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Sample records for radio-labelled food reveals

  1. Radio-labelled humic materials in migration studies

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, L.; Lassen, P.; Warwick, P.; Randall, A.

    1993-12-31

    Humic- and fulvic acids are able to complex polyvalent metal ions, e.g. radionuclides, leading to soluble complexes of significant strength, thereby decreasing the sorption of these compounds to soils and sediments. The interaction of humic materials with radionuclides may significantly influence the availability and transport of the latter in the environment. Typically, studies along these lines have focussed almost exclusively on the radionuclides, whereas the actual role of the humic material has been elucidated only indirectly. In order directly to study the behavior of the naturally occurring organic macro-molecules in relation to the environmental fate of radionuclides, radio-labelled humic- and fulvic acids can advantageously be applied. Radio-labels such as {sup 14}C and {sup 125}I have successfully been covalently incorporated in humic- and fulvic-acids. Labelling of humic substances as well as preliminary migration studies are discussed.

  2. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. PMID:20875475

  3. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies. PMID:23144936

  4. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism. PMID:26658825

  5. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism. PMID:26658825

  6. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    PubMed

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non

  7. Problems of positive list system revealed by survey of pesticide residue in food.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Mariko; Sato, Itaru; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-05-01

    The positive list system became effective from May 29, 2006 to improve the regulation of residual agricultural chemicals (pesticides, feed additives and veterinary drugs) in foods. In accordance with the system, we investigated pesticide residues in 50 agricultural products purchased in Morioka city from March to November 2006. Analyses were performed according to the "Multiresidue Method for Agricultural Chemicals by GC/MS", the Notice of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Five pesticides and two non-agricultural chemicals were detected from 16 samples. Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) was detected from 8 samples: immature pea, snap bean, kiwi, plain-boiled bamboo shoot, mango, white asparagus, lemon and domestic shiitake mushroom. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) have not been established for these products, and they exceeded the uniform level of 0.01 ppm. DDT was detected from Philippines banana (0.30 ppm) and Korean paprika (0.45 ppm). The residual level in Philippines banana was lower than the MRL, but Korean paprika exceeded its MRL. Chlorpyrifos, Thiabendazole and Imazaril were detected from citrus imported from the U.S.A., but their residue levels were lower than the respective MRLs. Aniline and 2-pyrrolidone were detected from several imported products. These two may not be regulated by the positive list system because they are not agricultural chemicals, although their derivatives are used as pesticides or veterinary drugs. Three problems have been revealed from this survey: 1) application of the uniform level to minor agricultural products, 2) residues of non-agricultural chemicals whose toxicity is uncertain, 3) metabolites of agricultural chemicals, which are also regulated by the positive list system, have not been clearly defined. PMID:17538241

  8. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  9. Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets.

    PubMed

    Penick, Clint A; Savage, Amy M; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-05-01

    The amount of energy consumed within an average city block is an order of magnitude higher than that consumed in any other ecosystem over a similar area. This is driven by human food inputs, but the consequence of these resources for urban animal populations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of human foods in ant diets across an urbanization gradient in Manhattan using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. We found that some-but not all-ant species living in Manhattan's most urbanized habitats had δ(13)C signatures associated with processed human foods. In particular, pavement ants (Tetramorium sp. E) had increased levels of δ(13)C similar to δ(13)C levels in human fast foods. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with urbanization. By contrast, we detected no differences in δ(15)N, suggesting Tetramorium feeds at the same trophic level despite shifting to human foods. This pattern persisted across the broader ant community; species in traffic islands used human resources more than park species. Our results demonstrate that the degree urban ants exploit human resources changes across the city and among species, and this variation could play a key role in community structure and ecosystem processes where human and animal food webs intersect. PMID:25833850

  10. Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets

    PubMed Central

    Penick, Clint A.; Savage, Amy M.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of energy consumed within an average city block is an order of magnitude higher than that consumed in any other ecosystem over a similar area. This is driven by human food inputs, but the consequence of these resources for urban animal populations is poorly understood. We investigated the role of human foods in ant diets across an urbanization gradient in Manhattan using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. We found that some—but not all—ant species living in Manhattan's most urbanized habitats had δ13C signatures associated with processed human foods. In particular, pavement ants (Tetramorium sp. E) had increased levels of δ13C similar to δ13C levels in human fast foods. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with urbanization. By contrast, we detected no differences in δ15N, suggesting Tetramorium feeds at the same trophic level despite shifting to human foods. This pattern persisted across the broader ant community; species in traffic islands used human resources more than park species. Our results demonstrate that the degree urban ants exploit human resources changes across the city and among species, and this variation could play a key role in community structure and ecosystem processes where human and animal food webs intersect. PMID:25833850

  11. Uncertainties in a Baltic sea food-web model reveal challenges for future projections.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Susa; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Tomczak, Maciej T

    2012-09-01

    Models that can project ecosystem dynamics under changing environmental conditions are in high demand. The application of such models, however, requires model validation together with analyses of model uncertainties, which are both often overlooked. We carried out a simplified model uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on an Ecopath with Ecosim food-web model of the Baltic Proper (BaltProWeb) and found the model sensitive to both variations in the input data of pre-identified key groups and environmental forcing. Model uncertainties grew particularly high in future climate change scenarios. For example, cod fishery recommendations that resulted in viable stocks in the original model failed after data uncertainties were introduced. In addition, addressing the trophic control dynamics produced by the food-web model proved as a useful tool for both model validation, and for studying the food-web function. These results indicate that presenting model uncertainties is necessary to alleviate ecological surprises in marine ecosystem management. PMID:22926883

  12. Expectancy for food or expectancy for chocolate reveals timing systems for metabolism and reward.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Castellanos, M; Salgado-Delgado, R; Rodríguez, K; Buijs, R M; Escobar, C

    2008-07-31

    The clock gene protein Per 1 (PER1) is expressed in several brain structures and oscillates associated with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) induce anticipatory activity and impose daily oscillations of c-Fos and clock proteins in brain structures. Daily access to a palatable treat (chocolate) also elicits anticipatory activity and induces c-Fos expression mainly in corticolimbic structures. Here the influence of daily access to food or chocolate was explored by the analysis of the oscillatory patterns of PER1 in hypothalamic and corticolimbic structures. Wistar rats were exposed to RFS or to daily access to chocolate for 3 weeks. Persistence of food or chocolate entrained rhythms was determined 8 days after cessation of the feeding protocols. RFS and chocolate induced a phase shift in PER1 rhythmicity in corticolimbic structures with peak values at zeitgeber time 12 and a higher amplitude in the chocolate group. Both RFS and chocolate groups showed an upregulation of PER1 in the SCN. Food and chocolate entrained rhythms persisted for 8 days in behavior and in PER1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens, prefrontal cortex and central amygdala. The present data demonstrate the existence of different oscillatory systems in the brain that can be activated by entrainment to metabolic stimuli or to reward and suggest the participation of PER1 in both entraining pathways. Persistence and amplification of PER1 oscillations in structures associated with reward suggest that this oscillatory process is fundamental to food addictive behavior. PMID:18585440

  13. Experimental Food Restriction Reveals Individual Differences in Corticosterone Reaction Norms with No Oxidative Costs

    PubMed Central

    Schoenle, Laura A.; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F.; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  14. Experimental food restriction reveals individual differences in corticosterone reaction norms with no oxidative costs.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Adám Z; Ouyang, Jenny Q; Schoenle, Laura A; Fasanello, Vincent; Haussmann, Mark F; Bonier, Frances; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Highly plastic endocrine traits are thought to play a central role in allowing organisms to respond rapidly to environmental change. Yet, not all individuals display the same degree of plasticity in these traits, and the costs of this individual variation in plasticity are unknown. We studied individual differences in corticosterone levels under varying conditions to test whether there are consistent individual differences in (1) baseline corticosterone levels; (2) plasticity in the hormonal response to an ecologically relevant stressor (food restriction); and (3) whether individual differences in plasticity are related to fitness costs, as estimated by oxidative stress levels. We took 25 wild-caught house sparrows into captivity and assigned them to repeated food restricted and control treatments (60% and 110% of their daily food intake), such that each individual experienced both food restricted and control diets twice. We found significant individual variation in baseline corticosterone levels and stress responsiveness, even after controlling for changes in body mass. However, these individual differences in hormonal responsiveness were not related to measures of oxidative stress. These results have implications for how corticosterone levels may evolve in natural populations and raise questions about what we can conclude from phenotypic correlations between hormone levels and fitness measures. PMID:25386675

  15. Spatial guilds in the Serengeti food web revealed by a Bayesian group model.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Edward B; Dobson, Andy P; Bedford, Trevor; Allesina, Stefano; Anderson, T Michael; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-12-01

    Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This approach can identify large habitat boundaries in the network but may fail to identify other important structures. Empirical analyses of food webs have been further limited by low-resolution data for primary producers. In this paper, we present a Bayesian computational method for identifying group structure using a flexible definition that can describe both functional trophic roles and standard compartments. We apply this method to a newly compiled plant-mammal food web from the Serengeti ecosystem that includes high taxonomic resolution at the plant level, allowing a simultaneous examination of the signature of both habitat and trophic roles in network structure. We find that groups at the plant level reflect habitat structure, coupled at higher trophic levels by groups of herbivores, which are in turn coupled by carnivore groups. Thus the group structure of the Serengeti web represents a mixture of trophic guild structure and spatial pattern, in contrast to the standard compartments typically identified. The network topology supports recent ideas on spatial coupling and energy channels in ecosystems that have been proposed as important for persistence. Furthermore, our Bayesian approach provides a powerful, flexible framework for the study of network structure, and we believe it will prove instrumental in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:22219719

  16. Spatial Guilds in the Serengeti Food Web Revealed by a Bayesian Group Model

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, Edward B.; Dobson, Andy P.; Bedford, Trevor; Allesina, Stefano; Anderson, T. Michael; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This approach can identify large habitat boundaries in the network but may fail to identify other important structures. Empirical analyses of food webs have been further limited by low-resolution data for primary producers. In this paper, we present a Bayesian computational method for identifying group structure using a flexible definition that can describe both functional trophic roles and standard compartments. We apply this method to a newly compiled plant-mammal food web from the Serengeti ecosystem that includes high taxonomic resolution at the plant level, allowing a simultaneous examination of the signature of both habitat and trophic roles in network structure. We find that groups at the plant level reflect habitat structure, coupled at higher trophic levels by groups of herbivores, which are in turn coupled by carnivore groups. Thus the group structure of the Serengeti web represents a mixture of trophic guild structure and spatial pattern, in contrast to the standard compartments typically identified. The network topology supports recent ideas on spatial coupling and energy channels in ecosystems that have been proposed as important for persistence. Furthermore, our Bayesian approach provides a powerful, flexible framework for the study of network structure, and we believe it will prove instrumental in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:22219719

  17. Congener-specific accumulation and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in spider crab food webs revealed by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Bodin, N; Le Loc'h, F; Caisey, X; Le Guellec, A-M; Abarnou, A; Loizeau, V; Latrouite, D

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and stable isotopes (delta15N and delta13C) were analyzed in the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla) food web from the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany) and the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel). PCB concentrations were all significantly higher in organisms from the Seine Bay than those from the Iroise Sea. PCB patterns were strongly related to the feeding mode of the species, and increased influence of higher chlorinated congeners was highlighted with trophic position of the organisms. PCB concentrations (lipid normalized) were significantly related to the isotopically derived trophic level (TL) in spider crab food webs. The highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the congeners with 2,4,5-substitution, and were lower in the Seine Bay compared to the Iroise Sea. The confrontation of PCB and TL data also revealed biotransformation capacity of decapod crustaceans for specific congeners based on structure-activity relations. PMID:17544187

  18. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    PubMed

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-01

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. PMID:27451900

  19. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…

  20. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Andrew K.; Smith, Craig R.; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic–benthic coupling. PMID:25320167

  1. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. PMID:26590278

  2. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. PMID:26590278

  3. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    PubMed

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean δ(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The δ(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. PMID:25481652

  4. Gene profiling reveals a role for stress hormones in the molecular and behavioral response to food restriction

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Douglas J.; Brayton, Catherine E.; Richards, Sarah M.; Maldonado-Aviles, Jaime; Trinko, Joseph R.; Nelson, Jessica; Taylor, Jane R.; Gourley, Shannon L.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Food restriction is known to enhance learning and motivation. The neural mechanisms underlying these responses likely involve alterations in gene expression in brain regions mediating the motivation to feed. Methods Analysis of gene expression profiles in male C57BL6/J mice using whole-genome microarrays was completed in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and the hypothalamus following a five day food restriction. Quantitative PCR was used to validate these findings and determine the time-course of expression changes. Plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) were measured by ELISA. Expression changes were measured in adrenalectomized animals that underwent food restriction, as well as in animals receiving daily injections of CORT. Progressive ratio responding for food, a measure of motivated behavior, was assessed after CORT treatment in restricted and fed animals. Results Brief food restriction results in an upregulation of peripheral stress responsive genes in the mammalian brain. Time-course analysis demonstrated rapid and persistent expression changes in all four brain regions under study. Administration of CORT to non-restricted animals was sufficient to induce a subset of the genes, and alterations in gene expression after food restriction were dependent on intact adrenal glands. CORT can increase the motivation to work for food only in the restricted state. Conclusions These data demonstrate a central role for CORT in mediating both molecular and behavioral responses to food restriction. The stress hormone-induced alterations in gene expression described here may be relevant for both adaptive and pathological responses to stress. PMID:21855858

  5. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  6. Seasonal food web structures and sympagic pelagic coupling in the European Arctic revealed by stable isotopes and a two-source food web model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Søreide, Janne E.; Hop, Haakon; Carroll, Michael L.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Hegseth, Else Nøst

    2006-10-01

    We simultaneously followed stable carbon ( δ13C) and nitrogen ( δ15N) isotopes in a two-source food web model to determine trophic levels and the relative importance of open water- and ice-associated food sources (phytoplankton vs. ice algae) in the lower marine food web in the European Arctic during four seasons. The model is based upon extensive seasonal data from 1995 to 2001. Phytoplankton, represented by samples of particulate organic matter from open water (Pelagic-POM) and ice algae, represented by samples from the underside of the ice (Ice-POM), were isotopically different. Ice-POM was generally dominated by the typical ice diatoms Nitzschia frigida and Melosira arctica and was more enriched than Pelagic-POM in 13C ( δ13C = -20‰ vs. -24‰), but less enriched in 15N ( δ15N = 1.8‰ vs. 4.0‰). However, when dominated by pelagic algae, Ice-POM was enriched in 13C and 15N similarly to Pelagic-POM. The derived trophic enrichment factors for δ15N (Δ N = 3.4‰) and δ13C (Δ C = 0.6‰) were similar in both pelagic and sympagic (ice-associated) systems, although the Δ C for the sympagic system was variable. Trophic level (TL) range for zooplankton (TL = 1.8-3.8) was similar to that of ice fauna (TL = 1.9-3.7), but ice amphipods were generally less enriched in δ15N than zooplankton, reflecting lower δ15N in Ice-POM compared to Pelagic-POM. For bulk zooplankton, TLs and carbon sources changed little seasonally, but the proportion of herbivores was higher during May-September than in October and March. Overall, we found that the primary carbon source for zooplankton was Pelagic-POM (mean 74%), but depending on species, season and TL, substantial carbon (up to 50%) was supplied from the sympagic system. For bulk ice fauna, no major changes were found in TLs or carbon sources from summer to autumn. The primary carbon source for ice fauna was Ice-POM (mean 67%), although ice fauna with TL > 3 (adult Onisimus nanseni and juvenile polar cod) primarily

  7. Food Supplementation Fails to Reveal a Trade-Off between Incubation and Self-Maintenance in Female House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Lothery, Cassie J.; Thompson, Charles F.; Lawler, Megan L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Incubating birds must allocate their time and energy between maintaining egg temperature and obtaining enough food to meet their own metabolic demands. We tested the hypothesis that female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) face a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance by providing females with supplemental food during incubation. We predicted that food supplementation would increase the amount of time females devoted to incubating their eggs, lower their baseline plasma corticosterone levels (a measure of chronic stress), and increase their body mass, haematocrit (a measure of anaemia), and reproductive success relative to control females. As predicted, food-supplemented females spent a greater proportion of time incubating their eggs than control females. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no evidence that food supplementation significantly influenced female baseline plasma corticosterone levels, body mass, haematocrit, or reproductive success. However, females with high levels of corticosterone at the beginning of incubation were more likely to abandon their nesting attempt after capture than females with low levels. Corticosterone significantly increased between the early incubation and early nestling stages of the breeding cycle in all females. These results suggest that although food supplementation results in a modest increase in incubation effort, it does not lead to significantly lower levels of chronic stress as reflected in lower baseline corticosterone levels. We conclude that female house wrens that begin the incubation period with low levels of plasma corticosterone can easily meet their own nutritional needs while incubating their eggs, and that any trade-off between incubation and self-feeding does not influence female reproductive success under the conditions at the time of our study. PMID:25184281

  8. Analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes reveal food sources of estuarine detritivorous fish in tropical/subtropical Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsing-Juh; Kao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Ting

    2007-07-01

    Detritivorous fish generally refers to fish that primarily ingest unidentified organic detritus. We analyzed stomach contents in combination with stable isotopes to trace and compare the food sources of the large-scale mullet Liza macrolepis and other detritivorous fish species in subtropical mangrove creeks and a tropical lagoon in Taiwan. The volume of organic detritus always contributed >50% of the stomach content of L. macrolepis in the two habitats. However, consumed items were distinct between the two habitats and corresponded to the types in which they reside. The consumed items in the lagoon were more diverse than those observed in the mangroves. In the mangroves, the diet composition of L. macrolepis was primarily determined by season, not by body size. In the lagoon, there were no clear seasonal or size-dependent grouping patterns for the diet composition. There were significant seasonal and spatial variations in δ13C and δ15N values of potential food sources and L. macrolepis. However, neither δ13C nor δ15N values of L. macrolepis were correlated with fish body size. Joint analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes indicated that benthic microalgae on sediments were the most important assimilated food in both seasons for the dominant detritivorous fish in the mangroves, whereas a greater reliance on microalgal and macroalgal periphyton on oyster-culture pens was observed in the lagoon. Mangrove and marsh plants and phytoplankton, which are mostly locally produced within each habitat, were of minor importance in the assimilated food.

  9. Electron tomography characterization of hemoglobin uptake in Plasmodium chabaudi reveals a stage-dependent mechanism for food vacuole morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Camila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2016-05-01

    In the course of their intraerythrocytic development, malaria parasites incorporate and degrade massive amounts of the host cell cytoplasm. This mechanism is essential for parasite development and represents a physiological step used as target for many antimalarial drugs; nevertheless, the fine mechanisms underlying these processes in Plasmodium species are still under discussion. Here, we studied the events of hemoglobin uptake and hemozoin nucleation in the different stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi using transmission electron tomography of cryofixed and freeze-substituted cells. The results showed that hemoglobin uptake in P. chabaudi starts at the early ring stage and is present in all developmental stages, including the schizont stage. Hemozoin nucleation occurs near the membrane of small food vacuoles. At the trophozoite stage, food vacuoles are found closely localized to cytostomal tubes and mitochondria, whereas in the schizont stage, we observed a large food vacuole located in the central portion of the parasite. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of hemoglobin uptake and degradation in rodent malaria parasites. PMID:26882843

  10. Food as a Source for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Iberin from Horseradish Revealed as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bragason, Steinn Kristinn; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Christensen, Louise Dahl; van Gennip, Maria; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foods with health-promoting effects beyond nutritional values have been gaining increasing research focus in recent years, although not much has been published on this subject in relation to bacterial infections. With respect to treatment, a novel antimicrobial strategy, which is expected to transcend problems with selective pressures for antibiotic resistance, is to interrupt bacterial communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), by means of signal antagonists, the so-called QS inhibitors (QSIs). Furthermore, QSI agents offer a potential solution to the deficiencies associated with use of traditional antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacterial biofilms and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several QSIs of natural origin have been identified, and in this study, several common food products and plants were extracted and screened for QSI activity in an attempt to isolate and characterize previously unknown QSI compounds active against the common opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several extracts displayed activity, but horseradish exhibited the highest activity. Chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a potent QSI compound that was identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as iberin—an isothiocyanate produced by many members of the Brassicaceae family. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA microarray studies showed that iberin specifically blocks expression of QS-regulated genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22286987

  11. Multigenerational exposure to ocean acidification during food limitation reveals consequences for copepod scope for growth and vital rates.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre A; Håkedal, Ole Jacob; Salaberria, Iurgi; Tagliati, Alice; Gustavson, Liv Marie; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Olsen, Anders J; Altin, Dag

    2014-10-21

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e., ambient, 1080, 2080, and 3080 μatm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic and feeding rates, and estimations of the scope for growth, suggests that negative effects observed on vital rates (ontogenetic development, somatic growth, fecundity) may be a consequence of energy budget constraints due to higher maintenance costs under high pCO2-environments. A significant delay in development rate among the parental generation animals exposed to 2080 μatm CO2, but not in the following F1 generation under the same conditions, suggests that C. finmarchicus may have adaptive potential to withstand the direct long-term effects of even the more pessimistic future OA scenarios but underlines the importance of transgenerational experiments. The results also indicate that in a more acidic ocean, increased energy expenditure through rising respiration could lower the energy transfer to higher trophic levels and thus hamper the productivity of the northern Atlantic ecosystem. PMID:25225957

  12. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  13. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  14. Distribution of radio-labeled N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Sprague-Dawley rats and its effect on glutathione metabolism following single and repeat dosing by oral gavage.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, Darryl P; Johnson, Eric W; Wilfong, Erin R; Jung, Anne E; Bobb, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of radio-labeled N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) and its impact on glutathione (GSH) metabolism was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats following single and multiple dosing with NAC by oral gavage. Radioactivity associated with administration of (14)C-NAC distributed to most tissues examined within 1 hour of administration with peak radioactivity levels occurring within 1 hour to 4 hours and for a majority of the tissues examined, radioactivity remained elevated for up to 12 hours or more. Administration of a second dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC + (14)C-NAC 4 hours after the first increased liver, kidney, skin, thymus, spleen, eye, and serum radioactivity significantly beyond levels achieved following 1 dose. Administration of a third dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC + (14)C-NAC 4 hours after the second dose did not significantly increase tissue radioactivity further except in the skin. GSH concentrations were increased 20% in the skin and 50% in the liver after one dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC whereas lung and kidney GSH were unaffected. Administration of a second and third dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC at 4 hours and 8 hours after the first did not increase tissue GSH concentrations above background with the exception that skin GSH levels were elevated to levels similar to those obtained after a single dose of NAC. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was increased 150% in the kidney and 10% in the liver, decreased 60% in the skin, and had no effect on lung GST activity following a single dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC. Administration of a second dose of 1,200 mg/kg NAC 4 hours after the first decreased skin GST activity a further 20% whereas kidney GST activity remained elevated at levels similar to those obtained after 1 dose of NAC. Administration of a third dose of NAC 4 hours after the second dose increased liver GST activity significantly as compared to background but did not affect skin, kidney, or lung GST activity. Transient decreases in glutathione reductase (GR) activity

  15. Epigenome-wide association study reveals longitudinally stable DNA methylation differences in CD4+ T cells from children with IgE-mediated food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Martino, David; Joo, Jihoon E; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Dang, Thanh; Allen, Katrina; Saffery, Richard; Prescott, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is mediated by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. CD4+ T-cells are key drivers of the allergic response, and may therefore harbor epigenetic variation in association with the disease phenotype. Here we retrospectively examined genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (~450 000 CpGs) from CD4+ T-cells on a birth cohort of 12 children with IgE-mediated food allergy diagnosed at 12-months, and 12 non-allergic controls. DNA samples were available at two time points, birth and 12-months. Case:control comparisons of CD4+ methylation profiles identified 179 differentially methylated probes (DMP) at 12-months and 136 DMP at birth (FDR-adjusted P value < 0.05, delta β > 0.1). Approximately 30% of DMPs were coincident with previously annotated SNPs. A total of 96 allergy-associated non-SNP DMPs were present at birth when individuals were initially disease-free, potentially implicating these loci in the causal pathway. Pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes identified several MAP kinase signaling molecules. Mass spectrometry was used to validate 15 CpG sites at 3 candidate genes. Combined analysis of differential methylation with gene expression profiles revealed gene expression differences at some but not all allergy associated differentially methylated genes. Thus, dysregulation of DNA methylation at MAPK signaling-associated genes during early CD4+ T-cell development may contribute to suboptimal T-lymphocyte responses in early childhood associated with the development of food allergy. PMID:24762976

  16. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species. PMID:27554157

  17. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26381790

  18. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  19. 13C-isotope analyses reveal that chemolithoautotrophic Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria feed a microbial food web in a pelagic redoxcline of the central Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Sabine; Lueders, Tillmann; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Jost, Günter; Jürgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Marine pelagic redoxclines are zones of high dark CO(2) fixation rates, which can correspond up to 30% of the surface primary production. However, despite this significant contribution to the pelagic carbon cycle, the identity of most chemolithoautotrophic organisms is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to directly link the dark CO(2) fixation capacity of a pelagic redoxcline in the central Baltic Sea (Landsort Deep) with the identity of the main chemolithoautotrophs involved. Our approach was based on the analysis of natural carbon isotope signatures in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and on measurements of CO(2) incorporation in (13)C-bicarbonate pulse experiments. The incorporation of (13)C into chemolithoautotrophic cells was investigated by rRNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and FAME analysis after incubation for 24 and 72 h under in situ conditions. Our results demonstrated that fatty acids indicative of Proteobacteria were significantly enriched in (13)C slightly below the chemocline. RNA-SIP analyses revealed that two different Gammaproteobacteria and three closely related Epsilonproteobacteria of the Sulfurimonas cluster were active dark CO(2)-fixing microorganisms, with a time-dependent community shift between these groups. Labelling of Archaea was not detectable, but after 72 h of incubation the (13)C-label had been transferred to a potentially bacterivorous ciliate related to Euplotes sp. Thus, RNA-SIP provided direct evidence for the contribution of chemolithoautotrophic production to the microbial food web in this marine pelagic redoxcline, emphasizing the importance of dark CO(2)-fixing Proteobacteria within this habitat. PMID:18793316

  20. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  1. Invasive Mussels Alter the Littoral Food Web of a Large Lake: Stable Isotopes Reveal Drastic Shifts in Sources and Flow of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O.; Barton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production. PMID:23284673

  2. Differences between main-channel and off-channel food webs in the upper Mississippi River revealed by fatty acid profiles of consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Bartsch, Michelle; Gutreuter, Steve; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Arts, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environments. Observations of adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the main channel of the Mississippi River led to speculation that the main channel offered superior food resources relative to off-channel areas. One important aspect of food quality is the quantity and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We sampled consumers from main-channel and backwater habitats to determine whether they differed in PUFA content. Main-channel individuals for relatively immobile species (young-of-year bluegill, zebra mussels [Dreissena polymorpha], and plain pocketbook mussels [Lampsilis cardium]) had significantly greater PUFA content than off-channel individuals. No difference in PUFA was observed for the more mobile gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum), which may move between main-channel and off-channel habitats even at early life-history stages. As off-channel habitats become isolated from main-channel waters, flow and water column nitrogen decrease, potentially improving conditions for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and vascular plants that, in turn, have low PUFA content. We conclude that main-channel food webs of the upper Mississippi River provide higher quality food resources for some riverine consumers as compared to food webs in off-channel habitats.

  3. Comparison of Food Intake Among Infants and Toddlers Participating in a South Central Texas WIC Program Reveals Some Improvements After WIC Package Changes.

    PubMed

    Reat, Amanda M; Crixell, Sylvia H; Friedman, B J; Von Bank, Julia A

    2015-08-01

    In 2009, WIC began issuing revised food packages with the intent of improving dietary practices such as breastfeeding, delaying the introduction of complementary foods until about 6 months, limiting juice intake, and increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and baby food meats as appropriate for age. This observational study investigated whether dietary intake and feeding practices of a sample of majority-Hispanic infants and toddlers participating in a WIC clinic in south central Texas improved after the package changes. Feeding practices data and 24-h recalls were collected during telephone interviews with 84 caregivers of infants (4-12 months) and toddlers (1-2 years) in 2009 before the package change and with 112 caregivers in 2011 after the package change. The Nutrition Data System for Research was used to collect 24-h recalls. Outcomes for the two study years were compared using Chi square analysis for categorical and Mann-Whitney U analysis for continuous variables. Breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding duration, age of introduction of complementary foods, and exposures to baby food fruits, vegetables, and meats among infants did not improve after the package changes. Significantly fewer infants received cereal in their bottles and fewer toddlers consumed vegetables and eggs after the package changes. The observed feeding practices of infants and toddlers among this sample did not reflect the WIC package changes. Strategic and comprehensive breastfeeding and nutrition education are recommended. Package modifications such as adding eggs back to the toddler package and allowing more flexibility for purchasing fresh produce and baby foods may be warranted. PMID:25656719

  4. Sweet lies: neural, visual, and behavioral measures reveal a lack of self-control conflict during food choice in weight-concerned women

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Laura N.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their intentions, weight-concerned individuals generally fail to control their eating behavior. However, it is unknown whether this failure is due to a lack of effortful self-control, or to not experiencing an internal conflict between weight goals and food temptations. The present study used fMRI, eye tracking and reaction times to assess the degree of conflict experienced by weight-concerned women during food choices that posed either a self-control dilemma (i.e., requiring a choice between healthy and palatable foods), or not. Contrary to the common assumption in self-control theory that food choices posing a self-control dilemma evoke internal conflict, we found that choices requiring self-control induced no conflict, as demonstrated by lower reaction times, fixation durations, number of gaze switches between snacks, and lower activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that self-control failure might be due to a lack of experienced conflict, rather than to failing to act upon the perception of such conflict. This implies that effectiveness of weight maintenance interventions might be improved if they also focus on increasing the ability to detect a self-control dilemma, in addition to the current focus on increasing self-regulatory capacity. PMID:24904336

  5. Stomach Temperature Records Reveal Nursing Behaviour and Transition to Solid Food Consumption in an Unweaned Mammal, the Harbour Seal Pup (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, Caroline C.; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0–40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0–13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species. PMID:24587327

  6. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  7. The wild Egyptian artichoke as a promising functional food for the treatment of hepatitis C virus as revealed via UPLC-MS and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Elsebai, Mahmoud Fahmi; Abass, Khaled; Hakkola, Jukka; Atawia, Ahmed Rezk; Farag, Mohamed A

    2016-07-13

    Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its subsequent complications are a major cause of mortality worldwide. The water extract of the wild Egyptian artichoke (WEA) (Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lam.) Fiori) leaves is a freely available herbal product that is used for treatment of HCV-infection complications such as jaundice and ascites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether WEA exhibits activity against HCV, identify bioactive chemicals in its extract and to tentatively examine the potential inhibitory interactions of WEA with human drug-metabolizing enzymes. The current pilot clinical trial revealed that the water extract of a WEA plant decreased the HCV viral load below the detection level in 12 out of 15 patients. Furthermore, the liver enzymes ALT and AST, as well as the level of bilirubin were normalized. The total WEA extract inhibited CYP2B6 (OH-BUP) and CYP2C19 (5-OH-OME) with high affinity, IC50 ∼ 20 μg ml(-1), while moderate inhibitory interactions were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. Results presented herein suggest that the WEA exhibits strong antiviral activity against HCV and may be useful for its treatment. Compared to the artichoke product "Hepar SL Forte(®)", WEA was found to be more enriched in sesquiterpenes versus the abundance of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids in Hepar SL Forte(®) as revealed via UPLC-MS analysis coupled to chemometrics. PMID:27296047

  8. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  9. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  12. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. Always ...

  13. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  14. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  15. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check the date. Lots of packaged foods have expiration dates or "sell by" (which means that the food ... a food if today's date is after the expiration date. Use it before it expires. Ask an adult ...

  16. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  17. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  18. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector. PMID:27373724

  19. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  20. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  2. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs get into the food, it is called contamination. This can happen in different ways: Meat or ... means the food has been treated to prevent contamination) Undercooked meats or eggs Water from a well ...

  3. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  4. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  5. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  6. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  7. Community food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Community food webs describe the feeding relationships, or trophic interactions, between the species of an ecological community. Both the structure and dynamics of such webs are the focus of food web research. The topological structures of empirical food webs from many ecosystems have been published on the basis of field studies and they form the foundation for theory concerning the mean number of trophic levels, the mean number of trophic connections versus number of species, and other food web measures, which show consistency across different ecosystems. The dynamics of food webs are influenced by indirect interactions, in which changes in the level of a population in one part of the food web may have indirect effects throughout the web. The mechanisms of these interactions are typically studied microcosm experiments, or sometimes in-field experiments. The use of mathematical models is also a major approach to understanding the effects of indirect interactions. Both empirical and mathematical studies have revealed important properties of food webs, such as keystone predators and trophic cascades.

  8. Living and learning food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...

  9. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  10. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  13. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... to reveal facts that are: (1) Material in light of other representations made or suggested...

  14. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. PMID:8619113

  15. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  16. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  17. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  18. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  19. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  20. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  1. Dynamics of an estuarine nursery ground: the spatio-temporal relationship between the river flow and the food web of the juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) as revealed by stable isotopes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, C.; Le Loc'h, F.; Roussel, J.-M.; Desroy, N.; Huteau, D.; Riera, P.; Le Bris, H.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries are essential fish habitats because they provide nursery grounds for a number of marine species. Previous studies in the Bay of Vilaine (part of the Bay of Biscay, France) have underlined the estuarine dependence of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) and shown that the extent of sole nursery grounds was positively influenced by the variability of the river flow. In the present study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to describe the trophic network until the young-of-the-year sole and to compare interannual variations in the dominant trophic pathways in the sole nursery areas in this bay. Particulate organic matter (POM), sediment organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos, benthic invertebrate sole prey and young-of-the-year common sole were collected during the summer over 4 years characterised by contrasting river discharges. POM isotopic signatures were used to identify the origins of nutrient and organic matter assimilated into the estuarine food web through benthic organisms to juvenile common sole. Interannual spatial variations were found in the POM carbon stable isotope signatures, with the importance of these variations depending on the interannual fluctuations of the river flow. Moreover, the spatio-temporal variability of this POM isotopic signature was propagated along the food webs up to juvenile sole, confirming the central role of river discharge and terrigeneous subsidy input in the estuarine benthic food web in determining the size of the sole nursery habitat.

  2. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  3. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  4. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  5. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  6. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a) Labeling of a food, drug, device, or cosmetic shall be deemed to be misleading if it fails to reveal...

  7. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a) Labeling of a food, drug, device, or cosmetic shall be deemed to be misleading if it fails to reveal...

  8. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... products Cow's milk and dairy products ( lactose intolerance ) Wheat and other grains that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) ... in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of all ages) In rare cases, food ...

  9. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing raw eggs. Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Cook foods to safe minimum internal ... seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your ...

  10. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  11. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  12. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  13. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. ...

  14. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cause of botulism . Alternative Names Food - hygiene and sanitation References U.S. Department of Health and ... Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of ...

  15. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  16. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  17. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  18. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  19. The Interconnected Challenges for Food Security from a Food Regimes Perspective: Energy, Climate and Malconsumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of food price volatility in global markets encourages closer examination of the dynamics underlying the global food system and reveals a range of contingent factors. Meanwhile a common thread of many recent expert reports has emphasised the need to intensify agricultural production to double food output by 2050. Drawing upon a…

  20. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  1. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  2. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food ...

  3. Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneisen, Barbara K.

    Written to teach deaf students skills in food services, this guide and the two related documents (see note) present practical skills needed to work in a school dining room setting serving approximately two hundred students and faculty. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven lessons. Each lesson includes an…

  4. Reveal for Salmonella test system.

    PubMed

    Bird, C B; Miller, R L; Miller, B M

    1999-01-01

    The Reveal for Salmonella (RSS) test system is a presumptive qualitative test that detects the presence of Salmonella organisms in foods within 21 h total testing time, allowing the user to release negative products 24 h earlier than when using other rapid test kits. Foods are enriched with a proprietary resuscitation medium called Revive and then selectively enriched with either Selenite Cystine or Rappaport-Vassiliadis selective media. The enriched culture is used to inoculate the RSS detection device, which initiates a lateral flow through a reagent zone containing anti-Salmonella antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold particles that capture antigens present in the culture. The antigen-antibody complex migrates farther and is captured by an additional anti-Salmonella antibody, causing the colloidal gold to precipitate and form a visual line, indicating a positive result. A procedural control line also will form regardless of the presence of Salmonella organisms to indicate the test is working properly. Existing AOAC Official Methods for Salmonella organisms require a 48 h enrichment before testing. Hence, a food product has to be held before release, adding extra cost to the company and the consumer. The RSS test system was evaluated by quantitative spiking studies. Although AOAC encourages inclusion of naturally contaminated foods, almost all microbiological AOAC validation studies have been performed with artificially contaminated foods for absolute control over the study. The RSS test system is designed to test many food types for Salmonella organisms and has a limit of detection of 5-10 colony-forming units (cfu)/25 g with a false-negative rate of < 1% and a false-positive rate of < 5.0%. It showed an 81% overall agreement with the traditional procedure of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service. PMID:10367381

  5. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  6. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  7. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    years and supplemented by other articles known to meet the inclusion criteria, revealed that only two medical foods, AC-1202 and Souvenaid® with Fortasyn Connect™, have clinical trial results available for discussion. As medical food development for AD is a relatively new endeavour, a window of opportunity exists for all stakeholders to develop a comprehensive framework for assuring that medical food interventions for AD achieve the highest possible scientific and ethical standards to warrant commercialization. PMID:21534638

  8. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  9. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

  10. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  11. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  12. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  13. Managing values in personal food systems.

    PubMed

    Connors, M; Bisogni, C A; Sobal, J; Devine, C M

    2001-06-01

    People in post-industrial societies are faced with many food products and diverse eating situations that can make food-choice decisions complex. This study examined the ways that people managed values in making food choices in various contexts. An analysis of 86 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews from a diverse population of urban adults living in upstate New York revealed that all participants used a personal food system, which was a dynamic set of processes constructed to enact food choices. Within these personal food systems people managed the five main food-related values of taste, health, cost, time and social relationships, and other less prominent values of symbolism, ethics, variety, safety, waste and quality. The salience of these values varied among the participants as well as across the eating situations that confronted each participant. Participants used three main processes in their personal food systems: (i) categorizing foods and eating situations; (ii) prioritizing conflicting values for specific eating situations; and (iii) balancing prioritizations across personally defined time frames. Understanding the personal food systems people use to help them make food choices can be useful for developing theories about eating behavior and communicating health messages related to food and eating. PMID:11358343

  14. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exception was Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appear to degrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appear to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at 35

  15. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  16. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ... norovirus Overview Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Resources CDC Vital Signs — Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ...

  17. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  18. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  19. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  20. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  1. 21 CFR 1.21 - Failure to reveal material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to reveal material facts. 1.21 Section 1... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Labeling Requirements § 1.21 Failure to reveal material facts. (a... to reveal facts that are: (1) Material in light of other representations made or suggested...

  2. Food Insecurity and Diabetes in Developed Societies.

    PubMed

    Essien, Utibe R; Shahid, Naysha N; Berkowitz, Seth A

    2016-09-01

    Food insecurity is an important issue in public health even in developed societies, particularly for vulnerable populations. Food insecurity refers to the uncertain or limited access to adequate and safe foods. Emerging evidence shows an association between food insecurity, type 2 diabetes risk factors, and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A review of the current literature describing the association between food insecurity and diabetes reveals possible mechanisms and pathophysiologic pathways. There is less evidence for effective interventions, and much of the current literature is limited to cross-sectional studies. Future work should evaluate longitudinal associations and ways to help vulnerable patients with diabetes access adequate food for effective diabetes management. PMID:27421977

  3. Establish the biosynthesis of the plant toxin Fusaric Acid using non-radio labeled precursors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) race 1 is a widespread plant pathogen that attacks cotton, alfalfa and okra in the U.S. The recent discovery of races 3 and 4 not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a similar but more virulent bi...

  4. Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Radio-labeled Serum Albumins for PET Blood Pool Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Basuli, Falguni; Li, Changhui; Xu, Biying; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen; Coble, Vincent L; Vasalatiy, Olga; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Griffiths, Gary L.; Choyke, Peter L.; Jagoda, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to develop a practical, reproducible and clinically translatable method of radiolabeling serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a PET blood pool imaging agent in animals and man. Fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester, [18F]F-Py-TFP was prepared first by the reaction of its quaternary ammonium triflate precursor with [18F]tetrabutylammonium fluoride ([18F]TBAF) according to a previously published method for peptides, with minor modifications. The incubation of [18F]F-Py-TFP with rat serum albumin (RSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 9) for 15 min at 37–40 °C produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA and the product was purified using a mini-PD MiniTrap G-25 column. The overall radiochemical yield of the reaction was 18–35% (n = 30, uncorrected) in a 90-min synthesis. This procedure, repeated with human serum albumin (HSA), yielded similar results. Fluorine-18-radiolabeled RSA demonstrated prolonged blood retention (biological half-life of 4.8 hours) in healthy awake rats. The distribution of major organ radioactivity remained relatively unchanged during the 4 hour observation periods either by direct tissue counting or by dynamic PET whole-body imaging except for a gradual accumulation of labeled metabolic products in the bladder. This manual method for synthesizing radiolabeled serum albumins uses fluorine-18, a widely available PET radionuclide, and natural protein available in both pure and recombinant forms which could be scaled up for widespread clinical applications. These preclinical biodistribution and PET imaging results indicate that [18F]RSA is an effective blood pool imaging agent in rats and might, as [18F]HSA, prove similarly useful as a clinical imaging agent. PMID:25533724

  5. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  6. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816

  7. Defying Food – How Distance Determines Monkeys’ Ability to Inhibit Reaching for Food

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Astrid F.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.; Overduin de Vries, Anne; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objects, such as food, in the environment automatically activate and facilitate affordances, the possibilities for motoric movements in interaction with the objects. Previous research has shown that affordance activation is contingent upon the distance of the object with only proximal objects activating potential movements. However, the effect of affordance-activating proximal objects on the ability to inhibit movements has been unaddressed. The current study addressed this question with two experiments on long-tailed macaques. In both experiments monkeys were situated behind a Plexiglass screen that prevented direct access to food placed right behind the screen. The food could only be reached via a detour through one of two holes on the sides of the screen. It was assessed whether monkeys’ ability to inhibit the unsuccessful immediate reaching movement forward toward the food depended on the distance at which the food was presented. Results of both Experiments revealed that monkeys reached for the proximally positioned food significantly more than for the distally positioned food, despite this Plexiglass screen preventing successful obtainment of the food. The findings reveal the effect of proximal, affordance-activating objects on the ability to resist movements involved in interacting with the objects. Implications for humans, living in environments in which proximal, or accessible food is constantly available are discussed. The findings can contribute to an understanding of why resisting accessible food in the environment is often unsuccessful. PMID:26925001

  8. Defying Food - How Distance Determines Monkeys' Ability to Inhibit Reaching for Food.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Astrid F; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Overduin de Vries, Anne; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    Objects, such as food, in the environment automatically activate and facilitate affordances, the possibilities for motoric movements in interaction with the objects. Previous research has shown that affordance activation is contingent upon the distance of the object with only proximal objects activating potential movements. However, the effect of affordance-activating proximal objects on the ability to inhibit movements has been unaddressed. The current study addressed this question with two experiments on long-tailed macaques. In both experiments monkeys were situated behind a Plexiglass screen that prevented direct access to food placed right behind the screen. The food could only be reached via a detour through one of two holes on the sides of the screen. It was assessed whether monkeys' ability to inhibit the unsuccessful immediate reaching movement forward toward the food depended on the distance at which the food was presented. Results of both Experiments revealed that monkeys reached for the proximally positioned food significantly more than for the distally positioned food, despite this Plexiglass screen preventing successful obtainment of the food. The findings reveal the effect of proximal, affordance-activating objects on the ability to resist movements involved in interacting with the objects. Implications for humans, living in environments in which proximal, or accessible food is constantly available are discussed. The findings can contribute to an understanding of why resisting accessible food in the environment is often unsuccessful. PMID:26925001

  9. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  10. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  11. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  12. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  13. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

  14. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  15. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    PubMed Central

    Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice that work for food we show that reduced food intake alone shifts the activity phase from the night into the day and eventually causes nocturnal torpor (natural hypothermia). Release into continuous darkness with ad libitum food, elicits immediate reversal of activity to the previous nocturnal phase, indicating that the classical circadian pacemaker maintained its phase to the light-dark cycle. This flexibility in behavioral timing would allow mice to exploit the diurnal temporal niche while minimizing energy expenditure under poor feeding conditions in nature. This study reveals an intimate link between metabolism and mammalian circadian organization. PMID:21479166

  16. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods. PMID:24549409

  17. Do healthy food baskets assess food security?

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Tasnim; Shoveller, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Developing indicators to measure the different facets of food security presents numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. This paper adopts an ecological framework to reflect on these issues through an examination of the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) tool. The HFB tool is used to measure food security conditions by determining the cost and availability of a group of foods in a shopping basket across a range of stores in different regions and neighbourhoods. The paper discusses the ability of the HFB tool to describe micro-, meso- and macro-level influences on food security and the use of the ecological model in developing complementary and alternative strategies for understanding and monitoring food security. PMID:12959676

  18. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate. PMID:12045422

  19. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  20. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  1. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes. PMID:22129346

  2. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed. PMID:24730307

  3. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  4. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  5. Avenues into Food Planning: A Review of Scholarly Food System Research

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes several avenues of planning inquiry into food systems research, revealing gaps in the literature, allied fields of study and mismatches between scholarly disciplines and the food system life cycle. Planners and scholars in associated fields have identified and defined problems in the food system as ‘wicked’ problems, complex environmental issues that require systemic solutions at the community scale. While food justice scholars have contextualized problem areas, planning scholars have made a broad case for planning involvement in solving these wicked problems while ensuring that the functional and beneficial parts of the food system continue to thrive. This review maps the entry points of scholarly interest in food systems and planning’s contributions to its study, charting a research agenda for the future. PMID:24932131

  6. Integration of ethnic food into Swedish food rituals. The cultural fitness of tacos.

    PubMed

    Solér, Cecilia; Plazas, Maite Creixell

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the meaning of the Mexican dish tacos for Swedish consumers. As such, this study examines the relationship between ethnic food and food culture in light of contemporary changing food rituals. The results reveal that the Swedish food ritual of Friday dinner can be enacted through eating tacos. Friday dinner is a point in time and space at which family members gather, after a busy week following divergent schedules that keep them from eating together, and to which children's food preferences are central. Tacos fulfil all the requirements for a quick-to-cook yet social dish that enables hardworking but time-constrained families to eat together. The much-debated informal and fragmented character of food consumption in contemporary society is accommodated in the taco meal. PMID:22366640

  7. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Collings, Peter; Marten, Meredith G; Pearce, Tristan; Young, Alyson G

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural context of food insecurity among Inuit in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. An analysis of the social network of country food exchanges among 122 households in the settlement reveals that a household's betweenness centrality-a measure of brokerage-in the country food network is predicted by the age of the household. The households of married couples were better positioned within the sharing network than were the households of single females or single males. Households with an active hunter or elder were also better positioned in the network. The households of single men and women appear to experience limited access to country food, a considerable problem given the increasing number of single-adult households over time. We conclude that the differences between how single women and single men experience constrained access to country foods may partially account for previous findings that single women in arctic settlements appear to be at particular risk for food insecurity. PMID:26595315

  8. Potassium contents of northeastern Thai foods.

    PubMed

    Sriboonlue, P; Prasongwatana, V; Suwantrai, S; Bovornpadungkitti, S; Tungsanga, K; Tosukhowong, P

    1998-08-01

    From our previous nutritional assessment, low potassium (K) intake among northeastern Thai males has been clearly demonstrated. This prompted us to undertake a survey of the K content of local foods. Food samples comprised of 57 animal and 142 plant products which were collected from various places in the northeast of Thailand. The dry ashing method was used to prepare the samples for K analysis using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Foods could be divided into 7 groups according to their K levels. Foods containing K > or = 1000 mg per 100 g fresh food were categorized in group 1. These were mainly foods in the legume group, i.e., soybean, cowpea and mungbean. While rice (polished) and rice products, the main staple, were in group 7, the lowest K group of less than 100 mg per 100 g fresh food. Comparison studies of the natural foods between those collected from the northeast and from the central regions of the country, and between the cooked foods purchased from the rural villages and from the urban areas of Khon Kaen municipality, showed that, for most food items, the K content was similar wherever it came from. However, when the K content in various parts or in different stages of growth of the same kind of plants or animals was compared, a great variation was clearly seen, for example, young tamarind leaves contained K in group 6 whereas ripe tamarind fruit contained K in group 1. According to our food consumption data, the analysis of food components of 48 meals taken during the hot season by 13 rural volunteers revealed that food items eaten with the highest frequencies and in the largest amount were those in the low K food groups, i.e., glutinous rice (group 7) and green papaya (group 6). Our results suggest that the low K intake of these northeast rural Thai people is not due to a low K content of foods in this region, but rather that their food habits and low socioeconomic status restricts consumption of those food items with higher K contents. PMID

  9. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  10. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the...

  11. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  13. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  14. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  15. Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Staples, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia. PMID:25862982

  16. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  17. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  18. Diet-busting foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods include: Fatty cuts of meat, such as sausage, bacon, and ribs Anything with full-fat cheese, ... absorption of carotenoids in humans. Mol Nut Food Res . 2012;56:866. PMID: 22707262 www.ncbi.nlm. ...

  19. Food poisoning prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... health department. For more detailed information please see Food - hygiene and sanitation or the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service website -- www.fsis.usda. ...

  20. Food For Thought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space food research meets the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. This lesson emphasizes inquiry and cooperative involvement of students as they explore the uniq...

  1. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:12592300

  2. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  3. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  4. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the ...

  5. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  6. Food guide plate

    MedlinePlus

    ... The new guide encourages you to eat more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low- ... that make up a healthy diet: Grains Vegetables Fruits Dairy Protein foods You should eat foods from ...

  7. New foods for thought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent findings show that genetic material in plant foods may survive digestion, circulate through our bodies, and modulate our gene expression. These findings could alter our understanding of nutrition and genetic regulation, and open up new vistas for engineering foods....

  8. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and unwashed fresh produce. Place cooked food on ... Check the temperature with a food thermometer. Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm. Don' ...

  9. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  10. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  11. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

  12. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  13. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  14. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  15. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  16. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Making Smart Food Choices Regular physical activity and a healthy ... through physical activity. Download the Tip Sheet Making Smart Food Choices (PDF, 488.99 KB) You Might ...

  17. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  18. Which biotech foods are most acceptable to the public?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; McFadden, Brandon R; Rickard, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries are prompting questions about which types of genetically engineered foods and applications are likely to be most accepted by the public. Results of a survey of over 1000 US consumers reveals that people prefer eating beef to eating corn or apples if the foods are not genetically engineered, but exactly the opposite is true if the foods are genetically engineered. Eating fresh food is preferred to processed, but much less so if both food types are genetically engineered. Desirability of genetic engineering depends on the reason for the biotechnology application. PMID:25388815

  19. FOOD RISK ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food risk analysis is a holistic approach to food safety because it considers all aspects of the problem. Risk assessment modeling is the foundation of food risk analysis. Proper design and simulation of the risk assessment model is important to properly predict and control risk. Because of knowl...

  20. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  1. Language in Food Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1992-01-01

    Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

  2. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  3. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  4. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... has less than a similar one. Are you free to eat lots of fat-free food? Fat-free food sounds good. But that does not mean ... of it. To make them taste better, fat-free and low-fat foods may have lots of ...

  5. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  6. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  7. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  8. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes. PMID:27620095

  9. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  10. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  11. Food Stamps and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Kenneth W.

    The economics of food stamps - the America's major food assistance program is investigated in order to answer the following questions: (1) whether malnutrition be solved by food supplements or cash allowances; (2) what the benefits to recipients are; (3) whether eligibility requirements permit participation by the needy and exclude higher income…

  12. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  13. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  14. Food To You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Outlines an activity which requires students to monitor what they eat for 3-5 days, tabulate the nature and quantity of their food, trace the food's ingredients to their source, calculate the ecological footprint of their food intake, and extrapolate the effect on the earth if everyone ate as we do. (AIM)

  15. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  16. Food Rights Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which describes federal food assistance programs, is designed to help large families, families on small budgets, and elderly people on fixed incomes get more food for less money. The book is divided into four chapters: Kids, Women and Children, Families, and Senior Citizens. Each chapter describes in detail the food assistance…

  17. Food-derived immunomodulatory peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiago-López, Lourdes; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Mata-Haro, Verónica; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2016-08-01

    Food proteins contain specific amino acid sequences within their structures that may positively impact bodily functions and have multiple immunomodulatory effects. The functional properties of these specific sequences, also referred to as bioactive peptides, are revealed only after the degradation of native proteins during digestion processes. Currently, milk proteins have been the most explored source of bioactive peptides, which presents an interesting opportunity for the dairy industry. However, plant- and animal-derived proteins have also been shown to be important sources of bioactive peptides. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the role of various food proteins as sources of immunomodulatory peptides and discusses the possible pathways involving these properties. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26940008

  18. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  19. Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, Rebecca Sharon; Tupa, Dana; Prince, Benjamin T; Block, Whitney Morgan; Rosa, Jaime Sou; Singh, Anne Marie; Nadeau, Kari

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergies has been on the increase over the last 2 decades. Diagnosing food allergies can be complicated, as there are multiple types that have distinct clinical and immunologic features. Food allergies are broadly classified into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, or mixed food allergic reactions. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations of the different categories of food allergies and the different tests available to guide the clinician toward an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26456439

  20. Physiological responses of food neophobics and food neophilics to food and non-food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Capiola, August

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 min. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health. PMID:22369957

  1. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:16455349

  2. Symptoms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  3. Reframing convenience food.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. PMID:26678163

  4. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also

  5. MedlinePlus: Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture Start Here 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety ... Spanish Basics for Handling Food Safely (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) - PDF Be Food ...

  6. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  7. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 serving. You should also pay attention to trans fats on any food label. These fats raise "bad" ... foods and desserts. Many fast food restaurants use trans fats for frying. If a food has these fats, ...

  8. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  9. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of California and Flaghouse, Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once ...

  10. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. PMID:25526827

  11. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  12. Rat preference for food-related odors.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, E; Ono, T; Uwano, T; Takashima, Y; Kawasaki, M

    1991-01-01

    Preferences for food-related odors and the effects of fasting on those preferences were investigated during rat bar pressing for brief odor presentation. A rat was housed in an equilateral octagonal cage and had free access to food and water, except during fasting. Among 8 food-related odor substances (black pepper, cheese, coffee, milk, nut, peppermint, plum and orange), black pepper, milk and coffee were most preferred, and cheese was least preferred, but even the bar pressing rate for cheese was above the operant level. This data indicates that all 8 odors were preferred by rats, although there were different degrees of preference in individual animals. Fasting substantially increased the rate of bar pressing for odors and changed the odors preferences. This result was probably due to increased search for food and water. Since bar pressing was reinforced by nothing other than odor presentation, the results reveal inherent odor preferences of rats. PMID:1959035

  13. Dioxin in the agricultural food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Gerbec, E.N.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's (PCDD) behavior in the agricultural food chain was modeled in this study. The source of PCDD was a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator. Of the farm livestock investigated only the beef cow and the milk cow were shown to contribute significant amounts of PCDD to humans. Milk was the single highest dietary source of PCDD. Comparison of the calculated human dose of PCDD from the agricultural food chain with an estimate human PCDD dose from inhalation of contaminated air revealed that the agricultural food chain could be responsible for a vast majority of the dose to an individual impacted by these facilities. Thus, these data suggest that operating MSW facilities in agricultural areas may result in enhanced PCDD exposure to individuals via the agricultural food chain. The data also suggest that milk and beef may be good sentinels to evaluate environmental impacts of these facilities.

  14. FoodQuest for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)

  15. Mood, food, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  16. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  17. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  18. Educating Veterinary Students in Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genigeorgis, Constantin A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of domestic and foreign schools of veterinary medicine is analyzed, revealing a general trend toward deemphasis and/or loss of identity in teaching food safety and regulated veterinary public health subjects. It is suggested that minimal standards need to be set for curricula of U.S. schools. (Author/MLW)

  19. Food Label Accuracy of Common Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured “true” caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile −1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (−12.8% [−38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [−6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. PMID:23505182

  20. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. PMID:26348278

  1. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels. PMID:26571235

  2. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels. PMID:26571235

  3. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  4. Bacteriocin-based strategies for food biopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Ben Omar, Nabil

    2007-11-30

    avoid development of resistant strains. The combination of bacteriocins and physical treatments like high pressure processing or pulsed electric fields also offer good opportunities for more effective preservation of foods, providing an additional barrier to more refractile forms like bacterial endospores as well. The effectiveness of bacteriocins is often dictated by environmental factors like pH, temperature, food composition and structure, as well as the food microbiota. Foods must be considered as complex ecosystems in which microbial interactions may have a great influence on the microbial balance and proliferation of beneficial or harmful bacteria. Recent developments in molecular microbial ecology can help to better understand the global effects of bacteriocins in food ecosystems, and the study of bacterial genomes may reveal new sources of bacteriocins. PMID:17614151

  5. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices. PMID:27503878

  6. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  7. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  8. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  9. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  10. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  11. Ultrasonics of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Malcolm J. W.

    1998-06-01

    Ultrasound is well suited to the study of food materials because of the possibility of noninvasive and safe implementation which is ideal for hygienic application. New advances in the understanding of the interaction between the soft solids which comprise many foods and ultrasound mean that new data and new insights into foods have been gained using ultrasound measurement techniques. Studies of complex food materials have challenged theories of ultrasound propagation, resulting in significant theoretical developments of general importance. This review covers the use of low power ultrasound to study food materials. Both pulse echo and continuous wave interferometry are covered and the theory of ultrasound scattering in soft heterogeneous media discussed. Foods to which the ultrasound technique has been applied range from eggs through margarine to chocolate.

  12. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877

  13. International food patterns for space food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina; Cox, Amanda; Cornish, Pauline V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.

  14. Bacterial challenges in food

    PubMed Central

    Collee, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of bacterial challenges that might be encountered in food are discussed with reference to recognized and relatively unrecognized hazards. Mechanisms of pathogenicity are reviewed and the populations at risk are noted. The bacterial content of food as it is served at table merits more study. The challenge of prevention by education is discussed. Indirect bacterial challenges in our food are considered. The real challenge of diagnosis depends upon an awareness of a complex range of conditions; the importance of effective communication with efficient laboratory and epidemiological services is stressed. There is an increasing need for care in the preparation and distribution of food. PMID:4467860

  15. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  16. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653

  17. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  18. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers. PMID:26219368

  19. Lysinoalanine: presence in foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, M; Kim, C Y; Schwende, F J

    1975-12-01

    Lysinoalanine, N6-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, an unusual amino acid implicated as a renal toxic factor in rats, has been found in proteins of home-cooked and commercial foods and ingredients. Although it has been reported to occur in both edible and nonfood proteins only after alkali treatment, it has now been identified in food proteins that had not been subjected to alkali. Lysinoalanine is generated in a variety of proteins when heated under nonalkaline conditions. PMID:242077

  20. It's who I am and what we eat. Mothers' food-related identities in family food choice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cassandra M; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Alex McIntosh, W; Kubena, Karen S

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers' everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26-53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother's photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother's food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children's food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers' food choices were more disconnected from their children's. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  1. It’s who I am and what we eat: Mothers’ food-related identities in family food choice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253

  2. Food, fizzy, and football: promoting unhealthy food and beverages through sport - a New Zealand case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest

  3. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  4. Gender and age differences in food cognition.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, L; Peters, G R; Downey, R; McCann, T; Huff-Corzine, L

    1993-02-01

    Results from three studies relevant to a model of food cognition based on the evaluative dimensions pleasure, health, and convenience are reported. In the first study, discriminant analyses of the evaluative ratings (n = 248) of 35 meals and snacks yielded significant gender and age differences on the pleasure and health dimensions. Separate factor analyses of the pleasure and health ratings revealed that males and females grouped foods differently on these criteria. The factor analysis of convenience ratings suggested that males and females perceive the meaning of convenience differently. In the second study, 336 college students rated 27 meals on the three evaluative dimensions and also indicated their preferences for each meal. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences could be significantly predicted, and other results showed that as compared to males, females give higher health, pleasure and convenience ratings to healthy meals. The third study employed a modified free association technique to investigate gender and age differences in the meanings of nine familiar foods. Data from 96 males and females aged 18 to 86 revealed a substantial variety of significant age and gender differences for specific foods. It is suggested that taken together, these results indicate important cognitive and affective sources for gender and age-related food attitudes. PMID:8452376

  5. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  6. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Cliff; And Others

    This document describes "Food for Thought," a multidisciplinary project for grades 5 through 8, using nutrition as a focal point. The program focuses on the popular topic of food to make the study of different cultures and historic periods more relevant. In the program students research the diets and prepare the meals of cultures they are…

  7. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  8. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... fortified foods like soy, rice, and almond milks; fruit juices; and breakfast cereals. Vitamin D. Vitamin D helps our bodies absorb calcium ... in fat, pair them with healthy salads, fresh fruits, and some colorful veggies, and you might not ever miss that ham and cheese ... Becoming a Vegetarian Vitamins and Minerals Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods ...

  9. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  10. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171