Note: This page contains sample records for the topic radioactive metal recycling from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

2

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

3

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

4

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap me...

L. A. Nieves S. Y. Chen W. E. Murphie M. J. Lilly

1994-01-01

5

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

6

Challenges in metal recycling.  

PubMed

Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions that could improve recycling rates are increased collection rates of discarded products, improved design for recycling, and the enhanced deployment of modern recycling methodology. As a global society, we are currently far away from a closed-loop material system. Much improvement is possible, but limitations of many kinds--not all of them technological--will preclude complete closure of the materials cycle. PMID:22879508

Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

2012-08-10

7

Newell's metals recycling tradition  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, Newell Recycling Co., Inc.'s metals recycling facility in Atlanta has been processing everything from aluminum cans to automobiles. It is a full-service metals recycling center, handling both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Newell Recycling takes metal components and machinery and processes it into usable feedstock for metal smelters and steel mills. The facility is split into five basic processing operations: ferrous metal shredding; ferrous shearing and torching; a heavy media separation plant; a nonferrous warehouse; and aluminum can operations. The shredder is capable of handling 100 tons of steel an hour, but the actual amount varies depending on the market demand. Anywhere from between 7,000 and 9,000 tons a month are typically shredded at the facility. The Atlanta facility also processes aluminum and steel cans, demolition scrap, copper wire, brass, and over 200 other products.

Dabaie, M.

1994-11-01

8

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

9

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Recycling-Nonferrous Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the increasing importance of recycling to domestic metal supply and the intense public interest, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) initiated this separate chapter on nonferrous metal recycling as part of its Annual Report series in 1991....

J. F. Carlin D. Edelstein J. H. Jolly J. L. W. Jolly J. F. Papp

1994-01-01

10

Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting;\\u000aprocesses is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling;\\u000aand refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and;\\u000asolidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide ;\\u000adistribution have been characterized by scanning electron

M. A. Ebadian; R. C. Xin; Z. F. Dong

1997-01-01

11

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Recycling-Nonferrous Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estimated value of recycled nonferrous metals in 1993 was about $7.3 billion and is an increasingly important component of economic activity in the United States. Table 1 shows salient U.S. recycling statistics for selected metals. Table 2 shows salie...

J. F. Carlin D. Edelstein S. M. Jasinski J. F. Papp P. A. Plunkert G. Smith

1995-01-01

12

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

13

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)|

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

14

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

15

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

16

Recycling lead to recover refractory precious metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead recycling has many benefits. For example, it provides an alternative to virgin lead, thereby avoiding the environmental impacts of primary lead smelting. In addition, as with other secondary metal operations, it consumes less energy at a lower cost than primary production. An emerging process has been evaluated in which these attributes are leveraged to process refractory precious metals ores.

J. R. Parga; G. G. Muzquiz; J. L. Valenzuela; F. K. Ojebuoboh

2001-01-01

17

RECYCLING METALS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Society uses metals derived from primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources include all metals that have entered the economy but no longer serve their initial purpose. The environmental benefits of increasing reliance on secondary metal production include conserving energy, landscapes, and natural resources, and reducing toxic and nontoxic waste streams. A variety of technologies are used to recover and

Iddo K. Wernick; Nickolas J. Themelis

1998-01-01

18

Metals recycling maps and allocation procedures in life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, scope, and background  The aim of this work is to present guidance on the application of ISO 14044 to allocation procedures for metal recycling.\\u000a As such, graphical patterns of metal recycling and generic “rules” for metal recycling maps are presented. The results are\\u000a intended to be useful in assessing and validating the suitability of allocation procedures for metal recycling in

Alain Dubreuil; Steven B. Young; John Atherton; Thomas P. Gloria

2010-01-01

19

Recycling lead to recover refractory precious metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead recycling has many benefits. For example, it provides an alternative to virgin lead, thereby avoiding the environmental\\u000a impacts of primary lead smelting. In addition, as with other secondary metal operations, it consumes less energy at a lower\\u000a cost than primary production. An emerging process has been evaluated in which these attributes are leveraged to process refractory\\u000a precious metals ores.

J. R. Parga; G. G. Muzquiz; J. L. Valenzuela; F. K. Ojebuoboh

2001-01-01

20

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Recycling-nonferrous metals. Annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimated value of recycled nonferrous metals in 1993 was about $7.3 billion and is an increasingly important component of economic activity in the United States. Table 1 shows salient U.S. recycling statistics for selected metals. Table 2 shows salient U.S. apparent supply and recycling statistics for those same metals. Figure 1 shows a general flow scheme for recycling.

J. F. Carlin; D. Edelstein; S. M. Jasinski; J. F. Papp; P. A. Plunkert

1995-01-01

21

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Recycling-nonferrous metals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The estimated value of recycled nonferrous metals in 1993 was about $7.3 billion and is an increasingly important component of economic activity in the United States. Table 1 shows salient U.S. recycling statistics for selected metals. Table 2 shows salient U.S. apparent supply and recycling statistics for those same metals. Figure 1 shows a general flow scheme for recycling.

Carlin, J.F.; Edelstein, D.; Jasinski, S.M.; Papp, J.F.; Plunkert, P.A.

1995-04-01

22

Lead metal removal by recycled alum sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, alum sludge was recycled using a chemical precipitation process to promote the removal of lead metal in wastewater. To make the process more cost-effective, two different pH ranges were suggested for daily operation, depending on the involvement or otherwise of an aluminum regeneration process at a later stage. If aluminum regeneration was expected, an elevated pH (11.6)

Wei Chu

1999-01-01

23

What do we know about metal recycling rates?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

Graedel, T. E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J. -P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B. K.; Sibley, S. F.; Sonnemann, G.

2011-01-01

24

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Recycling-nonferrous metals. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Because of the increasing importance of recycling to domestic metal supply and the intense public interest, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) initiated this separate chapter on nonferrous metal recycling as part of its Annual Report series in 1991. A separate chapter on iron and steel scrap already has been part of this series for many years. The focus of this chapter is on aluminum, copper, lead, tin, and zinc recycling.

Carlin, J.F.; Edelstein, D.; Jolly, J.H.; Jolly, J.L.W.; Papp, J.F.

1994-01-01

25

Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

26

Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters  

SciTech Connect

As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

1993-06-01

27

Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

Bray, L.A.

1996-08-13

28

Entropy analysis of metal production and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper attempts to address both resource consumption and recycling effectiveness, using concepts from thermodynamics: entropy production for evaluating the costs (resource consumption) and statistical entropy for evaluating the benefits (separation of materials) of recycling processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Resource consumption, in this context, is to be understood as the overall thermodynamic devaluation of matter and energy flows. The

Stefan Gößling-Reisemann

2008-01-01

29

Evaluation of the Metals Industry's Position on Recycling and its Implications for Environmental Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A healthy debate on the treatment of metals recycling in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has persisted for more than a decade. While no clear consensus across stakeholder groups has emerged, the metals industry has endorsed a set of recycling “facts” that support a single approach, end?of?life recycling, for evaluating the environmental benefits of metals recycling. In this article

Colin A. McMillan; Steven J. Skerlos; Gregory A. Keoleian

2012-01-01

30

Metals recycling: economic and environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in a period of economic transition. The `cowboy economy' of the past is obsolescent, if not obsolete. Environmental services are no longer free goods, and this fact is driving major changes. Recycling is the wave of the (immediate) future. The potential savings in terms of energy and capital have long been obvious. The savings in terms of reduced

Robert U. Ayres

1997-01-01

31

Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste  

SciTech Connect

Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

Reimann, G.A.

1991-10-01

32

Recycling of Metals and Materials: A Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling of metals and materials has as its purpose the easing of two major environmental crises. First, we re-utilize scarce and non-renewable resources. Second, solid waste disposal problems can be alleviated. Industry has long been concerned with reclaiming its own waste products, and is now beginning to respond to the need for dealing with…

Seidman, Ruth K., Comp.; Castrow, Lee, Comp.

33

The recycling and reclamation of metal-matrix composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of viable techniques for the recycling and reclamation of metal-matrix composites (MMCs) is critical to the commercialization of these advanced materials. The recycling of both MMC wrought alloy (6061) scrap and foundry alloy (high-silicon) returns has been studied. The MMC extrusion alloy scrap has been recycled back into direct-chill cast logs and the resulting billet has been tested to determine whether the composite properties are degraded by repeated recycling. Similarly, fluxing and degassing techniques have been developed so that MMC foundry alloy gates and risers produced in shape-casting may be recycled back into useful castings. These fluxing and degassing processes have been tested commercially. Ultimately, when either type of MMC scrap can no longer be recycled, the alumina particles in the wrought alloys or the silicon carbide particles in the foundry alloys may be removed by common salt or other fluxing techniques. Rotary salt furnace technology has been shown to be effective for this approach, and the results of large-scale trials are reported here.

Schuster, David M.; Skibo, Michael D.; Bruski, Richard S.; Provencher, Robert; Riverin, Gaston

1993-05-01

34

Metal recycling from scrap and waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of a total U.K. consumption of 2.5 million tonnes per annum of nonferrous metals, as much as 33% is recovered from scrap. The structure of the industry which makes this important contribution to the economy is briefly outlined, and the technology is described by which the various nonferrous metals are recovered in reusable form from waste materials. Data on

A. W. Fletcher

1976-01-01

35

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

36

Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal de-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact. Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous emissions, with increased metal oxidation, contamination, and salt flux usage. By thermal de-coating of the scrap these problems are avoided. Thermal de-coating followed by remelting of aluminum scrap is now common practice, while painted magnesium scrap is not currently de-coated and recycled. This article presents observations during heating of the contaminated light metals together with the mass loss, evolved gases, and residue after de-coating in order to give a general description of the de-coating process. It is argued that the main behavior during de-coating may be described as two distinct regimes—scission and combustion—regardless of metal substrate and coating. Monitoring the combustion regime should assure optimum de-coating.

Kvithyld, Anne; Meskers, C. E. M.; Gaal, Sean; Reuter, Markus; Engh, Thorvald Abel

2008-08-01

37

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

38

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

39

Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

Sullivan, Daniel E.

2006-01-01

40

Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

41

Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of

N. N. Sauer; B. F. Smith

1993-01-01

42

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

NONE

1996-07-01

43

USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined.

LAGERRAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.

1997-11-01

44

Multi-metal contamination of a calcic cambisol by fallout from a lead-recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the impact of a lead-recycling plant on metal accumulation in soils, evaluated by a global pedological analysis. This general approach can be used on various contaminated sites to evaluate impact of an anthropogenic activity and inform on metal origin and behavior. A soil profile collected in the vicinity of a lead-recycling plant in operation for

M. Cecchi; C. Dumat; A. Alric; B. Felix-Faure; P. Pradere; M. Guiresse

2008-01-01

45

Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described.\\u000a In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials.\\u000a The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils

Junya Goto; Michael Santorelli

2010-01-01

46

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Sykes, Miss

2005-10-20

47

15 CFR 754.7 - Petitions for the imposition of monitoring or controls on recyclable metallic materials; Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...controls on recyclable metallic materials. (b) Eligibility for...industry which processes metallic materials capable of being recycled...adverse effect on the national economy or any sector thereof...both, with respect to such materials. (c) Public...

2013-01-01

48

77 FR 65886 - Century Metal Recycling PVT. LTD v. Dacon Logistics, LLC dba CODA Forwarding, Great American...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 12-09] Century Metal Recycling PVT. LTD v. Dacon Logistics, LLC dba CODA Forwarding...Federal Maritime Commission (Commission) by Century Metal Recycling Pvt. Ltd d/ b/a/CMR American, LLC (Century...

2012-10-31

49

Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

Jarosz, Piotr; Ma?ecki, Stanis?aw; Gargul, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

50

Development of a Be-7 beam: Techniques for the ionization of radioactive metallic elements (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Louvain-la-Neuve ECR ion source is used to ionize metallic radioactive elements like Be-7 (T1/2=53d) for postacceleration in its radioactive beam facility. Because of the minute quantities of primary material available, dedicated techniques had to be developed to inject the radioactive atoms in a controlled manner and to recycle the atoms lost on the plasma chamber walls. For this purpose, a heated plasma chamber has been constructed which allows the use of ``on-line chemistry in the source'' to effectively recycle the deposited material. The presence of a radioactive tracer proved to be a strong diagnostic tool to locate the material loss in the different parts of the source. This development resulted in the production of a postaccelerated beam of Be-7 in 1+ and 2+ charge states. Up to 110 h of continuous beam have been provided with primary material quantities of a few ng. The total efficiency of the source reached a few percent. These beams were initially developed for experiments in nuclear physics. The implantation of Be-7 is now also used as a powerful tool to measure the wear properties of various materials like ceramics and amorphous carbon layers. This will be illustrated with a few examples.

Gaelens, M.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckewaert, G.

2004-05-01

51

Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for June 1970-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. Analysis of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 341 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-05-01

52

Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX database). Report for June 1970-January 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 362 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-03-01

53

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

NONE

1996-07-01

54

ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING FOR ZERO DISCHARGE AND METAL RECYCLING - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

This Phase I SBIR addresses the need for a manufacturing method for recovery and recycle of metal removed during electrochemical machining (ECM). Direct current (DC) ECM uses viscous solutions with additives such as fluoride, resulting in difficult to control electrolytes...

55

Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: a review.  

PubMed

The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances in the NMFs. The trend in chemical recycling of the NMFs is to make the best of advantages over physical recycling of the NMFs to compensate its higher cost. Removing and treating the hazardous substances in the NMFs is an ultimate method to eliminate the pollution. PMID:19303702

Guo, Jiuyong; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

2009-02-26

56

ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

57

Heavy Metal Contamination from Electronic Waste Recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th is study evaluated the eff ect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment

Yan Guo; Changjiang Huang; Hong Zhang; Qiaoxiang Dong

2009-01-01

58

Precious Metals: A Convenient Recycle Procedure for Laboratory Rejects with Spectroscopic Characterisation of the Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling process of metals is also a good opportunity to get in touch with the economic and environmental issues involving the routine in the chemistry laboratory. This strategy has been introduced regularly in the laboratory in order to reduce the waste material storage. the recovery process focusing on the precious metals, gold and palladium, gives as a result the

M. S. Campos; A. M. Passos Felicíssimol

2000-01-01

59

Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal  

DOEpatents

A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

2008-06-10

60

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

2012-01-01

61

Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

62

Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the

Goran Dugalic; Dragana Krstic; Miodrag Jelic; Dragoslav Nikezic; Biljana Milenkovic; Mira Pucarevic; Tijana Zeremski-Skoric

2010-01-01

63

Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: age and gender aspects.  

PubMed

This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p<0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461±162g/d, followed by water spinach (103±51kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ>3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ>1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. PMID:22227302

Ngo, Duc Minh; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Le, Thi Thuy; Nyberg, Ylva; Le, Bach Mai; Nguyen, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Manh Khai; Oborn, Ingrid

2012-01-09

64

Long-lived FP burning based on the actinide recycle metal fuel core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility of burning of the major long-lived FPs (I, Pd, Tc, Sn, Se, Zr, Cs) while maintaining fuel breeding capability for the Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System is evaluated based on the actinide recycle metal fuel core of a fast reactor. It is shown that I, Pd, Tc, Sn, Se, and Zr can be burnt simultaneously by an aid of the

M. Saito; Y. Fujii-e

1998-01-01

65

Core performance of fast reactors for actinide recycling using metal, nitride, and oxide fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core performance analyses are conducted for fast reactors that accept and recycle the plutonium and minor actinides (MAs) recovered from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel, together with the plutonium and MAs from the fast reactors` own production. Metal, nitride, and oxide are the fuel materials used to compare the neutronic and safety parameters and to discuss acceptable minor actinide

Takeshi Yokoo; Akihiro Sasahara; Tadashi Inoue; Jungmin Kang; Atsuyuki Suzuki

1996-01-01

66

Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.  

PubMed

We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media. PMID:23645478

Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

2013-05-01

67

Molten Salt Oxidation of Ion-exchange Resins Doped with Toxic Metals and Radioactive Metal Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates were test-burned in a bench-scale molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system. The purposes of this study are to confirm the destruction performance of the two-stage MSO reactor system for the organic ion-exchange resin and to obtain an understanding of the behavior of the fixed toxic metals and the sulfur in

Hee-Chul YANG; Yong-Jun CHO; Hee-Chul EUN; Jae-Hyung YOO; Joon-Hyung KIM

2005-01-01

68

Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF. When used energy of exothermic reactions in waste thermochemical treatment processing, the problems concerned with heating method choice, appropriate heating equipment operation, and maintenance of this equipment reliability are excluded. Generally, the PMF consists of combustible powder metal, oxygen containing component, and some additives (pore-forming materials, stabilizers, surface-active substances, and other) with a predominance of metal powder. A thermodynamic simulation is applied widely at the designing of the PMF.

Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

2003-02-25

69

Osmium isotope constraints on ore metal recycling in subduction zones  

PubMed

Veined peridotite xenoliths from the mantle beneath the giant Ladolam gold deposit on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, are 2 to 800 times more enriched in copper, gold, platinum, and palladium than surrounding depleted arc mantle. Gold ores have osmium isotope compositions similar to those of the underlying subduction-modified mantle peridotite source region, indicating that the primary origin of the metals was the mantle. Because the mantle is relatively depleted in gold, copper, and palladium, tectonic processes that enhance the advective transport and concentration of these fluid soluble metals may be a prerequisite for generating porphyry-epithermal copper-gold deposits. PMID:10521343

McInnes; McBride; Evans; Lambert; Andrew

1999-10-15

70

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

71

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

72

Determination of metal additives and bromine in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste by TXRF analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for analysis of metal additives in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste was developed, based on dissolving\\u000a the samples in an organic solvent and subsequent analysis of the corresponding solutions or suspensions by total-reflection\\u000a X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). The procedure proved to be considerably less time consuming than the conventional\\u000a digestion of the polymer matrix. Additives containing Ti,

H. Fink; U. Panne; M. Theisen; R. Niessner; T. Probst; X. Lin

2000-01-01

73

A method of removing metal ions from silicate glasses for recycling by liquid-phase deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of removing metal ions from silicate glasses for recycling was studied. This method utilizes a liquid-phase deposition (LPD) technique using a hydrofluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) aqueous solution supersaturated with silica. Silicate glass powder prepared from a glass bottle was dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The fluorinated silicon oxide (SiOF) separated from the H2SiF6, and then an LPD-SiOF

Tetsuya Homma

2001-01-01

74

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-09-01

75

New binding materials for metal hydride electrodes which permit good recyclability  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic elastomers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were used successfully as binding materials for metal hydride (MH) electrodes of a nickel-metal hydride battery. These binding materials have a rubber-like nature and are soluble in organic solvents. It was easy to remove the alloy powder from a used electrode for recycling. The battery performance depended on both the kind and amount of binding materials. The best discharge capacity and rate capability were obtained for MH electrodes containing 2--5 weight percent (w/o) SEBS. The particle size distributions for the alloy were examined successfully.

Hara, T.; Yasuda, N. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan). Development Center); Takeuchi, Y. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Project Dept.); Sakai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Miyamura, H.; Kuriyama, N.; Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

1993-09-01

76

Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The

1994-01-01

77

PFC Decontamination of a Metal Surface and the Recycling of a Spent PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) ultrasonic decontamination behavior of loosely contaminated metal specimens such as a plate, pipe, welding and a crevice specimen in a mixed solution of PFC and an anionic surfactant was investigated. Perfluoroheptane (C{sub 7}F{sub 16}) was used as a PFC ultrasonic media. The contaminants were completely removed for almost all of the tested specimens except for the longest pipe length specimen. For the 6-cm long specimen, 98.5 % of the contaminants were removed. For the recycling of the PFC solution, a distillation test for the spent PFC solution was also performed. The results show that 97.5 % of the PFC was recycled without a loss of the decontamination efficiency. (authors)

Jung, C.H.; Won, H.J.; Oh, W.Z.; Moon, J.K.; Park, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.BOX 105, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

78

Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700 deg. C. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 deg. C), tungsten is self-annealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment.The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium.Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands and fusion experiments to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 deg. C), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11-M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2010-05-20

79

Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

R. Majeski

2010-01-15

80

Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida.  

PubMed

A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C&D debris fines from 13 C&D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies. PMID:15336886

Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

2004-10-01

81

Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-01-01

82

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were

I. H. Gundiler; J. D. Lutz; W. T. Wheelis

2010-01-01

83

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials in discrete sub-components. SNL developed and demonstrated a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive

J. D. Lutz; W. T. Wheelis; I. H. Gundiler

1995-01-01

84

Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling - a holistic approach for interface optimisation between pre-processing and integrated metals smelting and refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient recovery of precious and special metals from electronic scrap has significant benefits - economically, environmentally, but also under a resource conservation aspect. The yields of these metals could be substantially improved by higher collection rates, less scrap exports to regions with insufficient recycling structures, and by interface optimisation, as pointed out in this document

Christian Hagelüken

2006-01-01

85

PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.  

PubMed

The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact. PMID:20728263

Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

2010-08-21

86

Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 1. Metal precipitation for recovery and recycle.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater, poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post mining activities. The metals usually encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, zinc, copper and sulfate. The pollution generated by abandoned mining activities in the area of Butte, Montana has resulted in the designation of the Silver Bow Creek-Butte Area as the largest Superfund (National Priorities List) site in the U.S. This paper reports the results of bench-scale studies conducted to develop a resource recovery based remediation process for the clean up of the Berkeley Pit. The process utilizes selective, sequential precipitation (SSP) of metals as hydroxides and sulfides, such as copper, zinc, aluminum, iron and manganese, from the Berkeley Pit AMD for their removal from the water in a form suitable for additional processing into marketable precipitates and pigments. The metal biorecovery and recycle process is based on complete separation of the biological sulfate reduction step and the metal precipitation step. Hydrogen sulfide produced in the SRB bioreactor systems is used in the precipitation step to form insoluble metal sulfides. The average metal recoveries using the SSP process were as follows: aluminum (as hydroxide) 99.8%, cadmium (as sulfide) 99.7%, cobalt (as sulfide) 99.1% copper (as sulfide) 99.8%, ferrous iron (sulfide) 97.1%, manganese (as sulfide) 87.4%, nickel (as sulfide) 47.8%, and zinc (as sulfide) 100%. The average precipitate purity for metals, copper sulfide, ferric hydroxide, zinc sulfide, aluminum hydroxide and manganese sulfide were: 92.4, 81.5, 97.8, 95.6, 92.1 and 75.0%, respectively. The final produced water contained only calcium and magnesium and both sulfate and sulfide concentrations were below usable water limits. Water quality of this agriculturally usable water met the EPA's gold standard criterion. PMID:14669873

Tabak, Henry H; Scharp, Richard; Burckle, John; Kawahara, Fred K; Govind, Rakesh

2003-12-01

87

Chlorine gas exposure at a metal recycling facility--California, 2010.  

PubMed

On June 8, 2010, chlorine gas was released from a ruptured, 1-ton, low-pressure tank being recycled at a California metal recycling facility. A total of 23 persons, including employees, customers, and workers at nearby businesses, were treated for the effects of the fumes at seven area hospitals. Chlorine is a corrosive, greenish-yellow gas that is heavier than air and can cause severe respiratory damage; it is used widely in water purification, sewage treatment, and disinfectant washes for foods. Following the incident, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and CDC collaborated with the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) on an Assessment of Chemical Exposures (ACE) to determine 1) the circumstances surrounding those exposed during the chlorine gas release, 2) health effects associated with exposures, and 3) recommendations for preventing recurrences. This report describes the chlorine gas release in California and summarizes the results of the ACE investigation. Of 29 persons potentially exposed to chlorine gas, 27 were interviewed to collect information regarding their exposures. In addition, information regarding acute health effects and symptoms was abstracted from medical records. At the time of the chlorine gas release, 15 persons were outdoors, and 13 were exposed for >30 minutes before they were decontaminated. Twenty-three persons reported experiencing one or more upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms within 24 hours of exposure; six persons were hospitalized for 1-11 days. Based on these findings, CDPH issued a statewide alert to all recycling facilities on how to handle containers with potential hazardous waste. PMID:21775949

2011-07-22

88

Metal recovery and EDTA recycling from simulated washing effluents of metal-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and metals such as CuII, PbII, CdII, and ZnII from simulated washing effluents of metal-contaminated soils was investigated using a two-chamber electrolytic cell, which was separated by a cation exchange membrane Neosepta CM-1. The iridium oxide coated on titanium electrode and stainless steel were used as the anode and cathode, respectively. An equimolar solution

Ruey-Shin Juang; Shiow-Wen Wang

2000-01-01

89

Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release  

SciTech Connect

Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)

2007-07-01

90

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies.

Gundiler, I.H. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-03

91

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials in discrete sub-components. SNL developed and demonstrated a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The remaining components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies and in the development of a conceptual design for a mechanical separation system.

Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gundiler, I.H. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-02-01

92

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOEpatents

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

1995-08-01

93

[Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].  

PubMed

The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress. PMID:23213800

Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

94

Recycling Opportunities for Neighbourhoods and Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses recycling paper, glass, plastics, and metals. It presents a community technology approach to recycling, and reviews present efforts in repair and renovation, reuse, and recycling. A final chapter on the appropriateness of recycling te...

C. Thomas

1981-01-01

95

THE MANAGEMENT ROUTES FOR CONTAMINATED METALS FROM DISMANTLING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of cleared materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The paper is focused on the management

O. Emond; M. Klein; Y. Demeulemeester; I. Majkowski; M. Ponnet; V. Massaut; J. Dadoumont

96

Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison.  

PubMed

We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, "formal" and "informal") revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p<0.005), excluding informal dust (p=0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites. PMID:22542777

Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C

2012-04-15

97

Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 ?g\\/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu ? Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 ?g\\/g) was also found to

Thanh Wang; Jianjie Fu; Yawei Wang; Chunyang Liao; Yongqing Tao; Guibin Jiang

2009-01-01

98

Development and mechanical properties of metal–particulate glass matrix composites from recycled glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great number of glasses available from recycling activity and vitrification treatment of industrial wastes leads to the need for new applications, with the development of new materials, such as low-cost composite materials from a powder technology route. In the present work a variety of recycled glasses is investigated, in order to obtain aluminium reinforced glass matrix composites via cold-pressing

E. Bernardo; G. Scarinci; A. Maddalena; S. Hreglich

2004-01-01

99

Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

1990-12-31

100

Assessment of natural radioactivity and heavy metals in water and soil around seismically active area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural radioactivity concentration and some heavy metals in various water and soil samples collected from seismically\\u000a active area have been determined. Gross-alpha and beta concentrations of different 33 water samples and some heavy metal (Fe,\\u000a Pb, Cu, K, Mn, Cr and Zn) concentration in 72 soil samples collected from two major fault systems (North and East Anatolian\\u000a Active Fault

Oktay Baykara; Mahmut Do?ru

2010-01-01

101

Treatment and Stabilization of Potentially Pyrophoric Radioactive Metal Chips and Turnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the continuing mission to decontaminate, decommission, and restore environmental quality at multiple sites throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear complex, approximately 2,000 containers of potentially pyrophoric radioactive metal chips and turnings, weighing over 192,000 kilograms have been identified. These wastes, mostly depleted uranium (DU) and thorium metals, must be treated to remove or immobilize

B. R. Crocker; R. Grondin; T. Yarbrough

2006-01-01

102

Association between lung function in school children and exposure to three transition metals from an e-waste recycling area.  

PubMed

The informal processing of electronic waste or e-waste contributes to the release of high concentrations of transition metals into the ambient air. The damage caused by chromium, nickel and manganese exposure on lung function in school children from an e-waste recycling area and the role of oxidative stress in this process were evaluated. We recruited school children (n=144, 8-13 years) from an e-waste recycling area in China compared with the control. Spirometry was performed to assess lung function status. The blood levels of chromium, nickel and manganese, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of the subjects were examined. The concentrations of blood manganese (bMn) and serum nickel (sNi) in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in controls for all three age groups. The forced vital capacity value of boys aged 8-9 years was significantly lower than that of the control. Malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly in children aged 8-9 years from e-waste environment, but catalase activities declined. School children from an e-waste recycling area were exposed to high levels of the three transition metals. The accumulation of bMn and sNi may be risk factors for oxidative damage and decreased pulmonary function. PMID:22854517

Zheng, Guina; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Wu, Kusheng; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Huo, Xia

2012-08-01

103

Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wallo, A. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Guidance

1994-11-01

104

Characterization of Chromized Metallic Surfaces by Means of Radioactive Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Cr deposited on metallic surfaces at concentrations of about 10 at\\/cm was examined by detecting the radiation components emitted in the Cr decay. The autoradiography revealed a non-homogeneous Cr covering. Combined Auger electron and X-ray spectroscopies yielded information on the Cr concentration, especially in the 2 nm thick surface layer. This concentration was found to depend

V. Rö?iger; A. Freyer; E. Hartmann; C. Treutler; V. Brabec; O. Dragoun; A. Kovalik

1986-01-01

105

Electrowinning/electrostripping and electrodialysis processes for the recovery and recycle of metals from plating rinse solutions  

SciTech Connect

Two electrochemical based methods have been evaluated to remove heavy metals from a tin/zinc electroplating rinse solution with subsequent recycle of the metals back into the original plating bath. The first method uses electrodialysis to move tin to the anolyte strip solution as an anionic citrato complex while zinc is distributed to both the anolyte and catholyte, showing it exists as both an anionic citrato complex and in free cationic form. Zinc can be recovered by scraping the loose deposit from the cathode and dissolving it in mineral acid. The second method is a combined electrowinning/electrostripping technique. The process involves continuously flowing the plating rinse solution through a porous graphite cathode and removing the metal ions via electrodeposition. When a sufficient quantity of metal has been deposited, the electrode is placed in a solution whose chemical composition is similar to that of the original plating bath and the metals ions are stripped from the electrode anodically. The resulting solution is then placed into the original plating bath. Both methods were used to treat a surrogate rinse solution originally containing 100-300 parts per million of each metal and were successful in reducing the metal-ion concentrations to less than 15 parts per million each. Approximately 70% of the tin and 100% of the zinc are recoverable by either method.

Smith, W.H.; Foreman, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-01-01

106

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES  

SciTech Connect

The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

2007-06-06

107

Economical disposal of municipal solid waste with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of energy and metal values  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the disposal of municipal solid wastes with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of the energy and metal values contained therein. The energy values are recovered as zero ash, zero sulfur, zero nitrogen, zero chlorine particulate carbon (carbon black) fuels and a hydrogen-rich (or methane-rich) gaseous co-product. The process is especially adaptable to the disposal of plastic wastes and recycling of its energy values. Also, the inclusion of medical wastes should be no problem. The process consists of hydrogasifying prepared MSW (or any carbonaceous feedstock) to form a methane-rich process gas, which is then thermally decomposed (cracked) to form the primary product, carbon black, and hydrogen which is recycled to the hydrogasifier. Oxygen in the MSW is presently removed as water from the hydrogasifier effluent before it enters the methane decomposer. Any remaining hydrogen in the MSW feed is ultimately removed from the process as a co-product gas as hydrogen per se and/or methane (SNG). Chlorine in feed containing PVCs, for example, is removed as relatively minute amounts of hydrogen chloride in the condensed water discharged from the recuperative partial condenser. Desulfurization is not required to produce sulfur-free carbon black per se. Various options are available for desulfurization of the co-product gas. Since the process operates under a highly-reducing hydrogen atmosphere, toxic oxygenated compounds such as dioxins cannot form and metals entering with the MSW are removed with the ash'' as metals, not oxides.

Grohse, E.W.; Steinberg, M.; Koppel, P.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))

1989-03-01

108

Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239. Higher breeding ratio of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium condition are estimated from converted fertile material during reactor operation into fissile material of plutonium such as converted uranium fuel (converted U-238 into Pu-239) or additional converted fuel from MA into Pu-238 and changes into Pu-239 by capturing neutron. Loading LWR SF gives better fuel breeding capability and increase inventory of MA for doping material of MOX fuel; however, it requires more supply MA inventory for TRU fuel type.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

109

Evaluation of a leaching process coupled with regeneration/recycling of the extractant for treatment of heavy metal contaminated solids.  

PubMed

A hydrometallurgical circuit process combining the leaching of metals with the electrolytic regeneration of the mass separating agent is an option to effectively treat heavy metal contaminated solids. This process aims towards a dosed loop utilisation of the extractant by its regeneration and recycling, enabling the use of high cost extractants and the recovery of the heavy metals as well. The circuit process, in which each cycle consists of an extraction step followed by the electrolytic regeneration of the mass separating agent and a second extraction to finally recycle the separating agent and start a new cycle, was applied on a lead contaminated soil from an accumulator manufacturing facility and for the removal of copper from a municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. For the first case a 0.13 M citrate solution was used at a pH of 5; for the second 10%; sulphuric acid (pH=0.5). The results showed that above 80% of lead and copper were removed from soil and ash, respectively, when the concentration of mass separating agent was controlled and kept constant. The extraction efficiency of metals from the solid materials was in the same range as the one obtained by two extaction steps using fresh extracting agent. However, due to losses of the mass separating agent the operation in a complete closed loop configuration was not possible. Nevertheless, a substantial reduction in separating agent consumption was achieved. The process proved to be suitable for treating highly contaminated materials, for which the operation parameters of extraction and regeneration are more favourable, also increasing the recovery of metals. PMID:12088380

Arévalo, E F; Stichnothe, H; Thöming, J; Calmano, W

2002-05-01

110

Isolation of soluble {sup 99}Tc as a compact solid using a recyclable, redox-active, metal-complex extractant  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating a new paradigm in separation science, the use of recyclable, redox-active metal-complex extractants for the removal and isolation of ionic contaminants from acidic, neutral, or alkaline aqueous solutions. In this paper, we report a novel process for the extraction and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The noteworthy features of the process are that (i) technetium is recovered as a solid of minimal volume, (ii) the extractant and the organic solvent are recovered unchanged and can be reused many times, and (iii) the expendable chemicals are readily available, inexpensive, easy to handle, and relatively nontoxic. The key element of the process is a lipophilic, redox-active, metal-complex anion extractant, 1,1`,3,3`-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene, 1. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Clark, J.F.; Clark, D.L.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Whitener, G.D.; Schroeder, N.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-10-01

111

Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET wastes by glycolysis in the presence of metal salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, namely zinc acetate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulphate and potassium sulphate. Comparable high

R. López-Fonseca; I. Duque-Ingunza; B. de Rivas; S. Arnaiz; J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz

2010-01-01

112

HEAVY METALS IN RECOVERED FINES FOR CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS RECYCLING FACILITIES IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil....

113

Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to

Timothy Townsend; Thabet Tolaymat; Kevin Leo; Jenna Jambeck

2004-01-01

114

Data availability and the need for research to localize, quantify and recycle critical metals in information technology, telecommunication and consumer equipment.  

PubMed

The supply of critical metals like gallium, germanium, indium and rare earths elements (REE) is of technological, economic and strategic relevance in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Recycling is one of the key strategies to secure the long-term supply of these metals. The dissipation of the metals related to the low concentrations in the products and to the configuration of the life cycle (short use time, insufficient collection, treatment focusing on the recovery of other materials) creates challenges to achieve efficient recycling. This article assesses the available data and sets priorities for further research aimed at developing solutions to improve the recycling of seven critical metals or metal families (antimony, cobalt, gallium, germanium, indium, REE and tantalum). Twenty-six metal applications were identified for those six metals and the REE family. The criteria used for the assessment are (i) the metal criticality related to strategic and economic issues; (ii) the share of the worldwide mine or refinery production going to EEE manufacturing; (iii) rough estimates of the concentration and the content of the metals in the products; (iv) the accuracy of the data already available; and (v) the occurrence of the application in specific WEEE groups. Eight applications were classified as relevant for further research, including the use of antimony as a flame retardant, gallium and germanium in integrated circuits, rare earths in phosphors and permanent magnets, cobalt in batteries, tantalum capacitors and indium as an indium-tin-oxide transparent conductive layer in flat displays. PMID:24068305

Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Vera Susanne; Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Marwede, Max; Nissen, Nils F; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

2013-10-01

115

Radioactive decay properties of Bruce 'A' CANDU(sup TM) UO(sub 2) fuel and fuel recycle waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a compilation of the radioactive decay properties of irradiated CANDU fuel of the type used at the Bruce Nuclear Power Generating Station. The report is similar to AECL-4436/1 and AECL-4436/2, which describe the decay properties of Pickerin...

H. J. Smith J. C. Tait R. E. Von Massow

1987-01-01

116

Guidelines for Waste Reduction and Recycling: Metal Finishing, Electroplating, Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guidance manual describes waste reduction techniques for metal finishing, metal fabricating, electroplating, and printed circuitboard manufacturing operations. Techniques which can be applied to a wide range of industrial processes and those which are...

1989-01-01

117

The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

1997-05-01

118

A new two-roll electrostatic separator for recycling of metals and nonmetals from waste printed circuit board.  

PubMed

The electrostatic separation is an effective method for recycling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The efficiency of electrostatic separation processes depends on the ability of the separator. As a classical one, the roll-type corona-electrostatic separator has some advantages in recycling metals and plastics from waste printed circuit board (PCB). However, its industry application still faces some problems, such as: the further disposal of the middling products of the separation process; the balance of the production capacity and the good separation efficiency; the separation of the fine granular mixture and the stability of the separation process. A new "two-roll-type corona-electrostatic separator" was built to overcome the limitation of the classical one. The experimental data were discussed and the results showed that the outcome of the separation process was improved by using the new separator. Compared with the classical machine, the mass of conductive products increases 8.9% (groups 2 and 3) and10.2% (group 4) while the mass of the middling products decreases 45% (groups 2 and 3) and 31.7% (group 4), respectively. The production capacity of the new machine increases, and the stability of the separation process is enhanced. PMID:18554788

Jiang, Wu; Jia, Li; Zhen-Ming, Xu

2008-03-26

119

The recycling of 25 litre plastic drums used to supply process chemistry into the printed circuit board (PCB) and metal finishing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty five litre plastic drums are widely used throughout industry and find application in the printed circuit board (PCB) and metal finishing sectors for the supply of process chemistry to manufacturers. These drums represent an important source of recyclable high density polyethylene since the containers are made of single polymer and constitute an easily recognisable waste stream that provides a

Kate Geraghty

2003-01-01

120

[Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996  

SciTech Connect

A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

NONE

1996-07-01

121

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

122

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

123

Guidelines for waste reduction and recycling: Metal finishing, electroplating, printed circuit board manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The guidance manual describes waste reduction techniques for metal finishing, metal fabricating, electroplating, and printed circuitboard manufacturing operations. Techniques which can be applied to a wide range of industrial processes and those which are process-specific are discussed. Evaporation, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration, and electrolytic recovery are described. The manual also describes waste reduction assessment procedures.

Not Available

1989-07-01

124

A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India.  

PubMed

The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 ?g/Nm(3) and 428 ?g/Nm(3) (at 4m/s and 1m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 ?g/Nm(3). These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 ?g/Nm(3)). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India. PMID:23018053

Deshpande, Paritosh C; Tilwankar, Atit K; Asolekar, Shyam R

2012-09-25

125

Minor enantiomer recycling: metal catalyst, organocatalyst and biocatalyst working in concert.  

PubMed

A minor enantiomer recycling one-pot procedure employing two reinforcing chiral catalysts has been developed. Continuous regeneration of the achiral starting material is effected via selective enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the minor product enantiomer from Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed addition of acyl cyanides to prochiral aldehydes in a two-phase solvent system. The process provides O-acylated cyanohydrins in close to perfect enantioselectivities, higher than those obtained in the direct process, and in high yields. A combination of a (S,S)-salen Ti Lewis acid and Candida antarctica lipase B provides the products with R absolute configuration, whereas the opposite enantiomer is obtained from the (R,R)-salen Ti complex and Candida rugosa lipase. PMID:19768712

Wingstrand, Erica; Laurell, Anna; Fransson, Linda; Hult, Karl; Moberg, Christina

2009-11-01

126

Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 1. Metal precipitation for recovery and recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearingwastewater, poses a severe pollution problem attributedto post mining activities. The metals usuallyencountered in AMD and considered of concern for riskassessment are arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese,zinc, copper and sulfate. The pollution generated byabandoned mining activities in the area of Butte, Montanahas resulted in the designation of the Silver Bow Creek–ButteArea as the largest

Henry H. Tabak; Richard Scharp; John Burckle; Fred K. Kawahara; Rakesh Govind

2003-01-01

127

Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

Lauren Poole Lee Recca

1999-01-01

128

A Practical Recycling Project . . .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

1973-01-01

129

Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated. PMID:23138054

Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

2012-10-16

130

Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel

F. J. Dudek; E. J. Daniels; W. A. Morgan

1991-01-01

131

A feasibility study on the treatment and recycling of a wastewater from metal plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of research was initiated to study the treatment of spent rinse water from metal plating using reverse osmosis (RO) to meet the requirements for reuse as an alkaline rinse water. Four categories of spent rinses were treated in the laboratory using flat sheet membranes from different manufacturers. The experimental results showed that CPA2, ESPA1 and TW30 membranes were

Jian-Jun Qin; Maung-Nyunt Wai; Maung-Htun Oo; Fook-Sin Wong

2002-01-01

132

Aqueous metal recovery techniques from e-scrap: Hydrometallurgy in recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste of electric–electronic equipment (WEEE) with an annual growth rate of about 3–5% is the fastest growing waste stream in municipal wastes. Notwithstanding their environmental pollution potential, waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with their high content of base and precious metals, in particular, are regarded as a potential secondary resource when compared with ores. For the recovery of

A. Tuncuk; V. Stazi; A. Akcil; E. Y. Yazici; H. Deveci

133

Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated forest soil using recycled organic matter and native woody plants.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to determine how the application of a mulch cover (a mixture of household biocompost and woodchips) onto heavy metal-polluted forest soil affects (i) long-term survival and growth of planted dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings and (ii) natural revegetation. Native woody plants (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Empetrum nigrum, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) were planted in mulch pockets on mulch-covered and uncovered plots in summer 1996 in a highly polluted Scots pine stand in southwest Finland. Spreading a mulch layer on the soil surface was essential for the recolonization of natural vegetation and increased dwarf shrub survival, partly through protection against drought. Despite initial mortality, transplant establishment was relatively successful during the following 10 yr. Tree species had higher survival rates, but the dwarf shrubs covered a larger area of the soil surface during the experiment. Especially E. nigrum and P. sylvestris proved to be suitable for revegetating heavy metal-polluted and degraded forests. Natural recolonization of pioneer species (e.g., Epilobium angustifolium, Taraxacum coll., and grasses) and tree seedlings (P. sylvestris, Betula sp., and Salix sp.) was strongly enhanced on the mulched plots, whereas there was no natural vegetation on the untreated plots. These results indicate that a heavy metal-polluted site can be ecologically remediated without having to remove the soil. Household compost and woodchips are low-cost mulching materials that are suitable for restoring heavy metal-polluted soil. PMID:17596623

Helmisaari, H-S; Salemaa, M; Derome, J; Kiikkilä, O; Uhlig, C; Nieminen, T M

2007-06-27

134

77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating From Radiological...Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological...procedures). This Draft PEA for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating from...

2012-12-12

135

Remediation of Heavy Metal–Contaminated Forest Soil Using Recycled Organic Matter and Native Woody Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to determine how the application of a mulch cover (a mixture of household biocompost and woodchips) onto heavy metal-polluted forest soil affects (i) long-term survival and growth of planted dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings and (ii) natural revegetation. Native woody plants (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Empetrum nigrum, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) were planted in

H.-S. Helmisaari; M. Salemaa; J. Derome; C. Uhlig; T. M. Nieminen

2007-01-01

136

Removal of metal ions from electroplating effluent by EDI process and recycle of purified water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an improved configuration of the membrane stack was adopted in the electrodeionization (EDI) cell to prevent precipitation of bivalent metal hydroxide during the running. The operational parameters that influenced the electro-regeneration of cation exchange resins loaded with nickel ions were optimized, and the result showed that addition of a small amount of Na2SO4 into the electrode solution,

Xiao Feng; Zucheng Wu; Xuefen Chen

2007-01-01

137

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

138

Isolation of soluble ⁹⁹Tc as a compact solid using a recyclable, redox-active, metal-complex extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating a new paradigm in separation science, the use of recyclable, redox-active metal-complex extractants for the removal and isolation of ionic contaminants from acidic, neutral, or alkaline aqueous solutions. In this paper, we report a novel process for the extraction and recovery of TcOâ⁻. The noteworthy features of the process are that (i) technetium is recovered as a

Jennifer F. Clark; Dustin L. Clark; S. H. Strauss; G. D. Whitener; N. C. Schroeder

1996-01-01

139

Responsible recycling  

SciTech Connect

The issues that affect the recycling of lead-acid batteries and the challenges that this issue brings to both the lead industry and to the battery manufacturers are covered. Topics include the lead market (its size and structure), the economic constraints on the recycling system, recycling rates for batteries, the technology of recycling, and future considerations.

Pugh, A. (Britannia Refined Metals, Northfleet (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

140

Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel from galvanized ferrous scrap, (2) selected electrochemical stripping in hot caustic as the most promising process, (3) evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the selected process on the basis of fundamental electrochemical studies, (4) experimentally verified the technical and economic feasibility of the process in a phased evaluation from bench-scale controlled experiments through batch tests of actual scrap up to six ton lots, and (5) concluded that the process has technical and economic merit and requires larger- scale evaluation in a continuous mode as the final phase of process development. This work has attracted worldwide interest. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the recovered ferrous scrap would be about $150/ton (at a base cost of $110/ton for galvanized scrap), including credit for the co-product zinc. Concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium and other coating constituents on loose scrap are reduced by a minimum of 98%, with zinc, in particular, reduced to below 0.1%. Removal efficiencies on baled scrap with bulk densities between 60 and 245 pounds per cubic foot range from 80 to 90%. About 1000 tons of galvanized scrap bales have been treated in batch operation at MRII in Hamilton, Ontario. A pilot plant for continuous treatment of 40 ton/day of loose scrap is being built by MRII in East Chicago, Indiana, with operation starting in early 1992. 9 refs.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1991-11-04

141

Silica-Polyamine Composite Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Removal, Recovery, and Recycling. II. Metal Ion Separations from Mine Wastewater and Soft Metal Ion Extraction Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-polyamine composites have been synthesized which have metal ion capacities as high as 0.84 mmol\\/g for copper ions removed from aqueous solutions. In previous reports it has been demonstrated that these materials survive more than 3000 cycles of metal ion extraction, elution, and regeneration with almost no loss of capacity (less than 10%). This paper describes two modified silica-polyamine composite

ROBERT J. FISCHER; DAVID PANG; SUSAN T. BEATTY; EDWARD ROSENBERG

1999-01-01

142

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

143

Hanford recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals fo...

I. M. Leonard

1996-01-01

144

Analysis for metal elements and radioactive isotopes in fly ash produced in lignite combustion at a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the composition of fly ash from a thermal power plant and from the lignites used as mixed fuels at the plant.Heavy metals were analysed for qualitatively by emission spectrography and quantitatively by X?ray fluorescence. On the other hand, radioactive actinide elements were assayed by gamma and alpha spectrometry, and sulphur and carbon were determined by combustion.The analysis of

M. Casas; F. Garcias; Ll. Serra; M. Baucells; G. Lacort; M. Roura; R. Forteza; V. Cerdà

1992-01-01

145

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico- chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. Ex- situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment test using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils.

NONE

1995-05-01

146

Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth had very good capacity for these two metals. However, the mechanical strength of Fullers earth granules available commercially was not sufficient for use in a column. In this study chitosan was used as a binder to make Fullers earth beads and were used for adsorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Hasan, Md. Shameem

147

A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel  

SciTech Connect

A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Arie, Kazuo [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Dev., Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Koyama, Tadafumi [Central research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

2007-07-01

148

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Smith, Miss

2010-12-03

149

Determination of Heavy Metals and Comparison to Gross Radioactivity Concentration in Soil and Sediment Samples of the Bendimahi River Basin (Van, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of radioactivity and some heavy metal distribution in soil and sediment of the river basin (Bendimahi River,\\u000a Van-Turkey) was conducted in two seasons of 2005. The samples of soil and sediment were collected from the basin and investigated\\u000a for concentrations of some heavy metal and natural radioactivity. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Cd

Özlem Selçuk Zorer; Hasan Ceylan; Mahmut Do?ru

2009-01-01

150

Vehicle fluids: The other recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling is no longer limited to paper and various types of plastics and metals. Many truck and automotive fluids, including antifreeze, are also recycled regularly throughout the US. Antifreeze is used today in almost every type of internal combustion engine. Whether the fuel is gasoline, diesel, propane, or natural gas, almost all engines need to use a liquid medium to

Walther

1994-01-01

151

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

152

An improved model for computing the trajectories of conductive particles in roll-type electrostatic separator for recycling metals from WEEE.  

PubMed

Electrostatic separation presents an effective and environmentally friendly way for recycling metals and nonmetals from ground waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). For this process, the trajectory of conductive particle is significant and some models have been established. However, the results of previous researches are limited by some simplifying assumptions and lead to a notable discrepancy between the model prediction and the experimental results. In the present research, a roll-type corona-electrostatic separator and ground printed circuit board (PCB) wastes were used to investigate the trajectory of the conductive particle. Two factors, the air drag force and the different charging situation, were introduced into the improved model. Their effects were analyzed and an improved model for the theoretical trajectory of conductive particle was established. Compared with the previous one, the improved model shows a good agreement with the experimental results. It provides a positive guidance for designing of separator and makes a progress for recycling the metals and nonmetals from WEEE. PMID:19201534

Wu, Jiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

2009-01-15

153

Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies.  

PubMed

Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life <1-25 days) degradation of the endocrine disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol), and iodipamide. However, pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and oxazepam), disinfection by-products (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine) and iohexol did not degrade rapidly (half-life > 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. PMID:19939429

Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T

2009-11-03

154

New developments in materials recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents promising technical solutions to complex recycling problems such as recovery of cobalt, nickel, and chromium from superalloy scrap; the separation, recovery, and reuse of nickel and chromium from stainless and specialty steel wastes; precious metal recovery from electronic scrap; an environmentally acceptable method for recycling lead-acid batteries; recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles; and rapid scrap identification methods suitable for today's modern alloys.

Horton, R.C.; Kenahan, C.B.

1984-04-01

155

National Recycling Directory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The directory focuses on manufacturers and/or distributors of products made from waste materials. Companies listed in the directory manufacture products which contain some recycled or recovered material. The directory consists of separate sections for the types of recycled materials used: glass, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, paper, plastic, rubber, and textiles. The states are listed alphabetically within each subsection, and the companies are listed alphabetically under the state in which they are located.

Not Available

1982-01-01

156

Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an Indirect Analysis Method Based on Scale Tests  

PubMed Central

The analysis of water quality, regarding the content of metals, especially heavy and radioactive ones, has been carried out in an indirect way, by testing scale formed in a hot-water heater, using water from the water-supply network of the city of Belgrade – the district of New Belgrade. The determination of the composition and the structure of the scale has resulted in its complete identification, and its crystallochemical formula has been defined. It has unequivocally been established that the obtained results are within the tolerance boundary with the results acquired by a conventional analysis of water, when it is a matter of very low concentrations. The presence of radioactive elements of uranium and strontium in a scale sample has been found and the way of their penetrating its composition and structure has been explained. Applying the fractional extraction method, uranium has been established to be of an anthropogenic origin.

Rajkovic, Milos B.; Lacnjevac, Caslav M.; Ralevic, Nebojsa R.; Stojanovic, Mirjana D.; Toskovic, Dragan V.; Pantelic, Gordana K.; Ristic, Nikola M.; Jovanic, Sasa

2008-01-01

157

Recycling of nonmetallics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E. B.; Kelly, T. D.

1996-01-01

158

Municipal solid waste recycling issues  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-10-01

159

Recent technology and trends in automotive recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, increasing public concern in the United States about automobile graveyards resulted in the development of current automobile recycling technology. However, due to changes in automobile manufacturing practices, the future applicability of existing automobile recycling technology is uncertain. This paper reviews the technological and political trends as they relate to the recycle of automobiles. Recycling practices for steel, aluminum, lead, and platinum-group metals are outlined, and research efforts on alternative approaches are discussed.

Bhakta, Pragna N. H.

1994-02-01

160

Radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations of some commercial fish species consumed in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Marine fish is an important daily diet item for the people of Turkey. The Black Sea Region of Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs) and heavy metal concentrations (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) in four of the most common fish species: Engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy), Oncorhynchus mykiss (trout), Trachurus mediterranus (bluefin) and Merlangius merlangus (whiting) samples collected from eight stations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey during 2010. The dose due to consumption of fish by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human healthy. The concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:22225706

Korkmaz Görür, F; Keser, R; Akçay, N; Dizman, S

2012-01-04

161

Engineering 'Deinococcus Radiodurans' for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites. (Final Report, 1997-2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immense volumes of radioactive waste were generated from the production of 46,000 nuclear weapons in the United States between 1945 and 1986. This is a period when national security priorities often surmounted concerns over the environment. Most wastes in...

M. J. Daly J. K. Fredrickson L. P. Wackett

2005-01-01

162

THERMODYNAMICS OF THE VOLATILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METALS IN THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

We are proposing to perform a detailed study of the volatilization behavior of the U, Pu and possibly Am under conditions relevant to the thermal treatment (destruction) of actinide-containing organic-based mixed and radioactive wastes. The primary objective of this 3-year projec...

163

Application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. O...

R. F. Fogle R. M. Younkins

1997-01-01

164

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

165

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were

J. M. Hammarstrom; R SEALII; A. L. Meier; J. M. Kornfeld

2005-01-01

166

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

167

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

168

Removal of Radioactive Cesium from Nuclear Waste Solutions with the Transition Metal Hexacyanoferrate Ion Exchanger CsTreat  

SciTech Connect

A transition metal hexacyanoferrate product CsTreat has been utilized at industrial scale for radioactive cesium separation at several nuclear power plants (NPPs) in several countries. A granular hexacyanoferrate ion exchanger has been used in packed-bed column mode operations for the removal of cesium from a variety of wastewater types. CsTreat beds have successfully purified both high-salt evaporator concentrates and dilute floor drain waters at NPPs in Finland and the United States. Furthermore, medium-active reprocessing solutions, containing high concentrations of sodium nitrate, have been decontaminated by a CsTreat bed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These solutions are described as are other industrial applications of this ion exchange material, which, of all the commercial materials, has been shown to be the most selective exchanger for cesium. In addition, some prospective fields of hexacyanoferrate utilization, such as the use of CsTreat powder in a precoat filtration system, are discussed.

Harjula, R. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehto, J. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Paajanen, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Brodkin, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Tusa, E. [Fortum Engineering (Finland)

2001-02-15

169

Melting, Solidification, Remelting, and Separation of Glass and Metal  

SciTech Connect

Several kinds of radioactive waste exist in mixed forms at DOE sites throughout the United States. These Wastes consist of radionuclides and some usefil bme materials. One purpose of waste treatment technologies is to vitrify the radionuclides into durable, stable glass-like materials to reduce the size of the waste form requiring final disposal. The other purpose is to recycle and reuse most of the usefi.d base materials. Thus, improved techniques for the separation of molten metal and glass are essential. Several high temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. These processes include the plasma hearth process, which is being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and the arc melter vitrification process, which is being developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to suppoti these process. A separation method is also needed for the radioactively contaminated scrap metal recycling processe; in order to obtain highly refined recycled metals.

M. A. Ebadian; R. C.Xin; Z. F. Dong

1998-11-02

170

Relationship between impact of dose distribution and energy of radioactive ray for metal contraceptive ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We studied the relationship between impact of dose distribution and energy of radioactive ray in teletherapy with contraceptive\\u000a ring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The SI Virtual Water Phantom was used to monitor medium of dose. PTW ionization chamber was used to detect the dose. AP-PA\\u000a (10 cm × 10 cm) and SAD technique were adopted. Monitoring dose of different locations with different energy of

Jianwen Zhang; Huiqun Luo; Bo Yang; Haowen Pang

2010-01-01

171

Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-01-01

172

Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-09-01

173

Recycling polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the PolyUrethane Recycle and Recovery Council`s continuing evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of polyurethane recovery and recycling technologies. In North America, 240,000 tonnes of post-industrial and 16,000 tonnes of post-consumer polyurethane foam was recycled into carpet rebound underlay and other applications in 1993. Demand was so great in North America that 60,000 t of primarily post-industrial scarp was imported from Europe and the Far East. Polyurethane from the seats of the 9 million vehicles scrapped each year could yield 82,000 t of flexible post-consumer foam scrap: instrument and door panels could yield another 10,000 t of semi-flexible scrap.

NONE

1995-08-01

174

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsars that have undergone a binary history have come to be known as "recycled pulsars". The very first binary pulsar to be discovered-the Hulse-Taylor pulsar-provided evidence for such a recycling. It is now widely accepted that the first-born neutron star dies a natural death as a pulsar due to its period lengthening. But eventually, it is spun back into life, once again, when it accretes matter and angular momentum from its companion. Such a spin up continues till the neutron star attains an "equilibrium period", which is determined by the strength of its magnetic field and the accretion rate. This article will attempt to give a historical perspective of how the various steps in the evolution of such a recycled neutron star were understood.

Srinivasan, G.

2010-03-01

175

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

1996-01-01

176

Designing for recycling  

SciTech Connect

The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

NONE

1997-08-01

177

Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

Hammarstrom, J. M.; Seal, II, R. R.; Meier, A. L.; Kornfeld, J. M.

2005-01-01

178

78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exporting country for reconditioning, recycling or disposal may . . . help ensure that...The sixth exclusion concerns legitimate recycling of radioactive sources. Response: As...material imported solely for the purposes of recycling and not for waste management or...

2013-08-28

179

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

Tanner, A.O.

1992-01-01

180

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

181

Heavy Metal and Radioactivity Concentrations in Soil and Moss Samples from Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in the moss (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum) and topsoil (0-5 cm) samples collected from Istanbul were analysed to estimate heavy metal deposition. The activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 238U, 232Th), organic matter contents and pH values of the topsoil samples were also measured. The trace element

Önder Kiliç; Yavuz Çotuk

182

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of

A. R. Diederich; M. J. Akins

2008-01-01

183

Economics and Environmental Compatibility of Fusion Reactors —Its Analysis and Coming Issues— 3. Expected Effect of Fusion Reactor on Global Environment 3.1 Research Aimed at Reducing Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste management at fusion power plants is reviewed. Recent study indicates that most of the waste from a fusion reactor can be cleared from regulatory control over a 50-year cooling after decommissioning. In addition, the remaining metal radioactive waste is anticipated to be recyclable within 100-year cooling. These results indicate the prospect of a low emission system of fusion energy materials.

Tobita, Kenji; Hiwatari, Ryouji

184

Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

1998-01-01

185

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

186

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

187

Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant  

ScienceCinema

Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

188

Recycling BIOPOL–Composting and Material Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of biodegradable thermoplastics such as ZENECA's BIOPOL range of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers needs to be considered in terms of both material recycling and organic recycling by composting. BIOPOL can be recycled as regrind. The addition of BIOPOL to a model waste stream demonstrates that at the anticipated addition levels, BIOPOL should not have a deleterious effect on

M. K. Cox

1995-01-01

189

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational

Michael H. Eley; Lavonne Crews; Ben Johnston; David Lee; James Colebaugh

1995-01-01

190

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

191

Radioactivity measurements of metallic [sup 192]Ir sources by calorimetric methods  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of establishing the traceability of dose measurement in brachytherapy [sup 192]Ir sources is realized by physicians and researchers in the medical field. Standard sources of various shapes such as [open quotes]hairpin,[close quotes] [open quotes]single pin,[close quotes] [open quotes]thin wire,[close quotes] and [open quotes]seed[close quotes] for calibrating ionization chambers in hospitals are being demanded. Nominal activities of not only these source products but also the standard sources have been so far specified by [open quotes]apparent[close quotes] values. Determination of [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by an established means such as 4pi-beta-gamma coincidence counting is not practical because quantitative dissolution of metallic iridium is very difficult. We tried to determine the [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by a calorimetric method in a fully nondestructive way.

Genka, Tsuguo; Iwamoto, Seikichi; Takeuchi, Norio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan))

1992-01-01

192

Designing Aluminum Alloys for a Recycling Friendly World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling aluminum alloys has been shown to provide major economic benefits, as a result it is appropriate for the aluminum industry and the United States as a whole to identify, develop, and implement all technologies that will optimize the benefits of recycling. This paper will focus primarily alloy design for optimizing the reuse of recycled metal; this is both the

Subodh K. Das

2006-01-01

193

76 FR 53980 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70...GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, LLC. Radioactive waste Up to 210 Cobalt- Recycling...Cobalt-60 sources. or storage and radioactive Combined total disposition....

2011-08-30

194

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

195

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

196

Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

Carlin, James F., Jr.

2006-01-01

197

General vs. domain specific recycling behaviour—Applying a multilevel comprehensive action determination model to recycling in Norwegian student homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a multilevel structure equation model predicting general and fraction specific self-reported recycling behaviour. The model was tested on a sample of 697 undergraduate students from four Norwegian universities who each reported their degree of participation in the local recycling schemes for paper\\/cardboard, glass, metal, and plastic. It was demonstrated that variance in recycling behaviour

Christian Andreas Klöckner; Inger Olin Oppedal

2011-01-01

198

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

199

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

200

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

201

Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

BREHM, W.F.

2003-01-01

202

Used consumer electronics: a comparative analysis of materials recycling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The useful life of consumer electronic devices is relatively short, and decreasing as a result of rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities. This creates a large waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment, e-waste. In this paper, various recycling technologies for the glass, plastics, and metals found in e-waste are discussed. For glass recycling, glass-to-glass recycling and glass-to-lead recycling technologies

Hai-Yong Kang; Julie M. Schoenung

2004-01-01

203

Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01

204

Recycling: Additional Efforts Could Increase Municipal Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although recycling can generate environmental and economic benefits, the national recycling rate has increased only slightly since 2000, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While local governments have the primary role in operating rec...

2006-01-01

205

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

2011-08-26

206

A COMMODITY MARKET FRAMEWORK FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful market penetration of Department of Energy recycled decontaminated radioactive material depends on two key factors: (1) the market exchange that manages the sale and purchase of the material, and (2) the selling price the material. A national framework is proposed that effectively supports the sale and purchase of such material. An easily implemented approach is presented that can be

Kenneth S. Redus; Donald W. Jones

1999-01-01

207

Recycling Improves USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes are occurring in recycling that will improve the United States. There are significant improvements in the economy, environment and the health of Americans due to recycling efforts. Recycling will be shown as a superior option compared to landfill, incineration and virgin material processing. Many Case studies will be discussed that show how communities are making long-term decisions for recycling.

Luke Monroe

208

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling is perhaps the most well-known and successful part of the popular three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as 'reduce, reuse, and recycle'. This site provides some general information about recycling, and a video segment from the television program 'ZOOM', in which a cast member visits a material recovery center to watch the recycling process unfold.

2005-01-01

209

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

210

Decontaimination of radioactive metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of extracting technetium and actinide radiocontaminants from radiocontaminated nickel comprising the steps: fabricating a nickel electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides; and then anodically dissolving the electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides in a oxidizing acid electrolyte solution to produce a solution containing actinide ions and at least 30 grams/liter of nickel and to oxidize the technetium to produce pertechnetate anions; and then removing pertechnetate anions and actinides by counter-current solvent extraction with a barren solution containing TOPO, D[sub 2]EHPA or mixtures thereof dissolved in an organic solvent, to produce a decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate, and a contaminated, loaded solvent stream; and then stripping the technetium values from the contaminated, loaded solvent stream with hydrochloric acid; passing the decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate through an absorbent for organic solvent; and then electrowinning the raffinate in an electrolysis cell with acidic electrolyte to remove residual actinides present, and to recover cathodic nickel.

Snyder, T.S.; Gass, W.R.; Worcester, S.A.; Ayers, L.J.

1992-10-20

211

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

212

Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

1987-02-01

213

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62 using the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These pulsars are the first objects discovered with the GBT. We briefly describe a wide-bandwidth coherent dedispersion backend used for some of the high precision pulsar timing observations presented here.

Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

2005-11-01

214

Dust recycling technology in Kimitsu Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust recycling technology by the rotary hearth furnace has been applied at Nippon Steel?s Kimitsu Works since 2000. The dust and sludge with iron oxide and carbon are agglomerated into shaped articles and the iron oxide is reduced in a high temperature atmosphere. Zinc and other impurities in the dust and sludge are expelled and exhausted into off gas. The DRI pellets made from the dust and sludge have 70% metallization and are strong enough for being recycled to the blast furnaces. No.1 plant, which was constructed in May 2000 and has an agglomeration method of pelletizing, recycles mainly dry dusts. No.2 plant, which was constructed in December 2002 and has an agglomeration method of extrusion, recycles mainly sludge. The combination of the two plants is a solution for recycling various kinds of dusts and sludge emitted in a large scale steel works as Kimitsu Works

Oda, Hiroshi; Ibaraki, Tetsuharu

215

ITER waste management: The recycling and clearance option  

SciTech Connect

To minimize the amount of radioactive waste requiring permanent disposal may strongly influence the environmental acceptability of fusion power. The waste management strategy applied here to the activated waste of ITER achieves this goal by maximizing recycling (reuse of the material) and clearance (declassification to non active waste). Limits of the surface dose rates of the waste after an interim storage of 50 years define various recycling procedures. The possibility of clearance is assessed from limits of the specific activity of the waste. These limits depend on the relative hazard of the radionuclides contained in the waste. It turns out that only a small part of ITER materials have such a radioactivity as to prevent its recycling or clearance (namely, first wall and front blanket). Most of the blanket and all the vessel may be recycled by remote handling. All the other components can be cleared or `hands-on` recycled. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

Rocco, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Zucchetti, M. [Polytechnic of Turin, Torino (Italy)

1996-12-31

216

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

217

Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2001-01-01

218

Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

219

Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors.

Josephs, J. M.

1980-12-31

220

ASSESSMENTS OF FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF INCREASED USE, RECYCLING, AND COMBUSTION OF FIBER-REINFORCED, PLASTIC AND METAL COMPOSITE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study is to identify and define future environmental concerns related to the projected utilization, recycling, and combustion of composite materials. The study is being conducted for the Office of Strategic Assessment and Special Studies (OSASS) of the U.S. Env...

221

Lead immobilization in mechanochemical fly ash recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we focused on a mechanochemical process for recycling fly ash for use in cement; this process was expected\\u000a to immobilize heavy metals in the fly ash, a desirable outcome in light of the fact that recycled fly ash is commonly used\\u000a in the synthesis of inorganic materials. Here, we investigated the leaching of lead (Pb) from fly

Yugo Nomura; Kazuo Fujiwara; Makoto Takada; Satoshi Nakai; Masaaki Hosomi

2008-01-01

222

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

223

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

224

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)|

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

225

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

226

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies.

Not Available

1994-11-01

227

Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)|

DeLago, Louise Furia

1991-01-01

228

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.

2010-01-01

229

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

230

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

231

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)|

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

232

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

233

Recycling calls for revaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop the value concept for recycling contexts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a conceptual discussion supported by empirical illustrations of value development for recycled paper and electric and electronics products. Findings – Demonstrates the fundamental effects of applying the economic value concept for recycling. Suggests that value can be seen as

Maria Huge Brodin; Helén Anderson

2008-01-01

234

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

235

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

236

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-01-01

237

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

238

Some aspects of risk reduction strategy by multiple recycling in fast burner reactors of the plutonium and minor actinide inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the impact of recycling light water reactor (LWR) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in a fast burner reactor on the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) inventories and on the related radioactivities. Reprocessing of the targets for multiple recycling will become increasingly difficult as the burnup increases. Multiple recycling of Pu + MA in fast reactors is a

L. H. Baetslé; Ch. De Raedt

1997-01-01

239

"Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater and sediments of numerous U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) field sites are contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cr, Pd) and radionuclides (e.g., U, Tc), as well as the fuel hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX); chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene (TCE); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The remediation of such mixed wastes constitutes an immediate and complex waste management challenge for DOE, particularly in light of the costliness and limited efficacy of current physical and chemical strategies for treating mixed wastes. In situ bioremediation via natural microbial processes (e.g., metal reduction) remains a potent, potentially cost-effective approach to the reductive immobilization or detoxification of environmental contaminants. Seventy million cubic meters of soil and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Our recent isolation and characterization of D. radiodurans from a variety of DOE environments, including highly radioactive sediments beneath one of the leaking tanks (SX-108) at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state, underscores the potential for this species to survive in such extreme environments. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive waste sites was started by this group in September 1997 with support from DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-97ER62492. Our grant was renewed for the period 2000-2003, which includes work on the thermophilic radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Work funded by the existing grant contributed to 18 papers in the period 1997-2004 on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of radioactive waste environments. Our progress since September 2000 closely matches the Aims proposed in our second NABIR application and is summarized as follows. We have further refined expression vectors for D. radiodurans and successfully tested engineered strains in natural DOE sediment and groundwater samples. Further, we have shown that D. geothermalis is transformable with plasmids and integration vectors designed for D. radiodurans. This was demonstrated by engineering Hg(II)-resistant D. geothermalis strains capable of reducing Hg(II) at elevated temperatures and under chronic irradiation. Additionally, we showed that D. geothermalis, like D. radiodurans, is naturally capable of reducing U(VI), Cr(VI), and Fe(III). These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 C, of which there are many examples. Our annotation of the D. radiodurans genome has been an important guide throughout this project period and continues to be a source of inspiration in the development of new genetic technologies dedicated to this bacterium. For example, our genome analyses have enabled us to achieve engineering goals that were unattainable in our first NABIR project (1997-2000), where uncertainties relating to its metabolic configuration prevented efforts to expand its metabolic capabilities. As just one example, we showed that D. radiodurans has a functioning tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle glyoxylate bypass which could be integrated with toluene oxidation. And, we successfully engineered D. radiodurans to derive carbon and energy from complete toluene mineralization and showed that toluene oxidation can be coupled to cellular biosynthesis, survival, as well as its native and engineered metal reducing capabilities. We have also constructed a whole genome microarray for D. radiodurans covering {approx}94% of its predicted genes and have successfully used the array to examine the response of cells to radiation and other DOE relevant conditions. Similarly, we have used high throughput proteomic approaches to

Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

2005-03-17

240

Recycling of printed wiring boards with mounted electronic parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical technology has been developed for the recycling of printed wiring boards (PWBs) with electronic parts mounted on them. The recycling ratio of useful materials recovered from a test PWB with our method was 65%, as compared to 23% with a previous method of refining useful metals from the PWB as a whole. The electronic parts on the PWBs

S. Yokoyama; M. Iji

1997-01-01

241

Endocytic Recycling Compartments Altered in Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of cisplatin to treat human malignancies is often limited by the development of drug resistance. We have previously shown that cisplatin-resistant human KB adeno- carcinoma cells that are cross-resistant to methotrexate and heavy metals have altered endocytic recycling. In this work, we tracked lipids in the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and found that the distribution of the

Xing-Jie Liang; Sushmita Mukherjee; Ding-Wu Shen; Frederick R. Maxfield; Michael M. Gottesman

2006-01-01

242

In Vitro Structure-Activity Relationship of Re-cyclized Octreotide Analogues  

PubMed Central

Introduction Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S2N2 and S3N) were synthesized and cyclized with non-radioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC50 values as a measure of somatostatin receptor affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue’s pharmacophore. Results Only two of the eleven Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal-cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS3 and N2S2 coordination forming 5- and 6- membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of 99m Tc- cyclized analogue 4.

Dannoon, Shorouk F.; Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M.; Ma, Lixin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Lewis, Michael R.; Jurisson, Silvia S.

2010-01-01

243

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

244

Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)|

Technology Teacher, 1991

1991-01-01

245

Recycling the junk car: a case study of the automobile as a renewable resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and industrial introduction of the auto shredder has made the junked car the most recycled postconsumer product. Historically some 6 to 8 million cars are scrapped annually and about 80 to 85% of these are recycled for their metal and material content. In the past three years, however, it has been estimated that more vehicles were recycled than

Harwood

1977-01-01

246

Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

Technology Teacher, 1991

1991-01-01

247

Module Five: Energy Conservation by Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of recycling, reusing, and reclaiming natural and man-made materials is shown as a source of energy as well as resource conservation. Bio-fuels, including agricultural and wood products, glass, steel, aluminum, and other metals and materials are...

1980-01-01

248

The energy benefit of stainless steel recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy used to produce austenitic stainless steel was quantified throughout its entire life cycle for three scenarios: (1) current global operations, (2) 100% recycling, and (3) use of only virgin materials. Data are representative of global average operations in the early 2000s. The primary energy requirements to produce 1 metric ton of austenitic stainless steel (with assumed metals concentrations

Jeremiah Johnson; B. K. Reck; T. Wang; T. E. Graedel

2008-01-01

249

How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos\\/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos,

Jantzen

2000-01-01

250

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Faatz, Renee

251

Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

1997-07-01

252

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

253

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

254

The development of recycle-friendly automotive aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing growth of aluminum alloy usage in transportation applications, notably passenger automobiles and minivans, and the demonstrated economic benefits of recycling aluminum-rich vehicles increase the need to seriously consider the desirability of designing recycling-friendly alloys. This article focuses on that aspect of the recycling process for passenger vehicles. The goals are to illustrate the opportunities afforded by identifying and taking full advantage of potential metal streams in guiding the development of new alloys that use those streams. In speculating on several possible aluminum recovery practices and systems that might be used in recycling passenger vehicles, likely compositions are identified and preliminary assessments of their usefulness for direct recycling are made. Specific compositions for possible new recycle-friendly alloys are suggested. In addition, recommendations on how the aluminum enterprise, including industry, academia, and government, can work together to achieve the aggressive but important goals described here are discussed.

Das, Subodh K.; Green, J. A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert

2007-11-01

255

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and exposure to the public as the result of normal operations and accidents that occurred at the INEEL. As a result of these studies, the maximum effective dose equivalent from site activities did not exceed seventeen percent of the natural background in Eastern Idaho. There was no year in which the radiation dose to the public exceeded the applicable limits for that year. Worker exposure to recycled uranium was minimized by engineering features that reduced the possibility of direct exposure.

L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

2000-09-01

256

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Ninth quarterly technical and financial progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. In accordance with 10CFR 600.31 (d)(i), an extension of the project period including final report submission to 31 July 1995 was made in anticipation of potential delays in receiving Fernald soil samples at Chalk River Laboratories for the planned pilot-scale verification tests. Ex-situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment tests using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils ({approximately}416 kg) by FERMCO and paperwork required to arrange for export/import licenses.

NONE

1995-05-01

257

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

258

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

259

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

260

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

261

Recycling and shallow land burial as goals for fusion reactor materials development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptability of each natural element as a constituent for fusion reactor materials has been determined for the purpose of limiting long-lived radioactivity, so that the material could be recycled or disposed of by near-surface burial. The results show that there is little incentive for optimizing the composition of steels for recycling. The development of a steel with an optimized

Ponti

1988-01-01

262

Households’ recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households’ recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households’ use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting

Annegrete Bruvoll; Bente Halvorsen; Karine Nyborg

2002-01-01

263

Economics of PC Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of personal computers (PCs) increases, their short life cycle and the fact that they contain many hazardous materials means that their retirement and disposal represents a significant environmental concern. Many communities are mandating the recycling of these PCs, to recover parts and materials, and to minimize the amount of waste landfilled or incinerated. An industry to recycle

Jane E. Boon; Jacqueline A. Isaacs; Surendra M. Gupta

264

Refuse recycling and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing sense of dissatisfaction over the waste of resources in traditional disposal methods has not yet overcome the economic barriers of recycling costs and the difficulties of marketing recycled materials. The author examines several waste-recovery technologies, such as incineration and waste-derived fuels, and the constraints which work against time. He describes two plants in the United Kingdom and the

1981-01-01

265

Recycling TATB PBX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above norma...

A. G. Osborn H. D. Johnson T. L. Stallings

1978-01-01

266

Is mandated recycling possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

If piles of potentially recyclable materials are accumulated as a result of a mandatory source separation program, what options exist for the community First, it could attempt to market the recyclables through normal commercial channels. Second, the community could attempt to market the materials at lower prices to the consumers, since any contribution above available disposal cost is a profit

Cutler

1988-01-01

267

Recycling the junk car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to recycling junk cars as a major renewable resource is proposed, although this will require some legislative, technological, and economic changes. The volume of materials contained in automobiles makes them the major source of scrap steel, but recycling can also yield secondary supplies of zinc, copper, aluminum, rubber, and plastics. Economic considerations have historically singled out scrap

Harwood

1977-01-01

268

Recycle of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials.

Pemsler, J.P.; Spitz, R.A.

1981-01-01

269

Study on TV recyclability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the depletion of natural resources, the shortage of dumping sites and the environmental pollution caused by hazardous chemical substances, there is a growing demand for the recycling of discarded products. The electrical home appliance industry has continued its efforts to develop easy-to-recycle products. In order to recognize the effects of these improvements and to identify subjects for future

Takayuki Nishi; M. Hirano; T. Ohashi; K. Ueno; Y. Hiroshige

1999-01-01

270

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

271

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

272

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Fioranelli, Debra

2000-10-01

273

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

274

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)|

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

275

Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

1999-07-01

276

Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

1994-02-01

277

75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...our planet, participating in curbside recycling and community composting programs, and...of recyclable and recycled materials. Recycling not only preserves our environment by...workers nationwide, and evolving our recycling practices can help create green...

2010-11-19

278

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

White, Boyd W.

2000-11-01

279

Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.  

PubMed

Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system. PMID:20124319

Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

2010-02-02

280

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

281

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. The Task 2 Topical Report (milestone No. 4) summarizing contaminant removal results obtained from bench-scale studies using Fernald uranium soils and Chalk River Laboratories Chemical Pit soils was completed and issued on August 8, 1994. The results have shown that the soils containing uranium (about 400 pCi/g of soil) and strontium-90 (about 1200 pCi/g of soil) can be decontaminated to the target level of 35 pCi/g of treated soil in the presence of an ultrasonic field. Preliminary results obtained from the in-situ soil leaching tests are the average strontium-90 concentration in the cell was about 250 pCi/g; and the use of a dilute mineral acid (0. 1 mol/L HCl) removed in excess of 85% of strontium-90 originally present in the soil.

Buckley, L.P.

1994-12-31

282

Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wondered what happens to obsolete computers, check out these current awareness Websites. The disposal of computers is classified as hazardous waste, which has become an environmental concern as the number of obsolete computers rises. In fact, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State of Massachusetts have banned computer equipment from landfills. Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers is an EPA-licensed computer recycling organization that reuses all acceptable components and systems or recycles damaged or unusable components. Rebuilt computer systems are given to "persons with disabilities and persons living in disadvantaged situations."

283

Modelling the material flow of recycling processes for aluminium alloys by means of technical recycling quotas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of aluminium alloys used for different applications such as cars, packaging or buildings has risen considerably during the past 20 years. This will effect a growing amount of scrap being available for recycling in the future. The special properties of the metal aluminium require sophisticated processing of different types of aluminium containing material prior to re-melting and refining.

H. Hoberg; S. Wolf; J. Meier-Kortwig

284

Auto industry targets fluff for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles have been one of the great recycling success stories. With car shredding operations routinely reaching recovery rates of up to 75% for decades--mostly through scrap metal reclamation--automobiles outpace most other commodities in terms of recyclability and stability of end uses. Not content to rest on its laurels, however, the automotive industry is now revving up to deal with the part of a car that is not yet easily recycled. This remaining 25%, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR) or ''fluff,'' presents a wide range of recycling challenges. Automobile fluff is the small and low-density material left over after the more easily recycled parts are taken away. Traditionally, fluff has been disposed of in municipal landfills. Today, as cars lose weight to gain fuel economy, plastic use has increased. There are now about 200 automotive shredders in the US, the largest of which produce more than 50,000 tons of fluff per year. Almost half of this fluff is made up of fabrics, fibers, and resilient foam cushioning. Just about one fourth is plastic and about 17% is fluids.

Lang, N.A.

1995-01-01

285

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

286

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700 800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

287

Process design and solvent recycle for the supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A recycle reactor system for supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was successfully designed and tested. The new reactor system has these characteristics: (1) integration of supercritical Fischer-Tropsch reactions, natural separation of produced wax from liquid phase, and recycle of the solvent and (2) natural recycle of solvent driven by self-gravity. A 20% Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst and n-hexane were used as a catalyst and supercritical fluid, respectively. The results show that the average CO conversion at the steady state was 45% with recycle and 58% without recycle. The lumped hydrocarbon products distribution did not have any obvious difference between with and without recycle operation; however, {alpha}-olefin content of products with recycle was lower than that without recycle. The XRD result indicates that most of the reduced cobalt remains in the metallic state during the Fischer-Tropsch reactions for both cases. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wensheng Linghu; Xiaohong Li; Kenji Asami; Kaoru Fujimoto [University of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Chemical Processes and Environments, Faculty of Environmental Engineering

2006-02-01

288

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

289

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students consider how the concept of needs vs. wants can help them think about ways to protect Earth's natural resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling materials.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

290

Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2011-01-01

291

Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2002-01-01

292

Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 1: Assessment of recycling technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten different candidate EV battery technologies were examined based on their performance and recyclability, and were ranked based on these examinations. The batteries evaluated were lead-acid (all types), nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron disulfide, lithium-ion, lithium polymer, and zinc (zinc-air and zinc-bromine). Locations of present recycling facilities were identified. Markets for recycled products were assessed: the value of recycled materials were found too unstable to fully support recycling efforts. All these batteries exhibit the characteristic of hazardous waste in California, and are therefore subject to strict regulations (finalization of the new EPA Universal Waste Rule could change this).

Unnasch, S.; Montano, M.; Franklin, P.; Nowell, G.; Martin, C.

1995-03-01

293

Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  

PubMed

The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu

2008-04-29

294

Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

295

Cadmium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 t, and an estimated 285 t was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

296

Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for recycling of lead solder dross were examined—carbothermal reduction and recycling using boron-containing substances. The influence of various factors on the metal yield was studied and the optimal parameters of the recycling process are defined. The comparison between them under the same parameters-temperature and retention time, showed that recycling of dross with a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:2 ratio provides higher metal yield (93%). The recycling of this hazardous waste under developed technology gets glassy slag and solder, which after correction of the chemical composition can be used again for production of PCB.

Lucheva, Biserka; Tsonev, Tsonio; Iliev, Peter

2011-08-01

297

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To complete the process development, ESR melting experiments, which include actual radioactive contaminates as well as surrogates, are being conducted at the Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia. These experiments measure decontamination efficiencies in ingots for uranium and plutonium in stainless steel, as well as correlate removal of radioactive and surrogate compounds in the same melts. This will ''close the loop'' and allow us to use measured surrogate behaviors to model removal of radioactive species.

VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

1999-06-15

298

Recycling in a megacity.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage. PMID:15115367

Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

2004-04-01

299

Recycling: General studies. January 1987-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 177 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-10-01

300

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

1997-04-01

301

System and method for recycling used oil filters  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for recycling oil filters comprising: (a) means for shredding used oil filters, said filters comprising ferrous metal parts and nonmetal parts, and containing trapped oil, into smaller metal parts and nonmetal parts, and for releasing at least a portion of the trapped oil; (b) means for separating the released oil from the metal parts and nonmetal parts; (c) means for separating the metal parts from the nonmetal parts without incineration using gravitational and magnetic means; (d) means for draining oil from the separated metal parts and nonmetal parts; (e) means for separately recovering the oil, the metal parts, and the nonmetal parts; and (f) means for compacting the separated nonmetal parts. A method is also described for recycling used oil filters using this system.

McCarty, M.W.; Taylor, J.M.; Baillie, L.A.

1993-08-17

302

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

303

Automotive recycling in the United States: Energy conservation and environmental benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

Pomykala, J. A.; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.

2007-11-01

304

Automotive recycling in the United States : energy conservation and enviromental benefits.  

SciTech Connect

The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

Pomykala, J. A; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Energy Systems

2007-11-01

305

Scarcity, recycling and substitution of potentially critical materials used for vehicular emissions control. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the scarcity, recycling, and substitution of imported platinum-group metals; palladium, rhodium, chromium, manganese, nickle and titanium that will be used for vehicular emissions control in the United States. Issues discussed include; EPA policymaking, projections of materials consumption for motor vehicle emission control, background information on the platinum-group metals, recycling of such metals from catalytic converters and substitutes for them.

Not Available

1982-02-01

306

Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels  

SciTech Connect

When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess N.V., Gravenstraat 73, 2480 Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01

307

Botswana's environmental policy on recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling operations have become one of the primary strategies for waste management, worldwide. Especially, recycling operations are viewed as among the most effective techniques for reducing the amount of municipal solid waste disposed at landfill sites. Botswana's environmental policy on recycling stipulates, among others, that all waste management authorities should provide information on the classification and quantities of controlled waste

C. Ketlogetswe; T. H. Mothudi

2005-01-01

308

Study on electronics recycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discarding of electronics is a growing problem around the world. This paper first analyzes the possible limitations in current electronics recycling models and methods through the review of the literature, and this paper then presents a study of the complete electronics recycling process based on electronics features. The five main stages in the recycling process are described: collection, product

Weiwei Chen; Rui Kang; Diganta Das; Michael Pecht

2009-01-01

309

Recycling incineration: Evaluating the choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling

R. A. Denison; J. Ruston

1993-01-01

310

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Materials Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvio...

A. O. Tanner

1992-01-01

311

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

312

Public participation in plastics recycling schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without public contributions, recycling from domestic waste would not be possible. In order to support recycling projects it is important to try to understand who recycles, how they recycle, and why they recycle. This paper presents the results of a structured survey of 500 members of the public served by schemes to collect plastics waste for recycling. Data were gathered

Seonaidh McDonald; Rob Ball

1998-01-01

313

THE OPTIMAL LOCATION OF TWO RECYCLING CENTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose a municipality optimally locates two recycling\\/sorting centers to minimize the sum of the transportation costs from i) households to the recycling centers and ii) recycling centers to the landfill. Assume that all household waste is taken to a recycling center, sorted, and the non-recyclables are subsequently transported to the landfill. The landfill location and the proportion of waste recycled

Jannett Highfill; Michael McAsey; Libin Mou

314

Fuels from Recycling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)|

Tillman, David A.

1975-01-01

315

Recycling in a Megacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the 9\\/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and

Nickolas J. Themelis; Claire E. Todd

2004-01-01

316

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

317

Computer Recycling Farm USA  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

2010-08-13

318

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

319

DRAINAGE WATER RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers in Ohio have developed a drainage water recycling approach that is called Wetland, Reservoir, SubIrrigation System, or WRSIS. This system directs surface runoff and subsurface drainage water to a constructed wetland where there is opportunity for some sediment and nutrient removal from t...

320

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

321

Recycled Insect Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

322

WRAMS, sustainable water recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) at Sydney Olympic Park was built as part of the Olympic Games in 2000. The Scheme was designed to treat raw domestic sewage into recycled water which is then sold back to consumers. The main elements of WRAMS are a water reclamation plant, a water treatment plant, storm water collection, clean water storage

H. Chapman

2006-01-01

323

Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

PVC:  (Polyvinyl Chloride) Refers to the family of plastic copolymers, also known as vinyl. PVC is used to make products such as pipes, bottles, upholstery, and automotive parts. (U.S. EPA, 1995c)   From Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "PVC"

2011-04-14

324

Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

Hannum, William H.

2007-04-01

325

Radioactivity Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

Onega, Ronald J.

1969-01-01

326

Radioactivity Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)|

Onega, Ronald J.

1969-01-01

327

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David; Moore, Lang

2000-09-02

328

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David

2000-09-02

329

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With knowledge of Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, one should be able to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances and develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

330

Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line show that most contained concentrations of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu above the RSRLs. Overall, all concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs that were detected above background levels in soils collected around the perimeter of Area G and towards the Pueblo de San Ildefonso boundary were still very low and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

P. R. Fresquez

2007-02-28

331

Household behaviour and attitudes with respect to recycling food waste – experiences from focus groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. Our hypothesis is that people's attitudes and behaviour may differ with different systems of waste management. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling

Karen Refsgaard; Kristin Magnussen

2009-01-01

332

Innovations in separations technology for the recycling and re-use of liquid waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the costs of wastewater disposal increase more emphasis is being placed upon the recovery and recycling of valuable chemicals contained within these streams. In this article, we review three separations technologies that facilitate such recycling. Solvent extraction is an established technique for recovery of heavy metals and other pollutants and is most useful in large and medium scale operations

S. E. Kentish; G. W. Stevens

2001-01-01

333

To shred or to disassemble? Recycling of plastics in mass consumer goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of mass consumer products like TV-sets and computers is gaining attention in Europe. The presence of (precious) metals traditionally has been the driving force for the recycling of equipment. While the plastics in electronics usually have a high quality, the recovery of them is problematic. In this paper the results are presented of a European project, where the

E. Langerak

1997-01-01

334

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

335

Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-04-01

336

Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative  

SciTech Connect

The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m{sup 3}/yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this case, the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process should be factored into the economics of IFE power plants.

El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2004-11-15

337

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

338

Control Technologies for Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Waste Deposits at Superfund Lead Battery Recycling Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. Metallic lead and lead compounds are generally the principal contaminants o...

M. D. Royer A. Selvakumar R. Gaire

1992-01-01

339

EVALUATION OF USFILTER MEMBRALOX SILVERBACK MODEL 900 AKALINE CLEANER RECYCLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Membralox Silverback Model 900 (Silverback Unit) is a microfiltration system for recycling used alkaline cleaning solutions (cleaners). Alkaline cleaning is performed on metal parts at different times during the manufacturing process to remove oils, coolants and other metalwo...

340

Control Technology and Exposure Assessment for Electronic Recycling Operations, United States Penitentiary, Lewisburg, PA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a study of exposures to metals and other occupational hazards associated with the recycling of electronic components at the Federal Prison Industries (aka, UNICOR...

A. Echt D. Almaguer D. Marlow G. E. Burroughs

2009-01-01

341

Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

1992-11-01

342

RADIOACTIVE BATTERY  

DOEpatents

A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

1959-11-17

343

Optimal Recycling for Printed Wiring Boards (PWBs) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic waste or e-waste recycling in India is mainly motivated by the recovery of value contained in the PWBs (printed wiring boards), which is retrieved by extracting precious metals (mainly gold, silver, palladium) with wet chemical processes, involving highly toxic substances such as mercury and cyanide. These works are done by untrained people, resulting in a high impact on their

David Rochat; Christian Hagelüken; Miriam Keller; Rolf Widmer

344

A robust method to heterogenise and recycle group 9 catalysts.  

PubMed

This paper provides a viable, reproducible and robust method for immobilising hydroxyl tethered iridium-rhodium complexes. The materials have been shown to be both effective and recyclable in the process of catalytic transfer hydrogenation with minimal metal leaching. PMID:23673927

Lucas, Stephanie J; Crossley, Benjamin D; Pettman, Alan J; Vassileiou, Antony D; Screen, Thomas E O; Blacker, A John; McGowan, Patrick C

2013-06-21

345

Improving aluminum recycling through investigations of thermodynamic effects in remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum recycling is an important area of research because of the tremendous energy savings achieved by producing aluminum products from secondary sources. Aluminum products have precise compositional specifications that must be met to ensure adequate mechanical properties. These precise compositional specifications limit the incorporation of secondary metals into final aluminum products because of the substantial compositional uncertainty of secondary materials.

Tracey Brommer; Elsa Olivetti; Randolph Kirchain

2010-01-01

346

Automotive component recycling. (Latest citations from Materials Business file). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of metallic and non-metallic automotive components. Methods and equipment for recovering metal, plastic, and composite materials are discussed. Applications of the recovered materials are reviewed, as well. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-12-01

347

Process for making hydrogen. [reduction of zinc oxide; reaction of zinc and steam; recycling zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for making hydrogen is described which comprises reducing zinc oxide to zinc metal, combining the metallic zinc with molten lead and spraying the mixture under pressure to an oxidizer where metallic zinc is reacted with steam to yield hydrogen and zinc oxide, separating the hydrogen product under pressure, separating the zinc oxide from the molten lead, recycling zinc

Seitzer

1975-01-01

348

Automotive component recycling. (Latest citations from Materials Business file). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of metallic and non-metallic automotive components. Methods and equipment for recovering metal, plastic, and composite materials are discussed. Applications of the recovered materials are reviewed, as well. (Contains 264 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

349

The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce

Kuan-chung Chen; Shih-han Huang; I-wei Lian

2010-01-01

350

Effective electronic waste management and recycling process involving formal and non-formal sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics waste is becoming a crisis for the society. Huge accumulation of e-waste and their recycling through primitive means for extraction of precious metals is real concern in the developing countries as e-waste contains hazardous materials. Recycling of e-waste through proper technologies is, however, considered to be a profitable business in developed countries due to the presence of precious metals

S. Chatterjee; Krishna Kumar

2009-01-01

351

Potential impacts of pending residual radioactivity rules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of pending rules governing residual radioactive release criteria and radioactive waste management, and the potential impact of these rules on the Fernald Scrap Metal program. More than 300,000 cubic mete...

D. D. Burns

1995-01-01

352

Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinate Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the n...

2006-01-01

353

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evoluti...

D. F. Bickford C. J. Coleman C. L. W. Hsu R. E. Eibling

1990-01-01

354

Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

355

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

2010-04-29

356

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and to develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Barker, William

2010-07-05

357

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Barker, William

2010-06-28

358

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)|

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

359

Waste collection systems for recyclables: an environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark).  

PubMed

Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. PMID:19945262

Larsen, A W; Merrild, H; Møller, J; Christensen, T H

2009-11-28

360

Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

Larsen, A.W., E-mail: awl@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-05-15

361

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

PubMed

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1000mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1000mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl(2)-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2012-10-13

362

A model of plastics recycling: Does recycling reduce the amount of waste?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for recycling plastics is made to ‘phase in’ recycling over a given period. The recycled plastic can either replace virgin plastic or enter a new market where plastics are not normally used. The former is denoted as ‘true recycling’ and the latter, ‘new market recycling’. It is shown that ‘true recycling’ will eventually reduce the amount of waste

Brenton L. Fletcher; Michael E. Mackay

1996-01-01

363

Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.  

PubMed

The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low-grade precious metals and copper. It is expected that a mechanical recycling process will be developed for the upgrading of low metal content scraps. PMID:12758010

Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

2003-05-30

364

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

365

Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly

1983-01-01

366

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

367

Energy and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and Garbage is one section of a US Department of Energy's educational Web site for kids. Features of this Web site include a section detailing the connection between energy and garbage, a thorough introduction to the history of garbage that includes facts and figures on how much waste we produce, information on recycling and reducing garbage at the source, and much more. The information in this Web site is presented in a friendly, narrative style. A short downloadable activity titled Energy from Garbage, created by the National Energy Education Development Project, is also available (grades 4-6).

368

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value renewable resources hold for our society and the broader community of living things. Because trees, fresh water, and clean air support most forms of life, we must protect these and other critical natural resources from over exploitation and pollution. Conservation, the practice of using natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations, is one approach. Through class discussion and various activities, students broaden their understanding of two important conservation activities that humans can engage in: recycling and composting.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-13

369

Protecting groundwater resources at biosolids recycling sites.  

PubMed

In developing the national biosolids recycling rule (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 503 or Part 503), the USEPA conducted deterministic risk assessments whose results indicated that the probability of groundwater impairment associated with biosolids recycling was insignificant. Unfortunately, the computational capabilities available for performing risk assessments of pollutant fate and transport at that time were limited. Using recent advances in USEPA risk assessment methodology, the present study evaluates whether the current national biosolids pollutant limits remain protective of groundwater quality. To take advantage of new risk assessment approaches, a computer-based groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed using USEPA's Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment program. The RCST, which generates a noncarcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient [HQ] value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk characterizations. The regulated heavy metals modeled in this study were As, Cd, Ni, Se, and Zn. Results from RCST application to biosolids recycling sites located in Yakima County, Washington, indicated that biosolids could be recycled at rates as high as 90 Mg ha, with no negative human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. Only under unrealistically high biosolids land application rates were public health risks characterized as significant (HQ ? 1.0). For example, by increasing the biosolids application rate and pollutant concentrations to 900 Mg ha and 10 times the regulatory limit, respectively, the HQ values varied from 1.4 (Zn) to 324.0 (Se). Since promulgation of Part 503, no verifiable cases of groundwater contamination by regulated biosolids pollutants have been reported. PMID:23673931

McFarland, Michael J; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

370

State Strategy for Recycling Market Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultimate importance of developing recycling markets is to accomplish these five objectives: Assist local governments and state offices in achieving the recycling goals in the SCORE (Select Committee on Recycling and the Environment) legislation throug...

L. Millberg

1991-01-01

371

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0041  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... bags are an acceptable use of recycled plastic. ... of recycled HDPE in produce bags is acceptable ... use of post-consumer recycled plastics in contact ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

372

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2010-07-01

373

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Disinfection] [Sec. 141.76 - Recycle provisions.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Filtration and Disinfection Sec. 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2009-07-01

374

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2012-07-01

375

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing...deception about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available to a...

2013-01-01

376

76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...advanced the common good of our Nation by recycling regularly and promoting conservation...growth. Since then, we have bolstered recycling programs through individual action...we must update and expand existing recycling programs and dedicate ourselves to...

2011-11-18

377

Removal of Radioactive Heavy Metal Ions From Solution by Superconducting High-Gradient Magnetic Separation With Schwertmannite and Zirconium-Ferrite Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schwertmannite, i.e. iron oxyhydroxysulfate and zirconium-ferrite particles are excellent adsorbents for uranium ions. The magnetic separation characteristics for removal of radioactive ions, i.e. uranium and radium ions, from solution with the adsorbents of synthesized schwertmannite and the zirconium-ferrite particles have been studied. By a 10 tesla superconducting high-gradient magnetic separator, 10 ppb uranium ions in sample solution could be reduced

Kenji Nishimura; Osuke Miura; Daisuke Ito; Yasumichi Tsunasima; Yukio Wada

2009-01-01

378

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid\\/denitration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or

D. F. Bickford; C. J. Coleman; C. L. W. Hsu; R. E. Eibling

1990-01-01

379

Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)|

Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

1973-01-01

380

Garbage project on recycling behavior  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a study undertaken to determine the factors which are most effective in motivating different socio-economic groups to change their recycling behaviors and participate in recycling programs. Four types of data were collected and analyzed in Tucson: (1) purchase data from local recyclers, (2) traditional interview-survey data on recycling behavior, (3) long-term and short-term household refuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are tuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are the same across census tracts with significantly different socio-economic characteristics. Further, analysis of interview and garbage data matched by household reaffirm that what people say about recycling and how they dispose of recyclable materials are two different things. Thus, interview reports of newspaper recycling correlate with higher income informants, but their interview reports do not correlate with what is thrown into their garbage cans. Money is concluded to be the most powerful incentive toward recycling.

McGuire, R.H.; Hughes, W.W.; Rathje, W.L.

1982-02-01

381

Recycling oceanic crust: Quantitative constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled ancient oceanic crust with variable amounts of aging, or inclusion of sediments of differing types and origins has often been invoked as a source for present-day ocean island basalts (OIB), but the current evidence remains largely qualitative. Previous quantitative modeling has shown that much has to be learned in order to better understand the implications of crustal recycling on

Andreas Stracke; Michael Bizimis; Vincent J. M. Salters

2003-01-01

382

MAGNESIUM RECYCLING YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium recycling has been used to recover both new scrap and old scrap. It was used extensively in Germany during WWII to expand the magnesium supply. There were a large number of magnesium recyclers in the US who got their start smelting old scrap, old airplanes and old waste dumps from the WWII build up. As the world magnesium industry

Robert E. Brown

383

Recycling TATB PBX. [Machining scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above normal and tensile strains were 0.29% or better.

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings; H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

384

Plastic recycling in business machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was developed and implemented for the recovery and recycling of plastics from end-of-life IBM products into new IBM products. In general, the economics for this type of recycling, closed loop, has the greatest potential for achieving profitability. In addition to keeping the plastic out of the landfill, product material cost is reduced and there is no expense for

S. Ching; J. R. Kirby; O. D. Pitts

1993-01-01

385

Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

386

Bacterial cell-wall recycling.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W; Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-11-16

387

Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

388

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #153  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Packaging & Food Contact Substances (FCS). Recycled Plastics. -. No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #153. August 24, 2011. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

389

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #166  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Packaging & Food Contact Substances (FCS). Recycled Plastics. -. No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #166. March 25, 2013. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

390

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Moore, Lang

2010-07-06

391

Radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the treatment, storage, fixation and disposal of radioactive wastes. Various methods are described for extracting and separating the radionuclides, for example ¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs, ²°⁴Tl and ⁶°Co ions were simultaneously deactivated on natural sorbents by precipitation reactions. For long term storage, wastes should be solidified and immobilized to ensure containment, reduce surveillance, and reduce the need

Straub

1977-01-01

392

Reduction of radioactive secondary waste with steam reforming in treatment of waste TBP\\/dodecane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste tributyl phosphate (TBP) and normal dodecane generated from R and D activities on recycle of nuclear fuel has been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). If it is incinerated, a large quantity of contaminated phosphorous compounds will be generated as radioactive secondary wastes. The objective of this study is to reduce the generation of the radioactive secondary wastes

Tomoyuki Sone; Toshiki Sasaki; Hiromi Yamaguchi

2007-01-01

393

Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling were analysed. Three allocation methods are applied for open-loop recycling, i.e. the “cut-off” approach, the “waste valuation” approach and the “system expansion” approach. Nine environmental impact indicators were

Li Shen; Ernst Worrell; Martin K. Patel

2010-01-01

394

Exploring Waste and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Eleanor Camann of Red Rocks Community College, will introduce students to the concept of sustainability in terms of waste products and recycling practices. The overall premise of the project is to "get students to think critically about which earth materials are used to make things, and where all the waste from both mining and consumption ends up." The activity employs skills in basic mathematics, reasoning and writing. It also crosses disciplines by implementing skills in environmental geology and science. The learning activity only takes about two hours of in-class time and an additional three outside of the classroom. It uses simple materials such as a calculator, periodic table, household scale and digital camera. Lessons plans such as these are supported by a grant under the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program.

Camann, Eleanor

2010-11-09

395

Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.  

PubMed

Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled. PMID:21478993

Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

2011-04-01

396

Recycling in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-driven by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.

McAdams, C.L.

1996-05-01

397

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

398

Radioactive Waste Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

399

Reactivity of waste generated during lead recycling: an integrated study.  

PubMed

Lead consumption in Europe is 2.054 M tonnes/year, more than 70% of which is produced by recycling and, more specifically, the recycling of car batteries. This industry is jeopardised by the method employed so far, recycling by alkaline fusion, because the treatment produces 200,000 tonnes of toxic and unstable slag. The study presented here attempts to clarify the approach and the combined tools employed (mineralogy, chemistry, leaching, thermodynamics), to construct a coherent physicochemical model of slag behaviour. The model was then used to carry out sensitivity analyses with various landfill scenarios, and to propose adjustments to the process to recover the residual heavy metals and to upgrade as secondary raw products the co-products generated by the inerting of the slag. PMID:16621260

Lassin, Arnault; Piantone, Patrice; Burnol, André; Bodénan, Françoise; Chateau, Laurent; Lerouge, Catherine; Crouzet, Catherine; Guyonnet, Dominique; Bailly, Laurent

2006-04-18

400

Cost benefit of caustic recycle for tank waste remediation at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential cost savings due to the use of caustic recycle used in conjunction with remediation of radioactive underground storage tank waste, is shown in a figure for the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Two cost savings estimates for each case have been made for Hanford, and one cost savings estimate for each case have been made for Hanford, and

S. DeMuth; D. Kurath

1998-01-01

401

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-07-27

402

Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

403

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

404

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01

405

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

406

Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

407

EXPLAINING RURAL HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider waste stream reduction alternatives such as household recycling. Explaining the factors which motivate households to recycle is important to regions where households must bear a large portion of the recycling cost because unit-based garbage disposal fees and curbside recycling are not feasible options. Empirical results indicate that residents are responsive

Paul M. Jakus; Kelly H. Tiller; William M. Park

1997-01-01

408

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to

M. M. Disfani; A. Arulrajah; M. W. Bo; R. Hankour

2011-01-01

409

You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2011-01-01

410

Investigation of the recyclability of powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

100% recyclability is one of the major advantages of powder coating. However, it can never be achieved in reality. Coating powders, especially finer powders with particle size below 30?m, were found to have much worse flow performances after recycling from electrostatic spraying so as to decrease the recyclability. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate recycled coating powders to determine

Jing Fu; Matthew Krantz; Hui Zhang; Jesse Zhu; Harry Kuo; Yar Ming Wang; Karen Lis

2011-01-01

411

The Estimation of Regional Precipitation Recycling. Part I: Review of Recycling Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review preceding a description of a new recycling model (Part II of this paper) discusses one aspect of the regional precipitation recycling studies, namely, the mathematical modeling of the recycling process. Several recycling models developed in recent decades are discussed within a unified framework of equations of the conservation of atmospheric water vapor mass. Most of the recycling models

G. I. Burde; A. Zangvil

2001-01-01

412

Device for exhaust gas recycling  

SciTech Connect

A device for exhaust gas recycling is proposed which controls the amount of recycled exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine equipped with an injection unit so that a certain air factor is attained. The device comprises a closing element for the exhaust gas return conduit, which latter terminates into the intake manifold, this closing element being suitably constituted by a throttle valve and being directly connected to the adjusting lever or control rod of the injection pump. If this connection is established via a resilient linkage between the adjusting lever and the exhaust gas return valve, then the thus-recycled amount of exhaust gas can be dimensioned so that a specific quantity of recycled exhaust gas is associated with a specific angular position of the adjusting lever.

Banzhaf, W.; Stumpp, G.

1980-10-28

413

Progress reported in PET recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

Not Available

1989-06-01

414

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

415

Disposal, Degradation, and Recycling; Bioplastics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone is familiar with plastic waste. We throw away large volumes of it, at home, at school, at work, at fast food restaurants, on vacation. Much of it ends up in the trash. We see some of it as litter along the sides of roads, streams and lakes, and floating up on beaches. We probably recycle some used plastics, although how much depends upon where we live. In many localities, only items produced from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE (high-density polyethylene) are collected for recycling. Why don't we recycle more of it? Why not LDPE (low-density polyethylene) and polystyrene? And what happens to it when we do? We'll develop some basic principles in this chapter on some of the avenues that help us follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's advice to "reduce, reuse, recycle."

Teegarden, David

2004-01-01

416

Recycler ring beam life time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the Fermilab Recycler Ring beam life time due to various physical processes associated with beam-gas interactions. This includes single coulomb scattering, electronic excitations, nuclear and multiple scattering processes. We compare the measured...

K. Gounder

2001-01-01

417

Recycling Plant for Paint Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of paint spraying is, according to present technology, not satisfactory because the percentage of overspraying is too big. A pilot plant demonstrated that the amount of overspray can be reduced and the paint sludge can be recycled, resultin...

K. H. Berewinkel

1981-01-01

418

Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

2002-07-01

419

Economics of salt cake recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, sa...

D. Graziano J. N. Hryn E. J. Daniels

1996-01-01

420

Recycled plastics for food packaging  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong movement in this country to decrease the amount of waste produced and to use resources more efficiently. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in helping to resolve the solid waste problem. The FDA supports recycling and the broader societal goal of diverting material from the solid waste stream, when it is consistent with the statutory responsibilities to protect the public health. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates that the FDA review the impact of new food-packaging materials on the environment. Currently, no regulations have been issued for the use of recycled polymers in contact with food. Plastics are permeable, and the possibility that a contaminant such as a pesticide or motor oil might be absorbed by a plastic container and remain in the resin after recycling is very real. The paper discusses FDA policy and research to ensure that recycled plastics are safe for food-contact use.

Thorsheim, H.R.; Armstrong, D.J.

1993-08-01

421

Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The results of any tests performed to show that the recycling process ... than food or to demonstrate, through surrogate contaminant testing and, if ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

422

Polymer Recycling: Opportunities and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and\\/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products.

Richard S. Stein

1992-01-01

423

Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite

J. Miller; A. Barth; J. Matzel; J. Wooden; S. Burgess

2008-01-01

424

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

425

Corporate America urges consumers to buy recycled  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Recycling Coalition`s (NRC, Washington, DC) buy Recycled Business Alliance (BRBA), the US EPA`s WasteWi$e program, and the US Conference of Mayors` (Washington, DC) buy-recycled program are just a few of the national groups that have formed since 1990 to encourage the purchase of products made from recyclables. Indeed, corporate America and governments are buying recycled. More than $1

Rabasca

1995-01-01

426

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap  

SciTech Connect

Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

Adam C. Powell, IV

2012-07-19

427

Vehicle recycling process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vehicle recycling plant comprising a furnace, means for introducing a fuel into said furnace, a cupola disposed in close proximity to said furnace, and communicating therewith so that the hot gases discharged from the furnace are introduced into the cupola, means for conveying scrap vehicles above said furnace and into said cupola, substantially horizontal flue means communicating with both the cupola and the furnace for removing exhaust gases therefrom, a plurality of smelters disposed in said horizontal flue for melting down various components previously disassembled from the vehicles, a plurality of heat exchange means disposed in said horizontal flue for removing heat therefrom and converting it into various forms of energy, an enlarged horizontal flue portion disposed downstream of said heat exchange means, said enlarged flue portion containing a plurality of air vents for mixing ambient air with the flue gas and a scrubbing section for removing particulate material from the flue gas, vacuum pump means for drawing the flue gas through the horizontal stack and exhaust means for discharging the flue gas to the atmosphere.

Rhinehart; Paul E. (Winchester, VA)

1977-03-29

428

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle

Javna, John

429

Hoso haikibutsu recycle system ni kansuru chosa. (Survey on the package waste recycling system).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the establishment of 'the Package Recycling Law,' a survey on the present situation and extraction of subjects were made to expedite the recycling of package containers. Conventionally, package recycling has been regarded as a job peculiar to each loca...

1996-01-01

430

Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel  

SciTech Connect

The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-01-01

431

Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.  

PubMed

The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594,?800 ?tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609? kg? person(-1)?day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36? ton? year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10,?165 ?ton ?year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling. PMID:21406505

Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

2011-03-15

432

Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems.

NONE

1994-01-01

433

Transferrin receptor recycling in the absence of perinuclear recycling endosomes  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells, internalized receptors such as transferrin (Tfn) receptor are presumed to pass sequentially through early endosomes (EEs) and perinuclear recycling endosomes (REs) before returning to the plasma membrane. Whether passage through RE is obligatory, however, remains unclear. Kinetic analysis of endocytosis in CHO cells suggested that the majority of internalized Tfn bypassed REs returning to the surface from EEs. To determine directly if REs are dispensable for recycling, we studied Tfn recycling in cytoplasts microsurgically created to contain peripheral EEs but to exclude perinuclear REs. The cytoplasts actively internalized and recycled Tfn. Surprisingly, they also exhibited spatially and temporally distinct endosome populations. The first appeared to correspond to EEs, labeling initially with Tfn, being positive for early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA-1) and containing only small amounts of Rab11, an RE marker. The second was EEA-1 negative and with time recruited Rab11, suggesting that cytoplasts assembled functional REs. These results suggest that although perinuclear REs are not essential components of the Tfn recycling pathway, they are dynamic structures which preexist in the peripheral cytoplasm or can be regenerated from EE- and cytosol-derived components such as Rab11.

Sheff, David; Pelletier, Laurence; O'Connell, Christopher B.; Warren, Graham; Mellman, Ira

2002-01-01

434

A new paradigm: near-complete recycling of spent fuel - A path to sustainable nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies indicate that maximized recycling, where more than 95% of the components of spent nuclear fuel are reused, can be economically justified and can reduce the mass of waste products by a substantial amount. The potentially removable and reusable components include the uranium, zirconium from the cladding, structural hardware, certain noble metal fission products, and the transuranic radionuclides. The approach to maximizing recycle and minimizing emissions and wastes should improve public acceptance of nuclear energy. (authors)

Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Rd., P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6223 (United States)

2007-07-01

435

RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on recycling of CdTe PV modules and manufacturing waste aims in optimizing the separations and recovery of glass, cadmium and tellurium while minimizing life-cycle emissions and energy use, under the constraint of low cost (e.g. a few cents per watt). The major tasks of our research are: a) Cleaning of glass from the metals and recycling of glass; b)

Vasilis Fthenakis; Paul Duby; Wenming Wang; Christopher Graves; Anuta Belova

436

Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards\\u000a by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination\\u000a of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for

Biserka Lucheva; Tsonio Tsonev; Peter Iliev

2011-01-01

437

The economics of cell phone reuse and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread consensus that landfill of waste electronic and electric equipment is not an acceptable end-of-use management\\u000a option. Diversion from landfill, either through voluntary or mandatory take-back and collection programs, overwhelmingly leads\\u000a to the recycling of e-waste, which typically consists of the recovery of a limited number of metals. Cell phones are currently\\u000a one of the few electronic products,

Roland Geyer; Vered Doctori Blass

2010-01-01

438

PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

439

Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

Francis, A.J.

1992-12-31

440

Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

Pemsler, P.

1981-02-01

441

What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

2007-09-01

442

What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

443

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

444

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

445

Metallurgical evaluation of recycled stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Recycled Type 304 stainless steel from both Carolina Metals Inc. (CMI) and Manufacturing Science Corporation (MSC) met all the requirements of ASTM A-240 required by Procurement Specification G-SPP-K-00005 Rev. 4. Mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of the material are adequate for service as burial boxes, overpacks, and drums. Inclusion content of both manufacturer`s material was high, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the corrosion resistance. Therefore, an evaluation of the service conditions should be performed before this material is approved for other applications. These heats of stainless steel are not suitable for fabricating DWPF glass canisters because the inclusion and carbon contents are high. However, MSC has recently installed a vacuum induction furnace capable of producing L grade material with a low inclusion content. Material produced from this furnace should be suitable for canister material if appropriate care is taken during the melting/casting process.

Imrich, K.J.

1997-01-22

446

Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

447

Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

Santini, Alessandro [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Passarini, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.passarini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier [Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Instituto IMDEA Energy, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Morselli, Luciano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15

448

Risk and recycling: The Department of Energy's environmental restoration program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the largest environmental cleanup task ever to confront the United States. As a result of more than 40 yr of defense production activities throughout the United States, numerous problems exist at DOE sites. The DOE is responsible for waste management, environmental restoration, and corrective activities associated with radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes at 110 sites in 32 states and 1 site in Puerto Rico. Over the next 30 yr, as DOE completes its environmental restoration and waste management mission, the environmental restoration program is likely to become the world's largest generator of radioactive and mixed waste. This paper provides a brief description of the DOE program and specific recycling initiatives. It also identifies limitations to accomplishing the department's goals as well as activities under way to address these limitations.

Whitfield, R.P.; McGranahan, J.R. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

449

75 FR 68840 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Oregon Specialty Metals......... Radioactive Waste 186,000 kilograms Return of U.S. Canada...

2010-11-09

450

Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a {le} 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I{sub p}, B{sub T}, and P{sub b}. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if {tau}{sub E} is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ({approximately}100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Snipes, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-03-01

451

Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a [le] 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I[sub p], B[sub T], and P[sub b]. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if [tau][sub E] is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ([approximately]100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Snipes, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

452

The prospects for recycling lead-acid batteries in India  

SciTech Connect

In view of dwindling resources of primary metal and growing environmental awareness, the recycle of lead is becoming increasingly necessary in India and other countries. A perusal of supply and demand projections for India reveals a lead supply shortfall of 68,300 tons by the year 2000. With a stagnation of primary metal production, the lead resources contained within spent batteries provide an excellent opportunity for the secondary recovery industry. This article cites various processes used in India to recover lead from spent batteries. In addition, a modified electrochemical method which is currently being adopted is described.

Venkateswaran, K.V.; Rethinaraj, J.P. (Central Electro-chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (IN)); Visvanathan, S. (Electro Hydro Metallurgy Division, CECRI, Karaikudi (IN))

1990-10-01

453

Release process for non-real property containing residual radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

It is DOE`s objective to operate its facilities and to conduct its activities so that radiation exposures to members of the public are maintained within acceptable limits and exposures to residual radioactive materials are controlled. To accomplish this, DOE has adopted Order DOE 5400.51 `Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment`, and will be promulgating IO CR Part 834 to codify and clarify the requirements of DOE 5400.5. Under both DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834, radioactively contaminated DOE property is prohibited from release unless specific actions have been completed prior to the release. This paper outlines a ten-step process that, if followed, will assist DOE Operations and contractor personnel in ensuring that the required actions established by Order DOE 5400.5 and 10 CR Part 834 have been appropriately completed prior to the release for reuse or recycle of non-real property (e.g., office furniture, computers, hand tools, machinery, vehicles and scrap metal). Following the process will assist in ensuring that radiological doses to the public from the released materials will meet applicable regulatory standards and be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

Ranek, N.L.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burns, D. [Trinity Environmental Systems, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Fleming, R.; Warren, S.; Wallo, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-02-01

454

Rabanco`s recycling revolution  

SciTech Connect

As an integrated environmental management company, Rabanco (Seattle) has been offering a variety of disposal services for businesses and residences since it was founded in 1929. While the company has made a name for itself through its solid waste disposal systems and railhaul operations in particular, its recycling operation is equally noteworthy and has emerged as a cornerstone of its business. Indeed, through innovative approaches and systems, Rabanco`s Waste Reduction and Recycling Centre, operated under its subsidiary, Rabanco Recycling, has become a leading materials recovery facility (MRF) in the Pacific Northwest and beyond. These innovations, which include the first commingled processing operation in the country and, more recently, the implementation of new processing equipment, have led to an efficient and consistent processing facility.

White, K.M.

1996-02-01

455

National Center for Electronics Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used cellphones and laptops can't go in the recycling with the empty soda cans and cereal boxes. So where do they go to be recycled once consumers find new ones? The National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER) is working on that very problem. Visitors can click on the "Ecycling Basics" tab on the left side of the page to be taken to links to three websites that allow you to search by zip code or an interactive map of the U.S. In the "Resources" tab on the left side of the page, there are many links to resources that include Advocacy Group Reports, Electronics Disposal Studies, Environmentally Sound Management Guidelines, and International documents. Visitors interested in keeping up with the news from NCER, can sign up for their newsletter in the Google groups box, which is located below the menu on the left side of the page.

456

FLIGHTS ACROSS RADIOACTIVE CLOUDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danger to personnel and equipment arising from radioactive contamination ; of aircraft after flying across radioactive clouds is discussed. Flights ; performed 20-30 minutes after an atomic bomb explosion are no longer dangerous. ; Radioactive dust penetrating into the aircraft constitutes a serious danger. ; Formation of nitrate in the aircraft decreases the radioactivity. Immediate ; decontamination of the aircraft

Chabowski

1960-01-01

457

The reduction of recycled-NO x in coal combustion with O 2\\/recycled flue gas under low recycling ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission and reduction of NOx in coal combustion with O2\\/recycled flue gas were investigated in an electric heated up-flow-tube combustor with a high volatile bituminous coal. The recycling ratio of flue gas ranged from 0 to 0.4, and the concentrations of recycled-NO in inlet gas were 0, 500 and 1000ppm. Reduction efficiency of the recycled-NOx changed both with equivalence

Y. Q Hu; N Kobayashi; M Hasatani

2001-01-01

458

Upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out using subbituminous Wyodak and bituminous Kentucky coal to determine the effect of upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms. In the liquefaction experiments, the reactor was charged with recycle solvent, solvent-refined coal (SRC) or SRC fraction and coal in a 1:1:1 weight ratio, and the reaction was carried out at 714/sup 0/K under hydrogen pressure. The results obtained indicated the importance of solvent composition on the coal liquefaction reaction. Maximum conversion seemed to be achieved with some degree of hydrogenation of the SRC, but the severity of the hydrogenation process was not clearly defined. Solvent fractionation may also result in increased distillate yields. (BLM)

Silver, H.F.; Miller, R.L.; Corry, R.G.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1981-01-01

459

Polymer recycling: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed Central

The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products. The practice should be encouraged by societal or legislative pressure which recognizes that the cost of disposal should be a factor in determining the cost of a product.

Stein, R S

1992-01-01

460

Occupational injuries among urban recyclers.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe the emergence of urban recycling as a new trade and discuss the new pattern of injuries among its practitioners. We conducted a retrospective chart review and convenience survey at an urban homeless health center. We found a high prevalence of severe, costly injuries, many of which are amenable to prevention. Lacerations, infections, needle sticks, and blunt trauma are all common in this group. Some cases are extremely expensive or even lethal. We conclude that a new trade and a new pattern of injuries associated with it have emerged around recycling. PMID:9253729

Rendleman, N; Feldstein, A

1997-07-01

461

Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

462

Process to recycle shredder residue  

DOEpatents

A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

2001-01-01

463

Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

1995-12-31

464

Recycle technology for recovering resources and products from waste printed circuit boards.  

PubMed

The printed circuit board (PCB) contains nearly 28% metals that are abundant non-ferrous metals such as Cu, Al, Sn, etc. The purity of precious metals in PCBs is more than 10 times higher than that of rich-content minerals. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable materials. Chemical and mechanical methods are two traditional recycling processes for waste PCBs. However, the prospect of chemical methods will be limited since the emission of toxic liquid or gas brings secondary pollution to the environment during the process. Mechanical processes, such as shape separation, jigging, density-based separation, and electrostatic separation have been widely utilized in the recycling industry. But, recycling of waste PCBs is only beginning. In this study, a total of 400 kg of waste PCBs was processed by a recycle technology without negative impact to the environment. The technology contained mechanical two-step crushing, corona electrostatic separating, and recovery. The results indicated that (i) two-step crushing was an effect process to strip metals from base plates completely; (ii) the size of particles between 0.6 and 1.2 mm was suitable for corona electrostatic separating during industrial application; and (iii) the nonmetal of waste PCBs attained 80% weight of a kind of nonmetallic plate that expanded the applying prospect of waste nonmetallic materials. PMID:17410796

Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

2007-03-15

465

The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

Keller, J. Jacob

2010-01-01

466

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

467

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

468

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #96  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... We have reviewed Eastman's modified glycolysis recycling process as compared to their previous glycolysis recycling process submitted in 1996 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

469

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0052  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... that were used in food applications such as milk, water, and juice. ... in recycled HDPE produced by your commercial recycling plants, (2) surrogate ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

470

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #163  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... (PRI), requesting an agency's no objection letter to confirm the capability of your proposed recycling process in producing recycled polystyrene (R ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

471

Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

Settanni, Barbara

1990-01-01

472

Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

2007-08-14

473