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1

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

2

INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report  

SciTech Connect

DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

Funk, D.M.

1994-09-01

3

Radioactive materials in recycled metals--an update.  

PubMed

In April 1995, Health Physics published a review paper titled "Radioactive Materials in Recycled Metals." At that time, 35 accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills were reported, including 22 in the U.S., along with 293 other events in the U.S. where radioactive material was found in metals for recycling. Since that date, there have been additional accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills both in the U.S. and elsewhere. There also was an incident in Texas that involved stolen radioactive devices, which resulted in exposures of members of the general public. Also, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission took steps to address the underlying problem of inadequate control and accountability of radioactive materials licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Steel Manufacturers Association made available data collected by its members beginning in 1994 that expanded the database for radioactive materials found by the metal recycling industry in recycled metal scrap to over 2,300 reports as of 30 June 1997. PMID:9482594

Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

1998-03-01

4

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [US Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-11-01

5

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

2010-08-01

6

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

7

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

8

Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?  

SciTech Connect

During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D. [and others

1996-06-01

9

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

10

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

11

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

12

INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1994-09-01

13

Recycling in the metals industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, scrap was a major feedstock component of U.S. metals production. Steel scrap represented 56% of raw steel production, old lead scrap was 66% of total lead production, and purchased aluminum scrap represented 37% of total production. Copper scrap makes up 44% of total U.S. copper consumption annually. Although some recycling operations, such as past (but now obsolete) lead-acid

Harry V. Makar

1996-01-01

14

Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal that has become radioactively contaminated in various activities of the nuclear enterprise. The DOE began to move in the early 1970s to manage contaminated scrap metals as a potential resource rather than a waste. In the mid-1980s, Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) initiated moves to involve private industry in responding to DOE needs in dealing with scrap metal. As a result of this action, three firms showed positive moves toward the beneficial reuse of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, both surface and volumetrically contaminated. From among these industrial firms, one was selected to deal with the specified ORO scrap metal inventories and has, at its own expense, developed technologies and constructed processing facilities to deal with large masses of radioactively contaminated metals from any source.

Large, D.E.; Arrowsmith, H.W. (SEG Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-01-01

15

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

16

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

17

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

18

Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting processes is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling and refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and solidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide distribution have been characterized by scanning electron microscope/electron diffractive X-ray (SEWEDX) analysis using cesium chloride (CSC1) as the radionuclide surrogate. In the melting and solidification process, a resistance furnace whose heating and cooling rates are program- controlled in the helium atmosphere was used. The characterization procedures included weighing, melting and solidification, weighing after solidification, sample preparation, and SEM/EDX analysis. This analytical methodology can be used to characterize metal recycling and refining products in order to evaluate the performance of the recycling process. The data obtained provide much valuable information that is necessary for the enhancement of radioactive contaminated metal decontamination and recycling technologies. The numerical method for the prediction of the melting and solidification process can be implemented in the control and monitoring system-of the melting and casting process in radioactive contaminated metal recycling. The use of radionuclide surrogates instead of real radionuclides enables the research to be performed without causing harmfid effects on people or the community. This characterization process has been conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University since October 1995. Tests have been conducted on aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) using cesium chloride (CSCI) as a radionuclide surrogate, and information regarding the radionuclide transfer and distribution in melting and solidification process has been obtained. The numerical simulation of the solidification of molten metal has been very successful for aluminium; however, a stability problem in the simulation of iron/steel solidification poses a challenge. Thus, additional development is needed to simulate the radionuclide transfer and distribution behaviors in the melting and casting processes. This project was initially based on a two-year plan. However, due to technical and financial difficulties, the project ended in FY96. The work which has been accomplished in the first year includes the characterization of radionuclide transfer and distribution in the melting-solidification process and the numerical simulation of metal solidification. The Argon-arc melting method was tested for the melting of copper and steel materials. Five tests were performed to characterize the transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the aluminiurn and copper melting/solidification process using CSC1 as radionuclide surrogates. The numerical simulation of molten aluminium and steel solidification process was performed. Different boundary conditions were applied in the simulations.

M. A. Ebadian; R. C. Xin; Z. F. Dong

1997-08-06

19

Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hocking, E.K. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Roberts, R. [Dept. of Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Phillips, J.W. [Analytical Services, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-10-01

20

Recycling lead to recover refractory precious metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead recycling has many benefits. For example, it provides an alternative to virgin lead, thereby avoiding the environmental impacts of primary lead smelting. In addition, as with other secondary metal operations, it consumes less energy at a lower cost than primary production. An emerging process has been evaluated in which these attributes are leveraged to process refractory precious metals ores. Direct cyanidation of refractory gold and silver ore yields poor gold and silver recoveries. In fact, some ores are simply not amenable to direct cyanidation. The process described in this paper consists of smelting lead-bearing material together with argentopyrite concentrate that contains precious metals. Sodium carbonate is used as a fluxing agent and scrap iron is used as a reductant. The reaction product is molten lead bullion enriched with the precious metals. Smelting recoveries of both silver and gold can be as high as 98%.

Parga, J. R.; Muzquiz, G. G.; Valenzuela, J. L.; Ojebuoboh, F. K.

2001-12-01

21

Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.  

PubMed

With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

Turner, Ray

2006-11-01

22

The decommissioning of accelerators: an exercise in the recycling of radioactive material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with the number of nuclear power plants that will be decommissioned over the next few years accelerators are only a "small" source of radioactivity although at CERN the total amount of mostly metallic material activated in the operation of the accelerators is estimated to be of the order of 15 Mtons. Various existing approaches to classify and administer radioactive material will be presented with all of them clearly earmarked by the requirements of the nuclear cycle. There are however important differences between activation in reactors and accelerators that will be worked out. It will be shown that an attitude based on reuse or recycling of activated accelerator material should be preferred to the elimination as radioactive waste.

Höfert, M.; Tuyn, J. W. N.; Forkel-Wirth, D.

1999-06-01

23

What do we know about metal recycling rates?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recycling of metals is widely viewed as a fruitful sustainability strategy, but little information is available on the degree to which recycling is actually taking place. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge of recycling rates for 60 metals. We propose various recycling metrics, discuss relevant aspects of recycling processes, and present current estimates on global end-of-life recycling rates (EOL-RR; i.e., the percentage of a metal in discards that is actually recycled), recycled content (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSRs; i.e., the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow). Because of increases in metal use over time and long metal in-use lifetimes, many RC values are low and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Because of relatively low efficiencies in the collection and processing of most discarded products, inherent limitations in recycling processes, and the fact that primary material is often relatively abundant and low-cost (which thereby keeps down the price of scrap), many EOL-RRs are very low: Only for 18 metals (silver, aluminum, gold, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, niobium, nickel, lead, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the EOL-RR above 50% at present. Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is the RC above 50%, although 16 metals are in the 25% to 50% range. Thirteen metals have an OSR greater than 50%. These estimates may be used in considerations of whether recycling efficiencies can be improved; which metric could best encourage improved effectiveness in recycling; and an improved understanding of the dependence of recycling on economics, technology, and other factors. ?? 2011 by Yale University.

Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Buchert, M.; Hageluken, C.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.

2011-01-01

24

Effective Technology for Recycling Metal. Proceedings of Two Special Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Association of Secondary Material Industries (NASMI) and the Bureau of Mines have cooperated to sponsor two technically-oriented workshops related to the role of metals recycling and air pollution control technology. The proceedings of these workshops, "Effective Technology and Research for Scrap Metal Recycling" and "Air Pollution…

National Association of Secondary Material Industries, Inc., New York, NY.

25

Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.  

PubMed

In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce. PMID:17033456

Chen, S Y

2006-11-01

26

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

27

Precious metals process catalysts - material flows and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precious metal process catalysts are of key importance in many chemical syntheses and catalysis today is the driving force for the global demand of Platinum Group Metals. For a large variety of catalysts types in numerous application areas recycling technologies have been developed to efficiently recover precious and special metals, using both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In this context, an

CHRISTIAN HAGELÜKEN

28

Metals recycling: economic and environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in a period of economic transition. The `cowboy economy' of the past is obsolescent, if not obsolete. Environmental services are no longer free goods, and this fact is driving major changes. Recycling is the wave of the (immediate) future. The potential savings in terms of energy and capital have long been obvious. The savings in terms of reduced

Robert U. Ayres

1997-01-01

29

Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities  

SciTech Connect

Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction and the number of shifts that could operate a year. Further study is warranted to better understand the metal air pollution levels in the community and if necessary, to evaluate the feasibility of emission controls and identify operational improvements and best management practices for this industry. This research adds two new aspects to the literature: identification of types and magnitude of metal particulate matter air pollutants associated with a previously unrecognized area source, metal recyclers and their potential risk to health. -- Highlights: • Air monitoring study in response to community complaints found metal contamination. • Metal recyclers found to potentially pose cancer from metal particulates • Chromium, nickel, cobalt and cadmium samples were detected in five metal recyclers. • These metals were not detected in background air samples. • Estimated increased cancer risk ranges from 1 in 1,000,000 to 8 in 10,000.

Raun, Loren, E-mail: raun@rice.edu [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States)] [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Pepple, Karl, E-mail: pepple.karl@epa.gov [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hoyt, Daniel, E-mail: hoyt.daniel@epa.gov [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States)] [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States); Richner, Donald, E-mail: Donald.Richner@houstontx.gov [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Blanco, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.blanco@houstontx.gov [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Li, Jiao, E-mail: jiao.li@rice.edu [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)] [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

2013-07-15

30

Upgrading nonferrous metal scrap for recycling purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reusing materials in the post-consumer phase of a product is very important; however, it is often difficult to separate the metals, resulting in a scrap that is high in impurities and limited in application. To prevent the mixing of scrap, separation at the source is required. Recently, several techniques for separating nonferrous metals have become available, including eddy-current separation to separate nonferrous metals from a mixture of waste, fluid-bed separation to separate light and heavy metals, and image analysis to separate cast and wrought alloys.

Nijhof, Gerrit H.; Rem, Peter C.

1999-08-01

31

Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste  

SciTech Connect

Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

Reimann, G.A.

1991-10-01

32

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

33

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

34

Development of melt refining decontamination technology for low level radioactive metal waste contaminated with uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of Melt Refining Decontamination by Slagging (MRDS) havs been performed for the release and recycling of Low Level Radioactive Metal Waste (LLRMW) contaminated with uranium discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Experiments and their evaluation have been performed for the decontamination performance of the waste containing aluminum and have clarified the followings. Simulated waste was decontaminated to 0.01 Bq/g when the addition of aluminum is below 1.5 wt% in laboratory scale test equipment. This was demonstrated also in the engineering scale experiment for MRDS. These results demonstrate that the MRDS is an effective processing technology for low level radioactive metal waste with uranium.

Aoyama, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Suto, O.

2005-02-01

35

Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

Kiran Manchiraju

2012-03-27

36

Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

Sullivan, Daniel E.

2006-01-01

37

Recycle  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: The Problem; What`s In Our Trash; Where Does Trash Go; Where Does Our Trash Go; The Solution; What Is Recycling; Why Should We Recycle; A National Goal of 25%; What Can We Recycle; What Do We Do With Our Recyclables.

NONE

1988-10-01

38

The impact of radioactive steel recycling on the public and professionals.  

PubMed

The decommissioning of nuclear power plants represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials, e.g. steel scrap containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Recycling some of these materials is highly desirable due to numerous reasons. Herein presented scenarios of recycling of radioactive steel within the nuclear as well as civil engineering industry are analyzed from the radiation protection point of view. An approach based on the dose constraints principle is chosen. The aim of the study is to derive conditional clearance levels (maximal specific mass activity of material allowing its recycling/clearance) for analyzed radionuclides ensuring that the detrimental impact on human health is kept on a negligible level. Determined conditional clearance levels, as the result of performed software calculations, are valid for the reuse of radioactive steel in four selected scenarios. Calculation results indicate that the increase of the amount of recyclable radioactive steel due to its reuse in specific applications may be feasible considering the radiation impact on the public and professionals. However, issues connected with public acceptance, technical difficulties and financing of potential realization are still open and they have to be examined in more detail. PMID:23608061

Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Ondra, Frantisek; Necas, Vladimir

2013-06-15

39

Recycling of nickel-metal hydride battery scrap  

SciTech Connect

Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery technology is being developed as a NiCd replacement for applications in consumer cells and electric vehicle batteries. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating hydrometallurgical recycling technology that separates and recovers individual components from Ni-MH battery scrap. Acid dissolution and metal recovery techniques such as precipitation and solvent extraction produced purified products of rare-earths, nickel, and other metals associated with AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5} Ni-MH scrap. Tests were conducted on scrap cells of a single chemistry that had been de-canned to reduce iron content. Although recovery techniques have been identified in principal, their applicability to mixed battery waste stream and economic attractiveness remain to be demonstrated. 14 refs.

Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R. [Bureau of Mines, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Salt Lake City Research Center

1994-12-31

40

Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of

N. N. Sauer; B. F. Smith

1993-01-01

41

Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into th...

N. N. Sauer, B. F. Smith

1993-01-01

42

Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop  

SciTech Connect

Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [eds.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

43

Risks generated by the treatment of aerosol in the recycling of metals: How to secure the process?  

E-print Network

55 65 65 Abstract Aerosols consumed at home are supported in France in the recycling of aluminum of aerosols. Keywords: metal waste recycling; aerosols; fire hazard; explosion hazard. 1. OVERVIEW ProductsRisks generated by the treatment of aerosol in the recycling of metals: How to secure the process

Boyer, Edmond

44

Removal of metal cations from wastewater using recycled wool-based non-woven material  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of low-temperature air plasma, biopolymer chito- san and hydrogen peroxide treatment of recycled wool-based non-woven material on metal cation uptake was investigated. Recycled wool-based material either as an untreated or modified material showed ability to bind all investigated metal cations in the following order: Pb 2+ >Cu 2+ >Zn 2+ >Co 2+ . Material performed

Maja Radetic; Darinka Radojevic; Vesna Ilic; Dragan Jocic; Dragan Povrenovic; Branislav Potkonjak; Nevena Puac; Petar Jovancic

2007-01-01

45

Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities.

Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Division

1994-12-31

46

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums.

Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-05-01

47

Heavy Metal Contamination from Electronic Waste Recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th is study evaluated the eff ect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment

Yan Guo; Changjiang Huang; Hong Zhang; Qiaoxiang Dong

2009-01-01

48

Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

49

U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. The Center has gotten off to a fast start. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-12 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer software, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, produce pollution prevention information and documentation, manage their materials inventory, produce independent government estimates, and implement sale/service contracts. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrap yard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums. Members of the Center look forward to working with all DOE sites, regulatory authorities, the private sector, and other stakeholders to achieve the metals recycle goals.

Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-06-01

50

Nickel-cadmium battery recycling through the INMETCOR high temperature metals recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

INMETCO, a subsidiary of Inco Limited, is the only facility in North America that provides the high temperature metals recovery (HTMR) process for nickel-cadmium secondary batteries. In 1993, INMETCO recycled more than 2,200 tons of nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron and nickel metal hydride batteries. The paper describes Inco's experience in metals recovery, traces the development and explains operation of the HTMR Process

J. J. Liotta; J. C. Onuska; R. H. Hanewald

1995-01-01

51

Cyclotron production of ??mTc: recycling of enriched ¹??Mo metal targets.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in the large scale cyclotron production of (99m)Tc via the (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction. While the use and recycling of cyclotron-irradiated enriched molybdenum targets has been reported previously in the context of (94m)Tc production, to the best of our knowledge, previous recycling studies have been limited to the use of oxide targets. To facilitate reuse of high-power enriched (100)Mo targets, this work presents and evaluates a strategy for recycling of enriched metallic molybdenum. For the irradiated (100)Mo targets in this study, an overall metal to metal recovery of 87% is reported. Evaluation of "new" and "recycled" (100)Mo revealed no changes in the molybdenum isotopic composition (as measured via ICP-MS). For similar irradiation conditions of "new" and "recycled" (100)Mo, (i.e. target thicknesses, irradiation time, and energy), comparable levels of (94g)Tc, (95g)Tc, and (96g)Tc contaminants were observed. Comparable QC specifications (i.e. aluminum ion concentration, pH, and radiochemical purity) were also reported. We finally note that [(99m)Tc]-MDP images obtained by comparing MDP labelled with generator-based (99m)Tc vs. (99m)Tc obtained following the irradiation of recycled (100)Mo demonstrated comparable biodistribution. With the goal of producing large quantities of (99m)Tc, the proposed methodology demonstrates that efficient recycling of enriched metallic (100)Mo targets is feasible and effective. PMID:22750197

Gagnon, K; Wilson, J S; Holt, C M B; Abrams, D N; McEwan, A J B; Mitlin, D; McQuarrie, S A

2012-08-01

52

Recycle of metals for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and relation to Kyoto protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world's energy resources are rapidly being depleted, decreasing the use of raw materials and recovery and recycling of metals are currently considered as the most rational and essential methods. In Turkey, transportation needs increasing in parallel to urbanization cause an increase in number of vehicles. Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from transportation make up approximately 16% of Turkey's overall

Melek Cumbul Altay; Nüket Sivri; Burcu Onat; Ülkü ?ahin; Mert Zora?a; Hulusi Fatih Altay

2011-01-01

53

Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: An occupational exposure study from Sweden.  

PubMed

Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. PMID:25300751

Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

2014-12-01

54

EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass, plastic and metal bottles and containers that previously  

E-print Network

and with a 20 gallons capacity. It is made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with 100% post-consumer recycledEMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass (solid or liquid) and should be collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS). Bottles include empty

Baker, Chris I.

55

Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.  

PubMed

Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

2014-07-01

56

Determination of metal additives and bromine in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste by TXRF analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for analysis of metal additives in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste was developed, based on dissolving\\u000a the samples in an organic solvent and subsequent analysis of the corresponding solutions or suspensions by total-reflection\\u000a X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). The procedure proved to be considerably less time consuming than the conventional\\u000a digestion of the polymer matrix. Additives containing Ti,

H. Fink; U. Panne; M. Theisen; R. Niessner; T. Probst; X. Lin

2000-01-01

57

New binding materials for metal hydride electrodes which permit good recyclability  

SciTech Connect

Thermoplastic elastomers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were used successfully as binding materials for metal hydride (MH) electrodes of a nickel-metal hydride battery. These binding materials have a rubber-like nature and are soluble in organic solvents. It was easy to remove the alloy powder from a used electrode for recycling. The battery performance depended on both the kind and amount of binding materials. The best discharge capacity and rate capability were obtained for MH electrodes containing 2--5 weight percent (w/o) SEBS. The particle size distributions for the alloy were examined successfully.

Hara, T.; Yasuda, N. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan). Development Center); Takeuchi, Y. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Project Dept.); Sakai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Miyamura, H.; Kuriyama, N.; Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

1993-09-01

58

Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.  

PubMed

Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. PMID:25061724

Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

2014-01-01

59

Efficient magnetic recycling of covalently attached enzymes on carbon-coated metallic nanomagnets.  

PubMed

In the pursuit of robust and reusable biocatalysts for industrial synthetic chemistry, nanobiotechnology is currently taking a significant part. Recently, enzymes have been immobilized on different nanoscaffold supports. Carbon coated metallic nanoparticles were found to be a practically useful support for enzyme immobilization due to their large surface area, high magnetic saturation, and manipulatable surface chemistry. In this study carbon coated cobalt nanoparticles were chemically functionalized (diazonium chemistry), activated for bioconjugation (N,N-disuccinimidyl carbonate), and subsequently used in enzyme immobilization. Three enzymes, ?-glucosidase, ?-chymotrypsin, and lipase B were successfully covalently immobilized on the magnetic nonsupport. The enzyme-particle conjugates formed retained their activity and stability after immobilization and were efficiently recycled from milliliter to liter scales in short recycle times. PMID:24673490

Zlateski, Vladimir; Fuhrer, Roland; Koehler, Fabian M; Wharry, Scott; Zeltner, Martin; Stark, Wendelin J; Moody, Thomas S; Grass, Robert N

2014-04-16

60

Determination of metal additives and bromine in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste by TXRF analysis.  

PubMed

A new method for analysis of metal additives in recycled thermoplasts from electronic waste was developed, based on dissolving the samples in an organic solvent and subsequent analysis of the corresponding solutions or suspensions by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). The procedure proved to be considerably less time consuming than the conventional digestion of the polymer matrix. Additives containing Ti, Zn, Br, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb were analyzed in a hundred randomly selected samples from recycling, which provided an overview of the range of elemental concentrations in thermoplasts utilized for consumer electronics. The results were validated independently by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), subsequent regression analysis confirmed the trueness of the chosen approach. PMID:11220585

Fink, H; Panne, U; Theisen, M; Niessner, R; Probst, T; Lin, X

2000-01-01

61

Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700°C. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 °C), tungsten is self-annealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands and fusion experiments to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 °C), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11-M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

Majeski, R.

2010-05-01

62

Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700 deg. C. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 deg. C), tungsten is self-annealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment.The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium.Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands and fusion experiments to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 deg. C), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11-M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2010-05-20

63

Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

R. Majeski

2010-01-15

64

Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-01-01

65

Recycling of metals: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to recycling of metals in post-consumer waste are assessed from a waste management perspective; here the material recovery facility (MRF), for the sorting of the recovered metal. The GHG accounting includes indirect upstream emissions, direct activities at the MRF as well as indirect downstream activities in terms of reprocessing of the metal scrap and savings in terms of avoided production of virgin metal. The global warming factor (GWF) shows that upstream activities and the MRF causes negligible GHG emissions (12.8 to 52.6 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) recovered metal) compared to the reprocessing of the metal itself (360-1260 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of recovered aluminium and 400- 1020 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) of recovered steel).The reprocessing is however counterbalanced by large savings of avoided virgin production of steel and aluminium. The net downstream savings were found to be 5040-19 340 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated aluminium and 560-2360 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) of treated steel. Due to the huge differences in reported data it is hard to compare general data on the recovery of metal scrap as they are very dependent on the technology and data choices. Furthermore, the energy used in both the recovery process as well as the avoided primary production is crucial. The range of avoided impact shows that recovery of metals will always be beneficial over primary production, due to the high energy savings, and that the GHG emissions associated with the sorting of metals are negligible. PMID:19767324

Damgaard, Anders; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-11-01

66

An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined. PMID:24433820

Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

2014-10-01

67

Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States [Chapters A-M : gold, platinum, chromium, zinc, magnesium, lead, iron, manganese, columbium (niobium), tantalum, tin, molybdenum, and cobalt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

USGS Circular 1196, 'Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,' presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than half of the U.S. metal supply by weight and roughly 40 percent by value.

Sibley, Scott F., (Edited By)

2004-01-01

68

RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

69

RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1189 Ferguson*, T.D., Chen, A.S.C., and Stencel, N. Recycling a Nonionic Aqueous-Based Metal-Cleaning Solution with a Ceramic Membrane: Pilot Scale Evaluation. Published in: Environmental Progress 20 (2):123-132 (2001). The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) ...

70

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials in discrete sub-components. SNL developed and demonstrated a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The remaining components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies and in the development of a conceptual design for a mechanical separation system.

Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gundiler, I.H. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-02-01

71

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies.

Gundiler, I.H. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-03

72

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material

T. W. Ellis; F. A. Schmidt

1995-01-01

73

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant

Timothy W. Ellis; Frederick A. Schmidt

1995-01-01

74

Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release  

SciTech Connect

Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)

2007-07-01

75

Characterization of Solidified Products Yielded by Plasma Melting Treatment of Simulated Non-Metallic Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of an advanced volume reduction program for low level radioactive wastes in JAERI, melting tests of non-metallic solid wastes have been conducted with the aim of establishing the optimum melting condition for preparation of a stable solid that is suitable for disposal. Simulated non-metallic wastes containing Co, Cs and Eu tracers were melted with a plasma torch

Mikio NAKASHIMA; Toshiki FUKUI; Nobuyuki NAKASHIO; Motoyasu ISOBE; Atsushi OHTAKE; Takuji WAKUI; Takakuni HIRABAYASHI

2002-01-01

76

Method for separating constituents from solution employing a recyclable Lewis acid metal-hydroxy gel  

SciTech Connect

This invention permits radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics to be extracted from solution by scavenging them with an amorphous gel. In the preferred embodiment, a contaminated solution (e.g. from soil washing, decontamination, or groundwater pumping) is transferred to a reaction vessel. The contaminated solution is contacted by the sequestering reagent which might contain for example, aluminate and EDTA anions in a 2.5 M NaOH solution. The pH of the reagent bearing solution is lowered on contact with the contaminated solution, or for example by bubbling carbon dioxide through it, causing an aluminum hydroxide gel to precipitate as the solution drops below the range of 1.8 to 2.5 molar NaOH (less than pH 14). This precipitating gel scavenges waste contaminants as it settles through solution leaving a clean supernatant which is then separated from the gel residue by physical means such as centrifugation, or simple settling. The gel residue containing concentrated contaminants is then redissolved releasing contaminants for separations and processing. This is a critical point: the stabilized gel used in this invention is readily re-dissolved by merely increasing the pH above the gels phase transition to aqueous anions. Thus, concentrated contaminants trapped in the gel can be released for convenient separation from the sequestering reagent, and said reagent can then be recycled.

Alexander, D.H.

1995-12-31

77

Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 ?g\\/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu ? Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 ?g\\/g) was also found to

Thanh Wang; Jianjie Fu; Yawei Wang; Chunyang Liao; Yongqing Tao; Guibin Jiang

2009-01-01

78

Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting  

SciTech Connect

A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

McKoon, R.

1993-11-01

79

Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wallo, A. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Guidance

1994-11-01

80

Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239. Higher breeding ratio of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium condition are estimated from converted fertile material during reactor operation into fissile material of plutonium such as converted uranium fuel (converted U-238 into Pu-239) or additional converted fuel from MA into Pu-238 and changes into Pu-239 by capturing neutron. Loading LWR SF gives better fuel breeding capability and increase inventory of MA for doping material of MOX fuel; however, it requires more supply MA inventory for TRU fuel type.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

81

Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were

B. M. Patterson; M. Shackleton; A. J. Furness; J. Pearce; C. Descourvieres; K. L. Linge; F. Busetti; T. Spadek

2010-01-01

82

Evaluation of a leaching process coupled with regeneration/recycling of the extractant for treatment of heavy metal contaminated solids.  

PubMed

A hydrometallurgical circuit process combining the leaching of metals with the electrolytic regeneration of the mass separating agent is an option to effectively treat heavy metal contaminated solids. This process aims towards a dosed loop utilisation of the extractant by its regeneration and recycling, enabling the use of high cost extractants and the recovery of the heavy metals as well. The circuit process, in which each cycle consists of an extraction step followed by the electrolytic regeneration of the mass separating agent and a second extraction to finally recycle the separating agent and start a new cycle, was applied on a lead contaminated soil from an accumulator manufacturing facility and for the removal of copper from a municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. For the first case a 0.13 M citrate solution was used at a pH of 5; for the second 10%; sulphuric acid (pH=0.5). The results showed that above 80% of lead and copper were removed from soil and ash, respectively, when the concentration of mass separating agent was controlled and kept constant. The extraction efficiency of metals from the solid materials was in the same range as the one obtained by two extaction steps using fresh extracting agent. However, due to losses of the mass separating agent the operation in a complete closed loop configuration was not possible. Nevertheless, a substantial reduction in separating agent consumption was achieved. The process proved to be suitable for treating highly contaminated materials, for which the operation parameters of extraction and regeneration are more favourable, also increasing the recovery of metals. PMID:12088380

Arévalo, E F; Stichnothe, H; Thöming, J; Calmano, W

2002-05-01

83

Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET wastes by glycolysis in the presence of metal salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, namely zinc acetate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulphate and potassium sulphate. Comparable high

R. López-Fonseca; I. Duque-Ingunza; B. de Rivas; S. Arnaiz; J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz

2010-01-01

84

HEAVY METALS IN RECOVERED FINES FOR CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS RECYCLING FACILITIES IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil....

85

Recycling zinc. (Latest citations from the Metals Abstracts/alloys index database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, energy use patterns, trends, and prospective sources, for zinc recycling. Various processes are discussed, including distillation, pyrochemical processing and electrorefining. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01

86

Data availability and the need for research to localize, quantify and recycle critical metals in information technology, telecommunication and consumer equipment.  

PubMed

The supply of critical metals like gallium, germanium, indium and rare earths elements (REE) is of technological, economic and strategic relevance in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Recycling is one of the key strategies to secure the long-term supply of these metals. The dissipation of the metals related to the low concentrations in the products and to the configuration of the life cycle (short use time, insufficient collection, treatment focusing on the recovery of other materials) creates challenges to achieve efficient recycling. This article assesses the available data and sets priorities for further research aimed at developing solutions to improve the recycling of seven critical metals or metal families (antimony, cobalt, gallium, germanium, indium, REE and tantalum). Twenty-six metal applications were identified for those six metals and the REE family. The criteria used for the assessment are (i) the metal criticality related to strategic and economic issues; (ii) the share of the worldwide mine or refinery production going to EEE manufacturing; (iii) rough estimates of the concentration and the content of the metals in the products; (iv) the accuracy of the data already available; and (v) the occurrence of the application in specific WEEE groups. Eight applications were classified as relevant for further research, including the use of antimony as a flame retardant, gallium and germanium in integrated circuits, rare earths in phosphors and permanent magnets, cobalt in batteries, tantalum capacitors and indium as an indium-tin-oxide transparent conductive layer in flat displays. PMID:24068305

Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Vera Susanne; Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Marwede, Max; Nissen, Nils F; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

2013-10-01

87

Self-protective cobalt nanocatalyst for long-time recycle application on hydrogen generation by its free metal-ion conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt nanoparticles have attracted much attention in nanocatalysis due to their low cost and high activities. However, the easy-oxidative deactivation of cobalt nanocatalysts in air seriously limits their practical applications, especially in a long-time recycle application. Herein, by intentionally taking advantage of the readily oxidizable character of metallic cobalt, we describe a simple but efficient method to overcome the above obstacle through a free and reverse metal-ion conversion of cobalt in air at room temperature. With this novel method, the cobalt nanocatalyst demonstrates the superior activity even after the long-time (73 days) recycle application for hydrogen generation from ammonia borane.

Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Jiang, Qing

2013-12-01

88

Metal price volatility : a study of informative metrics and the volatility mitigating effects of recycling  

E-print Network

Metal price volatility is undesirable for firms that use metals as raw materials, because price volatility can translate into volatility of material costs. Volatile material costs and can erode the profitability of the ...

Fleming, Nathan Richard

2011-01-01

89

Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

2014-02-01

90

Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

Kessinger, G.F.

1993-10-01

91

Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices  

E-print Network

Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices Metal Bins Deskside Bins with Side Saddle Rubbermaid Bins.58 for auxiliaries. And Non-Public Areas Public Offices Non-Public Recyclables Recyclables RecyclablesTrash Trash Trash #12;New Recycling Bin Guidelines Frequently Asked Questions (as of December 2008) · Why

Kirschner, Denise

92

Use of natural radionuclides to determine the time range of the accidental melting of an orphan radioactive source in a steel recycling plant.  

PubMed

In the rare event that an orphan radioactive source is melted in an Electric Arc Furnace steel recycling plant, the radionuclides present are partitioned in the different products, by-products and waste. As a consequence of an unforeseen melting of a radiocesium source, cesium radioisotopes can be found in the dust, together with many natural radionuclides from the decay of radon and thoron, which are present in the atmosphere, picked up from the off-gas evacuation system and associated with the dust of the air filtration system ("baghouse"). In this work we verified that the activity concentration of ²¹²Pb in this dust is essentially constant in a specific factory so that it is possible to use it to date back to the time of the accidental melting of the orphan radioactive source. The main features of this method are described below, together with the application to a particular case in which this method was used for dating the moment in which the dust was contaminated with ¹³?Cs. PMID:22103976

Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Cianchi, Aldo

2012-02-01

93

A ?-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Protects Arabidopsis Plants from Heavy Metal Toxicity by Recycling Glutamate to Maintain Glutathione Homeostasis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Plants detoxify toxic metals through a GSH-dependent pathway. GSH homeostasis is maintained by the ?-glutamyl cycle, which involves GSH synthesis and degradation and the recycling of component amino acids. The enzyme ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) is involved in Glu recycling, but the gene(s) encoding GGCT has not been identified in plants. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana protein with a cation transport regulator-like domain, hereafter referred to as GGCT2;1, functions as ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase. Heterologous expression of GGCT2;1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced phenotypes that were consistent with decreased GSH content attributable to either GSH degradation or the diversion of ?-glutamyl peptides to produce 5-oxoproline (5-OP). 5-OP levels were further increased by the addition of arsenite and GSH to the medium, indicating that GGCT2;1 participates in the cellular response to arsenic (As) via GSH degradation. Recombinant GGCT2;1 converted both GSH and ?-glutamyl Ala to 5-OP in vitro. GGCT2;1 transcripts were upregulated in As-treated Arabidopsis, and ggct2;1 knockout mutants were more tolerant to As and cadmium than the wild type. Overexpression of GGCT2;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of 5-OP. Under As toxicity, the overexpression lines showed minimal changes in de novo Glu synthesis, while the ggct2;1 mutant increased nitrogen assimilation by severalfold, resulting in a very low As/N ratio in tissue. Thus, our results suggest that GGCT2;1 ensures sufficient GSH turnover during abiotic stress by recycling Glu. PMID:24214398

Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Coomey, Joshua; Jung, Ha-il; Vatamaniuk, Olena; Dhankher, Om Parkash

2013-01-01

94

A ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase protects Arabidopsis plants from heavy metal toxicity by recycling glutamate to maintain glutathione homeostasis.  

PubMed

Plants detoxify toxic metals through a GSH-dependent pathway. GSH homeostasis is maintained by the ?-glutamyl cycle, which involves GSH synthesis and degradation and the recycling of component amino acids. The enzyme ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) is involved in Glu recycling, but the gene(s) encoding GGCT has not been identified in plants. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana protein with a cation transport regulator-like domain, hereafter referred to as GGCT2;1, functions as ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase. Heterologous expression of GGCT2;1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced phenotypes that were consistent with decreased GSH content attributable to either GSH degradation or the diversion of ?-glutamyl peptides to produce 5-oxoproline (5-OP). 5-OP levels were further increased by the addition of arsenite and GSH to the medium, indicating that GGCT2;1 participates in the cellular response to arsenic (As) via GSH degradation. Recombinant GGCT2;1 converted both GSH and ?-glutamyl Ala to 5-OP in vitro. GGCT2;1 transcripts were upregulated in As-treated Arabidopsis, and ggct2;1 knockout mutants were more tolerant to As and cadmium than the wild type. Overexpression of GGCT2;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of 5-OP. Under As toxicity, the overexpression lines showed minimal changes in de novo Glu synthesis, while the ggct2;1 mutant increased nitrogen assimilation by severalfold, resulting in a very low As/N ratio in tissue. Thus, our results suggest that GGCT2;1 ensures sufficient GSH turnover during abiotic stress by recycling Glu. PMID:24214398

Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Coomey, Joshua; Jung, Ha-Il; Vatamaniuk, Olena; Dhankher, Om Parkash

2013-11-01

95

Traitement par fusion des dechets metalliques contamines faible activite. (Fusion process for metallic wastes slightly contaminated by radioactive substances).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To ameliorate the management of metallic wastes lightly contaminated by radioactive substances and coming from nuclear installations dismantling, the Radiation Protection Service of Saclay has undertaken the study of fusion process for these wastes. After...

C. Doucet

1988-01-01

96

Delayed metal recycling in galaxies: the inefficiency of cold gas enrichment in colliding supershell simulations  

E-print Network

The fate of metals ejected by young OB associations into the Interstellar Medium (ISM) is investigated numerically. In particular, we study the enrichment of the cold gas phase, which is the material that forms molecular clouds. Following previous work, the expansion and collision of two supershells in a diffuse ISM is simulated, in this case also introducing an advected quantity which represents the metals expelled by the young stars. We adopt the simplest possible approach, not differentiating between metals coming from stellar winds and those coming from supernovae. Even though the hot, diffuse phase of the ISM receives a significant amount of metals from the stars, the cold phase is efficiently shielded, with very little metal enrichment. Significant enrichment of the cold ISM will therefore be delayed by at least the cooling time of this hot phase. No variations in cloud metallicity with distance from the OB association or with direction are found, which means that the shell collision does little to enha...

Ntormousi, Evangelia

2011-01-01

97

Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aims, and scope  Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact.\\u000a Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release\\u000a from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were

Xiaoliang Cheng; Honglan Shi; Craig D. Adams; Yinfa Ma

2010-01-01

98

Novel application of the nonmetallic fraction of the recycled printed circuit boards as a toxic heavy metal adsorbent.  

PubMed

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) constitute one of the major sources of toxicity in landfill areas throughout the world. Hence, PCB recycling and separation of its metallic and nonmetallic components has been considered a major ecological breakthrough. Many studies focus on the metallic fraction of the PCBs due to its economic benefits whereas the nonmetallic powder (NMP) has been left isolated. In this work, the feasibility of using NMP as an adsorbent to remove charged toxic heavy metal ions have been studied and its efficiency has been compared with two widely-used commercial adsorbents. The results indicated that the virgin NMP material has no adsorption capacity, while the application of an activation stage to modify the NMP process has a significant effect on its porosity and thus adsorption capacity. The Cu and Pb removal capacity of the activated sample (A-NMP) at a pH level of 4 was 3 mmol and 3.4 mmol per gram of the adsorbent, respectively, which was considerably higher than the commercial ones. PMID:23523907

Hadi, Pejman; Gao, Ping; Barford, John P; McKay, Gordon

2013-05-15

99

ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

100

A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India.  

PubMed

The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 ?g/Nm(3) and 428 ?g/Nm(3) (at 4m/s and 1m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 ?g/Nm(3). These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 ?g/Nm(3)). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India. PMID:23018053

Deshpande, Paritosh C; Tilwankar, Atit K; Asolekar, Shyam R

2012-11-01

101

Bioaccumulations of heavy metals in Ipomoea aquatica grown in bottom ash recycling wastewater.  

PubMed

A plant bioassay using hydroponically grown Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) was applied to assess the phytotoxicity of untreated and treated wastewaters from a municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash recycling facility. The 50%-diluted, untreated wastewater exhibited acute toxicity (plants died within 24 hours). Highly diluted doses (3 and 6%) of both wastewater types displayed no significant differences when compared with the control. Treating the wastewater through sequential physical filtration and chemical precipitation processes decreased not only the dissolved solids content but also the pH and salt content. In addition, significant accumulations of Sr, Cr, and Sn were observed in the hydroponically grown I. aquatica plant tissues; in particular, the bioaccumulation of Sr in the leaves and roots was unexpectedly high. PMID:24961066

Milla, Odette Varela; Rivera, Eva B; Huang, Wu-Jang

2014-05-01

102

Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

NONE

1997-06-01

103

The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

1997-05-01

104

Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.  

PubMed

Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1m than at 45cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5?g/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05?g/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the mobility of Cu; whereas pH variations, depending on treatments, influence negatively the solubility of Zn. Generic adsorption functions of these variables partly explain the variations of trace metal concentrations and helped to unravel the numerous processes induced by regular amendments with organic waste products. PMID:25017636

Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

2014-11-15

105

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

106

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

107

Recycling, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for creating a successful office recycling system are enumerated from start up plans to waste reduction and paper recycling. Contact information for recycling equipment, potential buyers of recycled materials, recycled products for purchase, and ideas for promotion and education of staff are included. (MCO)

Martin, Amy

1992-01-01

108

Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated forest soil using recycled organic matter and native woody plants.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to determine how the application of a mulch cover (a mixture of household biocompost and woodchips) onto heavy metal-polluted forest soil affects (i) long-term survival and growth of planted dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings and (ii) natural revegetation. Native woody plants (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Empetrum nigrum, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) were planted in mulch pockets on mulch-covered and uncovered plots in summer 1996 in a highly polluted Scots pine stand in southwest Finland. Spreading a mulch layer on the soil surface was essential for the recolonization of natural vegetation and increased dwarf shrub survival, partly through protection against drought. Despite initial mortality, transplant establishment was relatively successful during the following 10 yr. Tree species had higher survival rates, but the dwarf shrubs covered a larger area of the soil surface during the experiment. Especially E. nigrum and P. sylvestris proved to be suitable for revegetating heavy metal-polluted and degraded forests. Natural recolonization of pioneer species (e.g., Epilobium angustifolium, Taraxacum coll., and grasses) and tree seedlings (P. sylvestris, Betula sp., and Salix sp.) was strongly enhanced on the mulched plots, whereas there was no natural vegetation on the untreated plots. These results indicate that a heavy metal-polluted site can be ecologically remediated without having to remove the soil. Household compost and woodchips are low-cost mulching materials that are suitable for restoring heavy metal-polluted soil. PMID:17596623

Helmisaari, H-S; Salemaa, M; Derome, J; Kiikkilä, O; Uhlig, C; Nieminen, T M

2007-01-01

109

Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area.  

PubMed

Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg(-1)), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (209.85 mg kg(-1)). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination. PMID:19042085

Jun-hui, Zhang; Hang, Min

2009-06-15

110

Removal of metal ions from electroplating effluent by EDI process and recycle of purified water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an improved configuration of the membrane stack was adopted in the electrodeionization (EDI) cell to prevent precipitation of bivalent metal hydroxide during the running. The operational parameters that influenced the electro-regeneration of cation exchange resins loaded with nickel ions were optimized, and the result showed that addition of a small amount of Na2SO4 into the electrode solution,

Xiao Feng; Zucheng Wu; Xuefen Chen

2007-01-01

111

Remediation of Heavy Metal–Contaminated Forest Soil Using Recycled Organic Matter and Native Woody Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to determine how the application of a mulch cover (a mixture of household biocompost and woodchips) onto heavy metal-polluted forest soil affects (i) long-term survival and growth of planted dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings and (ii) natural revegetation. Native woody plants (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens, Empetrum nigrum, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) were planted in

H.-S. Helmisaari; M. Salemaa; J. Derome; C. Uhlig; T. M. Nieminen

2007-01-01

112

Tritium recycling (processing) facility design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of a nuclear weapons capability requires the periodic replacement of tritium contained in each of the weapons in the nuclear weapons stockpile because the radioactive decay of tritium reduces its quantity by about 5.5 percent per year. The Tritium Recycling Plant (TRP) performs the activities necessary to recover, purify, and recycle tritium returned from the field. Tritium is

J. Metzler; T. Le

1995-01-01

113

Transition metal (Fe, Co and Ni) oxide nanoparticles grafted graphitic carbon nitrides as efficient optical limiters and recyclable photocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-step pyrolysis assisted route towards the large scale fabrication of metal oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3, Co3O4 and NiO) ingrained in graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) is demonstrated. Urea, an abundantly available precursor, plays a dual role during the synthesis: while it acts as a reducing agent, it also gets converted to GCN. The formation of GCN and the in-situ growth and embedment of oxide nanoparticles are discussed on the basis of the experimental results. The wide absorption of the samples in the visible light region makes them suitable for nonlinear transmission and photocatalytic activity studies. Visible light photocatalytic activities of the samples are studied by monitoring the degradation of Rhodamine B dye. Optical limiting properties of the prepared samples are studied through the open aperture z-scan technique using 5 ns laser pulses at a wavelength of 532 nm. The cost-efficient and time saving synthetic approach is complemented by the magnetic behaviour of the samples, which enables their use as recyclable photocatalyst and magnetically controllable optical limiters.

Sridharan, Kishore; Kuriakose, Tintu; Philip, Reji; Park, Tae Joo

2014-07-01

114

The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

Science Activities, 1991

1991-01-01

115

Responsible recycling  

SciTech Connect

The issues that affect the recycling of lead-acid batteries and the challenges that this issue brings to both the lead industry and to the battery manufacturers are covered. Topics include the lead market (its size and structure), the economic constraints on the recycling system, recycling rates for batteries, the technology of recycling, and future considerations.

Pugh, A. (Britannia Refined Metals, Northfleet (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

116

Natural radioactivity and trace metals in crude oils: implication for health.  

PubMed

Crude oil samples were collected from six different fields in the central Niger Delta in order to determine their natural radioactivity and trace element contents, with the aim of assessing the radiological health implications and environmental health hazard of the metals, and also to provide natural radioactivity baseline data that could be used for more comprehensive future study in this respect. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were measured using a well, accurately calibrated and shielded vertical cryostat, Canberra coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector system, and the derived doses were evaluated. The metal concentrations were determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopic (GFAAS) method. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by (238)U and (232)Th along with the non-decay series radionuclide, (40)K. The averaged activity concentrations obtained were 10.52 +/- 0.03 Bq kg(-1), 0.80 +/- 0.37 Bq kg(-1) and 0.17 +/- 0.09 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The equivalent doses were very low, ranging from 0.0028 to 0.012 mSv year(-1) with a mean value of 0.0070 mSv year(-1). The results obtained were low, and hence, the radioactivity content from the crude oils in the Niger delta oil province of Nigeria do not constitute any health hazard to occupationally exposed workers, the public and the end user. The concentrations of the elements (As, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and V) determined ranged from 0.73 to 202.90 ppb with an average of 74.35 ppb for the oil samples analysed. The pattern of occurrence of each element agreed with the earlier studies from other parts of the Niger Delta. It was obvious from this study and previous ones that the Niger Delta oils have low metal contents. However, despite the low concentrations, they could still pose an intrinsic health hazard considering their cumulative effects in the environment. Also, various studies on the impact of oil spillage and activities of oil exploration and production on organisms in the immediate environment suggest this. PMID:18320332

Ajayi, T R; Torto, N; Tchokossa, P; Akinlua, A

2009-02-01

117

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26

118

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

119

Viscoplasticity of simulated high-level radioactive waste glass containing platinum group metal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear rate dependency of the viscosity of three simulated high-level radioactive waste glasses containing 0, 1.2 and 4.5 wt% platinum group metals (PGMs) was examined at a temperature range of 1173-1473 K by a rotating viscometer. Shear stress when the shear rate equals zero, i.e. yield stress, was also measured by capillary method. The viscosity of the glass containing no PGM was shear rate-independent Newtonian fluid. On the other hand, the apparent viscosity of the glasses containing PGMs increased with decreasing shear rate, and nonzero amount of yield stresses were detected from both glasses. The viscosity and yield stress of the glass containing 4.5 wt% PGMs was roughly one to two orders of magnitude greater than the glass containing 1.2 wt% PGMs. These viscoplastic properties were numerically expressed by Casson equation.

Uruga, Kazuyoshi; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji

2014-09-01

120

Treatment of waters polluted with radioactive elements and heavy metals by means of a laboratory passive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waters polluted with toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, arsenic and sulphates were efficiently treated by means of a laboratory-scale passive system consisting of an anaerobic cell and a constructed wetland. These waters were polluted in a stream receiving leachates from an operating copper tailings dam and other effluents from man-induced activities at the area of Vromos Bay in Bulgaria. The

S. N. Groudev; S. G. Bratcova; K. Komnitsas

1999-01-01

121

RADIOACTIVE TRACER STUDIES ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF SOLID SOLUTIONS OF METALS. II. THE SYSTEM Mg-Cd  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the formation of a surface layer on Mg--Cd alloys in ; O.1N HâSOâ at room temperature. The radioactive isotope Rb⁸⁶ ; was used to determine the depth of the micropores at the metal and alloy surfaces. ; As a result the following mean values for the depths of the micropores before ; corrosion were obtained:

N. N. Gratsianskii; P. F. Kaluzhnaya

1959-01-01

122

Conditions of accumulation of radioactive metals in the process of differentiation of ultrabasic alkaline-carbonatite rock associations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of radioactive elements in alkaline rocks from Polar Siberia and Ukraine shows that U and Th are markedly concentrated in carbonatite complex and nepheline syenite as final products of magma fractionation. Peralkaline nepheline syenites from Polar Siberia are characterized by very high contents of radioactive elements, which are close to the economic level. Radioactive elements are also concentrated in rocks of the carbonatite complex. For example, some soevites contain up to 294 × 10-4%U and 916 × 10-4% Th. In late dolomite carbonatites, the contents of radioactive elements are appreciably lower. The Th/U ratio in alkaline rocks of Polar Siberia is close to the chondrite value in primary high-Mg rocks and increases in late derivatives: phoscorite, calcite and dolomite carbonatites. The main amount of radioactive elements is contained in rare-metal accessory minerals: perovskite, pyrochlore, calzirtite, and apatite. Rock-forming minerals are distinguished by very low concentrations of radioactive elements. In alkaline series of the Chernigovka massif (Ukraine), U and Th also accumulate in the course of crystal fractionation, especially in phoscorites from the carbonatite complex. Mantle xenoliths and alkaline rocks from Ukraine reveal uranium specialization. Most likely, the discrepancy in fractionation of radioactive elements between Polar Siberia and Ukraine is caused by different geodynamic regimes of these provinces. The Mesozoic alkaline magmatism of Polar Siberia is a part of the Siberian superplume, whereas the Proterozoic alkaline complex in Ukraine is related to subduction of the oceanic crust.

Kogarko, L. N.

2014-07-01

123

Converting Garbage to Gold: Recycling Our Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling conserves energy, fights pollution and inflation, creates jobs, and improves the outlook for the future of materials. But converting a throwaway society to recycling will depend on finding good markets for waste paper and scrap metals. (RM)

Chandler, William U.

1984-01-01

124

Silica-Polyamine Composite Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Removal, Recovery, and Recycling. II. Metal Ion Separations from Mine Wastewater and Soft Metal Ion Extraction Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-polyamine composites have been synthesized which have metal ion capacities as high as 0.84 mmol\\/g for copper ions removed from aqueous solutions. In previous reports it has been demonstrated that these materials survive more than 3000 cycles of metal ion extraction, elution, and regeneration with almost no loss of capacity (less than 10%). This paper describes two modified silica-polyamine composite

ROBERT J. FISCHER; DAVID PANG; SUSAN T. BEATTY; EDWARD ROSENBERG

1999-01-01

125

The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive  

E-print Network

of Energy (DOE) facilities and nuclear power plants which are decommissioned are potential sources on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials. September 14-18, 1998 Neil Naraine of millions of tons of metal that could be recycled. In addition, there are nuclear facilities around

126

Silica-polyamine composite materials for heavy metal ion removal, recovery, and recycling. 2. Metal ion separations from mine wastewater and soft metal ion extraction efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Silica-polyamine composites have been synthesized which have metal ion capacities as high as 0.84 mmol/g for copper ions removed from aqueous solutions. In previous reports it has been demonstrated that these materials survive more than 3,000 cycles of metal ion extraction, elution, and regeneration with almost no loss of capacity (less than 10%). This paper describes two modified silica-polyamine composite materials and reveals the results of tests designed to determine the effectiveness of these materials for extracting and separating metal ions from actual mining wastewater samples. Using these materials, the concentration of copper, aluminum, and zinc in Berkeley Pit mine wastewater is reduced to below allowable discharge limits. The recovered copper and zinc solutions were greater than 90% pure, and metal ion concentration factors of over 20 for copper were realized. Further, the ability of one of these materials to decrease low levels of the soft metals cadmium, mercury, and lead from National Sanitation Foundation recommended challenge levels to below Environmental Protection Agency allowable limits is also reported.

Fischer, R.J.; Pang, D.; Beatty, S.T.; Rosenberg, E.

1999-12-01

127

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Smith, Miss

2010-12-03

128

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Oakwood Apartments Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside

Sibille, Etienne

129

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Brackenridge Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

130

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Lothrop Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashrooms. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

131

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Darragh Street Apartments Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled

Sibille, Etienne

132

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Forbes-Craig Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside toters

Sibille, Etienne

133

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered McCormick Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

134

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing s Plastics Numbered Litchfield Towers Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

135

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Pennsylvania Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

136

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Sutherland Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

137

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing and Food Plastics Numbered Forbes Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

138

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Ruskin Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashrooms. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

139

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Fraternity Houses Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside

Sibille, Etienne

140

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Centre Plaza Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled by the elevators. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

141

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Panther Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

142

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Bruce Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the laundry room. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

143

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Bouquet Gardens Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside toters

Sibille, Etienne

144

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Amos Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the kitchen. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

145

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Holland Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

146

A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel  

SciTech Connect

A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Arie, Kazuo [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Dev., Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Koyama, Tadafumi [Central research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

2007-07-01

147

Consistency and efficiency of standard swipe procedures taken on slightly radioactive contaminated metal surfaces.  

PubMed

In radiation work areas, a standard "swipe" procedure is widely used to evaluate the extent of contamination on surfaces. This report documents the variability in results of swipes carried out on various metal surfaces and the variability between different experienced health physics technicians. Also, there is an issue of the efficiency of the first swipe in terms of what fraction of the total absorbed surface contamination is detected by a swipe. The samples used for this study were metal surfaces uniformly exposed in the spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant The primary surfaces studied were those usually found on spent fuel transportation casks (mainly 304 stainless steel in the U.S.), which are submerged in the spent fuel pools for loading or unloading of the highly radioactive fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants. These surfaces become contaminated with suspended and dissolved radionuclides, primarily 137Cs, 134Cs, and 60Co, in the spent fuel pool. A detailed evaluation was conducted of variations in the swipe measurements made on these metal samples using repeated swipes of the same area by the same technician and comparing swipes of one technician to those of another on similar surfaces. Rough surface finishes showed considerable inconsistency (approximately 30% variation) from one technician to another, but smooth surface finishes show substantially better consistency (<10% variation) between technicians. The "efficiencies" of a single swipe, particularly the initial swipe, expressed as a fraction of total "removable" contamination, ranged from approximately 10% to 20% for the stainless steel and titanium surfaces. Aluminum surfaces, on the other hand, showed much higher efficiencies on the initial swipe. However, in terms of the total contamination imbedded in the surfaces, the first swipe picked up only between 0.5% and 3% of the total adsorbed contamination. The overall results show the wide variations that routinely occur in swipe results on portions of surfaces that would be expected to give consistent results. These difference are an order of magnitude or more greater than the counting statistical errors. PMID:11316089

Jung, H; Kunze, J F; Nurrenbern, J D

2001-05-01

148

National Recycling Directory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The directory focuses on manufacturers and/or distributors of products made from waste materials. Companies listed in the directory manufacture products which contain some recycled or recovered material. The directory consists of separate sections for the types of recycled materials used: glass, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, paper, plastic, rubber, and textiles. The states are listed alphabetically within each subsection, and the companies are listed alphabetically under the state in which they are located.

Not Available

1982-01-01

149

Recycling of nonmetallics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

1996-01-01

150

Municipal solid waste recycling issues  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-10-01

151

Transition-metal-free highly chemo- and regioselective arylation of unactivated arenes with aryl halides over recyclable heterogeneous catalysts.  

PubMed

A novel heterogeneous catalysis system using metal-organic frameworks as catalyst demonstrated excellent chemo- and regioselectivity for the direct arylation of unactivated arenes with aryl iodides/bromides without the assistance of any transition metals. PMID:22227601

Liu, Hongli; Yin, Biaolin; Gao, Zhiqiang; Li, Yingwei; Jiang, Huanfeng

2012-02-14

152

Recycling batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of millions of large and billions of small batteries are used up annually in the service of all manner of electronic devices. Until recently, the tons of toxic materials in these batteries would wind up in the garbage, but the systematic collection and recycling of spent batteries is growing. Effective recycling involves changes at all stages of battery life,

F. C. McMichael; C. Henderson

1998-01-01

153

Efficient hydroalkoxylation of alkenes to generate octane-boosting ethers using recyclable metal triflates and highly active metal triflate\\/Brønsted acid-assisted catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

gem-Disubstituted alkenes are directly and readily etherified with alcohols using Al(OTf)3 and Zr(OTf)4 as recyclable Lewis acid catalysts. In contrast, primary or secondary alkene analogues were inert under these conditions, enabling excellent chemoselectivity. Lanthanide triflates are inactive as catalysts for such reactions, as is phosphoric acid. But a combination of these two otherwise inactive entities led to an ‘assisted acidity’

D. Bradley G. Williams; Mike S. Sibiya; Pieter S. van Heerden

154

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 113 (2005) Printed 19 January 2010 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) The recycling of gas and metals in galaxy formation  

E-print Network

.2) The recycling of gas and metals in galaxy formation: predictions of a dynamical feedback model Serena Bertone1 galaxy formation model. The new scheme includes a dynamical treatment of galactic winds powered alternative to empirically­motivated recipes for feedback in galaxy formation. Model results are in good

California at Santa Cruz, University of

155

Extreme Recycling  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Singing the recycling blues because you have to separate your chipboard from your newspaper, your steel from your aluminum, your #1 from your #2 plastic? Pantywaists! The residents of Kamikatsu, Japan have no fewer than 34...

Hacker, Randi

2009-01-14

156

Ideas: Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

1994-01-01

157

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

158

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS BY STRONGLY MAGNETIC IRON SULFIDE NANOPARTICLES PRODUCED BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly magnetic iron sulfide material was studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake was rapid and loading on the adsorbent was high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions were chemisorbed. The structural

J. H. P. Watson; I. W. Croudace; P. E. Warwick; P. A. B. James; J. M. Charnock; D. C. Ellwood

2001-01-01

159

Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments.  

PubMed

We have developed a radiation resistant bacterium for the treatment of mixed radioactive wastes containing ionic mercury. The high cost of remediating radioactive waste sites from nuclear weapons production has stimulated the development of bioremediation strategies using Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation resistant organism known. As a frequent constituent of these sites is the highly toxic ionic mercury (Hg) (II), we have generated several D. radiodurans strains expressing the cloned Hg (II) resistance gene (merA) from Escherichia coli strain BL308. We designed four different expression vectors for this purpose, and compared the relative advantages of each. The strains were shown to grow in the presence of both radiation and ionic mercury at concentrations well above those found in radioactive waste sites, and to effectively reduce Hg (II) to the less toxic volatile elemental mercury. We also demonstrated that different gene clusters could be used to engineer D. radiodurans for treatment of mixed radioactive wastes by developing a strain to detoxify both mercury and toluene. These expression systems could provide models to guide future D. radiodurans engineering efforts aimed at integrating several remediation functions into a single host. PMID:10625398

Brim, H; McFarlan, S C; Fredrickson, J K; Minton, K W; Zhai, M; Wackett, L P; Daly, M J

2000-01-01

160

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

161

Recycling policy in the european union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling in the European Union (EU) has benefited from R&D efforts and strict environmental regulations of the EU’s members. Thanks to the adoption of sustainable development policies by the EU’s European Institutions, economic incentives are expected to further strengthen the recycling industry. Moreover, the historical accumulation of non-ferrous metals in Europe will likely enhance secondary metal production. Also contributing to EU recycling is mining in East European countries and the resulting industrial waste. The rate of growth of the recycling industry is expected to approach double digits for at least this decade.

Gaballah, I.; Kanari, N.

2001-11-01

162

Minnesota Recycling Directory, 1991. Statewide Markets and Collection Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Minnesota Recycling Industries: (Individual Company Listings; Recycling Industries by County; Glass Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Metal Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Paper Collection, Processing and End-U...

D. Cera, C. Cloutier, L. Estrem, C. Halpine, K. Johnson, T. Nolan, K. O'Donnell, G. Prest, J. Roe, C. Smith, S. Wiley

1991-01-01

163

40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Recyclable materials from which precious metals are reclaimed (40 CFR part 266, subpart F); (iv) Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (40 CFR part 266, subpart G). (3) The following recyclable materials are...

2010-07-01

164

Recycling of aluminum matric composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

1999-01-01

165

Recycling of aluminum matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

1999-01-01

166

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

167

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

Tanner, A.O.

1992-01-01

168

Environmentally acceptable recycling in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The modern concept of ecologically sound recycling is to ensure, as far as possible, effective use or reuse of all materials arising during the production of a component, and also the component itself at the end of its useful life. The recycling circle is well established for widely used metals such as iron and steel, aluminium and zinc. However, for magnesium, although recycled secondary scrap was a major input into magnesium casting production in the 1950`s recycling of this type of material back to components is currently almost nonexistent. The current rapid growth in use of magnesium die castings by the automotive industry will eventually result in a significant growth in availability of secondary magnesium scrap, which will present new challenges and opportunities to the skillful recyclers. However this has not yet happened, and the major preoccupation of most recyclers is to satisfy the demands of the growing die-casting industry, balancing the triple requirements of: (1) recycling or disposing of all products arising from the die-casting operation at a price, or cost, perceived as fair by the die caster; (2) satisfying our public demands to safeguard the environment in terms of emissions, effluents and disposal to land fill; and (3) establishing and maintaining a viable business activity while satisfying (1) and (2). It is to this area that the remainder of this paper is dedicated.

King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron, Manchester (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

169

Recovery and recycling of post-consumer waste materials. Part 2. Target wastes (glass beverage bottles, plastics, scrap metal and steel cans, end-of-life tyres, batteries and household hazardous waste)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the review paper dealt with general information and covered the specific sectors of paper\\/cardboard and aluminium cans. The present Part 2 should be read in conjunction with Part 1 and assesses the recovery and recycling of additional post-consumer waste sectors, i.e. glass beverage bottles, plastics, scrap metal and steel cans, end-of-life tyres, batteries and household hazardous

Jan Baeyens; Anke Brems; Raf Dewil

2010-01-01

170

Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

1998-01-01

171

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

1996-01-01

172

Precipitation Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

1996-01-01

173

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

174

Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

2009-01-01

175

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

176

Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

1995-01-01

177

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21

178

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21

179

Heavy Metal and Radioactivity Concentrations in Soil and Moss Samples from Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in the moss (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum) and topsoil (0-5 cm) samples collected from Istanbul were analysed to estimate heavy metal deposition. The activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 238U, 232Th), organic matter contents and pH values of the topsoil samples were also measured. The trace element

Önder Kiliç; Yavuz Çotuk

180

SBA-15-functionalized 3-oxo-ABNO as recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols under metal-free conditions.  

PubMed

The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo [3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) has been prepared using a simple protocol. This organocatalyst is found to be an efficient catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide variety of alcohols under metal-free conditions. In addition, the preparation and characterization of a supported version of 3-oxo-ABNO on ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 (SABNO) is described for the first time. The catalyst has been characterized using several techniques including simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption analysis. This catalyst exhibits catalytic performance comparable to its homogeneous analogue and much superior catalytic activity in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of almost the same range of alcohols under identical reaction conditions. It is also found that SABNO can be conveniently recovered and reused at least 12?times without significant effect on its catalytic efficiency. PMID:25049004

Karimi, Babak; Farhangi, Elham; Vali, Hojatollah; Vahdati, Saleh

2014-09-01

181

Assessment of heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system for recycling heavy metals from crushed e-wastes.  

PubMed

Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) is a technically feasible method to recover Pb, Cd and other heavy metals from crushed e-wastes. To further determine the environmental impacts and safety of this method, heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system are evaluated in this article. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 are 0.1503 and 0.0973?mg?m(-3) near the facilities. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Sn in TSP samples are 0.0104, 0.1283 and 0.0961 ?g?m(-3), respectively. Health risk assessments show that the hazard index of Pb is 3.25 × 10(-1) and that of Cd is 1.09 × 10(-1). Carcinogenic risk of Cd through inhalation is 1.08 × 10(-5). The values of the hazard index and risk indicate that Pb and Cd will not cause non-cancerous effects or carcinogenic risk on workers. The noise sources are mainly the mechanical vacuum pump and the water cooling pump. Both of them have the noise levels below 80?dB (A). The thermal safety assessment shows that the temperatures of the vacuum metallurgy separation system surface are all below 303?K after adopting the circulated water cooling and heat insulation measures. This study provides the environmental information of the vacuum metallurgy separation system, which is of assistance to promote the industrialisation of vacuum metallurgy separation for recovering heavy metals from e-wastes. PMID:25391553

Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

2014-12-01

182

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

183

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

184

Economics and Environmental Compatibility of Fusion Reactors —Its Analysis and Coming Issues— 3. Expected Effect of Fusion Reactor on Global Environment 3.1 Research Aimed at Reducing Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste management at fusion power plants is reviewed. Recent study indicates that most of the waste from a fusion reactor can be cleared from regulatory control over a 50-year cooling after decommissioning. In addition, the remaining metal radioactive waste is anticipated to be recyclable within 100-year cooling. These results indicate the prospect of a low emission system of fusion energy materials.

Tobita, Kenji; Hiwatari, Ryouji

185

Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

Carlin, James F.

2006-01-01

186

General vs. domain specific recycling behaviour—Applying a multilevel comprehensive action determination model to recycling in Norwegian student homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a multilevel structure equation model predicting general and fraction specific self-reported recycling behaviour. The model was tested on a sample of 697 undergraduate students from four Norwegian universities who each reported their degree of participation in the local recycling schemes for paper\\/cardboard, glass, metal, and plastic. It was demonstrated that variance in recycling behaviour

Christian Andreas Klöckner; Inger Olin Oppedal

2011-01-01

187

Directory of Arizona Recyclers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Environmental Quality is providing a current directory of Arizona recyclers listed alphabetically by counties and types of recyclable materials. Local recyclers are listed alphabetically by name, address and phone number, along with the ...

1990-01-01

188

Used consumer electronics: a comparative analysis of materials recycling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The useful life of consumer electronic devices is relatively short, and decreasing as a result of rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities. This creates a large waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment, e-waste. In this paper, various recycling technologies for the glass, plastics, and metals found in e-waste are discussed. For glass recycling, glass-to-glass recycling and glass-to-lead recycling technologies

Hai-Yong Kang; Julie M. Schoenung

2004-01-01

189

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

190

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

191

Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

2003-02-26

192

The recyclability of lead alloys  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the production of battery lead and alloys from the recycle industry was 3 times the Primary lead production in the United States. The Buick Resource Recovery Center of the Doe Run Lead Company at a capacity of 90,000 tons per year is one of 25 plants recycling lead metal in the United States. This plant was commissioned in 1991 and has been running with a 0.30 Lost Time Accident rate per 200,000 hours of work. The paper delineates and ranks the cost of treating various impurities found in lead.

Worcester, A.W.; Sankovitch, M.J. [Doe Run Co., Herculaneum, MO (United States)

1997-12-01

193

Slag-based materials for toxic metal and radioactive waste stabilization  

SciTech Connect

The salt solution produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a low-level hazardous waste and has both corrosive and metal toxicity characteristics. A wasteform was designed to stabilize this solution. The objectives were: to eliminate the hazardous characteristics of the waste; and to minimize the release of potential contaminants, such as NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, so that drinking water standards would be maintained for groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site. The ability to produce the wasteform in high volumes and emplace it in an engineered landfill was also necessary for treating and disposing of the large amount of waste. EP toxicity and TCLP testing was conducted to determine whether various saltstone mixes qualified as nonhazardous according to EPA guidelines. Impact of the design landfill on the groundwater was modeled by numeric methods. Data from laboratory leaching studies, large-scale saltstone lysimeter experiments, and disposal site characterization studies were used in the performance assessment. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Langton, C.A.

1989-01-01

194

Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01

195

Green Labs and EH&S, Nov. 2013 ___________________ Lab Recycling Guide  

E-print Network

Green Labs and EH&S, Nov. 2013 ___________________ Lab Recycling Guide Non-contaminated, clean lab plastic containers and conical tubes may be recycled. To be accepted, containers must be clean, triple. Recycling bin located: PSB Loading Dock Alcohol cans and metal shipping containers may be recycled

California at Santa Cruz, University of

196

ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES PLASTICS, METALS & GLASS Plastics EXTRA CREDIT Plants, Leaves & Wood NO Human or Animal Waste NO Bathroom or Facial Tissue Styrofoam pleaseemptyandflatten COMPOSTABLES kitchenandyardwasteonly LANDFILL ONLY ifallelsefails All Plastic Containers Metal

Gerdes, J. Christian

197

WASTE DESCRIPTION RECYCLED OR  

E-print Network

Batteries Recycled 7,250 Hazardous Waste $36,250 $0 $36,250 Estimate 50 lbs./battery and avoided disposalWASTE DESCRIPTION REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2000 WASTE TYPE POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED

198

Recycling of pavement materials  

E-print Network

materials. A comparison was made between the recycled pavements and typical conventional asphalt concrete pavements. An economic asse?sment of thc recycled pavements was made to determine thc economic feasibility of recycling. Results of laboratory... evaluations show that: recycled pavement mixtures possess properties equivalent to conventional asphalt concrete mixtures; and rccvcl inI' con ho accom- plished with conventional ertuapment. kyar po I'lotion associated with hot-mix recycling of asphalt...

O'Neal, Randy Jim

2012-06-07

199

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

200

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

201

Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

Hilliard, Henry E.

2001-01-01

202

Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.  

PubMed

Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". PMID:23768896

Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

2013-09-01

203

Impacts of EV battery production and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found

L. Gaines; M. Singh

1996-01-01

204

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

205

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

206

Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

207

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

208

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling  

E-print Network

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling #12;Recycled ConcreteRecycled Concrete ·· Whatever steel goes into PCC must comeWhatever steel goes into PCC must come out for recycleout for recycle ·· Aggregates have a big impact on the costAggregates have a big impact on the cost of recyclingof recycling

209

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department activities: · Protection and management of resources on 191 million acres of National Forest System lands, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or familial status. (Not all

Standiford, Richard B.

210

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.

2010-01-01

211

Recycling advanced batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This abstract introduces results from OnTo Technology's innovative recycling process to produce new materials for new batteries from materials from spent batteries. Recycling spent batteries is a growing problem for the consumer electronics electric vehicle industries.

Steven E. Sloop

2008-01-01

212

Recycling overview in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

Not Available

1989-07-01

213

Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.  

PubMed

Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

Duftschmid, K E

2002-03-01

214

Impacts of EV battery production and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

Gaines, L.; Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

1996-06-01

215

The Economics of Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of a study that documented 1992 costs of residential curbside recycling versus disposal systems in four Washington State cities: Seattle, Spokane, Bellingham, and Vancouver. Results indicated that recycling can be less expensive than disposal when the revenues obtained from selling recycled materials are considered. (MDH)

Bogert, Susan; Morris, Jeffrey

1993-01-01

216

The Sustainability of Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

Juniper, Christopher

1993-01-01

217

Cryogenic processing and recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article examines cryogenic processing and recycling of rubber and rubber products. The topics discussed include utilization of cryogenically recycled materials in the rubber industry, current status of the industry, economic benefit, performance advantage, environmental benefit, technology assessment, the future of cryogenic process and recycling.

Leyden, J.J.

1991-03-01

218

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2002-01-01

219

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, in the water, and in the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling rate for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent?almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from diecasting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2001-01-01

220

Evaluation of recycling and disposal options for batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impacts associated with recycling and disposal of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride and sodium sulfur batteries are evaluated. A semi-quantitative scoring system is used to synthesize the extensive and diverse data available on the environmental impacts of battery recycling and disposal. In addition, uncertainties are characterized and features of the recycling infrastructure that could influence battery design are flagged

Nancy Steele; David Allen

1996-01-01

221

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-01-01

222

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

223

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

224

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

225

Atmospheric levels and cytotoxicity of PAHs and heavy metals in TSP and PM 2.5 at an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine air samples of total suspended particles (TSP, particles less than 30–60?m) and thirty samples of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5?m (PM2.5) were collected at Guiyu, an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in southeast China from 16 August 2004 to 17 September 2004. The results showed that mass concentrations contained in TSP and PM2.5 were 124±44.1 and 62.12±20.5?gm?3,

W. J. Deng; P. K. K. Louie; W. K. Liu; X. H. Bi; J. M. Fu; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

226

Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

1994-04-01

227

Consumer electronic waste recycling using pulsed power generated shockwaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of consumer electronics such as laptops, cell phones, remote controls, etc. continues to be a global issue. Current recycling methods employ wasteful techniques such as incineration and typically only recover the precious metals used within the waste products. HEM Technologies conducted a feasibility study of using high current pulsed power to generate a shockwave to break apart e-waste into

D. J. Hemmert; V. I. Smirnov

2010-01-01

228

USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013  

E-print Network

are responsible to transfer paper to nearest 64 gallon container where PPD will pick up � Additional bins and empty as needed #12;Other Recyclables � Bulk recycling station within Physical Plant compound equipment � Mixed metals (furniture, shelving, etc.) � Concrete and construction waste #12;Community

Meyers, Steven D.

229

In Vitro Structure-Activity Relationship of Re-cyclized Octreotide Analogues  

PubMed Central

Introduction Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S2N2 and S3N) were synthesized and cyclized with non-radioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC50 values as a measure of somatostatin receptor affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue’s pharmacophore. Results Only two of the eleven Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr3-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal-cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS3 and N2S2 coordination forming 5- and 6- membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of 99m Tc- cyclized analogue 4. PMID:20610157

Dannoon, Shorouk F.; Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M.; Ma, Lixin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Lewis, Michael R.; Jurisson, Silvia S.

2010-01-01

230

Aluminum recycling—An integrated, industrywide approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aluminum industry is a leading proponent of global sustainability and strongly advocates the use of recycled metal. As the North American primary aluminum industry continues to move offshore to other geographic areas such as Iceland and the Middle East, where energy is more readily available at lower cost, the importance of the secondary (i.e., recycled metal) market in the U.S. will continue to increase. The purpose of this paper is to take an integrated, industry-wide look at the recovery of material from demolished buildings, shredded automobiles, and aging aircraft, as well as from traditional cans and other rigid containers. Attempts will be made to assess how the different alloys used in these separate markets can be recycled in the most energy-efficient manner.

Das, Subodh K.; Green, John A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert; Emadi, Daryoush; Mahfoud, M.

2010-02-01

231

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to  

E-print Network

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to allow you to recycle the following materials: To find your nearest Recycling Point please visit www.fifedirect.org.uk/wasteaware or call the Recycling Helpline on 08451 55 00 22. R&A GOLF CLUB OLD COURSE HOTEL UNIVERSITY NORTH HAUGH

St Andrews, University of

232

Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous\\/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and

Laura A. Vanderberg; Trudi M. Foreman; Moses Attrep; James R. Brainard; Nancy N. Sauer

1999-01-01

233

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Faatz, Renee

234

Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives  

SciTech Connect

Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products.

Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

1994-07-27

235

76 FR 53980 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, LLC. Radioactive waste Up to 210 Cobalt- Recycling, China August 1, 2011, August 5, consisting of 60 sealed forensic testing 2011, IW030. used Cobalt-60 sources. or storage and radioactive Combined total...

2011-08-30

236

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27

237

Recycle plastics into feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation

H. Kastner; W. Kaminsky

1995-01-01

238

Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

Technology Teacher, 1991

1991-01-01

239

Automation of waste recycling using hyperspectral image analysis Artzai Picon1  

E-print Network

Automation of waste recycling using hyperspectral image analysis Artzai Picon1 Ovidiu Ghita2 Pedro. In this paper we present a novel methodology to automate the recycling process of non-ferrous metal Waste from process not only time consuming but also very expensive. In the standard recycling process only

Whelan, Paul F.

240

Remoulding the future: the plastics and other recycling industries. Alternative industrial framework report No. 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a comprehensive study of recycling industries in the United Kingdom. It discusses different types of recycling including the reuse of the object, reuse of the material, reclamation of the material and conversion of the material. The materials discussed are ferrous and nonferrous metals, paper, glass, textiles, chemicals, and other organic and inorganic wastes. The recycling operation is

A. E. Bollard; J. A. Vogler

1984-01-01

241

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

242

Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: Removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl 2 activated coir pith carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl2 activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as

C. Namasivayam; D. Sangeetha

2006-01-01

243

Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your  

E-print Network

Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

Papautsky, Ian

244

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

245

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01

246

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

247

Michigan Recycled Materials Market Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Michigan Recycled Materials Market Directory is being made available to commercial, industrial, municipal and institutional recyclers in the State of Michigan to assist in finding markets for accumulated or collected recyclable materials. The director...

1990-01-01

248

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

249

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

250

Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

251

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and exposure to the public as the result of normal operations and accidents that occurred at the INEEL. As a result of these studies, the maximum effective dose equivalent from site activities did not exceed seventeen percent of the natural background in Eastern Idaho. There was no year in which the radiation dose to the public exceeded the applicable limits for that year. Worker exposure to recycled uranium was minimized by engineering features that reduced the possibility of direct exposure.

L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

2000-09-01

252

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

253

Plastic Recycling Toter -ORANGE  

E-print Network

Plastic Recycling Toter - ORANGE Glass Recycling Toter - TEAL Garbage Yellow sharps container - bulk rinsing for small items - Clear Glass - Broken glass is ok - rinsed 3 times - may have contained - Plastic disposable pipettes - Micropipette tips - Petri dishes - cell well plates - racks - Glass

Toronto, University of

254

Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

Briscoe, Georgia

1991-01-01

255

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value of renewable resources. Using multimedia intractives, video, and classroom activities, they learn to identify examples of renewable resources and how humans use them, understand what recycling and conservation are, learn about composting, and identify food waste and household items that can be recycled or composted.

2005-01-01

256

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Fioranelli, Debra

2000-10-01

257

The Fermilab recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

258

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

259

Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

2013-03-01

260

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

White, Boyd W.

2000-11-01

261

Regeneration, recycling, and trophic transfer of trace metals by microbial food-web organisms in the pelagic surface waters of Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid regeneration of 'OgCd and 65Zn from their picoplankton prey into the dissolved phase by micro- zooplankton was observed in water sampled from the pelagic surface waters of Lake Erie (summer 1994 and 1995). Trace metals were added to grazing (lake water < 2'10 brn) and control (lake water CO.2 pm) treatments in the form of radiolabeled Synechococcus, Picoplankton (0.2-3

Michael R. Twiss; Peter G. C. Campbell; Jean-Christian Auclair

1996-01-01

262

Heavy metals in food, house dust, and water from an e-waste recycling area in South China and the potential risk to human health.  

PubMed

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) were measured in the foodstuffs, house dust, underground/drinking water, and soil from an electronic waste (e-waste) area in South China. Elevated concentrations of these potentially toxic metals were observed in the samples but not in drinking water. The health risks for metal exposure via food consumption, dust ingestion, and drinking water were evaluated for local residents. For the average residents in the e-waste area, the non-carcinogenic risks arise predominantly from rice (hazard index=3.3), vegetables (2.2), and house dust (1.9) for adults, while the risks for young children are dominated by house dust (15). Drinking water may provide a negligible contribution to risk. However, local residents who use groundwater as a water supply source are at high non-carcinogenic risk. The potential cancer risks from oral intake of Pb are 8×10(-5) and 3×10(-4) for average adults and children, and thus groundwater would have a great potential to induce cancer (5×10(-4) and 1×10(-3)) in a highly exposed population. The results also reveal that the risk from oral exposure is much higher than the risk from inhalation and dermal contact with house dust. PMID:23849468

Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-hui; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Yuan, Jian-gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

2013-10-01

263

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

SciTech Connect

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, Disposal and Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. It also supports DOE Defense Program (DP) dismantlement activities. The goal of WeDID is to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratories designed nuclear weapon components. One of the primary objectives of WeDID is to develop and demonstrate advanced system treatment technologies that will allow DOE to continue dismantlement and disposal unhindered even as environmental regulations become more stringent. WeDID is also demonstrating waste minimization techniques by recycling a significant weight percentage of the bulk/precious metals found in weapon components and by destroying the organic materials typically found in these components. WeDID is concentrating on demonstrating technologies that are regulatory compliant, are cost effective, technologically robust, and are near-term to ensure the support of DOE dismantlement time lines. The waste minimization technologies being demonstrated by WeDID are cross cutting and should be able to support a number of ERWM programs.

Wheelis, W.T.

1993-04-12

264

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

SciTech Connect

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, Disposal and Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. It also supports DOE Defense Program (DP) dismantlement activities. The goal of WeDID is to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratories designed nuclear weapon components. One of the primary objectives of WeDID is to develop and demonstrate advanced system treatment technologies that will allow DOE to continue dismantlement and disposal unhindered even as environmental regulations become more stringent. WeDID is also demonstrating waste minimization techniques by recycling a significant weight percentage of the bulk/precious metals found in weapon components and by destroying the organic materials typically found in these components. WeDID is concentrating on demonstrating technologies that are regulatory compliant, are cost effective, technologically robust, and are near-term to ensure the support of DOE dismantlement time lines. The waste minimization technologies being demonstrated by WeDID are cross cutting and should be able to support a number of ERWM programs.

Wheelis, W.T.

1993-04-12

265

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on  

E-print Network

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on Campus from Universities to Big Business #12;Contact Information Tracy Artley Recycling Coordinator University of Michigan Tel: 734-763-5539 Email: recycle@umich.edu #12;Agenda Waste Impacts of Large Institutions Unique Challenges Overcoming

Awtar, Shorya

266

Applications of RESRAD family of computer codes to sites contaminated with radioactive residues.  

SciTech Connect

The RESIL4D family of computer codes was developed to provide a scientifically defensible answer to the question ''How clean is clean?'' and to provide useful tools for evaluating human health risk at sites contaminated with radioactive residues. The RESRAD codes include (1) RESRAD for soil contaminated with radionuclides; (2) RESRAD-BUILD for buildings contaminated with radionuclides; (3) RESRAD-CHEM for soil contaminated with hazardous chemicals; (4) RESRAD-BASELINE for baseline risk assessment with measured media concentrations of both radionuclides and chemicals; (5) RESRAD-ECORISK for ecological risk assessment; (6) RESRAD-RECYCLE for recycle and reuse of radiologically contaminated metals and equipment; and (7) RESRAD-OFFSITE for off-site receptor radiological dose assessment. Four of these seven codes (RESRAD, RESRAD-BUILD, RESRAD-RECYCLE, and RESRAD-OFFSITE) also have uncertainty analysis capabilities that allow the user to input distributions of parameters. RESRAD has been widely used in the United States and abroad and approved by many federal and state agencies. Experience has shown that the RESRAD codes are useful tools for evaluating sites contaminated with radioactive residues. The use of RESRAD codes has resulted in significant savings in cleanup cost. Analysis of 19 site-specific uranium guidelines is discussed in the paper.

Yu, C.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J.-J.; LePoire, D.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Zielen, A.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.

1999-10-21

267

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

268

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

269

Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.  

PubMed

Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system. PMID:20124319

Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

2010-04-01

270

GNB battery recycling plant  

SciTech Connect

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus and increases recycling capacity there five-fold. The new plant will not produce any hazardous waste or sulfur emissions and the operation continuously reuses process water, completely eliminating effluent. The plant produces sodium sulfate from the battery acid, creating a third marketable product besides plastic and lead.

Hopkins, G.E.

1995-08-01

271

Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wondered what happens to obsolete computers, check out these current awareness Websites. The disposal of computers is classified as hazardous waste, which has become an environmental concern as the number of obsolete computers rises. In fact, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State of Massachusetts have banned computer equipment from landfills. Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers is an EPA-licensed computer recycling organization that reuses all acceptable components and systems or recycles damaged or unusable components. Rebuilt computer systems are given to "persons with disabilities and persons living in disadvantaged situations."

272

RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by  

E-print Network

NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

Laughlin, Robert B.

273

Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems  

E-print Network

Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems 1Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems ·motivation ·recycling approach recycling algorithms experimental evaluations summary & future work #12 issued before (precise recycling) #12;6 Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems

274

RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING  

E-print Network

RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING EFFICIENCY.EFFICIENCY. A l GA leaner Green #12 t R li Management Recycling Staff The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in 1990, we have 14 full time staff positions. ·We collect over 40

Howitt, Ivan

275

Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling  

E-print Network

5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling Water and fizzy drinks bottles the caps from any bottles you recycle. Please rinse all plastic bottles and containers before putting them in the recycling bins. #12;5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Paper Recycling Office paper Catalogues

Evans, Paul

276

Recovering metals from wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal recycling has come a long way from the scrap heap. Today, metals recovery is not simply a matter of collecting and remelting automobile and process scrap and beverage cans for profit, but of wringing out and reusing hazardous metals from plant wastes and soil, to comply with environmental laws. Processes developed to extract metal from ore are being redesigned

G. Parkinson; S. Moore; K. Fouhy

1994-01-01

277

Modelling the material flow of recycling processes for aluminium alloys by means of technical recycling quotas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of aluminium alloys used for different applications such as cars, packaging or buildings has risen considerably during the past 20 years. This will effect a growing amount of scrap being available for recycling in the future. The special properties of the metal aluminium require sophisticated processing of different types of aluminium containing material prior to re-melting and refining.

H. Hoberg; S. Wolf; J. Meier-Kortwig

278

Making Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 11 of the PDF, learners follow simple steps to recycle old newspaper into new paper. Use this activity to introduce conservation as well as the chemistry of cellulose and how paper products are made.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

279

Geodynamics: Christmas recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms for forming the abundant volcanic islands on ocean floors are debated. The geochemical signature of volcanic rocks from the northeast Indian Ocean suggests that seamounts there formed from melting recycled ancient continental rocks.

Gibson, Sally A.

2011-12-01

280

Coming round to recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of people are trying to reduce and recycle their domestic waste, but hospitals have been slower to get the message. David Hutchins and Stuart White look at the potential environmental and financial benefits

David C J Hutchins; Stuart M White

2009-01-01

281

Fermilab recycler diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

282

GNB battery recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus

1995-01-01

283

Recyclability Index for Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rating system was developed to quantify the environmental impacts of light-duty motor vehicles at the end of their life-cycle based on recyclability, toxic material content and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehicle material not recycled is called automotive shredder residue (ASR). About 4.5 to 5 million tons of

Alexander Tsuji; Yarrow Nelson; Andrew Kean; Samuel A. Vigil

2006-01-01

284

Climate Kids: Recycle This!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site features an online game in which participants keep recyclable items out of the trash by guiding them into proper bins. Accompanying the game is a list of three categories of items that can be recycled, along with the benefits of doing so. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

285

Overview of waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) activities  

SciTech Connect

Over the last year it has become apparent that there will be a reduction of nuclear weapon stockpiles in both the United States (US) as well as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; formerly the Soviet Union). To meet these requirements in the United States will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of types of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBs, self-contained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle the wide variation of weapon component materials), are cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are fully regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon. The methods and technologies developed by WeDID for US weapon components would be directly applicable to CIS components. WeDID is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. The goal of WeDID is, to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratory designed weapon components. It is anticipated that WeDID can demonstrate true waste minimization by recycling at least 30% (by total component weight) of the metals found in these components, and destruction of at least 30% of the organic materials typically found in a weapon component.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-01-01

286

Overview of waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) activities  

SciTech Connect

Over the last year it has become apparent that there will be a reduction of nuclear weapon stockpiles in both the United States (US) as well as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; formerly the Soviet Union). To meet these requirements in the United States will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of types of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBs, self-contained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle the wide variation of weapon component materials), are cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are fully regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon. The methods and technologies developed by WeDID for US weapon components would be directly applicable to CIS components. WeDID is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) sponsored program. The goal of WeDID is, to demonstrate the end-to-end disposal process for Sandia National Laboratory designed weapon components. It is anticipated that WeDID can demonstrate true waste minimization by recycling at least 30% (by total component weight) of the metals found in these components, and destruction of at least 30% of the organic materials typically found in a weapon component.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-09-01

287

Cobalt recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is one of a series of reports on metals recycling. It defines and quantifies the 1998 flow of cobalt-bearing materials in the United States, from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of cobalt?s many and diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 1998, an estimated 32 percent of U.S. cobalt supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of cobalt consumed from new scrap to that from old scrap was estimated to be 50:50. Of all the cobalt in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 68 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2002-01-01

288

Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

Shedd, Kim B.

2011-01-01

289

A survey of monitoring and assay systems for release of metals from radiation controlled areas at LANL.  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a recent effort in waste minimization has focused on scrap metal from radiological controlled areas (RCAs). In particular, scrap metal from RCAs needs to be dispositioned in a reasonable and cost effective manner. Recycling of DOE scrap metals from RCAs is currently under a self-imposed moratorium. Since recycling is not available and reuse is difficult, often metal waste from RCAs, which could otherwise be recycled, is disposed of as low-level waste. Estimates at LANL put the cost of low-level waste disposal at $550 to $4000 per cubic meter, depending on the type of waste and the disposal site. If the waste is mixed, the cost for treatment and disposal can be as high as $50,000 per cubic meter. Disposal of scrap metal as low-level waste uses up valuable space in the low-level waste disposal areas and requires transportation to the disposal site under Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for low-level waste. In contrast, disposal as non-radioactive waste costs as little as $2 per cubic meter. While recycling is unavailable, disposing of the metal at an industrial waste site could be the best solution for this waste stream. A Green Is Clean (GIC) type verification program needs to be in place to provide the greatest assurance that the waste does not contain DOE added radioactivity. This paper is a review of available and emerging radiation monitoring and assay systems that could be used for scrap metal as part of the LANL GIC program.

Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.)

2002-01-01

290

The prospects for recycling lead-acid batteries in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of dwindling resources of primary metal and growing environmental awareness, the recycle of lead is becoming increasingly necessary in India and other countries. A perusal of supply and demand projections for India reveals a lead supply shortfall of 68,300 tons by the year 2000. With a stagnation of primary metal production, the lead resources contained within spent batteries

K. V. Venkateswaran; J. P. Rethinaraj; S. Visvanathan

1990-01-01

291

NRC's 13th Annual Congress highlights the mainstream of recycling  

SciTech Connect

The theme of the National Recycling Coalition's (NRC, Washington, DC) recent 13th Annual Congress and Exposition in Portland, OR, was ''Jump into the Mainstream: Recycle,'' which is an action organizers of the show set out to prove is currently happening across this country. Indeed, this year's congress was designed to demonstrate how far recycling has jumped into the mainstream of American life, and show attendees what it will take to make recycling succeed in the future. Lending testament to recycling's increasing visibility, the most dominant topic at this year's show was the creation of national recycling policy. Through this agenda, and other programs that surfaced at the congress, NRC is hoping to move closer to its goal of making recycling as mainstream as taking out the garbage. NRC's board of directors unanimously voted to adopt a draft advocacy message that promotes recycling initiatives at the national level, but rejected a proposed demand-side initiative that would have established post-consumer-content recycling rates for certain materials, with product-specific, minimum-content standards as an alternative method of compliance. The initiative had called for glass, metal, paper, plastic, and wood used in primary and secondary packaging to achieve a 50% post-consumer recycling rate by the year 2000. As an alternative method of compliance, individual companies could meet the following post-consumer, minimum-content standards for products: glass, metal, paper, plastic, and wood packaging: 40% by 2000; newsprint and tissue paper: 50% by 2000; and printing and writing papers: 25% by 2000.

White, K.M.

1994-12-01

292

Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 1: Assessment of recycling technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten different candidate EV battery technologies were examined based on their performance and recyclability, and were ranked based on these examinations. The batteries evaluated were lead-acid (all types), nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron disulfide, lithium-ion, lithium polymer, and zinc (zinc-air and zinc-bromine). Locations of present recycling facilities were identified. Markets for recycled products were assessed: the value of recycled materials were found too unstable to fully support recycling efforts. All these batteries exhibit the characteristic of hazardous waste in California, and are therefore subject to strict regulations (finalization of the new EPA Universal Waste Rule could change this).

Unnasch, S.; Montano, M.; Franklin, P.; Nowell, G.; Martin, C.

1995-03-01

293

Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year 2000. Out of which contaminated stainless steel with high chromium and nickel contents constitutes 25-30 wt. % [1]. Disposal of this material not only represents resource and value lost, but also necessitates long term monitoring for environmental compliance. The latter results in additional recurring expense. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to decontaminate the radioactive stainless steel to a satisfactory level that can be recycled or at least used for fabrication of containers for RSM disposal instead of using virgin stainless steel. Decontamination of radioactive stainless steel using the ESR process is investigated. In this paper the relevant slag properties, capacity to incorporate the radioactive contaminant, slag-metal partition coefficient, volatilization rate, volatile species, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension are presented as a function of temperature. The impact of these properties on the ESR decontamination process is discussed.

Chernicoff, W.P.; Chou, K.C.; Gao, H.; MacDonald, C.J.; Molecke, M.A.; Pal, U.B.; Van Den, J.; Woolley, D.

1999-06-30

294

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

295

Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting demonstration, an investigation of commercial markets for RSM, and refinement of methods to quantify isotopic elements.

Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

1999-05-27

296

Outlook for recycling large and small batteries in the future  

SciTech Connect

Although there are many kinds and varieties of batteries, batteries can be subdivided into two basic types, large lead-acid batteries and small disposable batteries. Small cells contain different metals depending upon the configuration. These materials include iron, zinc, nickel, cadmium, manganese, mercury, silver, and potassium. Recycling these materials is not economically attractive. Most small batteries are thrown away and constitute a small fraction of municipal solid waste (perhaps 1/10%). There is no effective energy savings or economic incentive for recycling and, with the exception of Ni-Cad batteries, no significant environmental incentive. Any recycle scheme would require a significant reward (probably financial) to the consumer for returning the scrap battery. Without a reward, recovery is unlikely. Large batteries of the lead-acid type are composed of lead, acid, and plastic. There is an established recycle mechanism for lead-acid batteries which works quite well. The regulations written under the Hazardous and Solid Waste Disposal Amendments (1985) favor more recycling efforts by scrap metal operators. The reason for this is that recycled batteries are exempt from EPA regulation. If batteries are not recycled, any generator disposing of 6 or more batteries per month is required to have a special EPA license or premit. Currently, working against this incentive is a decreasing demand and low market price for lead which affects waste battery salvage.

Dodds, J.; Goldsberry, J.

1986-03-01

297

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

298

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

299

Cadmium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 t, and an estimated 285 t was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

300

Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

Plachy, Jozef

2003-01-01

301

The impact of increased recycle rates on markets in Florida  

SciTech Connect

The State of Florida passed The Florida Solid Waste Management Act of 1988 mandating that county recycling programs be initiated by July 1, 1989. The legislation further expressed the goal that, at a minimum, recycling efforts reduce the amount of solid waste requiring final disposal or resource recovery by 30% by the end of 1994. This study was performed to determine the impact on recycle markets when the amounts of materials recycled from the municipal solid waste stream are increased by 30% in Florida. The composition of the municipal waste stream was quantified in terms of the amounts of paper, plastic, metals, glass, and rubber. The effect of a 30% increase in the recycle rate of each class of material was calculated and compared to existing recycle rates in the State of Florida. It was determined that there are few capacity constraints on the increase in recycle rates for aluminum, steel (i.e., tin cans), and color separated glass. There are, however, serious constraints on increasing recycle rates for paper, plastics and rubber tires.

Korzun, E.A.; Stephens, N.T.; Heck, H.H. (Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne (USA))

1989-12-01

302

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements, January 1980-June 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 80-Jun 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (The bibliography contains 75 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-06-01

303

Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

Bied-Charreton, B.

304

Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for recycling of lead solder dross were examined—carbothermal reduction and recycling using boron-containing substances. The influence of various factors on the metal yield was studied and the optimal parameters of the recycling process are defined. The comparison between them under the same parameters-temperature and retention time, showed that recycling of dross with a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:2 ratio provides higher metal yield (93%). The recycling of this hazardous waste under developed technology gets glassy slag and solder, which after correction of the chemical composition can be used again for production of PCB.

Lucheva, Biserka; Tsonev, Tsonio; Iliev, Peter

2011-08-01

305

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

306

Recycling: General studies. January 1987-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Nov 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 177 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-10-01

307

Recycled Aluminum Ornaments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain the principles of recycling. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require 2-5 hours of class time to complete. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate how aluminum is recycled. This laboratory activity does require some special equipment including a heat source capable of melting aluminum and an outdoor work area. Extension activities are also provided. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

2013-06-14

308

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

309

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

310

Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave  

E-print Network

THESIS Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave detector Masaki Ando Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3 Power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.1 Principle of power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.2 Recycling cavity

Ejiri, Shinji

311

Automotive recycling in the United States: Energy conservation and environmental benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and use of polymers has been growing and that trend is expected to continue. Likewise, the production of metals from ores is on the rise because of increasing demand. Recycling polymers and residual metals can result in significant energy savings and environmental benefits including a reduction in CO2 emissions. This article describes recycling options for the polymers and metals in end-of-life vehicles.

Pomykala, J. A.; Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.

2007-11-01

312

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Materials Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvio...

A. O. Tanner

1992-01-01

313

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

314

CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING  

E-print Network

1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling efficient use by aggressive recycling Opportunity: Resources reserved until retirement § ¦ ¤ ¥ Solution

Torrellas, Josep

315

Fuels from Recycling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

Tillman, David A.

1975-01-01

316

Recycle Your Own Paper!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will prepare sheets of homemade recycled paper from several different source pulps. Once dry, each sample will be drawn on with a marker to test how far ink spreads in the fibers of the different kinds of papers. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Garbology.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

317

Helium-Recycling Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

Cook, Joseph

1996-01-01

318

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

319

The Recycle Team.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

Scott, Roger; And Others

320

Glass recycling and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are surveyed for recycling and\\/or reusing post-consumer glass products to determine which methods are most favorable. The following topics are included: the properties of glass, glass manufacture; analyses of alternatives to direct disposal of glass products; reuse of waste glass for glass manufacture; techniques for the separation of glass from municipal refuse; the development of degradable glass containers; returnable

H. R. Samtur

1974-01-01

321

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

322

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

323

Computer Recycling Farm USA  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

2010-08-13

324

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To complete the process development, ESR melting experiments, which include actual radioactive contaminates as well as surrogates, are being conducted at the Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia. These experiments measure decontamination efficiencies in ingots for uranium and plutonium in stainless steel, as well as correlate removal of radioactive and surrogate compounds in the same melts. This will ''close the loop'' and allow us to use measured surrogate behaviors to model removal of radioactive species.

VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

1999-06-15

325

WM '04 Conference, February 29 March 4, 2004, Tucson, AZ WM-4085 METAL MATRIX IMMOBILISATION OF SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES FOR SAFE  

E-print Network

of radiation fields and concentrations of radionuclides from SRS may far exceed high-level radioactive wasteBq/kgCategory of Waste beta alpha transuranic Low Level Level 103 and considerably enhances the level of physical protection of SRS. INTRODUCTION Sealed radioactive sources (SRS

Sheffield, University of

326

Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1993-07-01

327

Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report  

SciTech Connect

As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1994-03-01

328

Recycling of used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries  

SciTech Connect

The Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride) rechargeable battery was developed several years ago. Its higher electrochemical capacity and greater safety compared with the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery have resulted in very rapid increase in its production. The Ni-MH rechargeable battery consists of Ni, Co and rare earth metals, so that recycling is important to recover these valuable mineral resources. In this study, a basic recycling process for used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries has been developed, in which the Ni, Co and rare earth elements are recovered through a combination of mechanical processing and hydrometallurgical processing.

Yoshida, T.; Ono, H.; Shirai, R. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Ageo, Saitama (Japan). Corporate R and D Center

1995-12-31

329

Lead/acid battery recycling and the new Isasmelt process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of lead/acid batteries has long been practised for economic reasons. More recently, battery recovery has also been influenced by environmental concerns, both in the general community and within the recycling plants. These influences will probably increase in the future. With these factors in mind, Britannia Refined Metals Ltd. introduced new technology for battery recycling at its Northfleet, UK operations in 1991. A process description of the Britannia Refined Metals Secondary Lead Operation, the reasons for selecting an Engitec CX battery breaking plant in combination with an Isasmelt Paste Smelting Furnace, and commissioning and current operation of the plant are discussed.

Ramus, K.; Hawkins, P.

330

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

1997-04-01

331

Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

Hannum, William H.

2007-04-01

332

Recycling of chrome containing materials hereinbefore landfilled  

SciTech Connect

Chrome containing materials, especially with high phosphorus, are acceptable for recycling the chrome containing materials, including F006 chrome sludges, resulting from the conversion of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome and then precipitation, exceed the phosphorus limit of recycling in the metallurgical industry, phosphorus less than 0.05 weight percent. If, however, the same chrome bearing sludge is evaluated as an alternate feed stock for the manufacture of basic chrome chemicals such as sodium dichromate, basic chromium sulfate and chromium acid, the material is acceptable at certain chrome chemical plants. Most F006 chrome sludges are the result of treating waste water containing chrome, with metering from spent baths of hard chrome (chromic acid plus sulfuric acid or chromic acid plus hydrofluoric acid), anodizing (of aluminum alloys) or chrome/phosphate conversion coatings (F019). Sludges produced from the above spent baths, up to equivalent chrome and phosphorus contents from the chrome/phosphate conversion coating are acceptable in the chemical industry. Chrome sludges typically analyze at a chrome content of twenty percent, on a dry weight basis, with a moisture content in excess of thirty percent, even after drying at the generator`s location. By additional treatment the same chrome sludges can have the contained chrome content increased to forty percent, which is superior to typical chrome ore used for the production of chrome chemicals, usually 28% Cr, and the moisture reduced to less than ten percent. Other chrome materials evaluated for chrome recovery include, chrome/alumina, chrome/iron and copper/chrome catalysts, and other, non-RCRA, chrome by-products, with very positive results. This recycling scheme for chrome bearing by products opens up a whole new avenue for recycling chrome which hitherto has been landfilled or blended with other metals-thus has not been recycled.

Ahmad, M.N.; Reddy, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1995-09-01

333

An overview on the current processes for the recycling of batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to describe the main battery-recycling processes currently used and those that are being developed. Technological options are presented for the recycling of lead acid, Zn–C, Zn–MnO2, nickel metal hydride, nickel–cadmium, lithium and lithium ion batteries.

Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa; Andréa Moura Bernardes; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório

2004-01-01

334

An overview on the current processes for the recycling of batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to describe the main battery-recycling processes currently used and those that are being developed. Technological options are presented for the recycling of lead acid, Zn-C, Zn-MnO 2, nickel metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, lithium and lithium ion batteries.

Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

335

THE ROLE OF HYDROMETALLURGY IN THE RECYCLING OF ZINC, COPPER AND LEAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals recycling remains an important industrial activity for both economic and environmental reasons, and the role of hydrometallurgical processing in the recycling of zinc, copper and lead is discussed. Hydrometallurgical processes are being developed to leach zinc from galvanized steel scrap prior to remelting, and both alkaline and acid leaching technologies are being evaluated to eliminate zinc from electric arc

336

76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occasionally, different definitions of recycling so that they...as well as input on what definitions should be used. The Agency...other metals, paper fiber) sustainability; C&D materials; and zero...voluntary recycling standards and definitions EPA established in 1997...

2011-08-02

337

Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-04-01

338

Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

2006-08-01

339

28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.  

...to report under the salvage-yard requirements. (h) Scrap metal processors and shredders that receive automobiles for recycling where the condition of such vehicles generally prevent VINs from being identified are not required to report to the...

2014-07-01

340

EVALUATION OF USFILTER MEMBRALOX SILVERBACK MODEL 900 AKALINE CLEANER RECYCLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Membralox Silverback Model 900 (Silverback Unit) is a microfiltration system for recycling used alkaline cleaning solutions (cleaners). Alkaline cleaning is performed on metal parts at different times during the manufacturing process to remove oils, coolants and other metalwo...

341

RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul Duby2, Wenming Wang1, Christopher Graves2 & Anuta Belova2  

E-print Network

RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul University, New York, NY ABSTRACT: Research on recycling of CdTe PV modules and manufacturing waste aims are: a) Cleaning of glass from the metals and recycling of glass; b) separation of Te from Cd

342

Noise control by sonic crystal barriers made of recycled materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of noise barriers based on sonic crystals made of cylinders that use recycled materials like absorbing component is here reported. The barriers consist of only three rows of perforated metal shells filled with rubber crumb. Measurements of reflectance and transmittance by these barriers are reported. Their attenuation properties result from a combination of sound absorption by the

Jose Sanchez-Dehesa; Victor M. Garcia-Chocano; Daniel Torrent; Francisco Cervera; Suitberto Cabrera; Francisco Simon

2010-01-01

343

Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma

T. W Cheng; J. P Chu; C. C Tzeng; Y. S Chen

2002-01-01

344

Updated 9/23/2010 HOW TO RECYCLE  

E-print Network

and Film · Photographic Slides · Photographs · Pipette Tip Boxes · Pizza Delivery Boxes · Plastic Bags · Plastic Bottles & Jars · Plastic Film · Plywood · Printer/Copier Components · Refrigerators · Scrap Metal (Styrofoam PEANUTS will continue to be recycled in the large hallway bags). Whenever you have Styrofoam

Clark, John

345

Improving aluminum recycling through investigations of thermodynamic effects in remelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum recycling is an important area of research because of the tremendous energy savings achieved by producing aluminum products from secondary sources. Aluminum products have precise compositional specifications that must be met to ensure adequate mechanical properties. These precise compositional specifications limit the incorporation of secondary metals into final aluminum products because of the substantial compositional uncertainty of secondary materials.

Tracey Brommer; Elsa Olivetti; Randolph Kirchain

2010-01-01

346

Outlook for recycling large and small batteries in the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are many kinds and varieties of batteries, batteries can be subdivided into two basic types, large lead-acid batteries and small disposable batteries. Small cells contain different metals depending upon the configuration. These materials include iron, zinc, nickel, cadmium, manganese, mercury, silver, and potassium. Recycling these materials is not economically attractive. Most small batteries are thrown away and constitute

J. Dodds; J. Goldsberry

1986-01-01

347

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

348

Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. October 1973-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for October 1973-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains 110 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

349

Energy and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and Garbage is one section of a US Department of Energy's educational Web site for kids. Features of this Web site include a section detailing the connection between energy and garbage, a thorough introduction to the history of garbage that includes facts and figures on how much waste we produce, information on recycling and reducing garbage at the source, and much more. The information in this Web site is presented in a friendly, narrative style. A short downloadable activity titled Energy from Garbage, created by the National Energy Education Development Project, is also available (grades 4-6).

350

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

351

Simulated Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

Boettler, James L.

1972-01-01

352

Current Status and Tasks in Development of Cable Recycling Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows current status and tasks in development of cable recycling technology and it’s items to be solved. Electric cable recycle system has been activated especially for copper conductor recycle in Japan. Previously removed cable coverings materials were mainly land filled. But landfill capacity is decreased and limited in recent years, at the same time, recycle technology was highly developed. A cable recycle technology has 4 tasks. (1) Applying new high efficiency separation system instead of electrostatic and gravity methods to classify mixed various kind of plastics materials including recently developed ecological material (ex PE, PVC, Rubber), (2) Removing heavy metal, especially lead from PVC material, (3) Treatment of optical glass fiber core, which has possibility going to be harmful micro particles, and (4) Establishment of social recycle system for electric wire and cable. Taking action for these tasks shall be proceeded under environmentally sensitive technology together with local government, user, manufacturer, and waste-disposal company on cost performance basis.

Ezure, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhiko

353

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

354

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1999-03-16

355

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

356

Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.  

PubMed

Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. PMID:23122192

Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

2013-10-15

357

Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

Larsen, A.W., E-mail: awl@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-05-15

358

RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services.6.1/1 Recycling & General Waste Management Department: Estates & Facilities Management Site: Swansea University recycling and waste management facilities in Swansea university To ensure that Waste Management Objectives

Harman, Neal.A.

359

The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia  

E-print Network

The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia Alexander P. Miller Hang T. Nguyen Samantha D, and the recycling contacts from the participating Solid Waste Planning Units discussed in this study. #12;3 Table Determinants of Recycling_______________________________ 12 State Reports

Lewis, Robert Michael

360

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

Abubakr, Said

361

Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov  

E-print Network

Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov Laboratory for Education delivery channels with speculatively pre- computed authorizations and actively recycling them on a just Security Keywords authorization recycling, authorization flooding, access con- trol, authorization, publish

362

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...otherwise recovered from the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use...about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available...

2013-01-01

363

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

...otherwise recovered from the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use...about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available...

2014-01-01

364

Recycled Wind: A Sound Installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled Wind is a sound installation in which a visitor's breath is emulated mechanically. Sensors detect the breath and trigger small fans, which blow sound-making objects such as wind chimes and leaves. Like the wind itself, the chimes and leaves are emulated, constructed of recycled materials such as jar lids and grocery bags.

Adam Scott Neal

365

Bacterial cell-wall recycling  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-01-01

366

Review Article: Recycling of Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of polystyrene can be done by mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods. High impact polystyrene is a promising material for mechanical recycling since its properties are not extremely affected even after multiple processing of upto nine cycles. Production of liquid products and gaseous products are highly dependent on the reaction condition. The catalysts used are highly selective for the production

T. Maharana; Y. S. Negi; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

367

TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

368

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

369

Minnesota recycling directory, 1991. Statewide markets and collection locations  

SciTech Connect

;Table of Contents: Minnesota Recycling Industries: (Individual Company Listings; Recycling Industries by County; Glass Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Metal Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Paper Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; and Plastic Collection, Processing and End-Use by County); Appendices: (Used Auto Parts Dealers by County; Barrel Reconditioners; Spent Lead-Acid Battery Collection and Processing by County; Used Oil Collection Centers by County; Waste Tire Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Wood Waste Processors; and Regional End-Markets); and Update Form.

Cera, D.; Cloutier, C.; Estrem, L.; Halpine, C.; Johnson, K.

1991-12-31

370

Exploring Waste and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Eleanor Camann of Red Rocks Community College, will introduce students to the concept of sustainability in terms of waste products and recycling practices. The overall premise of the project is to "get students to think critically about which earth materials are used to make things, and where all the waste from both mining and consumption ends up." The activity employs skills in basic mathematics, reasoning and writing. It also crosses disciplines by implementing skills in environmental geology and science. The learning activity only takes about two hours of in-class time and an additional three outside of the classroom. It uses simple materials such as a calculator, periodic table, household scale and digital camera. Lessons plans such as these are supported by a grant under the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program.

Camann, Eleanor

2010-11-09

371

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31

372

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-07-27

373

Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them.  

PubMed

Natural resources such as ores and rocks contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If these resources contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the radioactive activity in these resources. In this study, concentrations of radioactive nuclides in Th, Zr, Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan were investigated. The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while those of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrum. We found the concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series, and (40)K in Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide. The doses received by workers handling these materials were estimated by using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In transport, indoor storage, and outdoor storage scenarios, an effective dose due to the use of Th ore was above 4.3 x 10(-2)Sv y(-1), which was higher than that of the other ores. The maximum value of effective doses for other ores was estimated to be about 4.5 x 10(-4)Sv y(-1), which was lower than intervention exemption levels (1.0 x 10(-3)Sv y(-1)) given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:19703725

Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

2009-11-01

374

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

375

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

376

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

377

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-28

378

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling  

E-print Network

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office make their own arrangements through a registered hazardous waste carrier. Batteries must not be put in normal waste bins or recycling boxes. To recycle batteries, select either option 1 or 2 below: Option 1

Melham, Tom

379

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

Miami, University of

380

Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview  

E-print Network

Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview www.MyBusinessRecycles.com April 2013 #12;Program Overview · All BSD contract customers can participate in the MyBusinessRecycles program · Customers located in AK, HI or PR are not currently eligible. ­ Education sector customers should join the Recycling Rules

Meyers, Steven D.

381

The Environment Team to Waste & Recycling  

E-print Network

The Environment Team A-Z Guide to Waste & Recycling www.le.ac.uk/environment #12;Welcome ...to the University of Leicester's `A-Z Guide to Waste and Recycling'. Over the last 3 years, the Environment Team has introduced an award- winning recycling scheme across the campus that allows us to recycle paper, plastics

St Andrews, University of

382

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

383

Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

Goonan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

384

Progress reported in PET recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

Not Available

1989-06-01

385

Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?  

PubMed

Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

2014-01-01

386

Disposal, Degradation, and Recycling; Bioplastics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone is familiar with plastic waste. We throw away large volumes of it, at home, at school, at work, at fast food restaurants, on vacation. Much of it ends up in the trash. We see some of it as litter along the sides of roads, streams and lakes, and floating up on beaches. We probably recycle some used plastics, although how much depends upon where we live. In many localities, only items produced from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE (high-density polyethylene) are collected for recycling. Why don't we recycle more of it? Why not LDPE (low-density polyethylene) and polystyrene? And what happens to it when we do? We'll develop some basic principles in this chapter on some of the avenues that help us follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's advice to "reduce, reuse, recycle."

Teegarden, David

2004-01-01

387

Make Your Own Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how paper is made. Working together, student teams make their own paper. This activity introduces students to recycling; what it is, its value and benefits, and how it affects their lives.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

388

Molecular Modeling at Plastic Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to model the new materials from recycled, post industrial polymer rejects by molecular modeling methods was investigated by comparison of the results obtained from the simulation process and the experiments.

Martinelli, Laura; Sinesi, Sabino; Toaldo, Alessio Baron; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Posocco, Paola; Szczurek, Tomasz; Kozlowski, Marek

2007-04-01

389

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

390

Single Stream Recycling is coming to UNH campus wide! The Facilities Division along with departmental representatives from the Sustainability Institute,  

E-print Network

in the cart. *Pizza boxes (with greasy liner removed) Tin/aluminum, scrap metal Examples include: ` Items-mingled for collection and removal from campus. Sorting will take place off site. The goal is to make recycling so easy and educational institutions. Single Stream Recycling Guidelines Container preparation * Remove all plastic bags

New Hampshire, University of

391

Recycling Policies for Consumer Durables  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The previous chapter dealt with solid consumption waste and the associated disposal costs. In doing so, we have implicitly\\u000a assumed that the disposal cost function also reflects the recycling of the durable consumption goods (e.g. on p. 89). Of course,\\u000a such a modeling is rather abstract since it makes explicit neither the productivity of the recycled material in the production

Marco Runkel

392

Framework for Building Design Recyclability  

E-print Network

contractors sort waste and transport them to transfer stations or just send all the waste to transfer centers without sorting. 2.2.2 Transfer Stations Regardless of the method used to collect the recyclables, the next leg of their journey is usually... to the use of transfer stations in which the waste is transferred to large-capacity transfer trailers the trailers are then hauled to the landfill. Recyclables collected on site Specific transfer stations Big transfer centers Manufacturing...

Zhang, Fan

2008-01-01

393

Recycling in the Encyclopedia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-cycling' is the principle that concepts are 're-cycled' rather than duplicated. At the interface between the encyclopedia and the lexicon, this means that a concept may serve both as the meaning of a word and also as part of ordinary non-linguistic cognition; for example, the ordinary concept 'bicycle' which we use in everyday life in classifying experiences is also the

Richard Hudson; Jasper Holmes

394

Key recycling in authentication  

E-print Network

In their seminal work on authentication, Wegman and Carter propose that to authenticate multiple messages, it is sufficient to reuse the same hash function as long as each tag is encrypted with a one-time pad. They argue that because the one-time pad is perfectly hiding, the hash function used remains completely unknown to the adversary. Since their proof is not composable, we revisit it using a composable security framework. It turns out that the above argument is insufficient: if the adversary learns whether a corrupted message was accepted or rejected, information about the hash function is leaked, and after a bounded finite amount of rounds it is completely known. We show however that this leak is very small: Wegman and Carter's protocol is still $\\epsilon$-secure, if $\\epsilon$-almost strongly universal$_2$ hash functions are used. This implies that the secret key corresponding to the choice of hash function can be reused in the next round of authentication without any additional error than this $\\epsilon$. We also show that if the players have a mild form of synchronization, namely that the receiver knows when a message should be received, the key can be recycled for any arbitrary task, not only new rounds of authentication.

Christopher Portmann

2012-02-06

395

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-07-06

396

Anaerobic microbial remobilization of coprecipitated metals  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for solubilizing coprecipitated metals. Metals in wastestreams are concentrated by treatment with an iron oxide coprecipitating agent. The coprecipitated metals are solubilized by contacting the coprecipitate with a bacterial culture of a Clostridium species ATCC 53464. The remobilized metals can then be recovered and recycled.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY)

1994-10-11

397

RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep  

E-print Network

RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep Setting #12;Why Recycle? Recycling saves resources Recycling one ton of paper saves 17 trees! Recycling saves energy Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to power a television for 3 hours! Recycling is easy There are 4 waste categories here at UM

Awtar, Shorya

398

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle

Javna, John

399

Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap  

SciTech Connect

Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

Adam C. Powell, IV

2012-07-19

400

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

Muth, T.R. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

401

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31

402

Integrated steel producers race the recycling clock  

SciTech Connect

When classed as waste, the leftover oxides of blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces must go into landfill. That is an expensive option. Assuming there is space and permission for land disposal, this may be only a temporary solution. Finally, there is an economic incentive to replace some amount of scrap with the iron units in waste. The various factors have brought a concerted recycling push. With increased use of galvanized scrap, a growing portion of the waste is zinc coated. Unlike electric furnace dust, the waste from blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces doesn`t have enough zinc to be classed as hazardous. In theory, repeated cycling will concentrate the zinc but there is uncertainty about what actually happens. There are ways to remove zinc from waste, however, favorable economics have tended to require high concentrations of zinc. New processes and conditions could change the economic equation. The ultimate answer to recycling could be a facility specifically designed for converting waste into usable metal.

McManus, G.J.

1996-01-01

403

Environmental impact of radioactive silver released from nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive silver 110mAg is not a fission product, but as a contaminant originating from Chernobyl, was registered in many European countries. The environmental impact of radioactive silver was specially expressed in the process of obtaining copper and noble metals from ores originating from opencast mines. Direct consequence was contaminated metal silver in the period of several years after the Chernobyl

Ž. Vukovi?

2002-01-01

404

Recycling of polymer waste with fluid catalytic cracking catalysts.  

PubMed

Feedstock recycling of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Fresh and steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Fresh FCC catalysts gave the highest results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product. Meanwhile, steamed FCC catalysts and used FCC catalysts showed similar but lower yields. Overall, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste. PMID:16760091

Ali, Salmiaton; Garforth, Arthur; Fakhru'l-Razi, A

2006-01-01

405

Radioactive Waste Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

406

Biogeochemical Recycling on Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements are recycled on sea-salt particles that are produced and later re-deposited in the surface ocean. This recycling process involves aluminum, iron, and other elements commonly associated with mineral dust. Non-crustal Al can amount to as much as ~ 30% of the total aerosol Al at Bermuda, but this occurs only during a few months of the year when the dust concentrations and deposition rates are low. Simple model calculations suggest that ~15 to 20% of the total Al dry deposition during December and January can be attributed to recycled sea salt, but when dust concentrations are higher, recycling accounts for only ~ 1% of the Al dry deposition. Non-crustal/non-sea salt (NC/NSS) sources account for > 70% of the aerosol Sb, Se, V, and Zn, but differences in the dry deposition velocities for particles of different sizes are such that the amount of Sb and Se recycled on sea spray approaches or exceeds their new inputs to the open ocean from dust and the NC/NSS sources. More recently, recycling on aerosol particles has been found to occur in other environments, including the deserts in the southwestern USA. In this case, the recycling of radionuclides released during nuclear weapons tests many years ago occurs via the resuspension of contaminated soil particles. Studies conducted near Carlsbad, NM have shown that the temporal variability in ^{239,240}Pu and ^{241}Am activities tracks that of Al, a mineral dust indictor, in aerosol samples. Analyses of soil samples from various sites have shown that plutonium is released from the particles by chemical procedures developed for removing iron oxides from mineral particles; this implies that the dust/plutonium relationship is mediated by iron oxides.

Arimoto, R.; Stewart, B.; Khaing, H.; Tatro, D. P.

2006-12-01

407

Recycling Of Bomb Produced Cl 36  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of accelerated mass-spectrometry (AMS) has allowed the measuring of very small quantities of radioactive nuclides with the ratio to their stable isotope up to 10-14. With the help of this method the concentration of 36Cl in natural samples can be investigated. The main sources of 36Cl in the atmosphere are a) The natural production in nuclear reactions induced by the interaction of high energy cosmic rays with atmospheric Ar. b) The production by the interaction of high neutron fluxes emitted by the nuclear weapon tests with stable chlorine. c) The production in different reactors with the following release (e.g. Chernobyl accident). The analysis of 36Cl time profile in Greenland showed the fast removal of chlorine from the atmosphere so that nowadays only the natural production of 36Cl is of importance. However the measurement of 36Cl in modern precipitation revealed the significant excess of its concentration over the simulated predictions. The recycling of chlorine as an explanation of the observed discrepancy is ar- gued. The biosphere could take up a part of the fallen down bomb produced 36Cl and releases it into the troposphere in the form of CH3Cl. To check the hypothesis the experiment to collect methyl chloride from the air and to measure 36Cl was set up. The high observed ratio 36 Cl/Cl proves that the chlorine recycling really takes place. Additionally, in order to get more information about the distribution of 36Cl the measurements of its concentration in lakes with long flushing times were performed. With the help of modeling the different sources of 36Cl can be distinguished. The dominant source of 36Cl in many Alpine lakes is chlorine, released during the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

Lazarev, V.; Blinov, A.; Huber, Th.; Kubo, F.; Nolte, E.

408

Phytoavailability of copper in the presence of recycled water sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Recycled water irrigation provides a reliable source of water supply to farmers and also adds valuable plant nutrients and\\u000a organic matter to the soil. However, untreated or partially treated wastewater can introduce inorganic and organic contaminants,\\u000a including heavy metals, into agricultural lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transformation of copper\\u000a (Cu) in soils treated

Anitha Kunhikrishnan; Nanthi Sirangie Bolan; Ravi Naidu

409

Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards\\u000a by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination\\u000a of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for

Biserka Lucheva; Tsonio Tsonev; Peter Iliev

2011-01-01

410

The economics of cell phone reuse and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread consensus that landfill of waste electronic and electric equipment is not an acceptable end-of-use management\\u000a option. Diversion from landfill, either through voluntary or mandatory take-back and collection programs, overwhelmingly leads\\u000a to the recycling of e-waste, which typically consists of the recovery of a limited number of metals. Cell phones are currently\\u000a one of the few electronic products,

Roland Geyer; Vered Doctori Blass

2010-01-01

411

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 57 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

412

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

413

Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found

L. Gaines; M. Singh

1995-01-01

414

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

415

Batteries: Disposal, recycling and recovery. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental problems caused by discarded batteries. Citations examine improved collection methods which could enable more batteries to be recycled; recovery of toxic substances such as lead, cadmium, and mercury from scrap batteries; and design of batteries which contain little or no heavy metals. The remediation of contaminated soils, and legislation requiring safe battery disposal or recycling are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

416

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

1980-04-23

417

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO{sub 2} abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO{sub 2}, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

1999-07-01

418

Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel  

SciTech Connect

The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-01-01

419

Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

Santini, Alessandro [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Passarini, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.passarini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier [Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Instituto IMDEA Energy, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Morselli, Luciano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15

420

Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

Goonan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

421

National Center for Electronics Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used cellphones and laptops can't go in the recycling with the empty soda cans and cereal boxes. So where do they go to be recycled once consumers find new ones? The National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER) is working on that very problem. Visitors can click on the "Ecycling Basics" tab on the left side of the page to be taken to links to three websites that allow you to search by zip code or an interactive map of the U.S. In the "Resources" tab on the left side of the page, there are many links to resources that include Advocacy Group Reports, Electronics Disposal Studies, Environmentally Sound Management Guidelines, and International documents. Visitors interested in keeping up with the news from NCER, can sign up for their newsletter in the Google groups box, which is located below the menu on the left side of the page.

422

The prospects for Recycling lead-acid batteries in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of dwindling resources of primary metal and growing environmental awareness, the recycle of lead is becoming increasingly necessary in India and other countries. A perusal of supply and demand projections for India reveals a lead supply shortfall of 68,300 tonnes by the year 2000. With a stagnation of primary metal production, the lead resources contained within spent batteries provide an excellent opportunity for the secondary recovery industry. This article cites various processes used in India to recover lead from spent batteries. In addition, a modified electrochemical method which is currently being adopted is described.

Venkateswaran, K. V.; Prabhakar Rethinaraj, J.; Visvanathan, S.

1990-10-01

423

Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

424

Process to recycle shredder residue  

DOEpatents

A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

2001-01-01

425

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

426

Automobile Recycling Policy: Findings and Recommendations  

E-print Network

This report focuses on recycling. As an objective neutral party, MIT has compiled a knowledge base that examines the many complex issues relating to re-cycling. Although this report was prepared at the request of the ...

Field, Frank

427

Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

Settanni, Barbara

1990-01-01

428

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-print Network

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

429

75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...developments, including the recycling of electronic products...Currently, most discarded consumer electronics end up in...caused by electronic waste, American businesses...their use and eventual recycling, recovery, and disposal...leads as a responsible consumer, my...

2010-11-19

430

Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents  

E-print Network

new asphalt binder. The high temperature Superpave TM Performance Grade (PG) specifications for recycled asphalt binders were found to be highly dependent on the aged asphalt. In addition, as the amount of saturates in the aromatic recycling agent...

Madrid, Richard Charles

2012-06-07

431

Metal stocks and sustainability  

PubMed Central

The relative proportions of metal residing in ore in the lithosphere, in use in products providing services, and in waste deposits measure our progress from exclusive use of virgin ore toward full dependence on sustained use of recycled metal. In the U.S. at present, the copper contents of these three repositories are roughly equivalent, but metal in service continues to increase. Providing today's developed-country level of services for copper worldwide (as well as for zinc and, perhaps, platinum) would appear to require conversion of essentially all of the ore in the lithosphere to stock-in-use plus near-complete recycling of the metals from that point forward. PMID:16432205

Gordon, R. B.; Bertram, M.; Graedel, T. E.

2006-01-01

432

Reduction of radioactive secondary waste with steam reforming in treatment of waste TBP/dodecane  

SciTech Connect

Waste tributyl phosphate (TBP) and normal dodecane generated from R and D activities on recycle of nuclear fuel has been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). If it is incinerated, a large quantity of contaminated phosphorous compounds will be generated as radioactive secondary wastes. The objective of this study is to reduce the generation of the radioactive secondary wastes by the treatment of the waste TBP/dodecane using steam reforming system. We constructed the demonstration scale steam reforming system which consists of a gasification chamber for vaporization of wastes, a metal mesh filter for removal of radioactive nuclides from gasified wastes, a combustion chamber, and scrubbers for removal of phosphorous oxides. We conducted process demonstration tests using waste TBP/dodecane with 0.07 g/L of uranium. We studied the temperature dependence of the gasification ratio of inorganic phosphorus compounds formed by pyrolysis of TBP in the gasification chamber and removal of uranium by the filter. As the results, more than 90% of phosphorus compounds were gasified from the gasification chamber at temperature of 600 deg. C or more, and the uranium concentration in the waste water generated from the off-gas treatment system is under the detection limits. The waste water containing the separated phosphorus compounds can be discharged into the river or the sea as the liquid wastes in which uranium concentration is under the regulatory level. These results show the steam reforming system is effective in the reduction of radioactive secondary waste in the treatment of TBP/dodecane. (authors)

Sone, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2007-07-01

433

Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassembly and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.

NONE

1996-02-01

434

Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

1995-12-31

435

Waste Management and Recycling in Lab Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom  

E-print Network

Waste Management and Recycling in Lab · Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom · Electronic odors and collect the first rinse with its associated hazardous waste stream), remove or deface recycle it! · MIT recycled 2773 tons of waste in 2010 · Remember b onl hat o need!· Remember buy only what

Cohen, Robert E.

436

What Makes a Recycler?A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and motivational factors represent important but neglected topics in the study of recycling behavior. This article examines differences in knowledge, motives, and demographic characteristics of people who have the opportunity to recycle voluntarily. Information on these variables was obtained for 197 households in Illinois. The results indicated that recyclers in general were more aware of publicity about recycling and

Joanne Vining; Angela Ebreo

1990-01-01

437

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin  

E-print Network

Recycling will take only a few minutes but will have a profound impact on the environment. MIXED PAPER White.housing.sc.edu/sus_about.html All recycling centers look something like this. Have you found yours yet? #12;What to Recycle? Recycling an aluminum can uses only 5% as much energy as it does to make one from raw materials. GLASS Clear

Almor, Amit

438

Progress in the development of recycling processes for electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

Disposition of electric vehicle (EV) batteries after they have reached the end of their useful life is an issue that could impede the widespread acceptance of EVs in the commercial market. This is especially true for advanced battery systems where working recycling processes have not as yet been established. The DOE sponsors an Ad Hoc Electric Vehicle Battery Readiness Working Group to identify barriers to the introduction of commercial EVs and to advise them of specific issues related to battery reclamation/recycling, in-vehicle battery safety, and battery shipping. A Sub-Working Group on the reclamation/recycle topic has been reviewing the status of recycling process development for the principal battery technologies that are candidates for EV use from the near-term to the long-term. Recycling of near-term battery technologies, such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, is occurring today and it is believed that sufficient processing capacity can be maintained to keep up with the large number of units that could result from extensive EV use. Reclamation/recycle processes for midterm batteries are partially developed. Good progress has been made in identifying processes to recycle sodium/sulfur batteries at a reasonable cost and pilot scale facilities are being tested or planned. A pre-feasibility cost study on the nickel/metal hydride battery also indicates favorable economics for some of the proposed reclamation processes. Long-term battery technologies, including lithium-polymer and lithium/iron disulfide, are still being designed and developed for EVs, so descriptions for prototype recycling processes are rather general at this point. Due to the long time required to set up new, full-scale recycling facilities, it is important to develop a reclamation/recycling process in parallel with the battery technologies themselves.

Jungst, R.G.; Clark, R.P.

1994-08-01

439

Progress in the development of recycling processes for electric vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposition of electric vehicle (EV) batteries after they have reached the end of their useful life is an issue that could impede the widespread acceptance of EV's in the commercial market. This is especially true for advanced battery systems where working recycling processes have not as yet been established. The DOE sponsors an Ad Hoc Electric Vehicle Battery Readiness Working Group to identify barriers to the introduction of commercial EV's and to advise them of specific issues related to battery reclamation/recycling, in-vehicle battery safety, and battery shipping. A Sub-Working Group on the reclamation/recycle topic has been reviewing the status of recycling process development for the principal battery technologies that are candidates for EV use from the near-term to the long-term. Recycling of near-term battery technologies, such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, is occurring today and it is believed that sufficient processing capacity can be maintained to keep up with the large number of units that could result from extensive EV use. Reclamation/recycle processes for midterm batteries are partially developed. Good progress has been made in identifying processes to recycle sodium/sulfur batteries at a reasonable cost and pilot scale facilities are being tested or planned. A pre-feasibility cost study on the nickel/metal hydride battery also indicates favorable economics for some of the proposed reclamation processes. Long-term battery technologies, including lithium-polymer and lithium/iron disulfide, are still being designed and developed for EV's, so descriptions for prototype recycling processes are rather general at this point. Due to the long time required to set up new, full-scale recycling facilities, it is important to develop a reclamation/recycling process in parallel with the battery technologies themselves.

Jungst, R. G.; Clark, R. P.

440

School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

441

Super recycled water: quenching January 30, 2014  

E-print Network

purifying" wastewater, plus recycling waste to replace concrete We know water is a precious resource purifying" this water, which is then reused in the cooling towers that support our high performance- 1 - Super recycled water: quenching computers January 30, 2014 Conserving, recycling and "super

442

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2012-09-05

443

Chapter 3 The Global Water Recycling Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives an overview of the current situation of water recycling in the world. Starting from the history of wastewater recycling, the objectives for recycling in the 21st century are identified. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. An overview of existing projects will be given for

B. Van der Bruggen

2010-01-01

444

Recycling Technology: Can It Be Taught?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the content of a seminar-type engineering course dealing with materials reutilization (recycling). The course, consisting of lecture and discussion by various faculty and outside experts as well as student presentations of research papers on recycling topics, is intended to investigate current areas in which recycling of…

Clum, James A.; Loper, Carl R., Jr.

445

Recycled Office Paper: Why It Costs More.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses obstacles to making recycled office paper cheaper. Explains how the economics of recycled office paper discourages recycling by commodity mills. Includes discussion of integrated and nonintegrated mills, commodity and specialty mills, specialty printing and writing mills, postconsumer material, supply and demand, and economic…

Usherson, Judy

1992-01-01

446

WasteTraining Booklet Waste & Recycling Impacts  

E-print Network

Mania is an international campus waste and recycling competition for college and university recycling programs to promoteWasteTraining Booklet #12;Waste & Recycling Impacts Environment: The majority of our municipal solid waste is buried in landfills or incinerated. In 2010, 29 million tons of waste was incinerated

Saldin, Dilano

447

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY  

E-print Network

#12;ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Volume 1 Pollution Abatement Office. Funds were also provided by BC Auto Recyclers, the BC Ministry of Environment 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. Vm3H7 #12;BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE AUTO RECYCLING

448

Recycling at Mooov-In 2011  

E-print Network

Cardboard Recycling at Mooov-In 2011 For the second year in a row, Division of Housing and Food Service (DHFS) and Recycling & Sustainability teamed up to divert as much cardboard as possible from area landfills. In addition to the paper, cardboard, aluminum and plastic recycling available in all residence

Julien, Christine

449

Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of recycled aggregates can minimize environmental impact and slow the huge consumption of natural resources used for concrete applications. However, recycled aggregates are not suitable for use in the production of High Performance Concrete (HPC) due to their relatively high absorption capacity, unstable properties and recycled aggregates' weaker strength. Such inadequacies can be overcome through carefully examining the

Tsung-Yueh Tu; Yuen-Yuen Chen; Chao-Lung Hwang

2006-01-01

450

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

451

Energy and Environmental Considerations in Recycling  

E-print Network

;How Recycling Works: Collection · Factors to consider: o Infrastructure o Convenience for consumers (waste producers) o Quality of recyclables · Collection methods: o Drop-off centers o Buy-back centers (e.g. CRV) o Curbside collection Mixed waste Single-stream/commingled recyclables Source separation #12

Budker, Dmitry

452

Campus Recycling: Everyone Plays a Part.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad appeal of recycling makes it the most widespread and popular campus environmental activity. Recycling programs have a wide variety of designs and can fit into an overall waste management strategy, but effective planning for campus recycling requires awareness of a variety of issues and needs. (Author/MSE)

Ching, Raymond; Grogan, Robert

1992-01-01

453

Recycled Unbound Base Pooled Fund Study  

E-print Network

absorption ­! Un-Hydrated cement increases strength and durability ·! Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP suggested nomenclature for RAP ­!Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) ·! Hot mix asphalt (HMA) layer ­!Full depth to as RAP #12;RESULTS OF SURVEY BY RMRC 2009 The Usage, Storage and Testing of Recycled Materials #12

Minnesota, University of

454

Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete  

E-print Network

.ORG 4000 4500 5000 Control 4h 1d 7d Age of Slurry 28-dCompressiveS Reclaimers w/Gray Water Recycling WWW. NRMCA.ORG Gray Water Recycling Monitoring gray water Specific gravity Temperature Age Plumbing back1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo

455

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

ScienceCinema

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2013-06-05

456

The status of recycling of waste rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of recycling of waste rubber in protecting the environment and conserving energy is discussed. Various kinds of recycling approaches to waste rubber are summed up, such as reclaiming energy as fuel, reuse of the products of thermal decomposition, cleaning of leaking oil, reuse after simple modification, regenerative rubber and powdered rubber (PR). Recycling as PR is covered in

Yi Fang; Maosheng Zhan; Ying Wang

2001-01-01

457

State-of-the-art recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer electronics giant Matsushita has opened up the METEC (Matsushita Eco Technology Center Company) recycling plant in Japan. The center, the largest of its kind in Japan, opened in 2001 in response to Japan's new law for recycling specific kinds of home appliances. The Hyogo plant recycles all four appliances specified in the law: television sets, refrigerators, air conditioners, and

T. S. Perry

2002-01-01

458

Toward a Rationale for Recycling in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages educators to design new strategies to incorporate a range of options that include teaching recycling and waste management in schools to ensure recycling behavior and more participation in waste management. States that more education will make the difference and that recycling should be a part of the school curriculum. Lists major…

Cherif, Abour H.

1995-01-01

459

The Hang-Ups on Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While all seem to agree that recycling will alleviate solid waste problems and energy and mineral shortages, recycling is, at present, bogged down by the thin market for recycled materials, the recessionary business picture, the vertical integration of many companies, unfavorable tax laws, and high rail freight rates. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

460

Evaluation of phosphate thermodynamic properties for spent electrolyte recycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation of the phosphate conversion technique was undertaken and evaluated for application to the recycle process of the spent electrolyte generated from metal electrorefining process. In order to confirm the conversion behaviors of fission product (FP) chlorides to the phosphates, conversion experiments were carried out for some alkali metal, alkaline earth metals and rare-earth elements and their results were compared with that of thermodynamic calculations of previous study [I. Amamoto, H. Kofuji, M. Myochin et al., in: Proceedings of Global 2007, Boisi, Idaho, USA, 2007]. Among these elements, rare-earth chlorides were converted into phosphates and Cs was not, according to the prediction by the calculation. As for alkaline earth metals, their equilibrium constants were nearly 1 based on the results of the calculations, the conversion reactions were difficult to occur. In addition, it was clarified that phosphates were thermally unstable, easily to decompose at higher temperature, through the measurements of their heat flow and vapor pressure.

Kofuji, Hirohide; Amamoto, Ippei; Yasumoto, Masaru; Sasaki, Kazuya; Myochin, Munetaka; Terai, Takayuki

2009-06-01

461

Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

History, National M.

2012-06-26

462

Recycling of auto shredder residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15%

Menad Nourreddine

2007-01-01

463

How to Succeed in Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed manual for the establishment and maintenance of a recycling center. Presented in steps, it covers the following: Start Up; Operation (glass, paper, aluminum cans, etc., troubles and recommendations); and Key Addresses of organizations able to supply helpful information. (LK)

Ross, Mark

1973-01-01

464

Centralized consolidation\\/recycling center  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation\\/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation

L. T. St. Georges; A. D. Poor

1995-01-01

465

Estimation of continental precipitation recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is

Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

1993-01-01

466

Flexural Test On Recycled Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socio-environmental scenario increased the nature resources concern beyond products and subproducts reuse. Recycling is the approach for a material or energy reintroducing in productive system. This method allows the reduction of garbage volume dumped in environment, saving energy and decreasing the requirement of natural resources use. In general, the ending of expanded polystyrene is deposited sanitary landfills or garbage

P. N. S. Schmidt; M. O. H. Cioffi; H. J. C. Voorwald; J. L. Silveira

2011-01-01

467

Chemical recycling of scrap composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

1994-01-01

468

Chemical solutions for greywater recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents

Marc Pidou; Lisa Avery; Tom Stephenson; Paul Jeffrey; Simon A. Parsons; Shuming Liu; Fayyaz A. Memon; Bruce Jefferson

2008-01-01

469

NATURAL SURFACTANTS IN PAPER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to introduce new types of surfactants based on renewable materials (sugar surfactants) for use in ink removal from recycled paper. By applying green chemistry approaches we not only will solve an important industry and environmental problem but...