 20 ns. The measurements indicate that with the use of microfabricated tip arrays the deuterium ion source could provide sufficient ion current to produce 109-1010 n/cm2 of tip array area.

Reichenbach, Birk; Solano, I.; Schwoebel, P. R.

2008-05-01

220

Small plasma focus as neutron pulsed source for nuclides identification  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present preliminary results on the feasibility of employing a low energy (2 kJ, 31 kV) plasma focus device as a portable source of pulsed neutron beams (2.45 MeV) generated by nuclear fusion reactions D-D, for the in situ analysis of substances by nuclear activation. This source has the relevant advantage of being pulsed at requirement, transportable, not permanently radioactive, without radioactive waste, cheap, among others. We prove the feasibility of using this source showing several spectra of the characteristic emission line for manganese, gold, lead, and silver.

Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Barbaglia, M. [Centro de Investigaciones en Fsica e Ingeniera del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CONICET-UNCPBA), Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Centro de Investigaciones en Fsica e Ingeniera del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CONICET-UNCPBA), Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CONICET-UNCPBA), Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Niedbalski, J. [CONICET(Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas), Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET(Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas), Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayer, R. [CNEA (Comisin Nacional de Energa Atmica), Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)] [CNEA (Comisin Nacional de Energa Atmica), Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Castillo, F. [UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico)Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Delg. Coyoacn, P.O. Box 70-543, Mxico DF (Mexico)] [UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico)Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Delg. Coyoacn, P.O. Box 70-543, Mxico DF (Mexico); Guichn, S. [Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CONICET-UNCPBA), Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CONICET-UNCPBA), Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-10-15

221

Small plasma focus as neutron pulsed source for nuclides identification.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present preliminary results on the feasibility of employing a low energy (2 kJ, 31 kV) plasma focus device as a portable source of pulsed neutron beams (2.45 MeV) generated by nuclear fusion reactions D-D, for the "in situ" analysis of substances by nuclear activation. This source has the relevant advantage of being pulsed at requirement, transportable, not permanently radioactive, without radioactive waste, cheap, among others. We prove the feasibility of using this source showing several spectra of the characteristic emission line for manganese, gold, lead, and silver. PMID:24182104

Milanese, M; Niedbalski, J; Moroso, R; Barbaglia, M; Mayer, R; Castillo, F; Guichn, S

2013-10-01

222

A prospective pulsed source of ultracold neutrons for experiments in fundamental neutron physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their discovery, ultracold neutrons (UCNs) have been a unique tool for the investigation of fundamental properties of the free neutron and its interactions. The succesfull installation of a new pulsed superthermal source for ultracold neutrons based on solid deuterium at the TRIGA Mainz reactor is described. In a combination of solid hydrogen acting as pre-moderator and a solid deuterium converter of around 160 cm3, this new UCN source should provide at the experimental area ? 370000 UCN to the storage volume with the reactor operated in the pulse mode. In a storage experiment, a UCN density of 18 2 UCN/cm3 was measured applying 1.5 pulses with a nominal power of 7 MJ. Assuming a linear behaviour of the UCN output as a function of reactor power this corresponds to a UCN density of 25 3 UCN/cm3 for 2 (10 MJ) pulses.

Lauer, Th.; Zechlau, Th.

2013-08-01

223

White neutron source from 1 to 400 MeV  

SciTech Connect

A new high intensity white neutron source has recently been constructed at Los Alamos. Beams of nuetrons with a continuous energy distribution up to several hundred MeV are produced by the spallation reaction using the 800 MeV pulsed proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) linear accelerator. The neutron facility has been designed to make very efficient use of the LAMPF beam with several experiments being able to operate simultaneously. Typical running conditions involve approximately 50,000 bursts/sec and proton beam currents of 2.5 microamperes. Experiments planned for this fall include gamma-ray production, neutron induced fission, and medium energy (n,p) and (p,n) studies. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Wender, S.A.; Lisowski, P.W.

1986-01-01

224

Spallation ultracold neutron source of superfluid helium below 1 K.  

PubMed

For the production of high-density ultracold neutrons (UCNs), we placed 0.8 K superfluid helium in a cold neutron moderator. We resolved previous heat-load problems in the spallation neutron source that were particularly serious below 1 K. With a proton-beam power of 400 MeV1 ?A, a UCN production rate of 4 UCN cm(-3) s(-1) at the maximum UCN energy of E(c)=210 neV and a storage lifetime of 81 s were obtained. A cryogenic test showed that the production rate can be increased by a factor of 10 with the same storage lifetime by increasing the proton-beam power as well as (3)He pumping speed. PMID:22540705

Masuda, Yasuhiro; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Yutaka

2012-03-30

225

Target station shielding issues at the spallation neutron source.  

PubMed

Recent spallation neutron source shielding activities in support of the neutron beam shutters and the hot cell walls are presented. Existing neutron beam shutters can be replaced with concrete at low power or with concrete and steel at approximately 500 kW of beam power. Potential voids in the hot cell walls are analysed to determine the impact on dose rates as a function of void size. A change in the type of shielding work is noted as the project moved from the early design stages as a 'green field' site to the current stage as a construction project nearing completion, where issues to be addressed are approaching retrofit-type analyses. PMID:16381707

Ferguson, P D; Gallmeier, F X; Iverson, E B; Popova, I I

2005-01-01

226

Neutronic analysis of three-element core configurations for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of several important neutronic parameters have been performed for ten different three-element configurations considered for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor. Six of these configurations (labeled ST, SB, MT, MB, LT, and LB) are there result of the permutations of the same three elements. Two configurations (ST- MOD and SB-MOD) have the same element configuration as their base core design (ST and SB) but have slightly different element dimensions, and two configurations (ST-OL1 and ST-OL2) have two overlapping elements to increase the neutron fluxes in the reflector. For each configuration, in addition to the conceptual two-element design, fuel-cycle calculations were performed with calculations required to obtain unperturbed fluxes. The element power densities, peak thermal neutron flux as a function of position throughout the cycle, fast flux, fast-to-thermal flux ratios, irradiation and production region fluxes, and control rod worth curves were determined. The effective multiplication factor for each fuel element criticality. A comparison shows that the ST core configurations have the best overall performance, and the fully overlapping core configuration ST-OL2 has the best performance by a large margin. Therefore, on the basis of the neutronics results, the fully overlapping configuration is recommended for further consideration in using a three-element ANS reactor core. Other considerations such as thermal-hydraulics, safety, and engineering that are not directly related to the core neutronic performance must be weighed before a final design is chosen.

Gehin, J.C.

1995-08-01

227

Identification of Neutron Sources by Spectral Analysis of Pulse Height Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a neutron source identification method based on the spectral analysis of neutron pulse height distributions obtained with liquid scintillation detectors. The fact that shielded and unshielded neutron sources have clearly defined spectral components with specific locations and intensities offers the possibility of identifying the sources based on spectral features alone, without having to unfold the energy spectra.

Senada Avdic; Predrag Marinkovic; Sara A. Pozzi; Marek Flaska; Vladimir Protopopescu

2009-01-01

228

The neutronic design and performance of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron scattering research is performed primarily at large-scale facilities. However, history has shown that smaller scale neutron scattering facilities can play a useful role in education and innovation while performing valuable materials research. This dissertation details the design and experimental validation of the LENS TMR as an example for a small scale accelerator driven neutron source. LENS achieves competitive long

Christopher M. Lavelle

2007-01-01

229

The Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway, a TeraGrid Science Gateway to Support the Spallation Neutron Source  

E-print Network

1 The Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway, a TeraGrid Science Gateway to Support the Spallation Neutron Source John W. Cobb* , Al Geist* , James A. Kohl* , Stephen D. Miller , Peter F. Peterson] is entering its operational phase. An ETF science gateway effort is the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway (NSTG

Vazhkudai, Sudharshan

230

Target Operational Experience at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has operated at unprecedented power levels for a short-pulse spallation source. Target operations have been successful but not without difficulties. Three targets out of the eight used to date have ended life unexpectedly causing interruptions to the neutron science users. The first of a kind mercury target design experiences beam-pulse induced cavitation damage that is suspected in one of the target leaks. The two other targets suffered early failures due to defective welds. Diagnosing the causes of target leaks and understanding of the progression of cavitation erosion and radiation damage effects has made use of post-irradiation examination (PIE) capabilities. As a result of PIE, review of quality assurance practices and related investigations, design changes are being implemented and manufacturing oversight improved. This paper describes SNS target operating experience, including the more important observations and lessons learned.

Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; Janney, Jim G [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaminskas, Saulius [ORNL] [ORNL; McClintock, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rosenblad, Peter M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

231

NEUTRON SPECTRUM OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron spectrum of a plutonium-beryllium source was obtained with ; the use of nuclear emulsions. Intensity maxima exist at less than 1.0 and at ; 3.2, 4.7, 7.7, and 9.7 Mev. Maxima at 4.7, 7.7, and 9.7 Mev are well accounted ; for in a calculated spectrum. Those at less than 1.0 and at 3.2 Mev are ; partially

M Edward Anderson; W. H. Jr. Bond

1963-01-01

232

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion neutron source R & D and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion is the scheme of injecting the ions and electrons toward the spherical center, trapping both species in the electrostatic self-field and giving rise to fusion reactions in the dense core. An IEC is expected to have wide application from a small neutron source to a D-³He fusion reactor. Hirsch reported 10⁹ n\\/s deuterium-tritium (D-T)

Masami Ohnishi; Yasushi Yamamoto; Mitsunori Hasegawa

1997-01-01

233

ASPUN, Argonne Super Intense Pulsed Spallation Neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Argonne has been in the process of developing plans for pulsed spallation neutron source facilities that would extend the flux levels by at least an order or magnitude over fluxes provided by facilities that are either now in operation or in construction. The ANL facility is called ASPUN for Argonne Super Intense Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source. The heart of ASPUN is a Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) proton synchrotron which, in our opinion, has great potential as a driver for a spallation neutron source. The FFAG synchrotron was extensively studied in the 1950's and early 1960's at the Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA) laboratories in Stoughton, Wisconsin. An FFAG accelerator has dc excited magnetic fields into which beam is injected on the inside radius and as the beam is accelerated, the average equilibrium orbit radius grows. Frequency modulated rf cavities are used to accelerate the beam with a voltage and frequency program that tracks the beam energy. The conceptual design of the FFAG synchrotron is given. (WHK)

Khoe, T.K.; Kustom, R.L.

1983-01-01

234

The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of [approximately] 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 [times] 10[sup 19] M[sup [minus]2] [center dot] S[sup [minus]1]. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

Selby, D.L.

1992-11-30

235

The advanced neutron source research and development plan  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world (an order of magnitude more intense than beams available from the most advanced existing reactors). The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of 330-MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of >7 {center_dot} 10{sup 19} {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science as well as applied research leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The top level work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. As noted in this figure, one component of the project is a research and development (R&D) program (WBS 1.1). This program interfaces with all of the other project level two WBS activities. Because one of the project guidelines is to meet minimum performance goals without relying on new inventions, this R&D activity is not intended to produce new concepts to allow the project to meet minimum performance goals. Instead, the R&D program will focus on the four objectives described.

Selby, D.L.

1995-08-01

236

The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of {approximately} 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 {times} 10{sup 19} M{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} S{sup {minus}1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R&D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R&D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R&D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

Selby, D.L.

1992-11-30

237

Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

2003-01-01

238

A shielding design for an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

Research in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at The Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering Department has been primarily focused on delivering a high quality neutron field for use in BNCT using an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS). An ABNS for BNCT is composed of a proton accelerator, a high-energy beam transport system, a (7)Li target, a target heat removal system (HRS), a moderator assembly, and a treatment room. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of a shielded moderator assembly design, in terms of material requirements necessary to adequately protect radiation personnel located outside a treatment room for BNCT, over an unshielded moderator assembly design. PMID:15308187

Hawk, A E; Blue, T E; Woollard, J E

2004-11-01

239

Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

Not Available

1990-07-01

240

Design and Applications of a {sup 252}Cf Cold Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The goal was to design a source of cold neutrons from such sources as {sup 252}Cf, {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 244}Cm-Be, or {sup 124}Sb-Be and to find the limitations when such a source is applied to neutron activation analysis. Here, cold neutrons are neutrons with a kinetic energy < 0.01 eV. The initial kinetic energy of most of the neutrons produced from the decay of the {sup 252}Cf nucleus lies in the range from 0.5 to 10 MeV, so moderation is necessary to produce a significant quantity of cold neutrons from these initial neutrons. The same is true for the other three neutron sources. The general design that was selected for the cold neutron source has two moderation regions, and the geometry was restricted to cylindrical symmetry with the sample region along the cylindrical axis. The moderation regions may have different temperatures and may contain different moderating materials. The design tasks are then to find the optimum geometry, moderating materials, and moderating temperatures. A cold neutron flux in the sample region of 2.7 x 10 {sup -3} cold neutrons per source neutron is obtainable in a {sup 252}Cf cold neutron source that has polyethylene as the cold and thermal moderator or with trimethylbenzene as the cold moderator and polyethylene as the thermal moderator. The neutron fluxes obtained are probably within 10{percent} of the fluxes that would be obtained in an actual cold neutron source that is based on the model used. This flux of cold neutrons is adequate for sensitive prompt and delayed neutron activation analysis measurements. The results show that a useful flux of cold neutrons can be obtained from small amounts of {sup 252}Cf, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, or {sup 124}Sb.

Elijah Johnson; Larry Robinson; Li Zhao

2000-11-12

241

Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources  

SciTech Connect

The importance of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in biological, chemical, physical, and engineering research mandates that all intense neutron sources be equipped with SANS instruments. Four existing instruments are described, and the general differences between pulsed-source and reactor-based instrument designs are discussed. The basic geometries are identical, but dynamic range is achieved by using a broad band of wavelengths (with time-of-flight analysis) rather than by moving the detector. This allows a more optimized collimation system. Data acquisition requirements at a pulsed source are more severe, requiring large, fast histogramming memories. Data reduction is also more complex, as all wave length-dependent and angle-dependent backgrounds and non-linearities must be accounted for before data can be transformed to intensity vs Q. A comparison is shown between the Los Alamos pulsed instrument and D-11 (Institute Laue-Langevin), and examples from the four major topics of the conference are shown. The general conclusion is that reactor-based instruments remain superior at very low Q or if only a narrow range of Q is required, but that the current generation of pulsed-source instruments is competitive at moderate Q and may be faster when a wide range of Q is required. In principle, a user should choose which facility to use on the basis of optimizing the experiment; in practice the tradeoffs are not severe and the choice is usually made on the basis of availability.

Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

1990-01-01

242

Neutron source in the MCNPX shielding calculating for electron accelerator driven facility  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the design development of an experimental neutron source facility. It is an accelerator driven system (ADS) utilizing a subcritical assembly driven by electron accelerator. The facility will be utilized for performing basic and applied nuclear researches, producing medical isotopes, and training young nuclear specialists. Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been utilized as a design tool due to its capability to transport electrons, photons, and neutrons at high energies. However the facility shielding calculations with MCNPX need enormous computational resources and the small neutron yield per electron makes sampling difficulty for the Monte Carlo calculations. A method, based on generating and utilizing neutron source file, was proposed and tested. This method reduces significantly the required computer resources and improves the statistics of the calculated neutron dose outside the shield boundary. However the statistical errors introduced by generating the neutron source were not directly represented in the results, questioning the validity of this methodology, because an insufficiently sampled neutron source can cause error on the calculated neutron dose. This paper presents a procedure for the validation of the generated neutron source file. The impact of neutron source statistic on the neutron dose is examined by calculating the neutron dose as a function of the number of electron particles used for generating the neutron source files. When the value of the calculated neutron dose converges, it means the neutron source has scored sufficient records and statistic does not have apparent impact on the calculated neutron dose. In this way, the validity of neutron source and the shield analyses could be verified. (authors)

Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y. [Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01

243

Spallation neutron source saddle antenna H{sup -} ion source project  

SciTech Connect

In this project we are developing an H{sup -} source which will synthesize the most important developments in the field of negative ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, good lifetime, high reliability, and high power efficiency. We describe two planned modifications to the present spallation neutron source external antenna source in order to increase the plasma density near the output aperture: (1) replacing the present 2 MHz plasma-forming solenoid antenna with a 13 MHz saddle-type antenna and (2) replacing the permanent multicusp magnetic system with a weaker electromagnet.

Dudnikov, Vadim; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Dudnikova, Galina [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Stockli, Martin; Welton, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2010-02-15

244

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion neutron source R & D and issues  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion is the scheme of injecting the ions and electrons toward the spherical center, trapping both species in the electrostatic self-field and giving rise to fusion reactions in the dense core. An IEC is expected to have wide application from a small neutron source to a D-{sup 3}He fusion reactor. Hirsch reported 10{sup 9} n/s deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in the device equipped with ion guns. Recently, Gu et al. measured 10{sup 6} n/s using a D{sub 2} gas discharge between the spherical wire cathode and the anode vacuum vessel, where the applied voltage is 60 kV and the current is 15 mA. We have also obtained similar neutron production at a lower voltage, {approximately}45 kV in a single-grid IEC device. Fusion reaction rates obtained by IEC experiments so far cannot be explained by a model of a simple potential well structure because the electrical potential peaked at the center prevents making a dense core. Hirsch proposed a multiwell structure called {open_quotes}poissors{close_quotes} to explain the experiments. It is generally believed that there may be some correlation between the potential well structure and the neutron production rate. The scaling of neutron production on the injected ion current is a most important aspect of the problem for the prospect of utilizing IEC for fusion energy. The potential structure and its behavior are keys to the physics in understanding the principle of an IEC.

Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Mitsunori [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1997-12-01

245

Triaxial neutron stars a possible source of gravitational radiation  

E-print Network

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation for the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar mode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a perturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic axisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the dominant parts of the nonaxisymmetric terms of the 3D-Einstein equations are taken into account. A comparison of our results with previous studies of Newtonian polytropic stars confirms James' classical result gamma_crit=2.238 for the critical polytropic index. Beyond the Newtonian regime, gamma_crit reveals a slight increase toward highly relativistic configurations. Six out of twelve employed realistic dense matter equations of state admit the spontaneous symmetry breaking for masses above 1.6 M_sol.

Bonazzola, S; Gourgoulhon, E

1996-01-01

246

Triaxial neutron stars -- a possible source of gravitational radiation  

E-print Network

Triaxial neutron stars may be important sources of gravitational radiation for the forthcoming generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600. We investigate the viscosity triggered bar mode secular instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars by means of a perturbation analysis of numerically constructed ``exact'' general relativistic axisymmetric star models. In the theoretical approach, only the dominant parts of the nonaxisymmetric terms of the 3D-Einstein equations are taken into account. A comparison of our results with previous studies of Newtonian polytropic stars confirms James' classical result gamma_crit=2.238 for the critical polytropic index. Beyond the Newtonian regime, gamma_crit reveals a slight increase toward highly relativistic configurations. Six out of twelve employed realistic dense matter equations of state admit the spontaneous symmetry breaking for masses above 1.6 M_sol.

S. Bonazzola; J. Frieben; E. Gourgoulhon

1996-07-24

247

Advanced Neutron Source Reactor thermal analysis of fuel plate defects  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor designed to provide the highest continuous neutron beam intensity of any reactor in the world. The present technology for determining safe operations were developed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These techniques are conservative and provide confidence in the safe operation of HFIR. However, the more intense requirements of ANSR necessitate the development of more accurate, but still conservative, techniques. This report details the development of a Local Analysis Technique (LAT) that provides an appropriate approach. Application of the LAT to two ANSR core designs are presented. New theories of the thermal and nuclear behavior of the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are utilized. The implications of lower fuel enrichment and of modifying the inspection procedures are also discussed. Development of the computer codes that enable the automate execution of the LAT is included.

Giles, G.E.

1995-08-01

248

Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at los alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

1998-12-01

249

Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

1998-12-01

250

A Search for Point Sources of EeV Neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough search of the sky exposed at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory reveals no statistically significant excess of events in any small solid angle that would be indicative of a flux of neutral particles from a discrete source. The search covers from -90 to +15 in declination using four different energy ranges above 1 EeV (1018 eV). The method used in this search is more sensitive to neutrons than to photons. The upper limit on a neutron flux is derived for a dense grid of directions for each of the four energy ranges. These results constrain scenarios for the production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy.

Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti?i'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Buml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belltoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blmer, H.; Boh?ov, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceio, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Ro, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Daz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Frhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garca, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gmez Berisso, M.; Gmez Vitale, P. F.; Gonalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hrandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsk, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kgl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krmer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lpez, R.; Lopez Agera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martnez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masas Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostaf, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mller, G.; Mnchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Noka, L.; Oehlschlger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pe?ala, J.; Pelayo, R.

2012-12-01

251

Tomsk Polytechnic University cyclotron as a source for neutron based cancer treatment.  

PubMed

In this paper we present our cyclotron based neutron source with average energy 6.3 MeV generated during the 13.6 MeV deuterons interactions with beryllium target, neutron field dosimetry, and dosimetry of attendant gamma fields. We also present application of our neutron source for cancer treatment. PMID:24593651

Lisin, V A; Bogdanov, A V; Golovkov, V M; Musabaeva, L I; Sukhikh, L G; Verigin, D A

2014-02-01

252

General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

Bosko, Andrey

253

Neutron sources for in-situ planetary science applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of future European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA planetary science missions that are in the planning or initial study phases, where the scientific objectives include determining the surface composition, measuring planetary surface heat flow and constraining planetary chronology. The University of Leicester is developing instrumentation for geophysical applications that include ?-ray spectroscopy, ?-ray densitometry and radiometric dating. This paper describes the modelling of a geophysical package, with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, in order to determine the impact that a neutron source would have on in-situ composition measurements, radiometric dating and, in particular, trace element detection. The suitability of ? 2.542.54 cm LaBr3(Ce) detectors in the geophysical package for in-situ missions was examined. 252Cf, Am-Be and Pu-Be neutron sources were compared in a trade-off study to determine mission suitability, potential for thermal and electric power production, mass and shielding requirements. This study is linked to a parallel examination of the suitability of radioisotope thermal generators for in-situ planetary science applications. The aim of the modelling was to optimise the source type and detector geometry in order to measure the elemental peaks of interest with a precision of 10% or better based on the Poisson statistics of the detected counts above background.

Skidmore, M. S.; Ambrosi, R. M.; O'Brien, R. C.

2009-09-01

254

Structural thermal tests on Advanced Neutron Source reactor fuel plates  

SciTech Connect

The thin aluminum-clad fuel plates proposed for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor are stressed by the high-velocity coolant flowing on each side of the plates and by the thermal gradients in the plates. The total stress, composed of the sum of the flow stress and the thermal stress at a point, could be reduced if the thermal loads tend to relax when the stress magnitude approaches the yield stress of the material. The potential of this occurring would be very significant in assessing the structural reliability of the fuel plates and has been investigated through experiment. The results of this investigation are given in this report.

Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Yahr, G.T.

1995-08-01

255

A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source  

SciTech Connect

Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 10{sup 6} tips/cm{sup 2} and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Schenkel, Thomas [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-02-15

256

A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source  

SciTech Connect

Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-#12;bers promise the high #12;eld-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of #12;field emitters with a density up to 10{sup 6} tips/cm{sup 2} and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

2011-10-31

257

Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project. Progress report FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the progress made in 1993 in the following sections: (1) project management; (2) research and development; (3) design and (4) safety. The section on research and development covers the following: (1) reactor core development; (2) fuel development; (3) corrosion loop tests and analysis; (4) thermal-hydraulic loop tests; (5) reactor control and shutdown concepts; (6) critical and subcritical experiments; (7) material data, structure tests, and analysis; (8) cold source development; (9) beam tube, guide, and instrument development; (10) neutron transport and shielding; (11) I and C research and development; and (12) facility concepts.

Campbell, J.H. [ed.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thompson, P.B. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Div.

1994-01-01

258

Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements  

SciTech Connect

A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

2011-04-06

259

An integrated design of an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Accelerator Based Neutron Source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was first proposed at The Ohio State University (OSU). Since the conception of the ABNS for BNCT, OSU has designed and optimized a moderator assembly based on in-air and in-phantom parameters. Additionally, the fabrication of the moderator assembly has commenced along with detailed analyses of the target and its heat removal system. In this dissertation, an integrated design of the ABNS is presented. This integrated design includes the high energy beam transport system (HEBT), the target and heat removal system (HRS), and the moderator assembly. In the integration process, a neutronic model of the HRS was developed and incorporated into the moderator assembly model. Additionally, a preliminary design of a HEBT system was developed that is compatible with both the HRS and the facility shielding. This dissertation also includes the completion of the fabrication of the moderator assembly and its experimental verification. The completion of the moderator assembly fabrication included the refabrication of the moderator and delimiter and the fabrication of the 6Li covering on the front of the moderator assembly. The experimental verification included neutron spectrum calculations and measurements in the irradiation port, and 3He detector response calculations and measurements in-phantom downstream of the moderator assembly.

Dobelbower, Michael Christian

1997-07-01

260

Neutron interrogation to identify chemical elements with an ion-tube neutron source (INS)  

SciTech Connect

A non-destructive analysis technique using a portable, electric ion-tube neutron source (INS) and gamma ray detector has been used to identify the key constituent elements in a number of sealed munitions, and from the elemental makeup, infer the types of agent within each. The high energy (14 MeV) and pulsed character of the neutron flux from an INS provide a method of measuring, quantitatively, the oxygen, carbon, and fluorine content of materials in closed containers, as well as the other constituents that can be measured with low-energy neutron probes. The broad range of elements that can be quantitatively measured with INS-based instruments provides a capability of verifying common munition fills; it provides the greatest specificity of any portable neutron-based technique for determining the full matrix of chemical elements in completely unrestricted sample scenarios. The specific capability of quantifying the carbon and oxygen content of materials should lead to a fast screening technique which, can discriminate very quickly between high-explosive and chemical agent-filled containers.

Alvarez, R.A.; Dougan, A.D.; Rowland, M.R.; Wang, T.F.

1994-04-07

261

Carbon Nanotube Based Deuterium Ion Source for Improved Neutron Generators  

SciTech Connect

Field ionization uses high electric fields to cause the ionization and emission of ions from the surface of a sharp electrode. We are developing a novel field ionization neutron generator using carbon nanotubes (CNT) to produce the deuterium ion current. The generator consists of three major components: a deuterium ion source made of carbon nanotubes, a smooth negatively-biased target electrode, and a secondary electron suppression system. When a negative high voltage is applied on the target electrode, a high gradient electric field is formed at the tips of the carbon nanotubes. This field is sufficiently strong to create deuterium (D) ions at or near the nanotubes which are accelerated to the target causing D-D reactions to occur and the production of neutrons. A cross magnetic field is used to suppress secondary emission electrons generated on the target surface. We have demonstrated field ionization currents of 70 nA (1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) at hydrogen gas pressure of 10 mTorr. We have found that the current scales proportionally with CNT area and also with the gas pressure in the range of 1 mTorr to 10 mTorr. We have demonstrated pulse cut-off times as short as 2 {mu}sec. Finally, we have shown the feasibility of generating neutrons using deuterium gas.

Fink, R. L.; Jiang, N.; Thuesen, L. [Applied Nanotech, Inc., 3006 Longhorn Blvd., Ste 107, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Leung, K. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antolak, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2009-03-10

262

Neutron total cross section measurements of gold and tantalum at the nELBE photoneutron source  

E-print Network

Neutron total cross sections of $^{197}$Au and $^\\text{nat}$Ta have been measured at the nELBE photoneutron source in the energy range from 0.1 - 10 MeV with a statistical uncertainty of up to 2 % and a total systematic uncertainty of 1 %. This facility is optimized for the fast neutron energy range and combines an excellent time structure of the neutron pulses (electron bunch width 5 ps) with a short flight path of 7 m. Because of the low instantaneous neutron flux transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections are possible, that exhibit very different beam and background conditions than found at other neutron sources.

Roland Hannaske; Zoltan Elekes; Roland Beyer; Arnd Junghans; Daniel Bemmerer; Evert Birgersson; Anna Ferrari; Eckart Grosse; Mathias Kempe; Toni Kgler; Michele Marta; Ralph Massarczyk; Andrija Matic; Georg Schramm; Ronald Schwengner; Andreas Wagner

2013-11-05

263

Emittance studies of the Spallation Neutron Source external-antenna H{sup -} ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new Allison-type emittance scanner has been built to characterize the ion sources and low energy beam transport systems at Spallation Neutron Source. In this work, the emittance characteristics of the H{sup -} beam produced with the external-antenna rf-driven ion source and transported through the two-lens electrostatic low energy beam transport are studied. The beam emittance dependence on beam intensity, extraction parameters, and the evolution of the emittance and twiss parameters over beam pulse duration are presented.

Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.; Pennisi, T. R.; Murray, S. N.; Santana, M.; Long, C. D. [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2010-02-15

264

Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

2012-12-01

265

Study on High Speed Lithium Jet For Neutron Source of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively.

Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mk, Michael; tefanica, Jir; Dostl, Vclav; Zhao, Wei

266

Shielding Design of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)  

SciTech Connect

The shielding design is important for the construction of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) due to its impact on conventional facility design, maintenance operations, and since the cost for the radiation shielding shares a considerable part of the total facility costs. A calculational strategy utilizing coupled high energy Monte Carlo calculations and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations, along with semi-empirical calculations, was implemented to perform the conceptual design shielding assessment of the proposed SNS. Biological shields have been designed and assessed for the proton beam transport system and associated beam dumps, the target station, and the target service cell and general remote maintenance cell. Shielding requirements have been assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shutdown, and accident conditions. A discussion of the proposed facility design, conceptual design shielding requirements, calculational strategy, source terms, preliminary results and conclusions, and recommendations for additional analyses are presented.

Johnson, J.O.

1998-09-17

267

5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

268

rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H- beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier.

Kang, Y. W.; Fuja, R.; Goulding, R. H.; Hardek, T.; Lee, S.-W.; McCarthy, M. P.; Piller, M. C.; Shin, K.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.

2010-02-01

269

Spallation Neutron Source Accident Terms for Environmental Impact Statement Input  

SciTech Connect

This report is about accidents with the potential to release radioactive materials into the environment surrounding the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As shown in Chap. 2, the inventories of radioactivity at the SNS are dominated by the target facility. Source terms for a wide range of target facility accidents, from anticipated events to worst-case beyond-design-basis events, are provided in Chaps. 3 and 4. The most important criterion applied to these accident source terms is that they should not underestimate potential release. Therefore, conservative methodology was employed for the release estimates. Although the source terms are very conservative, excessive conservatism has been avoided by basing the releases on physical principles. Since it is envisioned that the SNS facility may eventually (after about 10 years) be expanded and modified to support a 4-MW proton beam operational capability, the source terms estimated in this report are applicable to a 4-MW operating proton beam power unless otherwise specified. This is bounding with regard to the 1-MW facility that will be built and operated initially. See further discussion below in Sect. 1.2.

Devore, J.R.; Harrington, R.M.

1998-08-01

270

Analysis of the propagation of neutrons and gamma-rays from the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skyshine effect is crucial for designing appropriate shielding. To investigate the skyshine effect, the propagation of neutrons was measured and analyzed at the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI. Pulse height spectra and dose distributions of neutron and secondary gamma-ray were measured outside YAYOI, and analyzed with MCNP-5 and JENDL-3.3. Comparison with the experimental results showed good agreement. Also, a

Shigeo Yoshida; Isao Murata; Tsutomu Nakagawa; Isao Saito

2011-01-01

271

Simulation of e ? n targets by FLUKA and measurement of neutron flux at various angles for accelerator based neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6MeV Race track Microtron (an electron accelerator) based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. The bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by impinging 6MeV electron on the e? primary target, was made to fall on the ?n secondary target to produce neutrons. The optimisation

B. J. Patil; S. T. Chavan; S. N. Pethe; R. Krishnan; V. N. Bhoraskar; S. D. Dhole

2010-01-01

272

Status report on the cold neutron source of the Garching neutron research facility FRM-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new high flux research reactor of the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universitt Mnchen, TUM) will be equipped with a cold neutron source (CNS). The centre of the CNS will be located in the D 2O-reflector tank at 400 mm from the reactor core axis close to the thermal neutron flux maximum. The power of 4500 W developed by the nuclear heating in the 16 l of liquid deuterium at 25 K, and in the structures, is evacuated by a two-phase thermal siphon avoiding film boiling and flooding. The thermal siphon is a single tube with counter current flow. It is inclined by 10 from vertical, and optimised for a deuterium flow rate of 14 g/s. Optimisation of structure design and material, as well as safety aspects will be discussed. Those parts of the structure, which are exposed to high thermal neutron flux, are made from Zircaloy 4 and 6061T6 aluminium. Structure failure due to embrittlement of the structure material under high rapid neutron flux is very improbable during the lifetime of the CNS (30 years). Double, in pile even triple, containment with inert gas liner guarantees lack of explosion risk and of tritium contamination to the environment. Adding a few percent of hydrogen (H 2) to the deuterium (D 2) will improve the moderating properties of our relatively small moderator volume. Nearly all of the hydrogen is bound in the form of HD molecules. A long-term change of the hydrogen content in the deuterium is avoided by storing the mixture not in a gas buffer volume but as a metal hydride at low pressure. The metal hydride storage system contains two getter beds, one with 250 kg of LaCo 3Ni 2, the other one with 150 kg of ZrCo 0.8Ni 0.2. Each bed can take the total gas inventory, both beds together can absorb the total gas inventory in <6 min at a pressure <3 bar. The new reactor will have 13 beam tubes, 4 of which are looking at the CNS, including two for very cold (VCN) and ultra-cold neutron (UCN) production. The latter will take place in the horizontal beam tube SR4, which will house an additional cryogenic moderator (e.g. solid deuterium). More than 60% of the experiments foreseen in the new neutron research facility will use cold neutrons from the CNS. The mounting of the hardware components of the CNS into the reactor has started in the spring of 2000. The CNS went into trial operation in the end of year 2000.

Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Scheuer, A.

2002-01-01

273

Demonstration of a solid deuterium source of ultra-cold neutrons  

E-print Network

Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN), neutrons with energies low enough to be confined by the Fermi potential in material bottles, are playing an increasing role in measurements of fundamental properties of the neutron. The ability to manipulate UCN with material guides and bottles, magnetic fields, and gravity can lead to experiments with lower systematic errors than have been obtained in experiments with cold neutron beams. The UCN densities provided by existing reactor sources limit these experiments. The promise of much higher densities from solid deuterium sources has led to proposed facilities coupled to both reactor and spallation neutron sources. In this paper we report on the performance of a prototype spallation neutron-driven solid deuterium source. This source produced bottled UCN densities of 145 +/-7 UCN/cm3, about three times greater than the largest bottled UCN densities previously reported. These results indicate that a production UCN source with substantially higher densities should be possible.

A. Saunders; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; B. W. Filippone; P. Geltenbort; R. E. Hill; M. Hino; S. Hoedl; G. E. Hogan; T. M. Ito; K. W. Jones; T. Kawai; K. Kirch; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; L. J. Marek; J. W. Martin; C. L. Morris; R. N. Mortensen; A. Pichlmaier; S. J. Seestrom; A. Serebrov; D. Smith; W. Teasdale; B. Tipton; R. B. Vogelaar; A. R. Young; J. Yuan

2003-12-18

274

A portable active interrogation system using a switchable AmBe neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active neutron interrogation is an effective technique used to locate fissionable material. This paper discusses a portable system that utilizes a AmBe neutron source. The AmBe source consists of an americium alpha source and a beryllium target that can be switched into alignment to turn the source on and out of alignment to turn the source off. This offers a battery operated backpack portable source. The detector system that has been fabricated for use with this source is a fifteen tube 3He neutron detector. The results of initial experiments with the detector and MCNP calculations are discussed.

Allen, Matthew; Hertz, Kristin; Kunz, Christopher; Mascarenhas, Nicholas

2005-09-01

275

Design of new ultracold neutron source at PNPI Presenter: Arcady ZAKHAROV  

E-print Network

Design of new ultracold neutron source at PNPI Presenter: Arcady ZAKHAROV Research project leader Neutrons. Physics & Sources. St.-Petersburg-Moscow , June 2011 #12;UCN source position on the reactor #12: Anatoli SEREBROV Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute 8-th International Workshop. Ultra Cold & Cold

Titov, Anatoly

276

H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent 38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of 90%. H- beam pulses (1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, 60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of 0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of 99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of 75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to 100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

Welton, R. F.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Gawne, K. R.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Roseberry, R. T.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Turvey, M. W.

2012-02-01

277

Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections for the Advanced Neutron Source against the FOEHN critical experimental measurements  

SciTech Connect

The FOEHN critical experiments were analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. Eleven critical configurations were evaluated using the KENO, DORT, and VENTURE neutronics codes. Eigenvalue and power density profiles were computed and show very good agreement with measured values.

Smith, L.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Worley, B.A.; Renier, J.P.

1994-04-01

278

Skyshine analysis for the Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skyshine effect due to the leakage radiation from the roof of the source cell of the Intense Neutron Source Facility containing a 14-MeV neutron source of strength 10 to the 15th power n\\/sec was calculated. The discrete ordinates code ANISN was used to determine the coupled energy-angular distribution of the leakage neutron and gamma-ray flux at the surface of

W. H. Peng; J. Celnik

1977-01-01

279

Neutron resonance transmission spectroscopy with high spatial and energy resolution at the J-PARC pulsed neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sharp variation of neutron attenuation at certain energies specific to particular nuclides (the lower range being from ~1 eV up to ~1 keV), can be exploited for the remote mapping of element and/or isotope distributions, as well as temperature probing, within relatively thick samples. Intense pulsed neutron beam-lines at spallation sources combined with a high spatial, high-timing resolution neutron counting detector, provide a unique opportunity to measure neutron transmission spectra through the time-of-flight technique. We present the results of experiments where spatially resolved neutron resonances were measured, at energies up to 50 keV. These experiments were performed with the intense flux low background NOBORU neutron beamline at the J-PARC neutron source and the high timing resolution (~20 ns at epithermal neutron energies) and spatial resolution (~55 m) neutron counting detector using microchannel plates coupled to a Timepix electronic readout. Simultaneous element-specific imaging was carried out for several materials, at a spatial resolution of ~150 m. The high timing resolution of our detector combined with the low background beamline, also enabled characterization of the neutron pulse itself - specifically its pulse width, which varies with neutron energy. The results of our measurements are in good agreement with the predicted results for the double pulse structure of the J-PARC facility, which provides two 100 ns-wide proton pulses separated by 600 ns, broadened by the neutron energy moderation process. Thermal neutron radiography can be conducted simultaneously with resonance transmission spectroscopy, and can reveal the internal structure of the samples. The transmission spectra measured in our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of mapping elemental distributions using this non-destructive technique, for those elements (and in certain cases, specific isotopes), which have resonance energies below a few keV, and with lower resolution for elements with relatively high resonance energies in the 1-30 keV range.

Tremsin, A. S.; Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Ooi, M.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Shiota, Y.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.

2014-05-01

280

A Project of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy System based on a Proton Linac Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are being performed at research reactor facilities. However, an accelerator based BNCT has a merit that it can be built in a hospital. So, we just launched a development project for the BNCT based on an accelerator in order to establish and to spread the BNCT as an effective therapy in the near future. In the project, a compact proton linac installed in a hospital will be applied as a neutron source, and energy of the proton beam is planned to be less than about 10 MeV to reduce the radioactivity. The BNCT requires epithermal neutron beam with an intensity of around 1x109 (n/cm2/sec) to deliver the therapeutic dose to a deeper region in a body and to complete the irradiation within an hour. From this condition, the current of the proton beam required is estimated to be a few mA on average. Enormous heat deposition in the target is a big issue. We are aiming at total optimization of the accelerator based BNCT from the linac to the irradiation position. Here, the outline of the project is introduced and the moderator design is presented.

Kiyanagi, Yoshikai; Asano, Kenji; Arakawa, Akihiro; Fukuchi, Shin; Hiraga, Fujio; Kimura, Kenju; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Kubota, Michio; Kumada, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Akira; Sakae, Takeji; Saitoh, Kimiaki; Shibata, Tokushi; Yoshioka, Masakazu

281

Pre-conceptual design and preliminary neutronic analysis of the proposed National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a pre-conceptual design study for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) and given preliminary approval for the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pre-conceptual design of the NSNS initially consists of an accelerator system capable of delivering a 1 to 2 GeV proton beam with 1 MW of beam power in an approximate 0.5 {micro}s pulse at a 60 Hz frequency onto a single target station. The NSNS will be upgradable to a significantly higher power level with two target stations (a 60 Hz station and a 10 Hz station). There are many possible layouts and designs for the NSNS target stations. This paper gives a brief overview of the proposed NSNS with respect to the target station, as well as the general philosophy adopted for the neutronic design of the NSNS target stations. A reference design is presented, and some preliminary neutronic results for the NSNS are briefly discussed.

Johnson, J.O.; Barnes, J.M.; Charlton, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computational Physics and Engineering Div.

1997-03-01

282

An Am\\/Be neutron source and its use in integral tests of differential neutron reaction cross-section data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Am\\/Be neutron source, installed recently at the Rajshahi University, is described. Neutron flux mapping was done using the nuclear reactions 197Au(n,?)198Au, 113In(n,?)114mIn, 115In(n,n??)115mIn and 58Ni(n,p)58Co. An approximate validation of the neutron spectral shape was done using five neutron threshold detectors and the iterative unfolding code SULSA. Integral cross sections of the reactions 54Fe(n,p)54Mn, 59Co(n,p)59Fe and 92Mo(n,p)92mNb were measured with

M. S. Uddin; M. R. Zaman; S. M. Hossain; I. Spahn; S. Sudr; S. M. Qaim

2010-01-01

283

Intercalibration of physical neutron dosimetry for the RA-3 and MURR thermal neutron sources for BNCT small-animal research.  

PubMed

New thermal neutron irradiation facilities to perform cell and small-animal irradiations for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy research have been installed at the Missouri University Research Reactor and at the RA-3 research reactor facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Recognizing the importance of accurate and reproducible physical beam dosimetry as an essential tool for combination and intercomparisons of preclinical and clinical results from the different facilities, we have conducted an experimental intercalibration of the neutronic performance of the RA-3 and MURR thermal neutron sources. PMID:21330143

Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Thorp, Silvia; Brockman, John; Miller, Marcelo; Nigg, David W; Hawthorne, M Frederick

2011-12-01

284

Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), 275 clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been performed as of March 2006, and the effectiveness of BNCT has been revealed. In order to further develop BNCT, it is desirable to supply accelerator-based epithermal-neutron sources that can be installed near the hospital. We proposed the method of filtering and moderating fast neutrons, which are emitted from the reaction between a beryllium target and 30-MeV protons accelerated by a cyclotron accelerator, using an optimum moderator system composed of iron, lead, aluminum and calcium fluoride. At present, an epithermal-neutron source is under construction from June 2008. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator, beam transport system, neutron-yielding target, filter, moderator and irradiation bed. In this article, an overview of this system and the properties of the treatment neutron beam optimized by the MCNPX Monte Carlo neutron transport code are presented. The distribution of biological effect weighted dose in a head phantom compared with that of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is shown. It is confirmed that for the accelerator, the biological effect weighted dose for a deeply situated tumor in the phantom is 18% larger than that for KUR, when the limit dose of the normal brain is 10 Gy-eq. The therapeutic time of the cyclotron-based neutron sources are nearly one-quarter of that of KUR. The cyclotron-based epithermal-neutron source is a promising alternative to reactor-based neutron sources for treatments by BNCT.

Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.; Kashino, G.; Liu, Y.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.

2009-06-01

285

Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the

Battle; Ronald E

2006-01-01

286

Study on an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion as a portable neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling of neutron generation versus ion current is important in evaluating the prospect of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) as a neutron source. In this paper, the scaling of neutron generation versus ion current, I, based on the results of both the experiments and the numerical simulations is discussed. The experiments shows the scaling of I2, while the numerical

Masami Ohnishi; Yasushi Yamamoto; Mitsunori Hasegawa; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; George H. Miley

1998-01-01

287

Design and construction of a cold neutron source for use in the Cornell University TRIGA reactor  

SciTech Connect

A cold neutron source has been designed and constructed for insertion into the 6''-radial beam port of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor for use with a neutron guide tube system. The main differences between this cold source and other existing sources are the use of heat conduction as the method of cooling and the use of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene; melting point, 228/sup 0/K; boiling point, 437/sup 0/K) as the moderating material. This thesis describes the design and construction details of the cold neutron source, discusses its safety aspects, and presents its cryogenic performance curves and also the results of a test of its neutron moderating ability. To test the neutron moderating ability of the cold neutron source, an out-of-reactor neutron transmission experiment was performed with the moderator chamber first at room temperature and then at about 23/sup 0/K. The results indicate that the neutron energy spectrum is strongly shifted to lower energies when the chamber is cold. The neutrons have an apparent temperature of 98/sup 0/K, if the moderated flux is assumed to be Maxwellian. This, however, is unlikely to be the actual case since the geometry of the chamber, neutron beam, and detector and the complexities of the neutron scattering and absorption processes in mesitylene doubtlessly distort the leakage energy spectrum.

Young, L.J.

1983-01-01

288

Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect

The President`s budget request for FY 1994 included a construction project for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). However, the budget that emerged from the Congress did not, and so activities during this reporting period were limited to continued research and development and to advanced conceptual design. A significant effort was devoted to a study, requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and led by Brookhaven National Laboratory, of the performance and cost impacts of reducing the uranium fuel enrichment below the baseline design value of 93%. The study also considered alternative core designs that might mitigate those impacts. The ANS Project proposed a modified core design, with three fuel elements instead of two, that would allow operation with only 50% enriched uranium and use existing fuel technology. The performance penalty would be 15--20% loss of thermal neutron flux; the flux would still just meet the minimum design requirement set by the user community. At the time of this writing, DOE has not established an enrichment level for ANS, but two advisory committees have recommended adopting the new core design, provided the minimum flux requirements are still met.

Campbell, J.H.; King-Jones, K.H. [eds.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thompson, P.B. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Engineering Services

1995-01-01

289

New evidence of an intense scission neutron source in the 252Cf spontaneous fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron energy-angular distributions relative to the fragment direction of 252Cf (SF) were analysed. The results of three independent experiments being in reasonable agreement allows the conclusion that a (305)% neutron surplus exists at 90 ? relative to the direction of the moving fragments, which can not be accounted for with the assumption that all neutrons are emitted from fully accelerated fragments. This experimental fact required the incorporation of neutron emission from an additional source of neutrons. Angular and energy distributions of these additional neutrons were evaluated using data from an experiment performed at IRMM several years ago and were compared with the results in literature.

Kornilov, N. V.; Kagalenko, A. B.; Poupko, S. V.; Androsenko, P. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.

2001-04-01

290

Measurement of the spectral fluence rate of reference neutron sources with a liquid scintillation detector.  

PubMed

Reference neutron sources such as (241)AmBe(alpha,n) and (252)Cf are commonly used to calibrate neutron detectors for radiation protection purposes. The calibration factors of these detectors depend on the spectral distribution of the neutron fluence from the source. Differences between the spectral fluence of the neutron source and the ISO-recommended reference spectra might be caused by the properties of the individual source. The spectral neutron fluence rates of different reference neutron sources used at PTB were measured with a liquid scintillation detector (NE213), using maximum entropy unfolding and a new, experimentally determined detector response matrix. The detector response matrix was determined by means of the time-of-flight technique at a pulsed neutron source with a broad energy distribution realised at the PTB accelerator facility. The results of the measurements of the reference sources are compared with the ISO-recommended reference spectra. For the PTB (241)AmBe(alpha,n) reference source, the spectral neutron fluence was determined by means of a high-resolution (3)He semiconductor sandwich spectrometer in 1982. These measurements were the basis for the ISO recommendations. The current measurements confirm the high-energy part (E(n) > 2 MeV) of this spectrum and demonstrate the suitability of this new method for high-resolution spectrometry of broad neutron spectra. PMID:17553863

Zimbal, A

2007-01-01

291

The project of ultracold neutron sources at the PIK reactor with superfluid helium as a moderator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project of ultracold neutron sources at the PIK reactor with superfluid helium as a moderator is presented. The rate of producing ultracold neutrons in superfluid helium is 100 cm-3 s-1 at neutron flux density ?(? = 9 ) = 109 cm-2 s-1 -1. At a moderator temperature of 1 K within the experimental volume of 351, the density of ultracold neutrons may be equal to 1.3 103 cm-3, which is two orders of magnitude exceeds that the currently existing ultracold neutron sources.

Serebrov, A. P.; Fomin, A. K.; Onegin, M. S.; Kharitonov, A. G.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

2014-01-01

292

An Am/Be neutron source and its use in integral tests of differential neutron reaction cross-section data.  

PubMed

An Am/Be neutron source, installed recently at the Rajshahi University, is described. Neutron flux mapping was done using the nuclear reactions (197)Au(n,gamma)(198)Au, (113)In(n,gamma)(114m)In, (115)In(n,n'gamma)(115m)In and (58)Ni(n,p)(58)Co. An approximate validation of the neutron spectral shape was done using five neutron threshold detectors and the iterative unfolding code SULSA. Integral cross sections of the reactions (54)Fe(n,p)(54)Mn, (59)Co(n,p)(59)Fe and (92)Mo(n,p)(92m)Nb were measured with fast neutrons (E(n)>1.5MeV) and compared with data calculated using the neutron spectral distribution and the excitation function of each reaction given in data libraries: an agreement within +/-6% was found. PMID:20206536

Uddin, M S; Zaman, M R; Hossain, S M; Spahn, I; Sudr, S; Qaim, S M

2010-09-01

293

Beam Transfer Lines for the Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam transfer lines for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are designed to have low beam losses for hand on maintenance while satisfying the facility footprint requirements. There are two main beam transfer lines. High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line which connect super conducting linac to the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam transport (RTBT) which transfers beam from accumulator ring to the target. HEBT line not only transfer the beam from linac to ring but also prepare beam for ring injection, correct the energy jitter from the linac, provide required energy spread for the ring injection, clean the transverse and longitudinal halo particles from the beam, determine the linac beam quality, and provide the protection to the accumulator ring. RTBT line transport the beam from ring to target while fulfilling the target requirements of beam size, maximum current density, beam moment on the target in case of ring extraction kicker failure, and protect the target from the ring fault conditions.

Raparia, D.; Lee, Y. Y.; Weng, W. T.; Wei, J.

2002-12-01

294

Spallation neutron source cryomodule heat loads and thermal design  

SciTech Connect

When complete, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will provide a 1 GeV, 2 MW beam for experiments. One portion of the machine's linac consists of over 80 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) 805 MHz cavities housed in a minimum of 23 cryomodules operating at a saturation temperature of 2.1 K. Minimization of the total heat load is critical to machine performance and for efficient operation of the system. The total heat load of the cryomodules consists of the fixed static load and the dynamic load, which is proportional to the cavity performance. The helium refrigerator supports mainly the cryomodule loads and to a lesser extent the distribution system loads. The estimated heat loads and calculated thermal performance are discussed along with two unique features of this design: the helium heat exchanger housed in the cryomodule return end can and the helium gas cooled fundamental power coupler.

E. F. Daly; V. Ganni; C. H. Rode; W. J. Schneider; K. M. Wilson; M. A. Wiseman

2002-05-10

295

Electron-cloud mitigation in the spallation neutron source ring  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H- injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation.

Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, D.; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; Furman, M.; Pivi, M.; Macek, R.

2003-05-01

296

Electron Cloud Mitigation in the Spallation Neutron Source Ring  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H{sup -} injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron-cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation.

Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, Daniele; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Ludewig, H.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Macek, R.J.; Furman, Miguel A.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; /Brookhaven /CERN /LANL, Ctr. for Nonlinear Studies /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /SLAC

2008-03-17

297

Spallation neutron source cryomodule heat loads and thermal design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When complete, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will provide a 1 GeV, 2 MW beam for experiments. One portion of the machine's linac consists of over 80 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) 805 MHz cavities housed in a minimum of 23 cryomodules operating at a saturation temperature of 2.1 K. Minimization of the total heat load is critical to machine performance and for efficient operation of the system. The total heat load of the cryomodules consists of the fixed static load and the dynamic load, which is proportional to the cavity performance. The helium refrigerator supports mainly the cryomodule loads and to a lesser extent the distribution system loads. The estimated heat loads and calculated thermal performance are discussed along with two unique features of this design: the helium heat exchanger housed in the cryomodule return end can and the helium gas cooled fundamental power coupler.

Daly, E. F.; Ganni, V.; Rode, C. H.; Schneider, W. J.; Wilson, K. M.; Wiseman, M. A.

2002-05-01

298

Operation of the superconducting linac at the spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect

At the Spallation Neutron Source, the first fully operational pulsed superconducting linac has been active for about two years. During this period, stable beam operation at 4.4 K has been achieved with beam for repetition rates up to 15 Hz and 30 Hz at 2.1 K. At the lower temperature 60 Hz RF pulses have been also used. Full beam energy has been achieved at 15 Hz and short beam pulses. Most of the time the superconducting cavities are operated at somewhat lower gradients to improve reliability. A large amount of data has been collected on the pulsed behavior of cavities and SRF modules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures. This experience will be of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. This paper describes the details of the cryogenic system and RF properties of the SNS superconducting linac.

Campisi, Isidoro E [ORNL] [ORNL; Casagrande, Fabio [ORNL] [ORNL; Champion, Mark S [ORNL] [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P [ORNL] [ORNL; Kang, Yoon [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL] [ORNL; Kursun, Zafer [ORNL] [ORNL; Ladd, Peter [ORNL] [ORNL; Stout, Daniel S [ORNL] [ORNL; Strong, William Herb [ORNL] [ORNL

2008-01-01

299

Optimization of the beam geometry for the cold neutron tomography facility at the new neutron source in Munich.  

PubMed

One of the very interesting applications at Munich's New Neutron Source will be neutron tomography. It will be used both for research and industry. The D2O moderated high flux reactor will provide thermal neutrons for the structural analysis of specimen up to the size of 1 m. A central problem is the design of the beam geometry, especially the layout of the collimator and the aperture. Calculations were carried out in order to get an optimal beam geometry, taking into consideration an extended source, low beam divergency and high flux in the detector plane. PMID:15246387

Grnauer, F; Schillinger, B; Steichele, E

2004-10-01

300

Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,?) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as ? detector. A neutron energy window up to 90eV, including

C. Andreani; A. Pietropaolo; R. Senesi; G. Gorini; M. Tardocchi; A. Bracco; N. Rhodes; E. Schooneveld

2002-01-01

301

Critical beam dynamical issues in neutron spallation sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerator part of proposed neutron spallation sources consists of a high intensity linac and compressor ring or rapid cycling synchrotron. The most critical part of such a high current machine is to keep activation caused by particle loss along the linac or at ring injection down to an acceptable limit. Sources of particle loss along the linac can be beam mismatch, resonances of any kind, temperature transfer within a bunch and/or nonlinear internal or external forces. In addition machine errors like misalignments, tolerances, and rf errors have to be considered. All these sources cause emittance growth. The common way of setting up the beam dynamics of high intensity linacs is governed by avoiding these sources and testing it by Monte-Carlo simulations. To get information on the possible loss mechanism, the only way is to increase the particle number of the Monte-Carlo simulations and to study phase space distributions in detail. Monte-Carlo simulations with 50000 particles for the 1.334 GeV coupled cavity linac of the European Spallation Source (ESS) are presented. It is shown that it is possible to design a non-space charge dominated linac for 200 mA bunch current with almost constant emittances. A detailed study of the phase space distribution along the linac shows a small number of halo particles nearby the bunch core. This halo is acceptable for ring injection. Some information related to particle loss in the linac and in the compressor ring afterwards is extracted and comments for positioning scrapers are made.

Pabst, M.; Bongardt, K.; Letchford, A. P.

1996-06-01

302

Commissioning of the new high-intensity ultracold neutron source at the Paul Scherrer Institut  

E-print Network

Commissioning of the new high-intensity ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) has started in 2009. The design goal of this new generation high intensity UCN source is to surpass by a factor of ~100 the current ultracold neutron densities available for fundamental physics research, with the greatest thrust coming from the search for a neutron electric dipole moment. The PSI UCN source is based on neutron production via proton induced lead spallation, followed by neutron thermalization in heavy water and neutron cooling in a solid deuterium crystal to cold and ultracold energies. A successful beam test with up to 2 mA proton beam on the spallation target was conducted recently. Most source components are installed, others being finally mounted. The installation is on the track for the first cool-down and UCN production in 2010.

Lauss, Bernhard

2010-01-01

303

Commissioning of the new high-intensity ultracold neutron source at the Paul Scherrer Institut  

E-print Network

Commissioning of the new high-intensity ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) has started in 2009. The design goal of this new generation high intensity UCN source is to surpass by a factor of ~100 the current ultracold neutron densities available for fundamental physics research, with the greatest thrust coming from the search for a neutron electric dipole moment. The PSI UCN source is based on neutron production via proton induced lead spallation, followed by neutron thermalization in heavy water and neutron cooling in a solid deuterium crystal to cold and ultracold energies. A successful beam test with up to 2 mA proton beam on the spallation target was conducted recently. Most source components are installed, others being finally mounted. The installation is on the track for the first cool-down and UCN production in 2010.

Bernhard Lauss

2010-11-17

304

On accelerator-based neutron sources and neutron field characterization with low energy neutron spectrometer based on position sensitive 3He counter.  

PubMed

The development of new neutron sources for BNCT applications, based on particle accelerators is currently underway all over the world. Though nuclear reactors were used for a long time as the only neutron source available having the requested flux levels, the accelerator-based ones have recently been investigated on the other hand due to its easy-to-use and acceptable performances. However, when using an accelerator, various secondary particles would be emitted which forms a troublesome background. Moreover, the neutrons produced have usually an energy spectrum somewhat different from the requested one and thus should be largely moderated. An additional issue to be taken into account is the patient positioning, which should be close to the neutron source, in order to take advantage of a neutron flux level high enough to limit the BNCT treatment time within 1h. This implies that, inside a relatively narrow space, neutrons should be moderated, while unnecessary secondary particles should be shielded. Considering that a background-free neutron field from an accelerator-driven neutron source dedicated to BNCT application is generally difficult to be provided, the characterization of such a neutron field will have to be clearly assessed. In the present study, a low energy neutron spectrometer has been thus designed and is now being developed to measure the accelerator-based neutron source performance. The presently proposed spectrometer is based on a (3)He proportional counter, which is 50 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, with a gas pressure of 0.5 MPa. It is quite unique that the spectrometer is set up in parallel with the incident neutron beam and a reaction depth distribution is measured by it as a position sensitive detector. Recently, a prototype detector has been developed and the signal test is now underway. In this paper, the feature of the accelerator-based neutron sources is outlined and importance of neutron field characterization is discussed. And the developed new low energy neutron spectrometer for the characterization is detailed. PMID:19376716

Murata, I; Miyamaru, H; Kato, I; Mori, Y

2009-07-01

305

A source of ultra-cold neutrons for the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT  

E-print Network

We present the status of the development of a dedicated high density ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source dedicated to the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT. The source employs superthermal conversion of cold neutrons to UCN in superfluid helium. Tests have shown that UCN produced inside the liquid can be extracted into vacuum. Furthermore a dedicated neutron selection channel was tested to maintain high initial density and extract only neutrons with a vertical velocity component 20 cm/s for the spectrometer. This new source would have a phase-space density of 0.18 cm-3(m/s)-3 for the spectrometer.

P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; P. Geltenbort; V. V. Nesvizhevsky; C. Plonka; T. Soldner; F. Vezzu; O. Zimmer

2007-08-10

306

A source of ultra-cold neutrons for the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT  

E-print Network

We present the status of the development of a dedicated high density ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source dedicated to the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT. The source employs superthermal conversion of cold neutrons to UCN in superfluid helium. Tests have shown that UCN produced inside the liquid can be extracted into vacuum. Furthermore a dedicated neutron selection channel was tested to maintain high initial density and extract only neutrons with a vertical velocity component 20 cm/s for the spectrometer. This new source would have a phase-space density of 0.18 cm-3(m/s)-3 for the spectrometer.

Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Plonka, C; Soldner, T; Vezzu, F; Zimmer, O

2007-01-01

307

Spectrum shaping assessment of accelerator-based fusion neutron sources to be used in BNCT treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo modelling of an irradiation facility, for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application, using a set of advanced type, accelerator based, 3H(d,n) 4He (D-T) fusion neutron source device is presented. Some general issues concerning the design of a proper irradiation beam shaping assembly, based on very hard energy neutron source spectrum, are reviewed. The facility here proposed, which represents an interesting solution compared to the much more investigated Li or Be based accelerator driven neutron source could fulfil all the medical and safety requirements to be used by an hospital environment.

Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Daquino, G. G.

2004-01-01

308

Neutron Spectrum and Absolute Yield of a Plutonium-Beryllium Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pu-Be neutron source has the advantages of high neutron yield, low gamma-ray intensity, and very long half-life. The neutron spectrum from such a source, composed of 13 g of plutonium and 7 g of beryllium as PuBe13 (density 3.7 g\\/cc), was measured by means of proton recoils in nuclear research emulsions. The data obtained from 2057 observations indicate the

Leona Stewart

1955-01-01

309

Constraints on neutron star models of gamma-burst sources from the Einstein Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six Einstein observations of five gamma-ray burst sources are presented and discussed. With one possible exception, no point source was detected in any of the observations. The data are interpreted in the framework of neutron star models for gamma bursters. Upper limits are derived for the surface temperatures of the neutron stars assumed to be responsible for the bursts. It is shown that the lack of soft X-ray emission may impose stringent constraints on accretion rates onto neutron stars.

Pizzichini, G.; Gottardi, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Laros, J. G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.

1986-01-01

310

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Neutron\\/Proton Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable demand in the scientific community for a neutron generator with an output of 106-108 neutrons\\/second (n\\/s) that can be switched on or off, emit fusion neutrons, be self-calibrating, and offer portable operation. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC)-based neutron generator is proposed to meet these needs. In an IEC device, ion beams are injected into a spherical vacuum

G. H. Miley; J. Javedani; Y. Yamamoto; R. Nebel; J. Nadler; Y. Gu; A. Satsangi; P. Heck

1994-01-01

311

A portable neutron\\/tunable X-ray source based on inertial electrostatic confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable neutron sources are of strong interest for uses such as industrial neutron activation analysis and various medical research applications. The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device under development at the University of Illionis is intended for such uses and also provides a tunable X-ray source (required reverse bias and added electron emitters). The IEC operates as an accelerator plasma-target type

George H. Miley

1999-01-01

312

Overview of the national spallation neutron source with emphasis on the target station  

SciTech Connect

The technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

1997-06-01

313

Field desorption ion source development for neutron generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to deuterium ion sources for deuterium-tritium neutron generators is being developed. The source is based upon the field desorption of deuterium from the surfaces of metal tips. Field desorption studies of microfabricated field emitter tip arrays have been conducted for the first time. Maximum fields of 3 V/ have been applied to the array tip surfaces to date, although achieving fields of 2 V/ to 2.5 V/ is more typical. Both the desorption of atomic deuterium ions and the gas-phase field ionization of molecular deuterium have been observed at fields of roughly 2 and 2-3 V/, respectively, at room temperature. The desorption of common surface adsorbates such as hydrogen, carbon, water, and carbon monoxide is observed at fields exceeding 1 V/. In vacuo heating of the arrays to temperatures of the order of 800 C can be effective in removing many of the surface contaminants observed.

Solano, I.; Reichenbach, Birk; Schwoebel, P. R.; Chichester, D. L.; Holland, C. E.; Hertz, K. L.; Brainard, J. P.

2008-03-01

314

Modelling of an imaging beamline at the ISIS pulsed neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined neutron imaging and neutron diffraction facility, IMAT, is currently being built at the pulsed neutron spallation source ISIS in the U.K. A supermirror neutron guide is required to combine imaging and diffraction modes at the sample position in order to obtain suitable time of flight resolutions for energy selective imaging and diffraction experiments. IMAT will make use of a straight neutron guide and we consider here the optimization of the supermirror guide dimensions and characterisation of the resulting beam characteristics, including the homogeneity of the flux distribution in space and energy and the average and peak neutron fluxes. These investigations take into account some main design criteria: to maximise the neutron flux, to minimise geometrical artefacts in the open beam image at the sample position and to obtain a good energy resolution whilst retaining a large neutron bandwidth. All of these are desirable beam characteristics for the proposed imaging and diffraction analysis modes of IMAT.

Burca, G.; Kockelmann, W.; James, J. A.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.

2013-10-01

315

A neutron resonance capture analysis experimental station at the ISIS spallation source.  

PubMed

Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a nuclear technique that is used to determine the elemental composition of materials and artifacts (e.g., bronze objects) of archaeological interest. NRCA experiments are mostly performed at the GELINA facility in Belgium, a pulsed neutron source operating with an electron linear accelerator. Very intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons are also provided by spallation neutron sources, such as the ISIS spallation neutron source in the United Kingdom. In the present study, the suitability of the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) beam line for NRCA measurements is assessed using a compact (n, ?) resonance detector made of a Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite (YAP) scintillation crystal coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The measurements provided a qualitative recognition of the composition of the standard sample, a lower limit for the sensitivity for NRCA for almost-in-traces elements, and an estimation of the relative isotopic concentration in the sample. PMID:20828445

Pietropaolo, Antonino; Gorini, Giuseppe; Festa, Giulia; Reali, Enzo; Grazzi, Francesco; Schooneveld, Erik M

2010-09-01

316

Measurement of neutron response function for thin plastic scintillators using white neutron source from d D breakup reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron response function for thin plastic scintillators has been measured using the white neutron source produced by the d-D breakup reaction. Deuteron energies of 9, 12 and 14 MeV were chosen to produce the neutron energy range from 0.5 to 17 MeV. The intensity of the neutron beam was measured by a well-calibrated BC-501A liquid scintillation detector at 0?. The measured results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations and verified by additional experiments at a neutron generator and the 21.7 MV 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator. The results obtained from these experiments all agree well with the simulations.

Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Xichao; Li, Xia; Zhang, Jianfu; Song, Jiwen; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Dahai; Chen, Liang; Pan, Hongbo; Jiang, Jing; Zhong, Qiping; Huang, Hanxiong; Hou, Long; Zhou, Zuying

2007-12-01

317

A Long-Pulse Spallation Source at Los Alamos: Facility description and preliminary neutronic performance for cold neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has discussed installing a new 1-MW spallation neutron target station in an existing building at the end of its 800-MeV proton linear accelerator. Because the accelerator provides pulses of protons each about 1 msec in duration, the new source would be a Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS). The facility would employ vertical extraction of moderators and reflectors, and horizontal extraction of the spallation target. An LPSS uses coupled moderators rather than decoupled ones. There are potential gains of about a factor of 6 to 7 in the time-averaged neutron brightness for cold-neutron production from a coupled liquid H{sub 2} moderator compared to a decoupled one. However, these gains come at the expense of putting ``tails`` on the neutron pulses. The particulars of the neutron pulses from a moderator (e.g., energy-dependent rise times, peak intensities, pulse widths, and decay constant(s) of the tails) are crucial parameters for designing instruments and estimating their performance at an LPSS. Tungsten is the reference target material. Inconel 718 is the reference target canister and proton beam window material, with Al-6061 being the choice for the liquid H{sub 2} moderator canister and vacuum container. A 1-MW LPSS would have world-class neutronic performance. The authors describe the proposed Los Alamos LPSS facility, and show that, for cold neutrons, the calculated time-averaged neutronic performance of a liquid H{sub 2} moderator at the 1-MW LPSS is equivalent to about 1/4th the calculated neutronic performance of the best liquid D{sub 2} moderator at the Institute Laue-Langevin reactor. They show that the time-averaged moderator neutronic brightness increases as the size of the moderator gets smaller.

Russell, G.J.; Weinacht, D.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

1998-03-01

318

Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a proton microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components.

Xu, Y.; Garty, G.; Marino, S. A.; Massey, T. N.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Johnson, G. W.; Brenner, D. J.

2012-03-01

319

Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility  

PubMed Central

Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 1020 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a Proton Microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components. PMID:22545061

Xu, Yanping; Garty, Guy; Marino, Stephen A.; Massey, Thomas N.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Johnson, Gary W.; Brenner, David J.

2012-01-01

320

The Neutron Energy Spectrum Study from the Phase II Solid Methane Moderator at the LENS Neutron Source  

E-print Network

Neutron energy spectrum measurements from a solid methane moderator were performed at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) to verify our neutron scattering model of solid methane. The time-of-flight method was used to measure the energy spectrum of the moderator in the energy range of 0.1$meV\\sim$ 1$eV$. Neutrons were counted with a high efficiency $^{3}{He}$ detector. The solid methane moderator was operated in phase II temperature and the energy spectra were measured at the temperatures of 20K and 4K. We have also tested our newly-developed scattering kernels for phase II solid methane by calculating the neutron spectral intensity expected from the methane moderator at the LENS neutron source using MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle Transport Code). Within the expected accuracy of our approximate approach, our model predicts both the neutron spectral intensity and the optimal thickness of the moderator at both temperatures. The predictions are compared to the measured energy spectra. The simulations agree with the measurement data at both temperatures.

Yunchang Shin; W. Mike Snow; Christopher M. Lavelle; David V. Baxter; Xin Tong; Haiyang Yan; Mark Leuschner

2007-11-19

321

The determination of reactor neutron spectrum-averaged cross-sections in miniature neutron source reactor facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparator method based on the resonance integral of 197Au(n,?)198Au reaction has been used to determine fast neutron spectrum-averaged cross-section data of some dosimetry reactions in a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) facility. Target materials of low- and medium-mass nuclei, which are of interest in reactor dosimetry and NAA were investigated. Irradiation was performed under Cd cover in an inner

S. A. Jonah; Y. V. Ibrahim; E. H. K. Akaho

2008-01-01

322

Analysis of the propagation of neutrons and gamma-rays from the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skyshine effect is crucial for designing appropriate shielding. To investigate the skyshine effect, the propagation of neutrons was measured and analyzed at the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI. Pulse height spectra and dose distributions of neutron and secondary gamma-ray were measured outside YAYOI, and analyzed with MCNP-5 and JENDL-3.3. Comparison with the experimental results showed good agreement. Also, a semi-empirical formula was successfully derived to describe the dose distribution. The formulae can be used to predict the skyshine effect at YAYOI, and will be useful for estimating the skyshine effect and designing the shield structure for fusion facilities.

Yoshida, Shigeo; Murata, Isao; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Saito, Isao

2011-10-01

323

Design of 6Mev linear accelerator based pulsed thermal neutron source: FLUKA simulation and experiment.  

PubMed

The 6MeV LINAC based pulsed thermal neutron source has been designed for bulk materials analysis. The design was optimized by varying different parameters of the target and materials for each region using FLUKA code. The optimized design of thermal neutron source gives flux of 310(6)ncm(-2)s(-1) with more than 80% of thermal neutrons and neutron to gamma ratio was 110(4)ncm(-2)mR(-1). The results of prototype experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement with each other. PMID:21908197

Patil, B J; Chavan, S T; Pethe, S N; Krishnan, R; Bhoraskar, V N; Dhole, S D

2012-01-01

324

Neutronic simulations for source-instrument matching at the Lujan Center  

SciTech Connect

The neutronics design of pulsed spallation neutron sources can be difficult when considering the fact that multiple instruments view the same moderator. Typically, the moderator design is a compromise between the required resolution for one instrument and the maximum intensity desires of another instrument. At the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC), a recent target redesign has offered the opportunity to design a moderator for a Laue diffractometer with few other requirements. Detailed time and energy spectra were calculated for a variety of moderator decoupling options. The purpose of this summary is to document the neutronics calculations required for this source-instrument matching process.

Court, J.D.; Ferguson, P.D.; Schoenborn, B.P.

1998-12-31

325

Neutronic simulations for source-instrument matching at the Lujan Center  

SciTech Connect

The neutronics design of pulsed spallation neutron sources can be difficult when considering the fact that multiple instruments view the same moderator. Typically, the moderator design is a compromise between the required resolution for one instrument and the maximum intensity desires of another instrument. At the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC), a recent target redesign has offered the opportunity to design a moderator for a Laue diffractometer with few other requirements. Detailed time and energy spectra were calculated for a variety of moderator decoupling options. The authors document the neutronics calculations required for this source-instrument matching process.

Court, J.D.; Ferguson, P.D.; Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

326

A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the 10B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the 10B concentration, the RBE factors for 10B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour.

Nievaart, V. A.; Moss, R. L.; Kloosterman, J. L.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; van Dam, H.

2004-09-01

327

A parameter study to determine the optimal source neutron energy in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours.  

PubMed

The values of the parameters used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to calculate a given dose to human tissue vary with patients due to different physical, biological and/or medical circumstances. Parameters include the tissue dimensions, the 10B concentration and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for the different dose components associated with BNCT. Because there is still no worldwide agreement on RBE values, more often than not, average values for these parameters are used. It turns out that the RBE-problem can be circumvented by taking into account all imaginable parameter values. Approaching this quest from another angle: the outcome will also provide the parameters (and values) which influence the optimal source neutron energy. For brain tumours it turns out that the 10B concentration, the RBE factors for 10B as well as fast neutrons, together with the dose limit set for healthy tissue, affect the optimal BNCT source neutron energy. By using source neutrons of a few keV together with neutrons of a few eV, it ensures that, under all imaginable circumstances, a maximum of alpha (and lithium) particles can be delivered in the tumour. PMID:15509065

Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L; Kloosterman, J L; van der Hagen, T H J J; van Dam, H

2004-09-21

328

Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-drivenNeutron Source  

SciTech Connect

An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable ofproducing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomicfraction>90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostaticlow energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source wasincorporatedinto the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source(ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQaccelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gastarget. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameteraperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into theRFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used tocreate ~; 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HVbreakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize thefield in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguideto the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significantimprovement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride linerinside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared withPBGUNS simulations.

Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

2007-02-15

329

Assessment of the roles of the Advanced Neutron Source Operators  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is unique in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles are being applied at the conceptual design stage. initial HFE accomplishments include the development of an ANS HFE program plan, operating philosophy, and functional analysis. In FY 1994, HFE activities focused on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define a list of RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO will function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

Hill, W.E.; Houser, M.M.; Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.

1995-03-01

330

Mercury Cavitation Phenomenon in Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources  

SciTech Connect

Innovative researches will be performed at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility in J-PARC, in which a mercury target system will be installed as MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. Proton beams will be injected into mercury target to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by micro-jets and/or shock waves which are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. The pitting damage which degrades the structural integrity of target vessels is a crucial issue for high power mercury targets. Micro-gas-bubbles injection into mercury may be useful to mitigate the pressure wave and the pitting damage. The visualization of cavitation-bubble and gas-bubble collapse behaviors was carried out by using a high-speed video camera. The differences between them are recognized.

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Kawai, Masayoshi [KEK Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-0801 (Japan)

2008-06-24

331

Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool.

Ramsey, C.T.

1995-08-01

332

Fuel qualification plan for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and qualification plan for the fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source. The reference fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, dispersed in aluminum and clad in 6061 aluminum. This report was prepared in May 1994, at which time the reference design was for a two-element core containing highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) . The reactor was in the process of being redesigned to accommodate lowered uranium enrichment and became a three-element core containing a higher volume fraction of uranium enriched to 50% {sup 235}U. Consequently, this report was not issued at that time and would have been revised to reflect the possibly different requirements of the lower-enrichment, higher-volume fraction fuel. Because the reactor is now being canceled, this unrevised report is being issued for archival purposes. The report describes the fabrication and inspection development plan, the irradiation tests and performance modeling to qualify performance, the transient testing that is part of the safety program, and the interactions and interfaces of the fuel development with other tasks.

Copeland, G.L.

1995-07-01

333

Fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the fuel fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The fuel element is similar to that successfully fabricated and used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for many years, but there are two significant differences that require some development. The fuel compound is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} rather than U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and the fuel is graded in the axial as well as the radial direction. Both of these changes can be accomplished with a straightforward extension of the HFIR technology. The ANS also requires some improvements in inspection technology and somewhat more stringent acceptance criteria. Early indications were that the fuel fabrication and inspection technology would produce a reactor core meeting the requirements of the ANS for the low volume fraction loadings needed for the highly enriched uranium design (up to 1.7 Mg U/m{sup 3}). Near the end of the development work, higher volume fractions were fabricated that would be required for a lower- enrichment uranium core. Again, results look encouraging for loadings up to {approx}3.5 Mg U/m{sup 3}; however, much less evaluation was done for the higher loadings.

Pace, B.W. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Copeland, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01

334

Mercury Cavitation Phenomenon in Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovative researches will be performed at Materials & Life Science Experimental Facility in J-PARC, in which a mercury target system will be installed as MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. Proton beams will be injected into mercury target to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by micro-jets and/or shock waves which are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. The pitting damage which degrades the structural integrity of target vessels is a crucial issue for high power mercury targets. Micro-gas-bubbles injection into mercury may be useful to mitigate the pressure wave and the pitting damage. The visualization of cavitation-bubble and gas-bubble collapse behaviors was carried out by using a high-speed video camera. The differences between them are recognized.

Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi

2008-06-01

335

The advanced neutron source three-element-core fuel grading  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) pre-conceptual design consists of a two-element 330 MW{sub f} nuclear reactor fueled with highly-enriched uranium and is cooled, moderated, and reflected with heavy water. Recently, the ANS design has been changed to a three-element configuration in order to permit a reduction of the enrichment, if required, while maintaining or improving the thermal-hydraulic margins. The core consists of three annular fuel elements composed of involute-shaped fuel plates. Each fuel plate has a thickness of 1.27 mm and consists of a fuel meat region Of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al (50% enriched in one case that was proposed) and an aluminum filler region between aluminum cladding. The individual plates are separated by a 1.27 mm coolant channel. The three element core has a fuel loading of 31 kg of {sup 235}U which is sufficient for a 17-day fuel cycle. The goal in obtaining a new fuel grading is to maximize important temperature margins. The limits imposed axe: (1) Limit the temperature drop over the cladding oxide layer to less than 119{degrees}C to avoid oxide spallation. (2) Limit the fuel centerline temperature to less than 400{degrees}C to avoid fuel damage. (3) Limit the cladding wall temperature to less than the coolant. incipient-boiling temperature to avoid coolant boiling. Other thermal hydraulic conditions, such as critical heat flux, are also considered.

Gehin, J.C.

1995-12-31

336

Report on the international workshop on cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources.  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Cold Moderators for Pulsed Neutron Sources resulted from the coincidence of two forces. Our sponsors in the Materials Sciences Branch of DOE's Office of Energy Research and the community of moderator and neutron facility developers both realized that it was time. The Neutron Sources Working Group of the Megascience Forum of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development offered to contribute its support by publishing the proceedings, which with DOE and Argonne sponsorship cemented the initiative. The purposes of the workshop were: to recall and improve the theoretical groundwork of time-dependent neutron thermalization; to pose and examine the needs for and benefits of cold moderators for neutron scattering and other applications of pulsed neutron sources; to summarize experience with pulsed source, cold moderators, their performance, effectiveness, successes, problems and solutions, and the needs for operational data; to compile and evaluate new ideas for cold moderator materials and geometries; to review methods of measuring and characterizing pulsed source cold moderator performance; to appraise methods of calculating needed source characteristics and to evaluate the needs and prospects for improvements; to assess the state of knowledge of data needed for calculating the neutronic and engineering performance of cold moderators; and to outline the needs for facilities for testing various aspects of pulsed source cold moderator performance.

Carpenter, J. M.

1999-01-06

337

Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)  

E-print Network

source of ultracold neutrons #12; What are neutrons? Neutrons are a basic constituent of matter.ill.fr Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, www.sns.gov ReactorAccelerator #12; Temperature to make them useful (I'll show you why in a moment). #12; How we cool neutrons Step One: Cold Neutrons

Martin, Jeff

338

H{sup -} radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. H{sup -} beam pulses ({approx}1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, {approx}60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of {approx}0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of {approx}99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of {approx}75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to {approx}100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

Welton, R. F.; Gawne, K. R.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Roseberry, R. T.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6471 (United States); Dudnikov, V. G. [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Avenue, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Turvey, M. W. [Villanova University, 800E. Lancaster Ave, Villanova, Pennsylvania 19085 (United States)

2012-02-15

339

Characterization of pulsed (plasma focus) neutron source with image plate and application to neutron radiography  

SciTech Connect

Plasma focus device of Mather type developed in house has been used first time for neutron radiography of different objects. The device gives (1.2{+-}0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} neutrons per pulse produced by D-D fusion reaction with a pulse width of 50{+-}5 ns. The method involves exposing sample to be radiographed to thermalized D-D neutrons and recording the image on Fuji-film BAS-ND image plates. The thermal neutron component of the moderated beam was estimated using two image plates: a conventional IP for X-rays and gamma rays, and an IP doped with Gd for detecting neutrons.

Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, S. C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shaikh, A. M. [Raja Ramanna Fellow, Solid State Physics Division (India)

2013-02-05

340

Characterization of pulsed (plasma focus) neutron source with image plate and application to neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma focus device of Mather type developed in house has been used first time for neutron radiography of different objects. The device gives (1.20.3) 109 neutrons per pulse produced by D-D fusion reaction with a pulse width of 505 ns. The method involves exposing sample to be radiographed to thermalized D-D neutrons and recording the image on Fuji-film BAS-ND image plates. The thermal neutron component of the moderated beam was estimated using two image plates: a conventional IP for X-rays and gamma rays, and an IP doped with Gd for detecting neutrons.

Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Shaikh, A. M.; Rout, R. K.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, S. C.

2013-02-01

341

Experimental verification of beam characteristics for cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source (C-BENS).  

PubMed

A cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source has been developed for boron neutron capture therapy. This system consists of a cyclotron accelerator producing 1.1-mA proton beams with an energy of 30 MeV, a beam transport system coupled with a beryllium neutron production target, and a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) with a neutron collimator. In our previous work, the BSA was optimized to obtain sufficient epithermal neutron fluxes of ~10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) using a Monte Carlo simulation code. In order to validate the simulation results, irradiation tests using multi-foil activation at the surface of a gamma-ray shield located behind the collimator and water phantom experiments using a collimated epithermal neutron beam were performed. It was confirmed experimentally that the intensity of the epithermal neutrons was 1.210(9) cm(-2) s(-1). PMID:21463945

Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Masunaga, S; Mitsumoto, T; Fujita, K; Kashino, G; Kinashi, Y; Liu, Y; Takada, M; Ono, K; Maruhashi, A

2011-12-01

342

Powder diffraction in materials science using the KENS cold-neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Since superconductivity fever spread around the world, neutron powder diffraction has become very popular and been widely used by crystallographers, physicists, chemists, mineralogists, and materials scientists. The purpose of present paper is to show, firstly, important characteristics of time-of-flight TOF powder diffraction using cold-neutron source in the study of materials science, and, secondly, recent studies on the structure and function of batteries at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK).

Kamiyama, T.; Oikawa, K. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Akiba, E. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)] [and others

1997-12-01

343

The neutron detection efficiency of NE213 detectors measured by means of a 252Cf source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron detection efficiency of a NE213 scintillator was determined by comparing the measured neutron time-of-flight spectrum of a 252Cf source with its reference neutron energy distribution. Below En = 8 MeV an accuracy of better than 3% could be achieved. The measured efficiency agreed reasonably well in shape with a Monte Carlo simulation in the entire energy range 0.8

J. Cub; E. Finckh; K. Gebhardt; K. Geissdrfer; R. Lin; J. Strate; H. Klein

1989-01-01

344

OPTIONS FOR A STEADY-STATE COMPACT FUSION NEUTRON SOURCE M.P. Gryaznevich1  

E-print Network

, is the fusion ­ fission hybrid reactor. By using the excess neutrons from the fusion reaction to cause a highOPTIONS FOR A STEADY-STATE COMPACT FUSION NEUTRON SOURCE M.P. Gryaznevich1 , A. Sykes1 , D Kingham1@tokamaksolutions.co.uk The new approach in advancing the use of fusion, "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), is proposed. The application

345

Shielding design studies for a neutron irradiator system based on a 252Cf source.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate a shielding design against neutrons and gamma rays from a source of 252Cf, using Monte Carlo simulation. The shielding materials studied were borated polyethylene, borated-lead polyethylene and stainless steel. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to design shielding for 252Cf based neutron irradiator systems. By normalising the dose equivalent rate values presented to the neutron production rate of the source, the resulting calculations are independent of the intensity of the actual 252Cf source. The results show that the total dose equivalent rates were reduced significantly by the shielding system optimisation. PMID:11707031

da Silva, A X; Crispim, V R

2001-01-01

346

A laser-induced repetitive fast neutron source applied for gold activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source was developed for applications in laser-driven nuclear physics research. The developed neutron source, which has a neutron yield of approximately 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/pulse and can be operated up to a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, was applied for a gold activation analysis. Relatively strong delayed gamma spectra of the activated gold were measured at 333 keV and 355 keV, and proved the possibility of the neutron source for activation analyses. In addition, the nuclear reactions responsible for the measured gamma spectra of gold were elucidated by the 14 MeV fast neutrons resulting from the D(t,n)He{sup 4} nuclear reaction, for which the required tritium originated from the primary fusion reaction, D(d,p)T{sup 3}.

Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki [Quantum Optics Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

347

Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991  

SciTech Connect

The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne`s ZING-P and ZING-P` prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and ``in press`` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

Not Available

1991-12-31

348

Flow blockage analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor was designed to provide a research tool with capabilities beyond those of any existing reactors. One portion of its state-of-the-art design required high-speed fluid flow through narrow channels between the fuel plates in the core. Experience with previous reactors has shown that fuel plate damage can occur when debris becomes lodged at the entrance to these channels. Such debris disrupts the fluid flow to the plate surfaces and can prevent adequate cooling of the fuel. Preliminary ANS designs addressed this issue by providing an unheated entrance length for each fuel plate so that any flow disruption would recover, thus providing adequate heat removal from the downstream, heated portions of the fuel plates. As part of the safety analysis, the adequacy of this unheated entrance length was assessed using both analytical models and experimental measurements. The Flow Blockage Test Facility (FBTF) was designed and built to conduct experiments in an environment closely matching the ANS channel geometry. The FBTF permitted careful measurements of both heat transfer and hydraulic parameters. In addition to these experimental efforts, a thin, rectangular channel was modeled using the Fluent computational fluid dynamics computer code. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data to benchmark the hydrodynamics of the model. After this comparison, the model was extended to include those elements of the safety analysis that were difficult to measure experimentally. These elements included the high wall heat flux pattern and variable fluid properties. The results were used to determine the relationship between potential blockage sizes and the unheated entrance length required.

Stovall, T.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Felde, D.K.; Park, J.E.

1996-01-01

349

Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991  

SciTech Connect

The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne's ZING-P and ZING-P' prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and in press'' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

Not Available

1991-01-01

350

Fabrication and characterization of the source grating for visibility improvement of neutron phase imaging with gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of gratings including metal deposition processes for highly neutron absorbing lines is a critical issue to achieve a good visibility of the grating-based phase imaging system. The source grating for a neutron Talbot-Lau interferometer is an array of Gadolinium (Gd) structures that are generally made by sputtering, photo-lithography, and chemical wet etching. However, it is very challenging to fabricate a Gd structure with sufficient neutron attenuation of approximately more than 20 ?m using a conventional metal deposition method because of the slow Gd deposition rate, film stress, high material cost, and so on. In this article, we fabricated the source gratings for neutron Talbot-Lau interferometers by filling the silicon structure with Gadox particles. The new fabrication method allowed us a very stable and efficient way to achieve a much higher Gadox filled structure than a Gd film structure, and is even more suitable for thermal polychromatic neutrons, which are more difficult to stop than cold neutrons. The newly fabricated source gratings were tested at the polychromatic thermal neutron grating interferometer system of HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the visibilities and images from the neutron phase imaging system with the new source gratings were compared with those fabricated by a Gd deposition method.

Kim, Jongyul; Lee, Kye Hong; Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Taejoo; Ahn, Chi Won; Cho, Gyuseong; Lee, Seung Wook

2013-06-01

351

Fabrication and characterization of the source grating for visibility improvement of neutron phase imaging with gratings.  

PubMed

The fabrication of gratings including metal deposition processes for highly neutron absorbing lines is a critical issue to achieve a good visibility of the grating-based phase imaging system. The source grating for a neutron Talbot-Lau interferometer is an array of Gadolinium (Gd) structures that are generally made by sputtering, photo-lithography, and chemical wet etching. However, it is very challenging to fabricate a Gd structure with sufficient neutron attenuation of approximately more than 20 ?m using a conventional metal deposition method because of the slow Gd deposition rate, film stress, high material cost, and so on. In this article, we fabricated the source gratings for neutron Talbot-Lau interferometers by filling the silicon structure with Gadox particles. The new fabrication method allowed us a very stable and efficient way to achieve a much higher Gadox filled structure than a Gd film structure, and is even more suitable for thermal polychromatic neutrons, which are more difficult to stop than cold neutrons. The newly fabricated source gratings were tested at the polychromatic thermal neutron grating interferometer system of HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the visibilities and images from the neutron phase imaging system with the new source gratings were compared with those fabricated by a Gd deposition method. PMID:23822350

Kim, Jongyul; Lee, Kye Hong; Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Taejoo; Ahn, Chi Won; Cho, Gyuseong; Lee, Seung Wook

2013-06-01

352

Fabrication and characterization of the source grating for visibility improvement of neutron phase imaging with gratings  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of gratings including metal deposition processes for highly neutron absorbing lines is a critical issue to achieve a good visibility of the grating-based phase imaging system. The source grating for a neutron Talbot-Lau interferometer is an array of Gadolinium (Gd) structures that are generally made by sputtering, photo-lithography, and chemical wet etching. However, it is very challenging to fabricate a Gd structure with sufficient neutron attenuation of approximately more than 20 {mu}m using a conventional metal deposition method because of the slow Gd deposition rate, film stress, high material cost, and so on. In this article, we fabricated the source gratings for neutron Talbot-Lau interferometers by filling the silicon structure with Gadox particles. The new fabrication method allowed us a very stable and efficient way to achieve a much higher Gadox filled structure than a Gd film structure, and is even more suitable for thermal polychromatic neutrons, which are more difficult to stop than cold neutrons. The newly fabricated source gratings were tested at the polychromatic thermal neutron grating interferometer system of HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the visibilities and images from the neutron phase imaging system with the new source gratings were compared with those fabricated by a Gd deposition method.

Kim, Jongyul [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Nuclear and Quantum Engineering Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kye Hong; Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Taejoo [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chi Won [Nano Fusion Technology Division, National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Nuclear and Quantum Engineering Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Wook [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-06-15

353

HYSPEC : A CRYSTAL TIME OF FLIGHT HYBRID SPECTROMETER FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document lays out a proposal by the Instrument Development Team (IDT) composed of scientists from leading Universities and National Laboratories to design and build a conceptually new high-flux inelastic neutron spectrometer at the pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge. This instrument is intended to supply users of the SNS and scientific community, of which the IDT is

S. M. SHAPIRO; I. A. ZALIZNYAK

2002-01-01

354

A Drabkin energy filter for experiments at a spallation neutron source.  

SciTech Connect

We present a new approach for dynamic monochromatization of neutrons suitable for time-of-flight experiments at spallation neutron sources. The method requires polarized neutrons and is based on the Drabkin energy filter. In its initial application, this magnetic resonator device, consisting of a polarizer/analyzer system and a wavelength-dependent spin flipper, was proposed for extracting a narrow bandwidth from a broad bandwidth polarized neutron beam. At a spallation neutron source, wavelength is determined by time-of-flight (TOF) from the source to the detector. However, at each instant a spread of wavelengths is recorded due to the non-zero emission time of the source/moderator system. Particularly, high-intensity moderators for cold neutrons produce long ''tails'' in the intensity/time distribution for all wavelengths, degrading the resolution of the experiments. The Drabkin energy filter can be used to cut the neutron tails for all wavelengths, by drifting the resonance condition in synchronization with the TOF. Calculations show that the method is viable, and that substantial resolution gains are obtained by application to a TOF neutron reflectometer.

Parizzi, A. A.; Felcher, G. P.; Klose, F.

2000-11-21

355

Argonne intense pulsed neutron source used to solve the molecular structure of a novel organometallic complex  

SciTech Connect

The single-crystal structure of Mn(CO)/sub 3/(C/sub 7/H/sub 11/) is the first to be solved by direct methods based on time-of-flight neutron diffraction data obtained at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The molecule contains an unusual three-center, two-electron manganese-hydrogen-carbon interaction. 2 figures.

Schultz, A.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Teller, R.G.; Beno, M.A.; Williams, J.M.; Brookhart, M.; Lamanna, W.; Humphrey, M.B.

1983-04-08

356

Compact, Energy Efficient Neutron Source: Enabling Technology for Thorium Breeder and Accelerator Transmutation of Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neutron source concept, in which a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Be walls of proper thickness will absorb 14 MeV neutrons and

A. Hershcovitch; W. Horak; B. Johnson; M. Todosow; T. Roser; M. Driscoll

2009-01-01

357

A source-based fast-neutron facility for precision irradiations  

E-print Network

We report on a source-based fast-neutron facility that has been developed for precision irradiations. Well-understood shielding, coincidence, and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to produce a polychromatic energy-tagged neutron beam.

Scherzinger, J; Davatz, G; Fissum, K G; Gendotti, U; Hall-Wilton, R; Hansson, A; Hkansson, E; Jebali, R; Kanaki, K; Lundin, M; Nilsson, B; Svensson, H

2014-01-01

358

Force analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source control rod drive latch mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANS), a proposed Department of Energy research reactor currently undergoing conceptual design, will generate a thermal neutron flux approximating 1020 m-2 -s-1. The compact core necessary to produce this flux provides little space for the shim\\/safety control rods, which are located in the central annulus of the core. Without proper control rod drive design, the

B. Damiano

1990-01-01

359

H(-) injection simulation for a 5 MW spallation neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BNL has conducted a study of a 'green field' pulsed spallation neutron source with a design objective of 5 MW of average proton beam power on a heavy element production target. The authors propose H(-) injection from a 600-MeV CCL linac into a pair of rapid (30 Hz) cycling synchrotrons with final energy 3.6-GeV and total output current of 1.394 mA. With a total throughput of 8.7 x 10(exp 15) p/s from the two 3.6-GeV rings, it is important that losses - particularly distributed loss around the rings - be minimized both for reasons of shielding requirements and activation of components. A reasonable limit for fractional distributed losses is less than or equal to 10(exp -3). A major source of such losses would be scattering of the incident H(-) beam and subsequent multiple traversals of the stripped protons out of the ring acceptance ellipses by multiple coulomb (MCS) and nuclear elastic scattering (NES). Indeed, Yamane, et al. have made an estimate of these losses for the Japanese Hadron Facility at 1-GeV incident H(-) energy through a 250 mu-g/cm(exp 2) C-12 stripper foil and obtain scattering losses of 5.4 x 10(exp -4). Such losses could be higher for the 600-MeV H(-) injection contemplated here. The authors, therefore, did a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation of muliturn injection through a carbon stripper foil to obtain quantitative loss estimates. The authors find that under optimal conditions with a rapidly (exponentially) collapsing orbit bump of the ring horizontal (x) and vertical (z) acceptance ellipse through a 300 mu-g/cm(exp 2) 'postage stamp' (10 mm x 10 mm) C-12 foil and with 300 turn injection of an H(-) beam tracking the ellipse axis y' = -(alpha/beta)y, the scattering losses out of an A(sub x,z) = 400 pi mm-mrad acceptance ellipse with 50% filling is only 2.9 +/- 0.3 x 10(exp -5).

Blumberg, L. N.

1994-02-01

360

BINP accelerator based epithermal neutron source V. Aleynik a  

E-print Network

. In the article, diagnostic techniques for proton beam and neutrons developed are described, results. To determine the total beam current in different parts of the facility, a target like a copper cone with water

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

361

Non-Uniform Contrast and Noise Correction for Coded Source Neutron Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Since the first application of neutron radiography in the 1930s, the field of neutron radiography has matured enough to develop several applications. However, advances in the technology are far from concluded. In general, the resolution of scintillator-based detection systems is limited to the $10\\mu m$ range, and the relatively low neutron count rate of neutron sources compared to other illumination sources restricts time resolved measurement. One path toward improved resolution is the use of magnification; however, to date neutron optics are inefficient, expensive, and difficult to develop. There is a clear demand for cost-effective scintillator-based neutron imaging systems that achieve resolutions of $1 \\mu m$ or less. Such imaging system would dramatically extend the application of neutron imaging. For such purposes a coded source imaging system is under development. The current challenge is to reduce artifacts in the reconstructed coded source images. Artifacts are generated by non-uniform illumination of the source, gamma rays, dark current at the imaging sensor, and system noise from the reconstruction kernel. In this paper, we describe how to pre-process the coded signal to reduce noise and non-uniform illumination, and how to reconstruct the coded signal with three reconstruction methods correlation, maximum likelihood estimation, and algebraic reconstruction technique. We illustrates our results with experimental examples.

Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL

2012-01-01

362

Nanoparticles as a possible moderator for an ultracold neutron source  

E-print Network

Ultracold and very cold neutrons (UCN and VCN) interact strongly with nanoparticles due to the similarity of their wavelengths and nanoparticles sizes. We analyze the hypothesis that this interaction can provide efficient cooling of neutrons by ultracold nanoparticles at certain experimental conditions, thus increasing the density of UCN by many orders of magnitude. The present analytical and numerical description of the problem is limited to the model of independent nanoparticles at zero temperature. Constraints of application of this model are discussed.

V. V. Nesvizhevsky; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov

2005-10-06

363

Monte Carlo calculation of skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS (Advanced Light Source)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS: Sources of radiation; ALS modeling for skyshine calculations; MORSE Monte-Carlo; Implementation of MORSE; Results of skyshine calculations from storage ring; and Comparison of MORSE shielding calculations.

Moin-Vasiri, M.

1990-06-01

364

Designing and testing the neutron source deployment system and calibration plan for a dark matter detector  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we designed and tested a calibration and deployment system for the MiniCLEAN dark matter detector. The deployment system uses a computer controlled winch to lower a canister containing a neutron source into ...

Westerdale, Shawn (Shawn S.)

2011-01-01

365

Proceedings of the 10th meeting of the international collaboration on advanced neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers from the 10th meeting of the International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources. Two general types of workshops are discussed, instrument and target-station. Individual papers are indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP)

Hyer, D.K. (comp. and ed.)

1989-03-01

366

76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2011-0251] Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing...Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...require installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing...December 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

2011-12-07

367

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project: a fertile ground for radiation protection and shielding challenges.  

PubMed

The Spallation Neutron Source facility presently under construction in the USA consists of a front end, a linac, an accumulator ring, a target station and a neutron instrument hall, producing pulsed neutron beams driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and 1.4 MW power with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The layout of the facility and the radiation protection and shielding concept of the facility is laid out in numerous examples in a walk from the proton beam generation to the neutron utilisation. PMID:16381678

Gallmeier, F X; Ferguson, P D; Popova, I I; Iverson, E B

2005-01-01

368

Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,?) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as ? detector. A neutron energy window up to 90 eV, including four distinct resonance peaks, has been assessed. A net decrease of the intrinsic width of the 6.6 eV resonance peak has also been demonstrated employing the double difference spectrum technique, with two uranium foils of different thickness.

Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Bracco, A.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.

2002-04-01

369

Neutron flux and energy characterization of a plutonium-beryllium isotopic neutron source by monte carlo simulation with verification by neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to characterize the neutron energy distribution and flux emitted from the UNLV plutonium-beryllium source, serial number MRC-N-W PuBe 453. This was accomplished through the use of the MCNPX\\/5 Monte-Carlo particle transport code to simulate radiation interactions within the physical environment of the source and its surroundings. The moderating drum currently containing the source as

Zachary R. Harvey

2010-01-01

370

Hybrid Skyshine Calculations for Complex Neutron and Gamma-Ray Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step hybrid method is described for computationally efficient estimation of neutron and gamma-ray skyshine doses far from a shielded source. First, the energy and angular dependence of radiation escaping into the atmosphere from a source containment is determined by a detailed transport model such as MCNP. Then, an effective point source with this energy and angular dependence is used

J. Kenneth Shultis; J. Kenneth

2000-01-01

371

Neutron flux and energy characterization of a plutonium-beryllium isotopic neutron source by monte carlo simulation with verification by neutron activation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to characterize the neutron energy distribution and flux emitted from the UNLV plutonium-beryllium source, serial number MRC-N-W PuBe 453. This was accomplished through the use of the MCNPX/5 Monte-Carlo particle transport code to simulate radiation interactions within the physical environment of the source and its surroundings. The moderating drum currently containing the source as well as all of the sampling ports were accurately modeled in MCNPX/5. This geometry was then used to simulate the neutron interactions taking place in these geometries. The results of the simulations were then verified by the use of specifically chosen activation detectors and threshold foils designed to accurately convey information on the energy distribution and flux of the neutrons present at multiple sampling locations.

Harvey, Zachary R.

372

Characterization of a novel, short pulse laser-driven neutron source  

SciTech Connect

We present a full characterization of a short pulse laser-driven neutron source. Neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of laser-driven ions deposited in a secondary target. The emission of neutrons is a superposition of an isotropic component into 4? and a forward directed, jet-like contribution, with energies ranging up to 80 MeV. A maximum flux of 4.4 10{sup 9} neutrons/sr has been observed and used for fast neutron radiography. On-shot characterization of the ion driver and neutron beam has been done with a variety of different diagnostics, including particle detectors, nuclear reaction, and time-of-flight methods. The results are of great value for future optimization of this novel technique and implementation in advanced applications.

Jung, D.; Falk, K.; Guler, N.; Devlin, M.; Favalli, A.; Fernandez, J. C.; Gautier, D. C.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C. E.; Hegelich, B. M.; Johnson, R. P.; Merrill, F.; Schoenberg, K.; Shimada, T.; Taddeucci, T.; Tybo, J. L.; Wender, S. A.; Wilde, C. H.; Wurden, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Deppert, O. [Technische Universitt Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

2013-05-15

373

The dependence of the gravity effect in elliptic neutron guides on the source size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elliptic neutron guides are expected to be widely used for construction of long neutron beamlines at the future European Spallation Source and other facilities due to their superiour transmission properties compared to conventional straight guides. At the same time, neutrons traveling long distances are subject to the action of gravity that can significantly modify their flight paths. In this work, the influence of gravity on a neutron beam propagating through elliptic guides is studied for the first time in a systematic way with Monte-Carlo simulations. It is shown that gravity leads to significant distortions of the phase space during propagation through long elliptic guides, but this effect can be recovered by a sufficiently large source size. The results of this analysis should be taken into account during design of long neutron instruments at the ESS and other facilities.

Nekrassov, D.; Zendler, C.; Lieutenant, K.

2014-07-01

374

Monte Carlo Simulations Of The Response Of Shielded SNM To A Pulsed Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active neutron interrogation has been used as a technique for the detection and identification of special nuclear material (SNM) for both proposed and field-tested systems. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been studying this technique for systems ranging from small systems employing portable electronic neutron generators to larger systems employing linear accelerators as high-energy photon sources for assessment of vehicles and cargo. In order to assess the feasibility of new systems, INL has undertaken a campaign of Monte Carlo simulations of the response of a variety of masses of SNM in multiple shielding configurations to a pulsed neutron source using the MCNPX code, with emphasis on the neutron and photon response of the system as a function of time after the initial neutron pulse. We present here some preliminary results from these calculations.

Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.

2011-06-01

375

A neutron source to measure stellar neutron capture cross sections at kT=5 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1980 the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction was intensively used for activation measurements. With a proton energy of E=1911 keV the resulting neutron spectrum resembles a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a thermal energy of kT=25 keV. Therefore, this neutron source is ideal to determine Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections (MACS) close to a temperature of 250 million Kelvin (kT=23 keV) which is typical for the s process in red giant stars. Meanwhile, detailed stellar models indicate that the dominant neutron exposure of the main s-process component in low mass AGB stars occurs at a lower temperature of 90 million Kelvin (kT=8 keV). Hence, the necessary stellar reaction rates had to be extrapolated from 25 keV to the lower thermal energy. In order to avoid the corresponding additional uncertainties, we report on the 18O(p,n)18F neutron source, which allows one to produce a Maxwell-Boltzmann spectrum close to the lower thermal energy of kT=8 keV. First results of activation measurements for 138Ba(n,?)139Ba, 139La(n,?)140La, and 175Lu(n,?)176Lum will be presented.

Heil, M.; Dababneh, S.; Kppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Juseviciute, A.; Winckler, N.; Reifarth, R.; O'Brien, S.

2005-07-01

376

New source for ultracold neutrons at the Institut Laue-Langevin  

E-print Network

A new intense superthermal source for ultracold neutrons (UCN) has been installed at a dedicated beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Incident neutrons with a wavelength of 0.89 nm are converted to UCN in a five liter volume filled with superfluid $^4$He at a temperature of about 0.7 K. The UCN can be extracted to room temperature experiments. We present the cryogenic setup of the source, a characterization of the cold neutron beam, and UCN production measurements, where a UCN density in the production volume of at least 55 per cm$^3$ was determined.

Piegsa, F M; Ivanov, S N; Kreuz, M; Leung, K K H; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Soldner, T; Zimmer, O

2014-01-01

377

New source for ultracold neutrons at the Institut Laue-Langevin  

E-print Network

A new intense superthermal source for ultracold neutrons (UCN) has been installed at a dedicated beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Incident neutrons with a wavelength of 0.89 nm are converted to UCN in a five liter volume filled with superfluid $^4$He at a temperature of about 0.7 K. The UCN can be extracted to room temperature experiments. We present the cryogenic setup of the source, a characterization of the cold neutron beam, and UCN production measurements, where a UCN density in the production volume of at least 55 per cm$^3$ was determined.

F. M. Piegsa; M. Fertl; S. N. Ivanov; M. Kreuz; K. K. H. Leung; P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; T. Soldner; O. Zimmer

2014-04-14

378

New source for ultracold neutrons at the Institut Laue-Langevin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new intense superthermal source for ultracold neutrons (UCN) was installed at a dedicated beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Incident neutrons with a wavelength of 0.89 nm are converted to UCN in a 5-liter volume filled with superfluid He4 at a temperature of about 0.7 K. The UCN can be extracted to room temperature experiments. We present the cryogenic setup of the source, a characterization of the cold neutron beam, and UCN production measurements, where a UCN density in the production volume of at least 55 per cm3 was determined.

Piegsa, F. M.; Fertl, M.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kreuz, M.; Leung, K. K. H.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Soldner, T.; Zimmer, O.

2014-07-01

379

Activation analysis of indium, KCl, and melamine by using a laser-induced neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source with a neutron yield of 4 105 n/pulse and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz, which was developed using a deuterated polystyrene film target and a 24-TW femtosecond laser, was applied for laser activation analyses of indium, KCl, and melamine samples. The nuclear reactions of the measured gamma spectra for the activated samples were identified as (n, ?), (n, n'), and (n, 2n) reactions. These indicate possible usage of the neutron source for practical activation analyses of various materials.

Lee, Sungman; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki

2014-04-01

380

FAST NEUTRON SOURCE DETECTION AT LONG DISTANCES USING DOUBLE SCATTER SPECTROMETRY.  

SciTech Connect

Fast neutrons can be detected with relatively high efficiency, >15%, using two planes of hydrogenous scintillator detectors where a scatter in the first plane creates a start pulse and scatter in the second plane is separated by time-of-flight. Indeed, the neutron spectrum of the source can be determined as the sum of energy deposited by pulse height in the first added to the energy of the second found by time-of-flight to the second detector. Gamma rays can also create a double scatter by Compton interaction in the first with detection in the second, but these events occur in a single time window because the scattered photons all travel at the speed of light. Thus, gamma ray events can be separated from neutrons by the time-of-flight differences. We have studied this detection system with a Cf-252 source using Bicron 501A organic scintillators and report on the ability to efficiently detect fast neutrons with high neutron/gamma detection ratios. We have further studied cosmic-ray neutron background detection response that is the dominant background in long range detection. We have found that most of the neutrons are excluded from the time-of-flight window because they are either too high in energy, >10 keV, or too low, < 10 keV. Moreover, if the detection planes are position-sensitive, the angular direction of the source can be determined by the ratio of the energy of scattered protons in the first detector relative to the position and energy of the scattered neutron detected in the second. This ability to locate the source in theta is useful, but more importantly increases the signal to noise relative to cosmic-ray produced neutrons that are relatively isotropic. This technique may be used in large arrays to detect neutrons at ranges up to 0.5 kilometer.

FORMAN,L.VANIER,P.WELSH,K.

2003-08-03

381

Optimization of the target of an accelerator-driven neutron source through Monte Carlo numerical simulation of neutron and gamma transport by the PRIZMA code.  

PubMed

At Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, epithermal neutron source for neutron-capture therapy was built and neutron generation was realized. Source is based on tandem accelerator and uses near-threshold neutron generation from the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The paper describes target optimization through the numerical simulation of proton, neutron and gamma transport by Monte Carlo method (PRIZMA code). It is shown that the near-threshold mode attractive due low activation provides high efficiency of the dose and acceptable therapeutic ratio and advantage depth. PMID:21482125

Kandiev, Ya; Kashaeva, E; Malyshkin, G; Bayanov, B; Taskaev, S

2011-12-01

382

Neutron-source characterization for fusion-materials studies  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-flux and energy-spectrum measurements are conducted for all major fusion-materials irradiation facilities, including fission reactors and accelerators. Dosimetry-characterization experiments and integral cross section measurements have been performed. Multiple activation and helium-production measurements are performed routinely to provide materials experimenters with neutron-exposure parameters including fluence, spectrum, displacements, gas production, and transmutation with typical accuracies of 10 to 15%. Such data are crucial to the fusion-materials program in order to correlate materials-property changes between irradiations and facilities and to confidently predict the performance of materials in fusion reactors.

Greenwood, L.R.

1981-06-01

383

A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives  

SciTech Connect

AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, 3077 Teagarden Street, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Lane, Stephen [NSF Center for Biophotonics and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA, 95817 (United States)

2011-12-13

384

An assessment of the continuous neutron source using a low-energy electron accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a continuous neutron source using an electron accelerator was evaluated by computer simulation codes (EGS4 and MCNP) in terms of neutron yield, neutron flux distribution, neutron spectrum, and heat distribution. Electrons with energies from 10 to 100 MeV were injected into a tungsten converter in order to generate photons by bremsstrahlung. When the photon irradiated a heavy water (DS{sub 2}O) target, neutrons were produced by photonuclear reaction in the D{sub 2}O target. This type of source was optimized for target geometry and electron energy from the point of neutron yield. The neutron spectrum was found to have two characteristic peaks, at the low-energy (thermal) region and the high-energy (million-electron-volt) region. The maximum photoneutrons per 1,000 MeV of electron energy was 0.56 at the electron energy of 30 MeV. In the case of irradiation by a 30-MeV, 33-mA continuous electron beam, the maximum thermal neutron flux was on the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}.

Kase, Takeshi; Harada, Hideo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-05-01

385

Developments in neutron beam devices and an advanced cold source for the NIST research reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last 5 yr has been a period of steady growth in instrument capabilities and utilization at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. Since the installation of the liquid hydrogen cold source in 1995, all of the instruments originally planned for the Cold Neutron Research Facility have been completed and made available to users, and three new thermal neutron instruments have been installed. Currently, an advanced cold source is being fabricated that will better couple the reactor core and the existing network of neutron guides. Many improvements are also being made in neutron optics to enhance the beam characteristics of certain instruments. For example, optical filters will be installed that will increase the fluxes at the two 30-m SANS instruments by as much as two. Sets of MgF 2 biconcave lenses have been developed for SANS that have demonstrated a significant improvement in resolution over conventional pinhole collimation. The recently commissioned high-flux backscattering spectrometer incorporates a converging guide, a large spherically focusing monochromator and analyzer, and a novel phase space transform chopper, to achieve very high intensity while maintaining excellent energy resolution. Finally, a prototype low background, doubly focusing neutron monochromator is nearing completion that will be the heart of a new cold neutron spectrometer, as well as two new thermal neutron triple axis spectrometers.

Williams, Robert E.; Rowe, J. Michael

2002-01-01

386

Modified big bang nucleosynthesis with non-standard neutron sources  

E-print Network

During big bang nucleosynthesis, any injection of extra neutrons around the time of the $^7$Be formation, i.e. at a temperature of order $T \\simeq 50$~keV, can reduce the predicted freeze-out amount of $^7$Be + $^7$Li that otherwise remains in sharp contradiction with the Spite plateau value inferred from the observations of Pop II stars. However, the growing confidence in the primordial D/H determinations puts a strong constraint on any such scenario. We address this issue in detail, analyzing different temporal patterns of neutron injection, such as decay, annihilation, resonant annihilation, and oscillation between mirror and standard model world neutrons. For this latter case, we derive the realistic injection pattern taking into account thermal effects (damping and refraction) in the primordial plasma. If the extra neutron supply is the sole non-standard mechanism operating during the BBN, the suppression of lithium abundance below Li/H~$\\leq 1.9 \\times 10^{-10}$ always leads to the overproduction of deuterium, D/H~$\\geq 3.6 \\times 10^{-5}$, well outside the error bars suggested by recent observations.

Alain Coc; Maxim Pospelov; Jean-Philippe Uzan; Elisabeth Vangioni

2014-05-07

387

Modified big bang nucleosynthesis with nonstandard neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During big bang nucleosynthesis, any injection of extra neutrons around the time of the Be7 formation, i.e. at a temperature of order T ?50 keV, can reduce the predicted freeze-out amount of Be7+Li7 that otherwise remains in sharp contradiction with the Spite plateau value inferred from the observations of Pop II stars. However, the growing confidence in the primordial D /H determinations puts a strong constraint on any such scenario. We address this issue in detail, analyzing different temporal patterns of neutron injection, such as decay, annihilation, resonant annihilation, and oscillation between mirror and standard model world neutrons. For this latter case, we derive the realistic injection pattern taking into account thermal effects (damping and refraction) in the primordial plasma. If the extra-neutron supply is the sole nonstandard mechanism operating during the big bang nucleosynthesis, the suppression of lithium abundance below Li /H?1.910-10 always leads to the overproduction of deuterium, D /H?3.610-5, well outside the error bars suggested by recent observations.

Coc, Alain; Pospelov, Maxim; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

2014-10-01

388

2. 5 MeV neutron source for fission cross section measurement  

SciTech Connect

A 2.5 MeV neutron source has been established on the beamline of a 100 kV, 0.5 ma ion accelerator. The ion accelerator provides a 100 kV deuteron beam of about 200 ..mu..a into a 3 mm beam spot at the target position. The neutron source is produced by the D(d,n)/sup 3/He reaction with a yield of about 10/sup 7/ n/sec. The time-correlated associated particle method (TCAP) is utilized for the neutron fluence determination and for neutron background elimination. The /sup 3/He associated particles are detected at 90 degrees behind a thin aluminum foil and the corresponding neutrons are emitted at 73.5 degrees with an energy near 2.5 MeV. Also, the protons from the competing D(d,p)T reaction are monitored at 135 degrees for normalization and diagnostic purposes. A fission chamber containing six uranium tetrafluoride deposits has been designed for use in the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurement at 2.5 MeV. The 5 cm diameter deposits range in thickness from 230--300 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and are expected to have good uniformity. A description of the 2.5 MeV neutron source facility is presented along with details of the associated particle detection and neutron beam characteristics. Preparations for the fission cross section measurement are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Duvall,, K.C.; Wasson, O.A.; Ma, Honchang

1988-01-01

389

Fundamental Problems of Neutron Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source at the ORNL  

SciTech Connect

We propose to provide theoretical support for the experimental program in fundamental neutron physics at the SNS. This includes the study of neutron properties, neutron beta-decay, parity violation effects and time reversal violation effects. The main purpose of the proposed research is to work on theoretical problems related to experiments which have a high priority at the SNS. Therefore, we will make a complete analysis of beta-decay process including calculations of radiative corrections and recoil corrections for angular correlations for polarized neutron decay, with an accuracy better that is supposed to be achieved in the planning experiments. Based on the results of the calculations, we will provide analysis of sensitivity of angular correlations to be able to search for the possible extensions of the Standard model. Also we will help to plan other experiments to address significant problems of modern physics and will work on their theoretical support.

Vladimir Gudkov

2008-07-16

390

General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

E-print Network

among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design...

Bosko, Andrey

2005-11-01

391

First experimental implementation of pulse shaping for neutron diffraction on pulsed sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the central issues in the design and the use of pulsed neutron sources is the control of pulse length in elastic scattering experiments, most significantly diffraction on crystalline matter. On the existing short pulse spallation sources the strongly wavelength dependent source pulse length that determines the resolution is permanently fixed on each beam line by the type of the moderator it faces. We have experimentally implemented for the first time the wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) multiplexing chopper method, an earlier proposed variant of the by now fully tested repetition rate multiplication technique for inelastic scattering spectroscopy on pulsed neutron sources. We have operated the time-of-flight diffractometer at the continuous reactor source at BNC in an unconventional multiplexing mode that emulates a pulsed source. As a full proof of principle of the WFM method we have experimentally demonstrated the extraction from each source pulse a series of polychromatic, chopper shaped neutron pulses, which can continuously cover any wavelength band. The achieved 25 ?s FWHM pulse length is shorter than that can be obtained at all at short pulse spallation sources for cold neutrons. The method allows us to build efficient, high and variable resolution diffractometers at long pulse spallation sources.

Russina, M.; Kli, Gy.; Snta, Zs.; Mezei, F.

2011-10-01

392

Development of a high-speed camera system for neutron imaging at a pulsed neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron energy resolved imaging system with a time-of-flight technique has been newly developed and installed at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) with the aim to investigate more preciously and rapidly a spatial distribution of several elements and crystals in various kinds of materials or substances. A high-speed video camera (CMOS, 1300 k frame/s) equipped system allows to obtain TOF images consecutively resolved into narrow energy ranges with a single pulsed neutrons while conventional CCD camera imaging system could obtain only one TOF image in an arbitral neutron energy region in the pulsed neutron energy region from 0.01 eV to a few keV. Qualities of the images obtained with the system, such as spatial resolution (defined by modulation transfer function, 0.8 line-pairs/mm at En0.01 eV), dependence of the brightness on the neutron energy and measurement errors (2%) of the system were examined experimentally and evaluated by comparison with those of conventional imaging system. The results obtained in the experiments show that the system can visualize the neutron energy resolved images within a small error even at high speed.

Segawa, M.; Kai, T.; Sakai, T.; Ooi, M.; Kureta, M.

2013-01-01

393

A new facility for fundamental particle physics: The high-intensity ultracold neutron source at the Paul Scherrer Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental properties of the neutron can be studied in detail using ultracold neutrons (UCN) which can be stored and observed for hundreds of seconds. A new user facility providing ultracold neutrons for fundamental physics research has been constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, the PSI UCN source. Assembly of the facility finished in December 2010 with the first production of ultracold neutrons. The layout of the source and its operation are briefly discussed.

Lauss, Bernhard; UCN Project Team

2012-09-01

394

Production and characterization of a custom-made 228Th source with reduced neutron source strength for the Borexino experiment  

E-print Network

A custom-made 228Th source of several MBq activity was produced for the Borexino experiment for studying the external background of the detector. The aim was to reduce the unwanted neutron emission produced via (alpha,n) reactions in ceramics used typically for commercial 228Th sources. For this purpose a ThCl4 solution was converted chemically into ThO2 and embedded into a gold foil. The paper describes the production and the characterization of the custom-made source by means of gamma-activity, dose rate and neutron source strength measurements. From gamma-spectroscopic measurements it was deduced that the activity transfer from the initial solution to the final source was >91% (at 68% C.L.) and the final activity was (5.41+-0.30) MBq. The dose rate was measured by two dosimeters yielding 12.1 mSv/h and 14.3 mSv/h in 1 cm distance. The neutron source strength of the 5.41 MBq 228Th source was determined as (6.59+-0.85)/sec.

Maneschg, W; Dressler, R; Eberhardt, K; Eichler, R; Keller, H; Lackner, R; Praast, B; Santorelli, R; Schreiner, J; Tarka, M; Wiegel, B; Zimbal, A

2011-01-01

395

Production and characterization of a custom-made 228Th source with reduced neutron source strength for the Borexino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A custom-made 228Th source of several MBq activities was produced for the Borexino experiment to study the external background of the detector. The aim was to reduce the unwanted neutron emission produced via (?,n) reactions in ceramics typically used for commercial 228Th sources. For this purpose a ThCl4 solution was chemically converted into ThO2 and embedded in a gold foil. The paper describes the production of the custom-made source and its characterization by means of ?-activity, dose rate and neutron source strength measurements. From ?-spectroscopic measurements it was deduced that activity transfer from the initial solution to the final source was >91% (at 68% C.L.) and the final activity was (5.410.30) MBq. The dose rate was measured with two dosimeters yielding 12.1 mSv/h and 14.3 mSv/h in 1 cm distance. The neutron source strength of the 5.41 MBq 228Th source was determined to be (6.590.85) s-1.

Maneschg, W.; Baudis, L.; Dressler, R.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Keller, H.; Lackner, R.; Praast, B.; Santorelli, R.; Schreiner, J.; Tarka, M.; Wiegel, B.; Zimbal, A.

2012-07-01

396

High energy particle background at neutron spallation sources and possible solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spallation neutron sources are driven by proton beams ~ GeV energies. Whereas low energy particle background shielding is well understood for reactors sources of neutrons (~20 MeV), for high energies (100s MeV to multiple GeV) there is potential to improve shielding solutions and reduce instrument backgrounds significantly. We present initial measured data on high energy particle backgrounds, which illustrate the results of particle showers caused by high energy particles from spallation neutron sources. We use detailed physics models of different materials to identify new shielding solutions for such neutron sources, including laminated layers of multiple materials. In addition to the steel and concrete, which are used traditionally, we introduce some other options that are new to the neutron scattering community, among which there are copper alloys as used in hadronic calorimeters in high energy physics laboratories. These concepts have very attractive energy absorption characteristics, and simulations predict that the background suppression could be improved by one or two orders of magnitude. These solutions are expected to be great benefit to the European Spallation Source, where the majority of instruments are potentially affected by high energy backgrounds, as well as to existing spallation sources.

Cherkashyna, N.; Kanaki, K.; Kittelmann, T.; Filges, U.; Deen, P.; Herwig, K.; Ehlers, G.; Greene, G.; Carpenter, J.; Connatser, R.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Bentley, P. M.

2014-07-01

397

A Targeted Search for Point Sources of EeV Neutrons  

E-print Network

A flux of neutrons from an astrophysical source in the Galaxy can be detected in the Pierre Auger Observatory as an excess of cosmic-ray air showers arriving from the direction of the source. To avoid the statistical penalty for making many trials, classes of objects are tested in combinations as nine "target sets", in addition to the search for a neutron flux from the Galactic Center or from the Galactic Plane. Within a target set, each candidate source is weighted in proportion to its electromagnetic flux, its exposure to the Auger Observatory, and its flux attenuation factor due to neutron decay. These searches do not find evidence for a neutron flux from any class of candidate sources. Tabulated results give the combined p-value for each class, with and without the weights, and also the flux upper limit for the most significant candidate source within each class. These limits on fluxes of neutrons significantly constrain models of EeV proton emission from non-transient discrete sources in the Galaxy.

Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Buml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blmer, H; Boh?ov, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceio, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Daz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filip?i?, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Frhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Fuji, T; Gaior, R; Garca, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gmez; Vitale, P F Gmez; Gonalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q D; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hrandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsk, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Islo, K; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kp, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kgl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krmer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leo, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lpez, R; Agera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mari?, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martnez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masas; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, A J; Matthews, J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Mi?anovi?, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostaf, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Mller, G; Mnchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Noka, L; Ochilo, L; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; P?kala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodrguez-Fras, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Snchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A

2014-01-01

398

Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (? - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 105 cm-3s-1, respectively.

Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

2014-01-01

399

Compact, Energy Efficient Neutron Source: Enabling Technology for Thorium Breeder and Accelerator Transmutation of Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel neutron source concept, in which a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Be walls of proper thickness will absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2 -- 3 lower energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Beam propagation can be further enhanced with vortex-stabilized discharges, electron beams in opposite direction (with energy recovery) or magnetic fields. Deuterium ions propagating through tritium plasma are slowed down and deposit significant energy in the tritium target. Plasma heating results in high temperature electron, thus reducing deuterium ion energy loss. Equilibrium electron temperature exceeding 200 eV can be achieved. Unlike current methods, where accelerator based neutron sources require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact and can generate neutrons at higher power efficiency. Being modular, the concept can be tested in tabletop experiments.

Hershcovitch, A.; Horak, W.; Johnson, B.; Todosow, M.; Roser, T.; Driscoll, M.

2009-11-01

400

Physics Analyses in the Design of the HFIR Cold Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

Physics analyses have been performed to characterize the performance of the cold neutron source to be installed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the near future. This paper provides a description of the physics models developed, and the resulting analyses that have been performed to support the design of the cold source. These analyses have provided important parametric performance information, such as cold neutron brightness down the beam tube and the various component heat loads, that have been used to develop the reference cold source concept.

Bucholz, J.A.

1999-09-27

401

First results from the NPDGamma experiment at the spallation neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment aims to measure the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in neutron-proton capture. A parity violating asymmetry (to be measured to 10-8) from this process can be directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons, specifically the ?I=1 contribution. As part of the commissioning runs on the Fundamental Neutron Physics beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at ORNL, the gamma-ray asymmetries from the parity-violating capture of cold neutrons on 35Cl and 27Al were measured, to check for systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Early this year, the parahydrogen target for the production run of NPDGamma was commissioned. Preliminary results for the commissioning measurements with 35Cl and 27Al will be presented as well as first results of the hydrogen run.

Fomin, Nadia; NPDGamma Collaboration

2013-10-01

402

First results from the NPDGamma Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment aims to measure the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in cold neutron-proton capture. A parity violating asymmetry (to be measured to 10-8) from this process can be directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons, specifically the ?I=1 contribution. As part of the commissioning runs on the Fundamental Neutron Physics beam line at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL, the gamma-ray asymmetries from the parity-violating capture of cold neutrons on ^35Cl and ^27Al were measured, to check for systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Early this year, the parahydrogen target for the production run of NPDGamma was commissioned. Results of commissioning measurements will be reviewed and first hydrogen data will be shown.

Fomin, Nadia

2012-10-01

403

First results from the NPDGamma experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source  

E-print Network

The NPDGamma experiment aims to measure the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in neutron-proton capture. A parity violating asymmetry (to be measured to 10$^{-8}$) from this process can be directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons, specifically the $\\Delta$I=1 contribution. As part of the commissioning runs on the Fundamental Neutron Physics beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at ORNL, the gamma-ray asymmetries from the parity-violating capture of cold neutrons on $^{35}$Cl and $^{27}$Al were measured, to check for systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Early this year, the parahydrogen target for the production run of NPDGamma was commissioned. Preliminary results for the commissioning measurements with $^{35}$Cl and $^{27}$Al will be presented as well as first results of the hydrogen run.

Fomin, Nadia

2012-01-01

404

First results from the NPDGamma experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source  

E-print Network

The NPDGamma experiment aims to measure the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in neutron-proton capture. A parity violating asymmetry (to be measured to 10$^{-8}$) from this process can be directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons, specifically the $\\Delta$I=1 contribution. As part of the commissioning runs on the Fundamental Neutron Physics beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at ORNL, the gamma-ray asymmetries from the parity-violating capture of cold neutrons on $^{35}$Cl and $^{27}$Al were measured, to check for systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Early this year, the parahydrogen target for the production run of NPDGamma was commissioned. Preliminary results for the commissioning measurements with $^{35}$Cl and $^{27}$Al will be presented as well as first results of the hydrogen run.

Nadia Fomin

2012-09-07

405

Performance evaluation of the source description of the THOR BNCT epithermal neutron beam.  

PubMed

This paper aims to evaluate the performance of the source description of the THOR BNCT beam via different measurement techniques in different phantoms. The measurement included (1) the absolute reaction rate measurement of a set of triple activation foils, (2) the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates measured using the paired ionization chamber method, and (3) the relative reaction rate distributions obtained using the indirect neutron radiography. Three source descriptions, THOR-Y09, surface source file RSSA, and THOR-50C, were tested. The comparison results concluded that THOR-Y09 is a well-tested source description not only for neutron components, but also for gamma-ray component. PMID:21570855

Liu, Yuan-Hao; Tsai, Pi-En; Yu, Hui-Ting; Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Shiang; Huang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

2011-12-01

406

Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 31 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S.; Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S.

2013-04-01

407

Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source  

SciTech Connect

A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 3 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S. [University of California Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2013-04-19

408

78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...above for Am/Be and Pu/Be sources, the neutrons from Cf-252 are employed as a treatment of certain cervical and brain cancers where other radiation therapy is ineffective. The Cf-252 sources are also used to start up nuclear reactors....

2013-04-11

409

Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the authors have made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two

Marzec

1996-01-01

410

Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 2 workshop presentations  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Pulsed Spallation Source study, this Workshop was convened to address ion-source technology`s present status with respect to the next-generation Pulsed Spallation Source in the 1-5 MW range for the neutron scattering community. Considerations of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) parameters and designs were included in the discussions throughout the Workshop. Ion-source requirements and actually-achieved performances were assessed, resulting in a determination of research and development requirements to bridge the gap. Part 1 of these Proceedings summarizes the Workshop; Part 2 contains viewgraphs of Workshop presentations.

Schroeder, L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Alonso, J. [eds.

1994-10-01

411

Secondary Startup Neutron Sources as a Source of Tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS)  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of this paper is that the Zircaloy clad fuel source is minimal and that secondary startup neutron sources are the significant contributors of the tritium in the RCS that was previously assigned to release from fuel. Currently there are large uncertainties in the attribution of tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The measured amount of tritium in the coolant cannot be separated out empirically into its individual sources. Therefore, to quantify individual contributors, all sources of tritium in the RCS of a PWR must be understood theoretically and verified by the sum of the individual components equaling the measured values.

Shaver, Mark W.; Lanning, Donald D.

2010-02-01

412

Gamma-ray measurements at the WNR white neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Photon production data have been acquired in the incident neutron energy range, 1 < E{sub n} < 400 MeV, for a number of target nuclei, gamma-ray energy ranges, and reactions, using the continuous-energy neutron beam of the WNR facility at Los Alamos. Gamma-ray production measurements using high resolution Ge detectors have been employed for gamma-rays in the energy range, 0.1 < E{sub {gamma}} < 10 MeV. These measurements allow identification of reactions from the known energies of the gamma-ray transitions between low-lying states in the final nucleus. Some of the targets studied include: N, O, Al, Na, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 207,208}Pb. These data are useful both for testing nuclear reaction models at intermediate energies and for numerous applied purposes. BGO detectors do not have the good energy resolution of Ge detectors, but have much greater detection efficiency for gamma rays with energies greater than a few MeV. We have used an array of 5 BGO detectors to measure cross sections and angular distributions for photon production from C and N. A large, well-shielded BGO detector has been used to measure fast neutron capture in the giant resonance region with a maximum gamma-ray energy of 52 MeV. We present results of our study of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance in {sup 41}Ca via these capture measurements. Recent measurements of inclusive photon spectra from our neutron proton Bremsstrahlung experiment have been made using a gamma-ray telescope to detect gamma-rays in the energy range, 40 < E{sub {gamma}} < 300 MeV. This detector is briefly described. The advantages and disadvantages of these detector systems are discussed using examples from our measurements. The status of current measurements is presented.

Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Mayo, D.R.

1994-12-31

413

A Strongly Heated Neutron Star in the Transient Z Source MAXI J0556-332  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ~16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46 15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45 3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 M ?. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ~500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accretion. The temperatures we obtain for the fits that include a power law (kT_eff? = 184-308 eV) are much higher than those seen for any other neutron star heated by accretion, while the inferred cooling (e-folding) timescale (~200 days) is similar to other sources. Fits without a power law yield higher temperatures (kT_eff? = 190-336 eV) and a shorter e-folding time (~160 days). Our results suggest that the heating of the neutron-star crust in MAXI J0556-332 was considerably more efficient than for other systems, possibly indicating additional or more efficient shallow heat sources in its crust.

Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Linares, Manuel; Lin, Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A.

2014-11-01

414

Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 252Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor ( SKN/ mCf) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (?g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for 252Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on SKN/ mCf was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did SKN/ mCf decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of 252Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra results calculated herein using MCNP were compared with results of Colvett et al. and Rivard et al.

Rivard, M. J.; Sganga, J. K.; d'Errico, F.; Tsai, J.-S.; Ulin, K.; Engler, M. J.

2002-01-01

415

A D-T neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a conceptual design of a high-fluence source of 14 MeV D-T neutrons for accelerated testing of materials. The design goal of 10 MW/m/sup 2/ year corresponding to 100 displacements per atom per year is taken to be sufficient for end-of-life tests of candidate materials for a fusion reactor. Such a neutron source would meet a need in the program to develop commercial fusion power that is not yet addressed. In our evaluation, a fusion-based source is preferred for this application over non-fusion, accelerator-type sources such as FMIT because, first, a relevant 14 MeV D-T neutron spectrum is obtained. Second, a fusion source will better simulate the reactor environment where materials can be subjected to high thermal loads, energetic particle irradiation, high mechanical stresses, intense magnetic fields and high magnetic field gradients as well as a 14 MeV neutron flux of several MW/m/sup 2/. Although the actual reactor environment can be realized only in a reactor, a fusion-based neutron source can give valuable design information of synergistic effects in this complex environment. The proposed small volume, high-fluence source would complement the capabilities of a facility such as ITER, which addresses toroidal fusion component development. For our source, the volume of reacting plasma and the fusion power have been minimized, while maintaining an intense neutron flux. As a consequence, tritium consumption is modest, and the amount of tritium required is readily available.

Coensgen, F.H.; Casper, T.A.; Correll, D.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Bulmer, R.H.

1987-08-01

416

DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Measurement of the neutron spectrum of a Pu-C source with a liquid scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron response function for a BC501A liquid scintillator (LS) has been measured using a series of monoenergetic neutrons produced by the p-T reaction. The proton energies were chosen such as to produce neutrons in the energy range of 1 to 20 MeV. The principles of the technique of unfolding a neutron energy spectrum by using the measured neutron response function and the measured Pulse Height (PH) spectrum is briefly described. The PH spectrum of neutrons from the Pu-C source, which will be used for the calibration of the reactor antineutrino detectors for the Daya Bay neutrino experiment, was measured and analyzed to get the neutron energy spectrum. Simultaneously the neutron energy spectrum of an Am-Be source was measured and compared with other measurements as a check of the result for the Pu-C source. Finally, an error analysis and a discussion of the results are given.

Wang, Song-Lin; Huang, Han-Xiong; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Li, Xia; Bao, Jie; Nie, Yang-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Ping; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Zhong

2009-05-01

417

Ultracold neutron source at the PULSTAR reactor: Engineering design and cryogenic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction is completed and commissioning is in progress for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The source utilizes two stages of neutron moderation, one in heavy water at room temperature and the other in solid methane at ~40 K, followed by a converter stage, solid deuterium at 5 K, that allows a single down scattering of cold neutrons to provide UCN. The UCN source rolls into the thermal column enclosure of the PULSTAR reactor, where neutrons will be delivered from a bare face of the reactor core by streaming through a graphite-lined assembly. The source infrastructure, i.e., graphite-lined assembly, heavy-water system, gas handling system, and helium liquefier cooling system, has been tested and all systems operate as predicted. The research program being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source includes the physics of UCN production, fundamental particle physics, and material surface studies of nanolayers containing hydrogen. In the present paper we report details of the engineering and cryogenic design of the facility as well as results of critical commissioning tests without neutrons.

Korobkina, E.; Medlin, G.; Wehring, B.; Hawari, A. I.; Huffman, P. R.; Young, A. R.; Beaumont, B.; Palmquist, G.

2014-12-01

418

Design and Effects of the Proton Window of the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

Design parameters for the target region of the Spallation Neutron Source were calculated by following histories of 1 GeV protons and their shower of particles with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. In particular, neutron currents, radiation damages, doses and heat distributions for the target region of the facility along the path of the proton beam are presented from the point of view of the perturbation effects of the proton beam window.

Difilippo, F.C.

2000-10-23

419

Research and Development of Compact Neutron Sources based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress is described in the research and development of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device. Use of a water-cooling jacket with non-uniform thickness shows promising success for landmine detection application, such as effective channeling of neutron flux toward the target and a very stable dc yield in excess of 107 D-D neutrons\\/sec. Addition of an ion source to the

Kai Masuda; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Tsuyoshi Misawa; Seiji Shiroya; Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Takeshi Fujimoto; Tomoya Nakagawa; Taiju Kajiwara; Kazunobu Nagasaki

2009-01-01

420

A proton-driven, intense, subcritical, fission neutron source for radioisotope production  

Microsoft Academic Search

99mTc, the most frequently used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, is distributed as 99Mo&squflg;99mTc generators. 99Mo is a fission product of 235U. To replace the aging nuclear reactors used today for this production, we propose to use a spallation neutron source, with neutron multiplication by fission. A 150 MeV, H? cyclotron can produce a 225 kW proton beam with 50% total

Yves Jongen; Yves

1995-01-01

421

Conceptual design of a reversed-field pinch fusion neutron source  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of an ohmically-heated, reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating with a 5-MWm/sup 2/ steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading while generating /approximately/100-MW total fusion power is presented. These results are also useful in projecting the development of an economic source of DT neutrons for large-volume (/approximately/10 m/sup 3/) fusion nuclear testing. 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Manzanares, R.G.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

1988-01-01

422

Force analysis of the advanced neutron source control rod drive latch mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANS), a proposed Department of Energy research reactor currently undergoing conceptual design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will generate a thermal neutron flux approximating 10³° M⁻²S⁻¹. The compact core necessary to produce this flux provides little space for the shim safety control rods, which are located in the central annulus of the core.

Damiano

1989-01-01

423

A DT fusion neutron source based on the reversed-field pinch  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from a preliminary scoping study of an ohmically-heated reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating with a steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading in the range of 1 to 5 MW/m/sup 2/ while generating less than 100 MW total fusion power. These results are also useful in projecting the development of ignition/burn RFPs, as well as offering an economic source of DT neutrons for fusion nuclear testing. 14 refs.

Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

1987-01-01

424

Detailed flux calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor has been developed. All reactor components inside the reflector tank were included, and all components were highly segmented. Neutron and photon multigroup flux spectra have been calculated for each segment in the model, and thermal-to-fast neutron flux ratios were determined for each component segment. Axial profiles of the spectra are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the group fluxes for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 10%.

Wemple, C.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-05-01

425

Progress toward the development and testing of source reconstruction methods for NIF neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Development of analysis techniques for neutron imaging at the National Ignition Facility is an important and difficult task for the detailed understanding of high-neutron yield inertial confinement fusion implosions. Once developed, these methods must provide accurate images of the hot and cold fuels so that information about the implosion, such as symmetry and areal density, can be extracted. One method under development involves the numerical inversion of the pinhole image using knowledge of neutron transport through the pinhole aperture from Monte Carlo simulations. In this article we present results of source reconstructions based on simulated images that test the methods effectiveness with regard to pinhole misalignment.