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1

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-print Network

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

2

ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

3

The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

4

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

5

Alkali metal ions through glass: a possible radioactive waste management application  

E-print Network

ALKALI METAL IONS THROUGH GLASS: A POSSIBLE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPLICATION A Thesis by ROBERT ALLAN JONES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1996 Major Subject: Health Physics ALKALI METAL IONS THROUGH GLASS: A POSSIBLE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPLICATION A Thesis by ROBERT ALLAN JONES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Jones, Robert Allan

1996-01-01

6

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

2010-04-29

7

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, the user should be able to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

8

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-07-06

9

Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass  

SciTech Connect

The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1994-05-02

10

Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

Bayrakal, S.

1993-09-30

11

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

12

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

13

Luminescent monitoring of metal dititanium triphosphates as promising materials for radioactive waste confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of luminescent probes for control over the structural state of MTi 2(PO 4) 3 double metal phosphates as host materials for radioactive waste confinement is examined. Luminescence spectra of pure and metal (Al, In, V) and rare-earth (Pr, Sm, Dy) doped MTi 2(PO 4) 3 (M = Li, Na, K) phosphate compounds (in crystalline and related amorphous forms) under X-ray, VUV (synchrotron radiation), UV and visible light excitations are analyzed. Electronic structure and absorption spectra of NaTi 2(PO 4) 3 crystals are calculated by the full-potential LAPW method. The origin of the self and impurity emission bands of MTi 2(PO 4) 3 materials is defined. It was shown that nitrogen laser with 337.1 nm generation wavelength is the most effective excitation source for remote monitoring of incorporation of various types of waste elements into MTi 2(PO 4) 3 hosts and for control over states of these hosts during storage of radioactive waste.

Nedilko, S.; Hizhnyi, Yu.; Chukova, O.; Nagornyi, P.; Bojko, R.; Boyko, V.

2009-03-01

14

Radioactive waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed.

N. Tsoulfanidis; R. G. Cochran

1991-01-01

15

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is  

E-print Network

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is collected by the RSO. 2. Dry radioactive waste must be segregated by isotope. 3. Liquid radioactive waste must be separated by isotope. 4. Liquid frequently and change them if contaminated. 5. Use radioactive waste container to collect the waste. 6. Check

Jia, Songtao

16

Radioactive Waste Management Basis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Perkins, B K

2009-06-03

17

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

1990-04-24

18

Radioactive waste material melter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

19

Radioactive Wastes. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are

Fox, Charles H.

20

Viscoplasticity of simulated high-level radioactive waste glass containing platinum group metal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear rate dependency of the viscosity of three simulated high-level radioactive waste glasses containing 0, 1.2 and 4.5 wt% platinum group metals (PGMs) was examined at a temperature range of 1173-1473 K by a rotating viscometer. Shear stress when the shear rate equals zero, i.e. yield stress, was also measured by capillary method. The viscosity of the glass containing no PGM was shear rate-independent Newtonian fluid. On the other hand, the apparent viscosity of the glasses containing PGMs increased with decreasing shear rate, and nonzero amount of yield stresses were detected from both glasses. The viscosity and yield stress of the glass containing 4.5 wt% PGMs was roughly one to two orders of magnitude greater than the glass containing 1.2 wt% PGMs. These viscoplastic properties were numerically expressed by Casson equation.

Uruga, Kazuyoshi; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji

2014-09-01

21

Radioactive mixed waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

1993-02-01

22

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

1980-04-23

23

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01

24

Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282  

SciTech Connect

At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Waggoner, Charles [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, MS 39762 (United States)

2012-07-01

25

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

26

THERMODYNAMICS OF THE VOLATILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METALS IN THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

We are proposing to perform a detailed study of the volatilization behavior of the U, Pu and possibly Am under conditions relevant to the thermal treatment (destruction) of actinide-containing organic-based mixed and radioactive wastes. The primary objective of this 3-year projec...

27

Process for treating radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for treating radioactive sludge waste wasted in a nuclear power plant comprises the steps of pulverizing the radioactive sludge waste into dry powder which is combustible, burning the powder into ashes, and pelletizing the ashes. The radioactive sludge waste including granular ion-exchange resins, powder resins, filter sludge, etc. is reduced in volume by subjecting to combustion.

M. Hirano; S. Horiuchi

1985-01-01

28

Disposal of radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening.

Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

1984-05-01

29

Treatment of Radioactive Metallic Waste from Operation of Nuclear Power Plants by Melting - The German Way for a Consistent Recycling to Minimize the Quantity of Radioactive Waste from Operation and Dismantling for Disposal - 12016  

SciTech Connect

During maintenance of nuclear power plants, and during their decommissioning period, a large quantity of radioactive metallic waste will accrue. On the other hand the capacity for final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany is limited as well as that in the US. That is why all procedures related to this topic should be handled with a maximum of efficiency. The German model of consistent recycling of the radioactive metal scrap within the nuclear industry therefore also offers high capabilities for facilities in the US. The paper gives a compact overview of the impressive results of melting treatment, the current potential and further developments. Thousands of cubic metres of final disposal capacity have been saved. The highest level of efficiency and safety by combining general surface decontamination by blasting and nuclide specific decontamination by melting associated with the typical effects of homogenization. An established process - nationally and internationally recognized. Excellent connection between economy and ecology. (authors)

Wegener, Dirk [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Kluth, Thomas [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

2012-07-01

30

Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices  

SciTech Connect

A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

1981-05-01

31

Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: Glass monoliths vs. metal matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matric composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

Jardine, L. J.; Carlton, R. E.; Steindler, M. J.

1981-05-01

32

Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth had very good capacity for these two metals. However, the mechanical strength of Fullers earth granules available commercially was not sufficient for use in a column. In this study chitosan was used as a binder to make Fullers earth beads and were used for adsorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Hasan, Md. Shameem

33

Final disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

Freiesleben, H.

2013-06-01

34

Process and apparatus for treating radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for treating radioactive waste. This process consists of: 1.) providing radioactive waste comprising at least one of radioactive liquid waste and radioactive waste slurry each of solid matter and water; 2.) conducting the radioactive waste to a first waste feed tank; 3.) Evaporating a portion of the water in an evaporator; 4.) withdrawing the evaporated

S. Horiuchi; M. Hirano; T. Saito

1986-01-01

35

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

36

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal ............................................................................................ 7-2 II. Radiation Control Technique #2 Instructions for Preparation of Radioactive Waste

Slatton, Clint

37

"LOW-LEVEL " RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

E-print Network

Internationally, nuclear power waste is categorized as high, intermediate, or low-level waste. In the U.S. nuclear power waste is either high or so-called low-level, with what other nations consider intermediate included in the lowlevel category. In the US, low-level radioactive waste is defined in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and its 1985 amendments (P.L. 99-240) as radioactive material that is: not high-level radioactive waste or irradiated nuclear fuel not uranium, thorium or other ore tailings or waste from extraction and concentration for source material content classified as low-level radioactive waste by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Low-level radioactive waste is divided into four classesA, B, C and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) with A being the least concentrated and C being more concentrated and requiring longer institutional controls (10 CFR 61.55). Classes A, B and C are utility liabilities but states were intended to provide disposal. 1 As of the 1985 Low Level Radioactive Amendments Act, Greater Than Class C waste was designated a Department of Energy responsibility, and that waste is often stored with the high level irradiated fuel at nuclear power reactors, both awaiting a final repository.

Is Not; Low Risk

38

Radioactive Waste Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

39

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both radioactive materials  

E-print Network

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both as noted on the list, you do not have a mixed waste and it may be managed as a normal radioactive waste radioactive waste after initially dating the container, the hold for decay time is extended, but you cannot

Straight, Aaron

40

High-Level Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and

Hayden, Howard C.

1995-01-01

41

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

42

Radioactive waste disposal and geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an excellent, well-presented treatise on the nature and types of radioactive wastes, disposal alternatives and strategies, radionuclide release and disposal models, geologic repositories, natural analogues, subsea-bed options, and low-level wastes. The authors provide national and international perspectives on radioactive waste disposal problems. They carefully dissected each issue, treating its pros and cons equally. Moreover, they is careful

K. B. Krauskopf

1988-01-01

43

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01

44

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of

V. T. Gotovchikov; A. V. Ivanov; E. A. Filippov

1998-01-01

45

75 FR 68840 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Oregon Specialty Metals......... Radioactive Waste 186,000 kilograms Return of U.S. Canada...

2010-11-09

46

Process for treating radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-beta-(Aminoethyl)-gamma-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (NH2(CH2)2NH(CH2)3SI(OCH3)3) as a silane coupling agent and SiO(2 -x)(ONa)x\\/2(OH)x\\/2 as colloidal silica are mixed into a radioactive liquid waste containing sodium sulfate as a main component, coming from a boiling water-type, nuclear power plant as an effluent. The resulting mixed radioactive liquid waste is supplied into a vessel provided with a rotating shaft with blades. The rotating shaft is

K. Chino; F. Kawamura; M. Kikuchi; H. Yusa

1982-01-01

47

USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research, development and demonstration programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment are described. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas were selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting.

Vath, J. E.

48

Radioactive waste problems in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various governmental bodies responsible for its regulation is in

O. Bridges; J. W. Bridges

1995-01-01

49

Process for treating radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aqueous solution containing granular ion exchange resin and filter aid as a radioactive waste generated from a nuclear power plant is supplied to the casing of a centrifugal film dryer. The dryer comprises a casing, a rotating shaft inserted in the casing , rotating blades fixed to the rotating shaft within the casing, and a heating means for heating

K. Chino; E. Ga; S. Horiuchi; M. Kikuchi; A. Oda

1981-01-01

50

Radioactivity and nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The nature and consequences of ionising radiation are examined at the physical, biological and medical level. Accounts are given of the origins of radioactive waste in various countries around the world. Also investigated are the present policies adopted by various nations in their processing, storage and disposal practices. The presentation of the scientific basis allows discussion of the options for methods of disposal.

Lau, F.

1987-01-01

51

Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006  

SciTech Connect

This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Perkins, B K

2011-08-31

52

Method for solidifying aqueous radioactive wastes for noncontaminating storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method for solidifying high and medium radioactivity and\\/or actinide containing aqueous waste concentrates or fine-grained solid wastes suspended in water for final noncontaminating storage. The waste concentrates or suspensions are set, by evaporation, to a water content in the range between 40 and 80 percent by weight, and a solid content whose metal ion and\\/or metal oxide component lies between

R. Koster; U. Riege; K. Scheffler

1982-01-01

53

Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

1995-12-31

54

Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. Np, Am, Cm) 40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, Tc, Zr, I, Cs) 80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. Cs, Sr) 50kg and plutonium

A Toor; R Buck

2000-01-01

55

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

56

Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement, or CVID. It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times. The radioactive waste management problem in fact offers a prospect for international participation to engage the DPRK constructively. DPRK nuclear dismantlement, when accompanied with a concerted effort for effective radioactive waste management, can be a mutually beneficial goal.

Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

2005-04-01

57

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2010-07-01

58

Rev August 2006 Radiation Safety Manual Section 14 Radioactive Waste  

E-print Network

Rev August 2006 Radiation Safety Manual Section 14 ­ Radioactive Waste Page 14-1 Section 14 Radioactive Waste Contents A. Proper Collection, Disposal, and Packaging and Putrescible Animal Waste.........................14-8 a. Non-Radioactive Animal Waste

Wilcock, William

59

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2011-07-01

60

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

... 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2014-07-01

62

DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES  

E-print Network

The main objective of radioactive waste management is to protect people and their environment from the potential harmful effects of radioactive waste and to minimize the burden for future generations. Safe disposal of conditioned radioactive waste is considered the final step of waste management. Waste acceptance requirements, consistent with a disposal concept, should be defined either by national authorities or repository operators with the aim of meeting the safety goal of radioactive waste disposal. An important task for waste management organizations is to translate general waste acceptance requirements into detailed waste package specifications. Waste package specifications should be individually prepared and implemented for each type of radioactive waste package produced (considering both waste form and waste container) and should reflect specific characteristics of the waste package. Such specifications allow simpler and more accessible control and verification methods to be applied directly by the waste generators and disposal facility operators. Waste package specifications can also be directly implemented in quality assurance and quality control systems during waste processing and waste package control.

unknown authors

63

Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

Burns, R. E.

1975-01-01

64

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

65

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005...Mexico Tribes 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding...of wells used to dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR...

2012-07-01

66

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005...Mexico Tribes 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding...of wells used to dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR...

2010-07-01

67

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005...Mexico Tribes 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding...of wells used to dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR...

2013-07-01

68

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005...Mexico Tribes 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding...of wells used to dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR...

2011-07-01

69

Process for solidifying radioactive waste pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In storing of radioactive wastes by drying, pulverization and pelletizing, radioactive waste pellets are solidified with an alkali silicate solution as a filler, a substance having an action to harden the alkali silicate solution, and a substance having an action to absorb the water formed by the hardening reaction of the alkali silicate solution, or a substance having both actions

K. Funabashi; F. Kawamura; M. Kikuchi; H. Yusa

1985-01-01

70

Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01

71

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

SciTech Connect

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01

72

Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

NONE

1994-12-31

73

Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

NONE

1994-12-31

74

Identification of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

A literature review and survey were conducted on behalf of the US NRC Division of Waste Management to determine whether any commercial low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) could be considered hazardous as defined by EPA under 40 CFR Part 261. The purpose of the study was to identify broad categories of LLW which may require special management as radioactive mixed waste, and to help address uncertainties regarding the regulation of such wastes. Of 239 questionnaires sent out to reactor and non-reactor LLW generators, there were 91 responses representing 29% by volume of all low-level wastes disposed of at commercial disposal sites in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that the following waste types generic to commercial LLW may be potential radioactive mixed wastes: Wastes containing oil, disposed of by reactors and industrial facilities, and representing 4.2% of the total LLW volume reported in the survey. Wastes containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators, and representing 2.3% by volume of all wastes reported. Wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding and lead containers, representing <0.1% by volume of all wastes reported. Wastes containing chromium, i.e., process wastes from nuclear power plants which use chromates as corrosion inhibitors; these represent 0.6% of the total volume reported in the survey. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well.

Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

1986-01-01

75

RADIOACTIVE METAL MOBILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentialities, drawbacks, and limitations of ; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the removal of radioaetive metals are ; discussed. The biological effectiveness of EDTA is compared with that of several ; other chelating agents, with emphasis on CaNa-diethylene-; triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data are tabulated on the effect of DTAA and ; EDTA on the retention of Y⁹¹, Ce¹⁴⁴, Th²³⁴, Pu\\/sup

Catsch

1961-01-01

76

Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory Radioactive waste  

E-print Network

Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory waste Radioactive waste Solid radioactive waste or in a Perspex box. Liquid radioactive waste collect in a screw-cap plastic bottle, ½ or 1 L size. Place bottles in a tray to avoid spill Final disposal of both solid and radioactive waste into the yellow barrel

Maoz, Shahar

77

Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes  

SciTech Connect

The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

1999-12-03

78

Innovative solutions for new radioactive waste issues  

SciTech Connect

Major changes in the nuclear industry are being driven by factors associated with how effectively the industry manages its radioactive waste; the control of environmental releases and dosages to personnel, the reduction of specific radioactivity in low level waste, and the siting of an interim storage facility or disposal site for spent fuel. Chem-Nuclear Systems` has focused its technology development initiatives on developing solutions that address these critical radwaste issues. Their technology development includes new disposal techniques for their Barnwell Waste Management Facility, and new processes such as Thermex{trademark}, an EDTA extraction process that minimize low level radioactive waste, and DuraChem{trademark} for vitrification of low level waste. Chem-Nuclear has also developed packages for storage and transport of spent fuel and high level waste. Finally, they have the only facility in the United States licensed for treatment of liquid mixed waste.

Braun, J.L. [Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-10-01

79

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive wastereactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industryand discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

80

Radioactive waste management centers: an approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management centers would satisfy the need for a cost-effective, sound management system for nuclear wastes by the industry and would provide a well integrated solution which could be understood by the public. The future demands for nuclear waste processing and disposal by industry and institutions outside the United States Government are such that a number of such facilities

Lotts

1980-01-01

81

The Current Radioactive Waste Management In Romania  

E-print Network

In 1957, Romania commissioned a Russian-designed VVR-S research reactor used for scientific activities and radioisotope production. This reactor is now planned for decommissioning. An American TRIGA-type research reactor has been in use since 1978. The first Canadian CANDU-6 type power reactor was commissioned in December 1996 and is in commercial operation. The radioactive waste management in Romania followed decentralized on-site strategies and implementation programs in different stages. The issue of a national policy and adequate integrated strategies becomes more and more a necessity in order to assure the safe management of all radioactive waste and provide public and environment protection at the levels recommended by international standards. A national organization, responsible for radioactive waste management, is a possible option in the future. The current radioactive waste management practices on the nuclear sites in Romania, and the projects for the fuel cycle waste m...

V. Andrei; F. Glodeanu; I. Rotaru; T. Chirica

2000-01-01

82

Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration

S. N. Rudnick; D. Leith; M. W. First

1976-01-01

83

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of

Vitaly T. Gotovchikov; Alexander V. Ivanov; Eugene A. Filippov

1999-01-01

84

RADIOACTIVE WASTES--ORIGIN, HAZARDS AND TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

When energy is produced by nuclear fission, radioactive wastes also are ; obtained. These are formed in all steps from the mining of uranium ore to the ; operation of reactors. They also arise from the application of radioactive ; nuclides in industry and research. Due to the action of the radiation on the ; different organs in the human

Kinell

1962-01-01

85

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

86

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

87

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

88

Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital  

PubMed Central

Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

2010-01-01

89

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

90

Radioactive waste isolation: a national problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal aim of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program is to develop repositories in several different rock formations in various parts of the country. Rocks such as salt, shale, limestone, and granite may qualify as host media for the disposition of radioactive wastes in the proper environments. In general, the only requirement for any rock formation or storage

Lomenick

1977-01-01

91

Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bezpe?nostn aspekty mana?mentu rdioaktvneho odpadu In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short- lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-

Peter W. Brennecke

92

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27

93

Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area  

SciTech Connect

EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

NONE

1996-08-01

94

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOEpatents

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1998-01-01

95

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOEpatents

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

Day, D.E.

1998-05-12

96

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2012-07-01

97

Collection and Segregation of Radioactive Waste. Principals for Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes are generated by all activities which utilize radioactive materials as part of their processes. Generally such activities include all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle (for power generation) and non-fuel cycle activities. The increasing production of radioisotopes in a Member State without nuclear power must be accompanied by a corresponding development of a waste management system. An overall waste management scheme consists of the following steps: segregation, minimization, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. To achieve a satisfactory overall management strategy, all steps have to be complementary and compatible. Waste segregation and minimization are of great importance mainly because they lead to cost reduction and reduction of dose commitments to the personnel that handle the waste. Waste characterization plays a significant part in the waste segregation and waste classification processes, it implicates required waste treatment process including the need for the safety assessment of treatment conditioning and storage facilities.

Dziewinska, K.M.

1998-09-28

98

Method for solidification of radioactive and other hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

Solidification of liquid radioactive waste, and other hazardous wastes, is accomplished by the method of the invention by incorporating the waste into a porous glass crystalline molded block. The porous block is first loaded with the liquid waste and then dehydrated and exposed to thermal treatment at 50-1,000.degree. C. The porous glass crystalline molded block consists of glass crystalline hollow microspheres separated from fly ash (cenospheres), resulting from incineration of fossil plant coals. In a preferred embodiment, the porous glass crystalline blocks are formed from perforated cenospheres of grain size -400+50, wherein the selected cenospheres are consolidated into the porous molded block with a binder, such as liquid silicate glass. The porous blocks are then subjected to repeated cycles of saturating with liquid waste, and drying, and after the last cycle the blocks are subjected to calcination to transform the dried salts to more stable oxides. Radioactive liquid waste can be further stabilized in the porous blocks by coating the internal surface of the block with metal oxides prior to adding the liquid waste, and by coating the outside of the block with a low-melting glass or a ceramic after the waste is loaded into the block.

Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Voskresenskaya, Elena N. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Kostin, Eduard M. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Pavlov, Vyacheslav F. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

99

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

100

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

101

Synthesis and Properties of Metallic Technetium and Technetium - Zirconium Alloys as a Radioactive Storage Waste Form to Stabilize the Technetium Waste Stream of the UREX+1 Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the AFCI program the UREX+1 process is proposed as one of the most promising technique to separate TRU (transuranic elements) form LWR spent nuclear fuel in the years to come. The application of UREX+1 results in good separation of the 5f-transuranics from the 4f-lanthanides, reduced waste volumes by eliminating the uranium content, and reduced waste package costs. Technetium-99 will

Frederic Poineau; Thomas Hartmann; Kenneth Czerwinski

2006-01-01

102

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics

L. E. Trevorrow; T. L. Gilbert; C. Luner; P. A. Merry-Libby; N. K. Meshkov; C. Yu

1985-01-01

103

Polyoxometalates for Radioactive Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The research project has two major goals: (1) the selective sequestration of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) cations, and technetium species, from tank waste solutions, using radiation-resistant and thermally-stable polyoxometalate anions as complexants, and (2) the conversion of complexed Ln/An/Tc to reduced oxide bronzes (e.g. MxWO3) under relatively mild conditions, and evaluation of the use of such bronzes as waste forms.

Pope, Michael T.; Bryan, Jeffrey

1999-06-01

104

POLYOXOMETALATES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The research project has two major goals: (1) the selective sequestration of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) cations, and technetium species, from tank waste solutions, using radiation-resistant and thermally-stable polyoxometalate anions as complexants, and (2) the conversion of complexed Ln/An/Tc to reduced oxide bronzes (e.g. MxWO3) under relatively mild conditions, and evaluation of the use of such bronzes as waste forms.

Pope, Michael T.

2000-06-01

105

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

106

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01

107

Electroflotation Purification of Radioactive Waste Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for purifying radioactive waste waters are reviewed. It is shown that the electrofiltration method with insoluble electrodes is promising at the stage of separation of liquid and solid phases. The arrangement, technical-economic characteristics, and a description of the operation of an electroflotator are given.

V. I. Il'in; V. A. Kolesnikov

2001-01-01

108

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

Moore, C.J.

2000-04-14

109

Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed

J. N. McFee; J. M. Langsted; M. E. Young; J. E. Day

2006-01-01

110

MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008  

E-print Network

k MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE Revised August 2008 Safety Services #12;MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES Page Minimisation 1 Streaming 2 Procedures 2 Keeping track of the activities placed for Appendices 4 and 5 22 Appendix 10 Flow chart of waste-streaming 23 #12;1 MANAGEMENT OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE

Davidson, Fordyce A.

111

1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal,  

E-print Network

1 INSTRODUCTION In the concept of geological radioactive waste disposal, argillite is being of the radioactive waste disposal, the host rock will be subjected to various thermo-hydro-mechanical loadings, thermal solicitation comes from the heat emitting from the radioactive waste packages. On one hand

Boyer, Edmond

112

Reduction of radioactive secondary waste with steam reforming in treatment of waste TBP/dodecane  

SciTech Connect

Waste tributyl phosphate (TBP) and normal dodecane generated from R and D activities on recycle of nuclear fuel has been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). If it is incinerated, a large quantity of contaminated phosphorous compounds will be generated as radioactive secondary wastes. The objective of this study is to reduce the generation of the radioactive secondary wastes by the treatment of the waste TBP/dodecane using steam reforming system. We constructed the demonstration scale steam reforming system which consists of a gasification chamber for vaporization of wastes, a metal mesh filter for removal of radioactive nuclides from gasified wastes, a combustion chamber, and scrubbers for removal of phosphorous oxides. We conducted process demonstration tests using waste TBP/dodecane with 0.07 g/L of uranium. We studied the temperature dependence of the gasification ratio of inorganic phosphorus compounds formed by pyrolysis of TBP in the gasification chamber and removal of uranium by the filter. As the results, more than 90% of phosphorus compounds were gasified from the gasification chamber at temperature of 600 deg. C or more, and the uranium concentration in the waste water generated from the off-gas treatment system is under the detection limits. The waste water containing the separated phosphorus compounds can be discharged into the river or the sea as the liquid wastes in which uranium concentration is under the regulatory level. These results show the steam reforming system is effective in the reduction of radioactive secondary waste in the treatment of TBP/dodecane. (authors)

Sone, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2007-07-01

113

Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

1987-03-01

114

Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034  

SciTech Connect

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

2012-07-01

115

Control of radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Bickford, D.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Hrma, P. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Bowan, B.W. II (West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

116

Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

Bray, L.A.

1996-08-13

117

Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line show that most contained concentrations of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu above the RSRLs. Overall, all concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs that were detected above background levels in soils collected around the perimeter of Area G and towards the Pueblo de San Ildefonso boundary were still very low and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

P. R. Fresquez

2007-02-28

118

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

1991-01-01

119

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01

120

Equipment for volume-reducing treatment of radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equipment for the volume-reducing treatment of a radioactive waste is disclosed. The equipment comprises means for drying and milling radioactive waste liquor, waste sludge, waste resin and the like generated from an atomic power plant, means for pelletizing the powder obtained from the drying and milling means and means for charging the pellet thus formed into a drum. The

S. Horiuchi; M. Hirano; S. Hirayama; H. Iinuma; R. Ishikawa

1984-01-01

121

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

1991-01-01

122

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-05-09

123

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-09-01

124

System for handling and storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

1982-07-19

125

System for handling and storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

Anderson, John K. (San Diego, CA); Lindemann, Paul E. (Escondido, CA)

1984-01-01

126

Management of radioactive materials and wastes: Issues and progress  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on radioactive waste management. Topics considered include the classification of radioactive materials and wastes, low-level wastes, water management for radioactive waste facilities, compact commissions, shallow land burial, storage, transport, socio-political considerations, emergency plans, radiation standards, public health, radiation protection, radiation hazards, biological radiation effects, the Three Mile Island-2 accident, and a methodology for calculating radiation doses.

Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.

1985-01-01

127

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Daro R. Gmez; Michael Tyacke

128

Performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current plans for permanent disposal of radioactive waste call for its emplacement in deep underground repositories mined from geologically stable rock formations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established regulations setting repository performance standards for periods of up to 10,000 years after disposal. Compliance with these regulations will be based on a performance assessment

J. E. Campbell; R. M. Cranwell

1988-01-01

129

The Spanish General Radioactive Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper mainly describes the strategies, the necessary actions and the technical solutions to be developed by ENRESA in the short, medium and long term, aimed at ensuring the adequate management of radioactive waste, the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities and other activities, including economic and financial measures required to carry them out. Starting with the Spanish administrative organization in this field, which identifies the different agents involved and their roles, and after referring to the waste generation, the activities to be performed in the areas of LILW, SF and HLW management, decommissioning of installations and others are summarized. Finally, the future management costs are estimated and the financing system currently in force is explained. The so-called Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan (6. GRWP), approved by the Spanish Government, is the 'master document' of reference where all the above mentioned issues are contemplated. In summary: The 6. GRWP includes the strategies and actions to be performed by Enresa in the coming years. The document, revised by the Government and subject to a process of public information, underlines the fact that Spain possesses an excellent infrastructure for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste, from the administrative, technical and economic-financial points of view. From the administrative point of view there is an organisation, supported by ample legislative developments, that contemplates and governs the main responsibilities of the parties involved in the process (Government, CSN, ENRESA and waste producers). As regards the technical aspect, the experience accumulated to date by Enresa is particularly significant, as are the technologies now available in the field of management and for dismantling processes. As regards the economic-financial basis, a system is in place that guarantees the financing of radioactive waste management costs. This system is based on the generation of funds up front, during the operating lifetime of the facilities, through the application of fees established by Statutory provisions. Finally, a mandatory mechanism of annual revision for both technical issues and economic and financial aspects, allows to have updated all the courses of action. (authors)

Espejo, J.M.; Abreu, A. [National Company for Radioactive Waste Limited Company (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain)

2008-07-01

130

Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

Barney, G.S.

1997-10-22

131

Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites  

SciTech Connect

Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

Michael J. Daly; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson

2001-04-22

132

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2010-06-21

133

Method of and apparatus for producing radioactive waste package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided is a method of producing radioactive waste package. By evaporating and drying, the radioactive waste is reduced to a radioactive powder which is formed into pellets in order to ease its disposal. The pellets are received in a container and then impregnated therein with a thermoplastic composition so as to be integrally solidify in the container. The prior technical

M. Hirano; S. Horiuchi

1981-01-01

134

CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

Marra, J.

2010-05-05

135

Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

Not Available

1993-07-01

136

78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR...Inc.; Class A radioactive The total Amend to...28, 2012; January waste as slightly quantity...facility, the Class A radioactive secondary waste will waste...

2013-02-04

137

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2011-06-23

138

Environmental impact of radioactive waste management in the nuclear industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes from the nuclear industry are classified into low, intermediate and high activity levels, and problems of their storage and release examined in detail. Current means of storage are considered with reference to processing of low and intermediate level liquid waste, processing of high level waste, processing of airborne waste, and ground disposal and processing of solid waste. Release

Colin R. Phillips; H. Lin Pai

1977-01-01

139

Low-level radioactive waste management: A national perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses two general topics on low-level radioactive waste management. Some comments on the reopening of the Barnwell, South Carolina, disposal site and the future of radioactive waste disposal in the United States are discussed, and a brief overview of recent contributions to state`s efforts by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program.

NONE

1995-11-01

140

A model approach to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield  

E-print Network

A model approach to radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield R. 5. Haszeldine* and C. Mc of the great environmentalproblems of our age is the safe disposal of radioactive waste for geological time periods. Britain is currently investigating a potential site for underground burial of waste, near

Haszeldine, Stuart

141

Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steps to be taken in the development of a methodology for the assessment of the long-term risks from radioactive waste disposal in deep, geologic media are outlined. The first phase involves the development of analytical models to represent the processes by which radioactive waste might leave the waste repository, enter the surface environment and eventually reach humans, and the definition

J. E. Campbell; R. T. Dillon; M. S. Tierney; H. T. Davis; P. E. McGrath; F. J. Pearson Jr.; H. R. Shaw; J. C. Helton; F. A. Donath

1978-01-01

142

Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and

HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

143

Process for treatment of detergent-containing radioactive liquid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detergent-containing radioactive liquid waste originating from atomic power plants is concentrated to have about 10 wt. % detergent concentration, then dried in a thin film evaporator, and converted into powder. Powdered activated carbon is added to the radioactive waste in advance to prevent the liquid waste from foaming in the evaporator by the action of surface active agents contained

K. Kamiya; K. Chino; K. Funabashi; S. Horiuchi; K. Motojima

1984-01-01

144

Future radioactive liquid waste streams study  

SciTech Connect

This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

Rey, A.S.

1993-11-01

145

Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloried and analyzed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by microorganisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions.

Francis, A.J.

1980-06-01

146

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

2008-06-05

147

Overview of techniques for volume reduction and immobilization of radioactive waste, as investigated at KEMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures to decrease the amount of radioactive waste generated by power plants, to decontaminate active material, and to reduce the final volume of the waste, e.g., by incineration or acid digestion are reviewed. Organic radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are treated adequately: only inorganic end-products remain, and they have a relatively small volume and are immobilized. Chemical, biological, and alteration processes therefore do not significantly increase the risk of storage, even if water intrudes the storage facility. The considerable volumes of activated and/or contaminated metal that remain after repair or decommissioning of the plants could be treated. Decontamination and melting may significantly reduce the volume of the final waste. It seems probable that estimates of waste volumes are too pessimistic, and relatively small storage facilities will be sufficient. Waste in those facilities presents unacceptable risk for the biosphere during the period it is considered as radioactive.

Kuypers, J.; Matteman, J. L.; Vanloon, A. J.

148

Ultimate disposal of low and medium radioactive waste in France  

SciTech Connect

The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has been entrusted with the long-term management of radioactive waste. This paper presents the methodology of safety assessment used by ANDRA for a land disposal facility of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity. This methodology was used in the design of ``the Centre de stockage de l`Aube``.

Ringeard, C. [National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Environmental, Safety, Quality Dept.

1993-12-31

149

Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations was studied. The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multilayer disposal configurations were analyzed and compared.

Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

150

Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01

151

Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft  

SciTech Connect

A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

1990-06-01

152

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM)  

E-print Network

Radioactive Material Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form Declaration Form Exhibit to the Radioactive Waste Manual (RWM) 12/5/2013 (form date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM date) SLAC-I-760-2A08Z-001 (RWM number) Page 1 of 2 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DECLARATION FORM For RP use

Wechsler, Risa H.

153

Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

154

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

155

40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disposal: newly identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes D004-D011...from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011 wastes that...

2010-07-01

156

40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disposal: newly identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes D004-D011...from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011 wastes that...

2012-07-01

157

40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disposal: newly identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes D004-D011...from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011 wastes that...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disposal: newly identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes D004-D011...from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011 wastes that...

2013-07-01

159

40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.  

...disposal: newly identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes D004-D011...from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011 wastes that...

2014-07-01

160

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix H: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This report develops and presents estimates for a set of three values that represent a reasonable range for the packaging factors for several waste streams that are potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level waste disposal container divided by the original, as-generated or ``unpackaged,`` volume of the wastes loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors take into account any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. The three values developed represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated volume of waste for disposal, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. Three categories of greater-than-Class C low-level waste are evaluated in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other wastes. Estimates of reasonable packaging factors for the low, base, and high cases for the specific waste streams in each category are shown in Table H-1.

Quinn, G.; Grant, P.

1991-08-01

161

Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document  

SciTech Connect

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

1980-02-01

162

A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

1991-08-01

163

The political science of radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

Jacobi, L.R. Jr. [Texas Los Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

164

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-01-01

165

Magnetic nano-sorbents for fast separation of radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

In order to find a cost effective and environmentally benign technology to treat the liquid radioactive waste into a safe and stable form for resource recycling or ultimate disposal, this study investigates the separation of radioactive elements from aqueous systems using magnetic nano-sorbents. Our current study focuses on novel magnetic nano-sorbents by attaching DTPA molecules onto the surface of double coated magnetic nanoparticles (dMNPs), and performed preliminary sorption tests using heavy metal ions as surrogates for radionuclides. The results showed that the sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) onto the dMNP-DTPA conjugates was fast, the equilibrium was reached in 30 min. The calculated sorption capacities were 8.06 mg/g for Cd and 12.09 mg/g for Pb. After sorption, the complex of heavy elements captured by nano-sorbents can be easily manipulated and separated from solution in less than 1 min by applying a small external magnetic field. In addition, the sorption results demonstrate that dMNP-DTPA conjugates have a very strong chelating power in highly diluted Cd and Pb solutions (1-10 ?g/L). Therefore, as a simple, fast, and compact process, this separation method has a great potential in the treatment of high level waste with low concentration of transuranic elements compared to tradition nuclear waste treatment. (authors)

Zhang, Huijin [Environmental Science Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Kaur, Maninder [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Qiang, You [Environmental Science Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

2013-07-01

166

Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275  

SciTech Connect

The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-07-01

167

77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction...Policy Statement on Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction...Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No....

2012-05-01

168

78 FR 9746 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10...Scientific Class A radioactive Up to a maximum...Janurary 10, mixed waste total of 420 conforming...varying combinations radioactive disposition. Amend...imported mixed waste) in to: 1)...

2013-02-11

169

77 FR 20077 - Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70...Inc., February 14, 2012, radioactive waste tons of or disposal by a February...XW019, in the form of ash radioactive waste licensed facility...

2012-04-03

170

Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01

171

High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

Dukert, Joseph M.

172

Radioactive Waste Information for 1998 and Record-To-Date  

SciTech Connect

This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity; isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Integrated Waste Information System.

D. L. French; R. E. Tallman; K. A. Taylor

1999-07-01

173

PRETREATMENT OF LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTES FOR UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the experimental data on pretreatment of liquid radioactive wastes for underground disposal. The technologies of the pretreatment of low -, intermediate - and high- level radioactive wastes which is necessary to exclude the appearance of precipitates in geological formation are described in some detail. The pH values are controlled and addition of complexing agents (to form the

I. M. Kosareva; M. K. Savushkina; A. K. Pikaev

174

Radioactive and mixed waste management plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

This Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Plan for the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is written to meet the requirements for an annual report of radioactive and mixed waste management activities outlined in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive and mixed waste management activities during FY 1994 listed here include principal regulatory and environmental issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished.

NONE

1995-01-01

175

Method and apparatus for treatment of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive waste discharged from a radioactive substance handling equipment is dried and powdered, and the powder is pelletized. The resulting pellets are stored in an inner vessel of a store vessel having a double structure for a predetermined period to attenuate the radioactivity of the pellets. Then, the pellets are taken out from the store vessel and packed into

M. Hirano; S. Horiuchi; M. Takeshima; T. Taniguchi; H. Yusa

1981-01-01

176

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

1997-04-01

177

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive  

E-print Network

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive_and_Copeland.html #12;Nuclear power s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 2 First civil nuclear #12;Keeping hot fuel on the surface for 50-150 years s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6

178

Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal

C. J. Coleman; W. F. Kinard; N. E. Bibler; D. F. Bickford; W. G. Ramsey

1990-01-01

179

Taipower`s radioactive waste management program  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safety and radioactive waste management are the two major concerns of nuclear power in Taiwan. Recognizing that it is an issue imbued with political and social-economic concerns, Taipower has established an integrated nuclear backend management system and its associated financial and mechanism. For LLW, the Orchid Island storage facility will play an important role in bridging the gap between on-site storage and final disposal of LLW. Also, on-site interim storage of spent fuel for 40 years or longer will provide Taipower with ample time and flexibility to adopt the suitable alternative of direct disposal or reprocessing. In other words, by so exercising interim storage option, Taipower will be in a comfortable position to safely and permanently dispose of radwaste without unduly forgoing the opportunities of adopting better technologies or alternatives. Furthermore, Taipower will spare no efforts to communicate with the general public and make her nuclear backend management activities accountable to them.

Lee, B.C.C. [Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Nuclear Backend Management Dept.

1996-09-01

180

Radioactive Waste Management Procedures and Guidelines See Radiation Manual 1997 for further details  

E-print Network

1-24-03 Radioactive Waste Management Procedures and Guidelines See Radiation Manual 1997 PART I. Radioactive Waste A. Dry Waste 1. Labs must request a box from the Radioactive Waste program, and use only this box for accumulating their waste. 2. Place only radioactive material contaminated

181

Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

Roberts, Carlyle J.

1998-06-01

182

A powder metallurgy approach for production of innovative radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of producing a single metal-matrix composite form rather than two separate forms consisting of a cast metal alloy ingot (such as Type 316SS + Zr) and a ceramic glass-bonded zeolite Na{sub 12}(AlO{sub 2}){sub 12}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 12} has been demonstrated. This powder metallurgy approach consists of mixing the powder of the two separate waste forms together followed by compaction by hot isostatic pressing. Such a radioactive waste form would have the potential advantages of reducing the total waste volume, good thermal conductivity, stability, and surfaces with limited oxide layer formation. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Crawford, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhaduri, S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01

183

Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

1996-06-01

184

Analysis of radioactive waste and glass for a defense waste solidification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods have been developed and evaluated for supporting a high-level radioactive waste solidification plant. Radioactive defense waste from the Savannah River Plant will be combined with glass-making chemicals and melted at 1150°C to form borosilicate glass. This glass will be placed in safe permanent disposal. Remote methods for dissolving and analyzing melter feed and glass containing actual radioactive waste

C. J. Coleman; E. W. Baumann; N. E. Bibler; R. A. Dewberry; E. F. Sturcken

1987-01-01

185

Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

1984-07-24

186

Polyoxometalates for radioactive waste treatment. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'This research is directed towards the use of polyoxoanions of the early transition metals (primarily tungsten) as possible sequestrants and storage matrices for lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species. The latter substances are important radioactive components of tank wastes from spent commercial nuclear fuel, but are present in low proportion by mass. Technetium is a particularly troublesome component because it is highly mobile in groundwater and is volatilized in vitrification processes currently under examination for long-term storage. Scientific goals: synthesis and characterization of new and selective polyoxotungstate complexes of Ln{sup 3+}, An{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}; exploration of stable polyoxoanions containing Tc (using, in the first instance, Re as a nonradioactive surrogate); thermal conversion of polytungstate complexes to tungsten bronze materials for their evaluation as inert storage matrices. This report summarizes the results after 20 months of a 3-year project.'

Pope, M.T.

1998-06-01

187

Radioactive solid waste disposal at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current low-level radioactive solid waste disposal operations for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Depending on surface radiation levels, waste disposal operations are completed using various techniques and processes. In general, all disposal efforts are conducted by enhanced or greater confinement containment methods. The disposal operations described are (1) waste compaction operations, (2) low- and high-activity silo disposal, (3) supercompaction of waste containers, and (4) tumulus pad disposal.

Williams, L.C.

1988-01-01

188

Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex  

ScienceCinema

Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

None

2014-10-28

189

Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

Wallace, Bruce

1974-01-01

190

Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070  

SciTech Connect

This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2013-07-01

191

ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

192

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria: Maryport, Silloth 21, 22 Nov 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive  

E-print Network

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria: Maryport, Silloth 21, 22 Nov 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive waste in Cumbria http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/rsh/MRWS_2012.html Stuart/rsh/ Allerdale_and_Copeland.html #12;Nuclear power s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria: Maryport

193

Environmental restoration and management of low-level radioactive and mixed waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Management of radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) must address several major challenges. First, contaminants from some disposed wastes are leaching into the groundwater and these disposal sites must be remediated. Second, some of these ``legacy`` wastes, as well as currently generated radioactive wastes, are also contaminated with chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, and metals (i.e., mixed waste). Third, wastes containing long-lived radionuclides in concentrations above established limits have been determined unsuited for disposal on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Reflecting these challenges, ORNL`s strategy for managing its radioactive wastes continues to evolve with the development of improved technologies and site-specific adaptation of some standard technologies.

Kendrick, C.M.

1994-03-01

194

10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED...

2013-01-01

195

10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED...

2012-01-01

196

10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED...

2010-01-01

197

10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED...

2011-01-01

198

10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

...for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED...

2014-01-01

199

State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

1980-09-01

200

25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?  

...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? 170.903 Section 170...Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation 170.903...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of...

2014-04-01

201

25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? 170.903 Section 170...Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation 170.903...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of...

2012-04-01

202

25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? 170.903 Section 170...Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation 170.903...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of...

2011-04-01

203

25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? 170.903 Section 170...Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation 170.903...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of...

2010-04-01

204

25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? 170.903 Section 170...Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation 170.903...notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of...

2013-04-01

205

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of radioisotopes on soil was investigated in the ; laboratory to determine the behavior of lowlevel radioactive waste solutions ; discharged to the ground. Strontium, cesium, and plutonium distributions between ; soil and waste solution were studied. The effects of cation concentration and ; acidity were determined. The results of the distribution experiments, and ; material balance considerations,

W. E. PROUT

1958-01-01

206

High-level radioactive waste from light-water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of radioactive nuclei during the operation of a light-water reactor is traced, and their decay history is followed. The potential environmental impacts of this waste are calculated and shown to be comparable to those of other materials we produce. Assuming deep burial, it is shown that there are important time delays which prevent the waste from reaching the

Bernard Cohen

1977-01-01

207

Strategy for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy for waste disposal is proposed in which the repository would be situated in a crystalline rock mass beneath a blanket of sedimentary rocks whose ground-water flow characteristics are well understood. Such an approach exemplifies the concept of multiple barriers to the isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. This strategy has the advantages that (i) ground-water flow within

John D. Bredehoeft; Tidu Maini

1981-01-01

208

Toxicity reduction of Ontario hydro radioactive liquid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive liquid waste (RLW) system in Ontario Hydro's pressurised heavy water reactors collects drainage from a variety of sources ranging from floor drains to laundry waste. RLW effluent was intermittently toxic to rainbow trout andDaphnia magna during the first phase of Ontario's Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) Program, apparently as a result of the interaction of a variety

D. W. Rodgers; D. W. Evans; L. Vereecken Sheehan

1996-01-01

209

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different

P. Trocellier; V Badillo; N Barr; L Bois; C Cachoir; J. P Gallien; S Guilbert; F Mercier; C Tiffreau

1999-01-01

210

Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

Bem, Jlius; Krlk, Tom; Kuban?k, Jn; Va?ek, Ji?; Star, Old?ich

2014-11-01

211

Radioactive waste-Portland cement systems: II, leaching characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Crystal chemical stabilization of radioactive wastes can be achieved during clinkering of ordinary portland cement. Crystallographic relations predict that the radionuclide partitioning in the anhydrous clinkered phases will be maintained in the hydration products. The resulting hydration products are considered to be cementitious hydroxylated radiophases. Simulated leaching experiments demonstrate that the hydroxylated phases are stable and that waste element release rates are lower than for other cementitious waste forms. The formation of tobermorite as a reaction product limits the release of cesium. Radionuclide fixation is described in the context of commercial waste-cement systems, but is applicable to transuranic, medium- and low-level wastes.

Jantzen, C.M.

1984-10-01

212

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOEpatents

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

213

Vitrification advances for low level radioactive and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The EnviroGlass{reg_sign} vitrification technology has been developed by VECTRA Technologies for the purpose of stabilizing Low Level Radioactive (LLRW) and Mixed Wastes (LLMW) in a glass matrix for disposal. Applicable wastes include ion exchange resins, sodium tetraborate, soil, antifreeze, oils, chemical cleaning and decontamination solutions, inorganic sludges and slurries, medical and mixed wastes, and Dry Active Wastes (DAW), such as: paper, plastic, wood and debris. The Modular EnviroGlass{reg_sign} system is described, including designed criteria and functions of the major vitrification system components: waste feed, gasifier/melter, off-gas control, and auxiliary systems.

Mason, J.B. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

214

Vitrification advances for low level radioactive and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The EnviroGlase vitrification technology has been developed by VECTRA Technologies for the purpose of stabilizing Low Level Radioactive (LLRW) and Mixed Wastes (LLMW) in a glass matrix for disposal. Applicable wastes include ion exchange resins, sodium tetraborate, soil, antifreeze, oils, chemical cleaning and decontamination solutions, inorganic sludges and slurries, medical and mixed wastes, and Dry Active Wastes (DAW), such as: paper, plastic, wood and debris. The Modular EnviroGlass{reg_sign} system is described, including design criteria and functions of the major vitrification system components: waste feed, gasifier/melter, off-gas control, and auxiliary systems.

Mason, J.B. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

215

Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays.

Darsh T. Wasan; Alex D. Nikolov; D.P. Lamber; T. Bond Calloway; M.E. Stone

2005-03-12

216

Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

2003-02-24

217

Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces the necessity to take emergency measures and to use marine water for cooling of reactor zone in contravention of the technological regulations. In these cases significant amount of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition is being generated, the purification of which by traditional methods is close to impossible. According to the practice of elimination of the accident after-effects at NPP 'Fukushima' there are still no technical means for the efficient purification of liquid radioactive wastes of complex composition like marine water from radionuclides. Therefore development of state-of-the-art highly efficient facilities capable of fast and safe purification of big amounts of liquid radioactive wastes of complex physicochemical composition from radionuclides turns to be utterly topical problem. Cesium radionuclides, being extremely dangerous for the environment, present over 90% of total radioactivity contained in liquid radioactive wastes left as a result of accidents at nuclear power objects. For the purpose of radiation accidents aftereffects liquidation VNIIHT proposes to create a plant for LRW reprocessing, consisting of 4 major technological modules: Module of LRW pretreatment to remove mechanical and organic impurities including oil products; Module of sorption purification of LWR by means of selective inorganic sorbents; Module of reverse osmotic purification and desalination; Module of deep evaporation of LRW concentrates. The first free modules are based on completed technological and designing concepts implemented by VNIIHT in the framework of LLRW Project in the period of 2000-2001 in Russia for comprehensive treatment of LWR of atomic fleet. These industrial plants proved to be highly efficient and secure during their long operation life. Module of deep evaporation is a new technological development. It will ensure conduction of evaporation and purification of LRW of different physicochemical composition, including those containing hardness salts, resulted in generation of LRW concentrate 300-600 g/l. The method is based o

Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A. [All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology (VNIIKHT), Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

218

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different

L. E. Trevorrow; T. L. Gilbert; C. Luner; P. A. Merry-Libby; N. K. Meshkov; C. Yu

1985-01-01

219

Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste  

DOEpatents

Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

2006-10-03

220

Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group

S. R. Bander; M. E. Goldstein

1983-01-01

221

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

1994-09-01

222

Review and evaluation of metallic TRU nuclear waste consolidation methods  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy established the Commercial Waste Treatment Program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy waste treatment technology. In this report, viable methods are identified that could consolidate the volume of metallic wastes generated in a fuel reprocessing facility. The purpose of this study is to identify, evaluate, and rate processes that have been or could be used to reduce the volume of contaminated/irradiated metallic waste streams and to produce an acceptable waste form in a safe and cost-effective process. A technical comparative evaluation of various consolidation processes was conducted, and these processes were rated as to the feasibility and cost of producing a viable product from a remotely operated radioactive process facility. Out of the wide variety of melting concepts and consolidation systems that might be applicable for consolidating metallic nuclear wastes, the following processes were selected for evaluation: inductoslay melting, rotating nonconsumable electrode melting, plasma arc melting, electroslag melting with two nonconsumable electrodes, vacuum coreless induction melting, and cold compaction. Each process was evaluated and rated on the criteria of complexity of process, state and type of development required, safety, process requirements, and facility requirements. It was concluded that the vacuum coreless induction melting process is the most viable process to consolidate nuclear metallic wastes. 11 references.

Montgomery, D.R.; Nesbitt, J.F.

1983-08-01

223

Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement  

SciTech Connect

Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-01-01

224

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

225

Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-09-01

226

Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect

The CRD addresses the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3-Change 1, ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'', by providing the Secretarial Acquisition Executive (Level 0) scope baseline and the Program-level (Level 1) technical baseline. The Secretarial Acquisition Executive approves the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) critical decisions and changes against the Level 0 baseline; and in turn, the OCRWM Director approves all changes against the Level 1 baseline. This baseline establishes the top-level technical scope of the CRMWS and its three system elements, as described in section 1.3.2. The organizations responsible for design, development, and operation of system elements described in this document must therefore prepare subordinate project-level documents that are consistent with the CRD. Changes to requirements will be managed in accordance with established change and configuration control procedures. The CRD establishes requirements for the design, development, and operation of the CRWMS. It specifically addresses the top-level governing laws and regulations (e.g., ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act'' (NWPA), 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 63, 10 CFR Part 71, etc.) along with specific policy, performance requirements, interface requirements, and system architecture. The CRD shall be used as a vehicle to incorporate specific changes in technical scope or performance requirements that may have significant program implications. Such may include changes to the program mission, changes to operational capability, and high visibility stakeholder issues. The CRD uses a systems approach to: (1) identify key functions that the CRWMS must perform, (2) allocate top-level requirements derived from statutory, regulatory, and programmatic sources, and (3) define the basic elements of the system architecture and operational concept. Project-level documents address CRD requirements by further defining system element functions, decomposing requirements into significantly greater detail, and developing designs of system components, facilities, and equipment. The CRD addresses the identification and control of functional, physical, and operational boundaries between and within CRWMS elements. The CRD establishes requirements regarding key interfaces between the CRWMS and elements external to the CRWMS. Project elements define interfaces between CRWMS program elements. The Program has developed a change management process consistent with DOE Order 413.3-Change 1. Changes to the Secretarial Acquisition Executive and Program-level baselines must be approved by a Program Baseline Change Control Board. Specific thresholds have been established for identifying technical, cost, and schedule changes that require approval. The CRWMS continually evaluates system design and operational concepts to optimize performance and/or cost. The Program has developed systems analysis tools to assess potential enhancements to the physical system and to determine the impacts from cost saving initiatives, scientific and technological improvements, and engineering developments. The results of systems analyses, if appropriate, are factored into revisions to the CRD as revised Programmatic Requirements.

C.A. Kouts

2006-05-10

227

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"  

E-print Network

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste" Subsequent regarding "high-level liquid radioactive waste". As stated in the body of the letter the solid wastes defining High Level Waste: For the purpose of this statement of policy, "high-level liquid radioactive

228

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository in South Korea  

E-print Network

Biogeochemical changes at early stage after the closure of radioactive waste geological repository e Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 111, Daedeok-daero 989 beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305 Organic waste a b s t r a c t Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

Ohta, Shigemi

229

ANALYSES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF AN UPDATED ITER RADIOACTIVE WASTE ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

ANALYSES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF AN UPDATED ITER RADIOACTIVE WASTE ASSESSMENT S. ZHENG,a * R aimed at updating the ITER radioactive inventory assessment and assisting the waste manage- ment operations, and waste management processes and services. KEYWORDS: ITER, radioactive waste management

230

Modeling of transport and reaction in an engineered barrier for radioactive waste confinement  

E-print Network

Modeling of transport and reaction in an engineered barrier for radioactive waste confinement G bentonite; Radioactive waste; Modelling; KIRMAT code; Chemical transformations; Mass transport 0169;1. Introduction A particular radioactive waste disposal design proposes to store waste in deep geological layers

Montes-Hernandez, German

231

Radiation safety requirements for radioactive waste management in the framework of a quality management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the institution responsible for the management of radioactive wastes generated from nuclear applications in medicine, industry and research in Cuba. Radioactive Waste Management Service is provided at a national level and it includes the collection and transportation of radioactive wastes to the Centralized Waste Management Facilities, where they are characterized, segregated,

M. M. Salgado; J. C. Benitez; R. Pernas; N. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

232

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14

233

Radioactive material inventory control at a waste characterization facility  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recent introduction of more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and requirements pertaining to nuclear and criticality safety, the control of radioactive material inventory has emerged as an important facet of operations at DOE nuclear facilities. In order to comply with nuclear safety regulations and nuclear criticality requirements, radioactive material inventories at each nuclear facility have to be maintained below limits specified for the facility in its safety authorization basis documentation. Exceeding these radioactive material limits constitutes a breach of the facility`s nuclear and criticality safety envelope and could potentially result in an accident, cause a shut-down of the facility, and bring about imminent regulatory repercussions. The practice of maintaining control of radioactive material, especially sealed and unsealed sources, is commonplace and widely implemented; however, the requirement to track the entire radioactivity inventory at each nuclear facility for the purpose of ensuring nuclear safety is a new development. To meet the new requirements, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an information system, called the {open_quotes}Radioactive Material Inventory System{close_quotes} (RMIS), to track the radioactive material inventory at an ORNL facility, the Waste Examination and Assay Facility (WEAF). The operations at WEAF, which revolve around the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of waste and related research and development activities, results in an ever-changing radioactive material inventory. Waste packages and radioactive sources are constantly being brought in or taken out of the facility; hence, use of the RMIS is necessary to ensure that the radioactive material inventory limits are not exceeded.

Yong, L.K.; Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1996-06-01

234

Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.  

PubMed

This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4? counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling. PMID:24342558

Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

2014-05-01

235

The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

Allred, W.E.

1998-06-01

236

Commission operation. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Congress enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the states have prepared to meet their responsibilities for management of low-level radioactive waste by entering into regional compacts. This option document is intended to provide a framework for the operation of a compact commission formed as the governing body of a low-level radioactive waste compact. The document is designed to be easily modified to meet the needs of various regional compacts. The ideas and format presented were taken in general from the Federal Administrative procedures Act, various state administrative procedures, and the state regulatory agencies' rules of procedure. Requirements of filing, time frames, and standard language are written from a legal perspective.

1984-09-01

237

10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related...

2013-01-01

238

10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related...

2011-01-01

239

10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related...

2014-01-01

240

10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related...

2012-01-01

241

10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater...NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER... Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related...

2010-01-01

242

Radioactive waste management in Canada - Science, strategy, and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electric power amounts to >15% of the electric power in Canada with 12,750-MW Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors installed and 3,500 MW under construction. Three nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, Quebec Hydro, and New Brunswick Power, together with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the nuclear industries share the burden of radioactive waste management in Canada. Radioactive

Souther

1990-01-01

243

Potential of pottery materials in manufacturing radioactive waste containers.  

PubMed

Various pottery materials were evaluated for possible use in manufacturing containers for radioactive waste. Their potential was examined from the viewpoints of the effectiveness of disposal and the changes induced in them by gamma rays. Samples of these materials were irradiated with high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a reactor near its core. the physical and mechanical properties of the materials before and after gamma irradiation (in a 60Co gamma cell) were compared. The study showed that pottery materials are resistant to radiation. Therefore, they were proposed for manufacturing drums for disposal of radioactive waste of high gamma activity. PMID:12878117

Helal, A A; Alian, A M; Aly, H M; Khalifa, S M

2003-07-01

244

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

245

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1999-03-16

246

METAL BEHAVIOR DURING MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Medical waste contains toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. onsequently, the incineration of medical waste may result in the emissions of trace metals into the environment, if incinerators are not properly designed and operated. PA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laborat...

247

The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

1998-05-01

248

Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

Reddy, R.G.

1987-04-01

249

Application of ICP-MS radionuclide analysis to {open_quotes}real world{close_quotes} samples of Department of Energy Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste into repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) requires characterization to ensure regulatory and transportation requirements are met. Characterization is also used to collect information regarding chemistry of the waste for processing concerns. The range of characterization typically includes radio nuclide activity, RCRA metals

A. M. Meeks; J. M. Giaquinto; J. M. Keller

1997-01-01

250

Low-level radioactive waste management: A national perspective  

SciTech Connect

This document is an upper-tier discussion of two topics: (1) the reopening of the Barnwell disposal site, and (2) the future of radioactive waste disposal in the United States. The conclusion of the discussion is a brief overview of recent contributions that the Department of Energy`s National Low-level Waste Management Program has made to the efforts of individual states in this area.

Wheatley, P.

1995-09-01

251

Perspectives on integrating the US radioactive waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The waste management systems being developed and deployed by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is large, complex, decentralized, and long term. As a result, a systems integration approach has been implemented by OCRWM. The fundamentals of systems integration and its application are examined in the context of the OCRWM program. This application is commendable, and some additional systems integration features are suggested to enhance its benefits. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Culler, F.L. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Croff, A.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

252

Management of low-level radioactive waste in Israel  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive materials are used extensively in Israel in many areas and applications for medicine, industry, agriculture, research and development and others. Israel`s primary concern in waste management is population safety and environmental protection. The Ministry of The Environment (MOE), in cooperation with the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), supervise over the disposal system, and ensure an effective control. The MOE is responsible for the granting of permits to users of radioactive elements in about 300 plants and institutes, with about 2,200 installations. The MOE operates a computerized database management system (DBMS) on radioactive materials, with data on licensing, import and distribution, waste disposal and transportation. Supervision over the disposal of LLRW has deepened recently, and periodic reports, based on the number of drums containing LLRW, which were transferred from all institutes in Israel to the NRWDS, were prepared. Draft regulations on the disposal of LLRW from institutes of research and education, hospitals, medical laboratories and other, have been recently prepared. These regulations include instructions on the disposal of solid and liquid LLRW as well as radioactive gases and vapors. As a general rule, no LLRW of any sort will be disposed of through the ordinary waste system or general sewage. However, in some extraordinary cases, residues of liquid LLRW are allowed to be disposed in this manner, if the requirements for disposal are satisfied. There are some conditions, in which solid LLRW might be treated as a conventional waste, as well as for safe emission of radioactive gases and aerosols. In light of these considerations, a new and more specific approach to radiation protection organizations and management of low-level radioactive waste problems, supervision and optimization is presented.

Shabtai, B.; Brenner, S.; Ne`eman, E.; Butenko, V. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel)

1995-12-31

253

Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

1980-10-01

254

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

Not Available

1991-07-01

255

High level radioactive waste glass production and product description  

SciTech Connect

This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

1993-12-01

256

Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers  

SciTech Connect

To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

Greager, T.M.

1994-09-01

257

76 FR 56489 - Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b...Services, Inc., August Class A radioactive Radionuclide Non-conforming Canada. 17, 2011, August 18, 2011, waste in the form reallocation:...

2011-09-13

258

75 FR 74104 - Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...EnergySolutions, August 27, Radioactive waste Not to exceed Return to two Germany. 2010,...

2010-11-30

259

77 FR 20078 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Radioactive waste Up to 500 tons of Thermal Mexico. Inc.,...

2012-04-03

260

77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public...Canada. 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the (approximately original form...

2012-12-07

261

78 FR 9747 - Request To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b...Diversified Scientific Class A radioactive Up to 378,000 Volume reduction...Services, Inc.; January 10, mixed waste kilograms. Amend to: (1)...

2013-02-11

262

78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the XW021,...

2013-07-29

263

75 FR 74107 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice...EnergySolutions, August 27, Radioactive waste 1,000 tons Incineration for Germany. 2010,...

2010-11-30

264

76 FR 56490 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b...Services, Inc., August Class A radioactive Radionuclide For recycle and Canada. 17, 2011, August 18, 2011, waste in the form reallocation:...

2011-09-13

265

Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points. (LK)

Not Available

1979-05-01

266

Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Not Listed

2011-09-01

267

Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

2011-11-01

268

Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

1992-08-01

269

Stabilization/Solidification of radioactive molten salt waste via gel-route pretreatment.  

PubMed

The volatilization of radionuclides during the stabilization/solidification of radioactive wastes at high temperatures is one of the major problems to be considered in choosing suitable wasteforms, process, material systems, etc. This paper reports a novel method to convert volatile wastes into nonvolatile compounds via a sol-gel process, which is different from the conventional method using metal-alkoxides and organic solvents. The material system was designed with sodium silicate (Si) as a gelling agent, phosphoric acid (P) as a catalyst/stabilizer, aluminum nitrate (Al) as a property promoter, and H20 as a solvent. A novel structural model for the chemical conversion of molten salt waste, named RPRM (Reaction Product in Reaction Module), was established, and the waste could be solidified with glass matrix via a simple procedure. The leached fraction of Cs and Sr by a PCT leaching method was 0.72% and 0.014%, respectively. In conclusion, the RPRM model isto converttargetwastes into stable and manageable products, not to obtain a specific crystalline product for each radionuclide. This paper suggested a new stabilization/solidification method for salt wastes by establishing the gel-forming material system and showing a practical example, not a new synthesis method of stable crystalline phase. This process, named "gel-route stabilization/solidification (GRSS)", will be a prospective alternative with stable chemical process on the immobilization of salt wastes and various mixed radioactive waste for final disposal. PMID:17593740

Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Kim, Hwan-Young; Ryu, Seung-Kon; Kim, Joon-Hyung

2007-02-15

270

Method of storing radioactive wastes using modified tobermorite  

SciTech Connect

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatable with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

1985-08-27

271

Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes  

DOEpatents

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

1983-10-31

272

Method of storing radioactive wastes using modified tobermorite  

DOEpatents

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatable with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, Sridhar (State College, PA); Roy, Della M. (State College, PA)

1985-01-01

273

The Regulatory Function and Radioactive Waste Management: International Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this brochure is to provide an easily accessible synopsis of the report The Regulatory Control of Radioactive Waste Management Overview of 15 NEA Member Countries in order to provide a quick introduction to regulatory systems and an overview of current systems in NEA member countries. To that effect Chapter 2 identifies the elements generally associated with

2006-01-01

274

Disposal of Radioactive Waste at Hanford Creates Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radioactive storage tanks at the Hanford facility have developed leaks. The situation is presently considered safe, but serious. A report from the National Academy of Science has recommended that the wastes be converted to stable solids and stored at another site on the Hanford Reservation. (Author/MA)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

1978-01-01

275

Geologic storage of radioactive waste: field studies in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to a gran itic rock mass in an iron ore mine in Sweden provided a unique opportunity for underground experiments related to the geologic disposal of radioactive waste. These field tests demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology and the difficulties in predicting in the thermomechanical behavior of fractured granitic rocks. To characterize a site fully, measurements made from the surface

P. A. Witherspoon; N. G. W. Cook; J. E. Gale

1981-01-01

276

Radioactive Waste...The Problem and Some Possible Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nuclear safety is a highly technical and controversial subject that has caused much heated debate and political concern. This article examines the problems involved in managing radioactive wastes and the techniques now used. Potential solutions are suggested and the need for international cooperation is stressed. (Author/MA)

Olivier, Jean-Pierre

1977-01-01

277

Biotransformation of uranium and other actinides in radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms affect the solubility, bioavailability, and mobility of actinides in radioactive wastes. Under appropriate conditions, actinides are solubilized or stabilized by the direct enzymatic or indirect nonenzymatic actions of microorganisms. Biotransformation of various forms of uranium (ionic, inorganic, and organic complexes) by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms has been extensively studied, whereas limited information is available on other important actinides (Th,

A. J. Francis

1998-01-01

278

International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

OECD Observer, 1977

1977-01-01

279

A pelletizing model and its application to radioactive waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pelletizing mechanism was studied theoretically and experimentally to transform radioactive waste powders into dense and hard pellets in conjunction with the development of a new volume reduction system, a drying and pelletizing system. A pelletizing model was proposed based on plastic deformation of powder particles. Its validity was confirmed by fundamental experiments. From the model, such pellet properties as

K. Chino; S. Horiuchi; F. Kawamura; M. Kikuchi; M. Matsuda; H. Yusa

1984-01-01

280

Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

2012-11-01

281

High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform

N. A. Sheikh; S. R. Salaymeh

1993-01-01

282

Mitigation of plant penetration into radioactive waste utilizing herbicides  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective herbicides, which control all vegetation; and slow-release forms of these herbicides to prolong effectiveness.

Cox, G.R.

1982-01-01

283

Moisture measurement for radioactive wastes using neutron activation of copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests have demonstrated the use of neutron activation of copper to measure the moisture in radioactive wastes. Neutrons from a source scatter and return to activate the copper in the probe, the amount of activation varying with moisture content. A low-background spectrometer counts the gamma rays from activated 64Cu. The calibration of count rate vs moisture was measured with

P. L. Reeder; D. C. Stromswold; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves; W. E. Wilson

1997-01-01

284

Integrated approach to hazardous and radioactive waste remediation  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development is supporting the demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of waste retrieval technologies. An integration of leading-edge technologies with commercially available baseline technologies will form a comprehensive system for effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the complex of DOE nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the complexity of systems integration, addressing organizational and engineering aspects of integration as well as the impact of human operators, and the importance of using integrated systems in remediating buried hazardous and radioactive waste.

Hyde, R.A.; Reece, W.J.

1994-11-01

285

[Radioactive waste due to electric power and mineral fertiliser production].  

PubMed

Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been conducting systematic investigations of radioactive contamination of the Croatian environment by anthropogenic fission products as well as by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) since 1963. Several critical sites in Croatia were identified for NORM, that is, for slag and ash repositories from coal-fired power plants and phosphogypsum repository from a mineral fertilizer production plant. As the coals and phosphate ores contain naturally occurring radionuclides, especially the members of the uranium and thorium radioactive chains, utilising these materials in various industries only enhances their natural radioactivity in residual waste. Consequently, the resulting activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in waste material could be several times higher than in the adjacent soil. These deposited materials pose permanent risk of radiation exposure due to the long physical half-life of natural radionuclides (e.g., T 1/2 = 1600 years for 226Ra). Results of scientific investigations related to natural radioactivity are used in the recovery of slag and ash repositories and landfills, as well as in establishing regulatory criteria targeting import of coal and phosphate ores. In consequence, recently measured activity concentrations of natural radioactivity in imported materials used nowadays in coal-fired power plants are significantly lower than in previously used raw materials. Therefore, slag and ash can be used as additive materials in cement production. PMID:17121006

Marovi?, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzovi?, Maja; Frani?, Zdenko; Kovac, Jadranka

2006-09-01

286

MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN FRACTURED ROCK FOR THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

E-print Network

OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES F. Cadini1 , J. De Sanctis1 , I. Bertoli1 , E. Zio1,2 1 Dipartimento di Energia is a fundamental task in any performance assessment aimed at verifying the protection offered by radioactive waste for chemical or low-level radioactive wastes, or the Performance Assessment (PA) of geological repositories

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Proceedings of ICEM'03: International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management  

E-print Network

and Radioactive Waste Management September 21 - 25, 2003, Examination Schools, Oxford, England ICEM03 for the U.S. strategic defense arsenal. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated the behavior of a high sodium glass buried in a loamy soil. The radioactive waste glass (K-26) made from actual

Sheffield, University of

288

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4  

E-print Network

Investigations to site a radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 Radioactive waste repository in Cumbria: Evidence against proceeding to MRWS Stage 4 s the UK radioactive waste legacy comprises difficult material which is complex, of mixed origin

289

Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository  

E-print Network

Sequential Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling of Variably Saturated Flow in High-Level Radioactive Waste long-lived radioactive wastes must be managed in a safe way for human health and for the environment. That is the raison why the French agency for the management of radioactive waste (ANDRA) is engaged to study

Boyer, Edmond

290

AHIGHLY INSTRUMENTED UNDERGROUND RESEARCH GALLERY AS A MONITORING CONCEPT FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CELLS -DATA  

E-print Network

AHIGHLY INSTRUMENTED UNDERGROUND RESEARCH GALLERY AS A MONITORING CONCEPT FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE, sensors, underground, tunnel. INTRODUCTION The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) is in charge of the long-term management of the radioactive wastes produced in France. The industrial deep

Boyer, Edmond

291

Modelling of long-term diffusionreaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement  

E-print Network

Modelling of long-term diffusion­reaction in a bentonite barrier for radioactive waste confinement in geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This material is expected to fill up by swelling transformations; Solute diffusion 1. Introduction The radioactive waste confinement in deep geolo- gical laye

Montes-Hernandez, German

292

Radioactive waste reality as revealed by neutron measurements  

SciTech Connect

To comprehend certain aspects of the contents of a radioactive waste container is not a trivial matter, especially if one is not allowed to open the container and peer inside. One of the suite of tools available to a practioner in the art of nondestructive assay is based upon neutron measurements. Neutrons, both naturally occuring and induced, are penertrating radiations that can be detected external to the waste container. The practioner should be skilled in applying the proper technique(s) to selected waste types. Available techniques include active and passive neutron measurements, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. The waste material itself can compromise the assay results by occluding a portion of the mass of fissile material present, or by multiplying the number of neutrons produced by a spontaneously fissioning mass. This paper will discuss the difficult, but albeit necessary marriage, between radiioactive waste types and alternative neutron measurement techniques.

Schultz, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

293

Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities  

E-print Network

Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

2003-01-01

294

RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

Fox, K.

2010-09-07

295

First use of in situ vitrification on radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature method for containing hazardous wastes, which was first developed in the 1980s, is being adapted for the in situ treatment of buried radioactive wastes by the US DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), following its recent report on successful preliminary tests. The method, called in situ vitrification (ISV), is an electrically induced thermal process that melts and fuses soil and wastes into a glass-like material at least as strong as natural obsidian or granite. Gases released during the process are captured and treated by an off-gas treatment system. After the wastes are vitrified, they could be left in place, or the mass could be broken up and transported to a disposal site. The glass-like substance would be chemically and physically similar to obsidian and from 4 to 10 times more durable than typical borosilicate glasses used to immobolize high-level nuclear wastes.

Bowlds, L.

1992-03-01

296

Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base  

SciTech Connect

This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

1995-01-01

297

Nuclear waste: our radioactive hot potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear industry inevitably produces nuclear waste, whose prudent, prompt and economic disposal is important to the national welfare. Technological problems of containment and isolation have apparently been solved. Underground or geologic disposal sites have the potential form permanent isolation, with salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff currently receiving principal attention as repository host rocks. Bedded salt deposits may offer the

Conselman

1984-01-01

298

Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

1995-03-01

299

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects  

SciTech Connect

Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

1991-12-31

300

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

301

Behavior of radioactive iodine and technetium in the spray calcination of high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility (RLSWTF) was designed and built as a part of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program (now the High-Level Waste Process Development Program) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In this facility, which is installed in a radiochemical cell, small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes can be solidified, the process off gas can be analyzed, and the methods for decontaminating this off gas can be tested. Initial operations were completed with nonradioactive, simulated waste solutions (Knox, Siemens and Berger 1981). The first radioactive operations in this facility were performed with a simulated, commercial waste composition containing tracer levels of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 131/I. This report describes the facility and test operations and presents the results of the behavior of /sup 131/I and /sup 99/Tc during solidification of radioactive liquid wastes. During the spray calcination of commercial high-level liquid waste spiked with /sup 99/Tc and /sup 131/I, there was a 0.3 wt% loss of particulates, a 0.15 wt% loss of /sup 99/Tc and a 31 wt% loss of /sup 131/I past the sintered-metal filters. These filters and a venturi scrubber were very efficient in removing particulates and /sup 99/Tc from the off-gas stream. Liquid scrubbers were not efficient in removing /sup 131/I, as 25% of the total lost went to the building off-gas system. Therefore, solid adsorbents will be needed to remove iodine. For all future RLSWTF operations where iodine is present, a silver zeolite adsorber will be used.

Knox, C.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.

1981-08-01

302

In situ vitrification of a mixed radioactive and hazardous waste site  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale test of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed on a mixed radioactive and hazardous-chemical contaminated waste site on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. A mixed-waste site was selected for this large-scale test to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In situ vitrification is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product. Electrodes are inserted into the ground. The goals of the test are to demonstrate at least 99% retention of fission products and hazardous metals in the ISV glass during the test; demonstrate the ability of the ISV off-gas treatment system to process a waste site containing significant quantities of combustible material and demonstrate the ability of ISV to vitrify the site to a depth of 20 ft or greater. The test was completed in April 1990. 5 figs.

Campbell, B.E.; Koegler, S.S.

1990-11-01

303

Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed: commercial LLW disposal facilities; uranium mill tailings disposal facilities; and reprocessing waste storage and disposal facilities. The observations developed from the monitoring and maintenance of waste disposal and storage facilities provide valuable lessons learned for the design and modeling of future waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites.

Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Two White Flint North, MS T7J8, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2008-01-15

304

Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes

J. D. Law; K. N. Brewer; R. S. Herbst; T. A. Todd; D. J. Wood

1999-01-01

305

IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination\\/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process

M Stone; T Tommy Edwards; D David Koopman

2009-01-01

306

Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334  

SciTech Connect

For the radioactivity determination of {sup 129}I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the {sup 129}I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO{sub 3} was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.63.8%, and 86.41.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

Choi, K.C.; Ahn, J.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K.S. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

307

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review  

SciTech Connect

The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

1996-09-01

308

Melting of the metallic wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear research facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decommissioning of nuclear installations results in considerably large amounts of radioactive metallic wastes such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, copper etc. It is known that the reference 1,000 MWe PWR and 881 MWe PHWR will generate metal wastes of 24,800 ton and 26,500 ton, respectively. In Korea, the D and D of KRR-2 and a UCP at KAERI

Chong-Hun Jung; Pyung-Seob Song; Byung-Youn Min; Wang-Kyu Choi

2008-01-01

309

Confinement matrices for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of uranium for nuclear fuel production inevitably leads to the exhaustion of natural uranium resources and an increase in market price of uranium. As an alternative, it is possible to provide nuclear power plants with reprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF), which retains 90% of its energy resource. The main obstacle to this solution is related to the formation in the course of the reprocessing of SNF of a large volume of liquid waste, and the necessity to concentrate, solidify, and dispose of this waste. Radioactive waste is classified into three categories: low-, intermediate-, and high-level (LLW, ILW, and HLW); 95, 4.4, and 0.6% of the total waste are LLW, ILW, and HLW, respectively. Despite its small relative volume, the radioactivity of HLW is approximately equal to the combined radioactivity of LLW + ILW (LILW). The main hazard of HLW is related to its extremely high radioactivity, the occurrence of long-living radionuclides, heat release, and the necessity to confine HLW for an effectively unlimited time period. The problems of handling LILW are caused by the enormous volume of such waste. The available technology for LILW confinement is considered, and conclusion is drawn that its concentration, vitrification, and disposal in shallow-seated repositories is a necessary condition of large-scale reprocessing of SNF derived from VVER-1000 reactors. The significantly reduced volume of the vitrified LILW and its very low dissolution rate at low temperatures makes borosilicate glass an ideal confinement matrix for immobilization of LILW. At the same time, the high corrosion rate of the glass matrix at elevated temperatures casts doubt on its efficient use for immobilization of heat-releasing HLW. The higher cost of LILW vitrification compared to cementation and bitumen impregnation is compensated for by reduced expenditure for construction of additional engineering barriers, as well as by substantial decrease in LLW and ILW volume, localization of shallow-seated repositories in various geological media, and the use of inexpensive borosilicate glass.

Laverov, N. P.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

2012-02-01

310

A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-06-01

311

Porous Matrixes for Immobilization of Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The process was studied and the technology developed to obtain a highly porous coke based material with the solid dispersed filler (zirconium dioxide); properties and technological characteristics of the material were investigated. Technological process was developed for the fabrication of products out of the highly porous high melting compound (zirconium carbide). Technology for the fabrication of products out of the highly porous high melting compound bypassing the necessity of obtaining the dry radioactive feed powders and allows producing the material with a wide range of compositions and properties. In this paper we describe a technological process for the fabrication of materials, assuming the impregnation of a porous zirconium carbide form by the liquid highly concentrated solution of actinides followed by the decomposition of the obtained product during the thermal treatment to form stable oxides. We are investigating the properties of the final form as a possible target in a nuclear reactors to use neutrons to burn up the actinides. (authors)

Ershov, B.G.; Minaev, A.A.; Afonin, M.M.; Kuznetsov, D.G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemisrty, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

312

Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6322, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6322, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Saunders, Mark [Fairfield Services Group, PO Box 31468, KNOxville, TN 37930 (United States)] [Fairfield Services Group, PO Box 31468, KNOxville, TN 37930 (United States)

2013-07-01

313

Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the Achilles Heel of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK, ALSEP, EXAM, or LUCA are pursued worldwide and their approaches will be highlighted.

Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

2013-07-01

314

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive waste classification system currently used in the United States primarily relies on a source-based framework. This has lead to numerous issues, such as wastes that are not categorized by their intrinsic risk, or wastes that do not fall under a category within the framework and therefore are without a legal imperative for responsible management. Furthermore, in the possible case that advanced fuel cycles were to be deployed in the United States, the shortcomings of the source-based classification system would be exacerbated: advanced fuel cycles implement processes such as the separation of used nuclear fuel, which introduce new waste streams of varying characteristics. To be able to manage and dispose of these potential new wastes properly, development of a classification system that would assign appropriate level of management to each type of waste based on its physical properties is imperative. This dissertation explores how characteristics from wastes generated from potential future nuclear fuel cycles could be coupled with a characteristics-based classification framework. A static mass flow model developed under the Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research & Development program, called the Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) model, was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices: two modified open fuel cycle cases (recycle in MOX reactor) and two different continuous-recycle fast reactor recycle cases (oxide and metal fuel fast reactors). This analysis focuses on the impact of waste heat load on waste classification practices, although future work could involve coupling waste heat load with metrics of radiotoxicity and longevity. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles and how it could inform long- and short-term disposal management is discussed. It is shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is on increasing repository capacity. The need for a more diverse set of waste classes is discussed, and it is shown that the characteristics-based IAEA classification guidelines could accommodate wastes created from advanced fuel cycles more comprehensively than the U.S. classification framework.

Djokic, Denia

315

Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

1998-06-01

316

Safeguards and security recommendations for the OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Federal Waste Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systems and procedures that will be part of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) -- managed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) -- will be subject to the requirements of nuclear materials safeguards. The FWMS will include the acceptance of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) at the

B. W. Moran; L. G. Fishbone; J. H. Saling; E. R. Johnson; E. F. Wonder; Johnson; VA Fairfax

1989-01-01

317

No Time Wasted. 25 years COVRA: Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands  

SciTech Connect

Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. December 2007 was a time to commemorate, as the national waste management organisation of the Netherlands, COVRA, celebrated its 12. anniversary. During this period of 25 years a stable policy has been formulated and implemented. For the situation in the Netherlands, it was obvious that a period of long term storage was needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. A historical overview of the activities of COVRA is presented and lessons learned over a period of 25 years are given. (authors)

Codee, H.D.K.; Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Vlissingen (Netherlands)

2008-07-01

318

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

1996-07-01

319

Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ``Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,`` (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

1994-09-01

320

Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

Not Available

1992-03-01

321

DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

Jantzen, C.

2010-03-18

322

Microbial effects on radioactive wastes at SLB sites  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to determine the significance of microbial degradation of organic wastes on radionuclide migration on shallow land burial for humid and arid sites, establish which mechanisms predominate and ascertain the conditions under which these mechanisms operate. Factors contolling gaseous eminations from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrogen from the site stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or /sup 14/C into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste materials, primary emphasis of the study involved on examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Although the methane and carbon dioxide production rate indicates the degradation rate of the organic substances in the waste, it does not predict the methane evolution rate from the trench site. Methane fluxes from the soil surface are equivalent to the net synthesis minus the quantity oxidized by the microbial community as the gas passes through the soil profile. Gas studies were performed at three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (West Valley, New York; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky) during the period 1976 to 1978. The results of these studies are presented. 3 tables.

Colombo, P.

1982-01-01

323

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

Not Available

1989-11-01

324

Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

2015-10-01

325

Radioactive Waste Decontamination Using Selentec Mag*SepSM Particles  

SciTech Connect

A sorbent containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) tested for cesium removal from simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble high activity waste showed rapid kinetics (1 h contact time) and high distribution coefficients (Kd 4000 mL/g of CST). The sorbent was prepared by Selective Environmental Technologies, Inc., (Selentec) as a MAG*SEP particle containing CST obtained from the Molecular Sieve Department of UOP, LLC, Results of preliminary tests suggest potential applications of the Selentec MAG*SEP particles to radioactive waste decontamination at SRS.

Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-06-01

326

Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

This sixth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal year 1988. An epilogue chapter reports significant events from the end of the fiscal year on September 30, 1988 through March 1989. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPA) of 1987 made significant changes to the NWPA relating to repository siting and monitored retrievable storage and added new provisions for the establishment of several institutional entities with which OCRWM will interact. Therefore, a dominant theme throughout this report is the implementation of the policy focus and specific provisions of the Amendments Act. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1989-12-01

327

High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1993-10-01

328

Geologic storage of radioactive waste: field studies in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

Access to a gran itic rock mass in an iron ore mine in Sweden provided a unique opportunity for underground experiments related to the geologic disposal of radioactive waste. These field tests demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology and the difficulties in predicting in the thermomechanical behavior of fractured granitic rocks. To characterize a site fully, measurements made from the surface must be supplemented by extensive subsurface measurements and experiments. Much effort is needed at this stage to generate the technology required for the development of waste repositories. 9 figures.

Witherspoon, P.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Cook, N.G.W.; Gale, J.E.

1981-02-27

329

Low level radioactive waste disposal siting: a social and technical plan for Pennsylvania. Volume 3. Technical analyses  

SciTech Connect

Volume III comprises 9 chapters: Definition of Low Level Radioactive Waste; A Perspective on the Relative Toxicity of Low Level Radioactive Waste; A Generic Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Description; An Economic Analysis of a Generic Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility; Site Selection; Geology-Pennsylvania Specific; Technical Considerations; Disposal Cell Stability; and Site Monitoring Considerations.

Aron, G.; Bord, R.J.; Clemente, F.A.; Dornsife, W.P.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.; Schmalz, R.F.; Witzig, W.F.

1984-09-01

330

Regional waste treatment with monolith disposal for low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

An alternative system is proposed for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This system, called REgional Treatment with MOnolith Disposal (RETMOD), is based on integrating three commercial technologies: automated package warehousing, whole-barrel rotary kiln incineration, and cement-based grouts for radioactive waste disposal. In the simplified flowsheet, all the sludges, liquids, resins, and combustible wastes are transported to regional facilities where they are incinerated. The ash is then mixed with special cement-based grouts, and the resulting mixture is poured into trenches to form large waste-cement monoliths. Wastes that do not require treatment, such as damaged and discarded equipment, are prepositioned in the trenches with the waste-cement mixture poured on top. The RETMOD system may provide higher safety margins by conversion of wastes into a solidified low-leach form, creation of low-surface area waste-cement monoliths, and centralization of waste processing into a few specialized facilities. Institutional problems would be simplified by placing total responsibility for safe disposal on the disposal site operator. Lower costs may be realized through reduced handling costs, the economics of scale, simplified operations, and less restrictive waste packaging requirements.

Forsberg, C.W.

1983-01-01

331

Method for making radioactive metal articles having small dimensions  

DOEpatents

A method for making a radioactive article such as wire, includes the steps of providing a metal article having a first shape, such a cylinder, that is either radioactive itself or can be converted to a second, radioactive isotope by irradiation; melting the metal article one or more times; optionally adding an alloying metal to the molten metal in order to enhance ductility or other properties; placing the metal article having the first shape (e.g., cylindrical) into a cavity in the interior of an extrusion body (e.g., a cylinder having a cylindrical cavity therein); extruding the extrusion body and the article having the first shape located in the cavity therein, resulting in an elongated extrusion body and an article having a second shape; removing the elongated extrusion body, for example by chemical means, leaving the elongated inner article substantially intact; optionally repeating the extrusion procedure one or more times; and then drawing the elongated article to still further elongate it, into wire, foil, or another desired shape. If the starting metal is enriched in a radioactive isotope or a precursor thereof, the end product can provide a more intense radiation source than conventionally manufactured radioactive wire, foil, or the like.

Ohriner, Evan K. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

332

Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

1997-12-31

333

[Board on Radioactive Waste Managements action on progress toward objectives  

SciTech Connect

This report is a progress report to the US DOE from the Board on Radioactive Waste Management (BRWM), which summarizes the activities of the board during the period December 1, 1993 to May 2, 1994. The report summarizes the meetings of the board as a whole, of various of its subcommittees, and of activities it has undertaken to further its original mission. This board is associated with the National Research Council to give advice to US DOE.

Not Available

1994-11-28

334

Geohazards due to technologically enhanced natural radioactive wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities can modify naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) into technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) as a result of industrial activities. Most of these industries do not intend to work with radioactive material a priori. However, whenever a uranium- or thorium-bearing mineral is exploited, NORM-containing by-products and TENORM-contaminated wastes are created. The industrial use of NORM can result in non-negligible radiation exposure of workers and members of the public, exceeding by far the radiation exposure from nuclear technologies. For decades, millions of tons of NORM have been released into the environment without adequate control or even with the lack of any control. Various technologies have been developed for the control of NORM wastes. The paper discusses the merits and limitations of different NORM-waste management techniques, such as Containment, Immobilization, Dilution/Dispersion, Natural Attenuation, Separation, and - as an alternative - Cleaner Technologies. Each of these methods requires a comprehensive risk-benefit-cost analysis.

Steinhusler, Friedrich

2010-10-01

335

LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestiates the levels of metals such as oxoa...

336

LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to test the leaching of Mineral Processing Waste (MPW) contaminated with heavy metals using scientifically defendable leaching tests other than TCLP. Past experience and literature have shown that TCLP underestimates the levels of metals such as oxo...

337

Treatment of mixed radioactive liquid wastes at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is traditionally generated in small volumes with a wide variety of compositions. A cooperative effort at ANL between Waste Management (WM) and the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) was established, to develop, install, and implement a robust treatment operation to handle the majority of such wastes. For this treatment, toxic metals in mixed-waste solutions are precipitated in a semiautomated system using Ca(OH){sub 2} and, for some metals, Na{sub 2}S additions. This step is followed by filtration to remove the precipitated solids. A filtration skid was built that contains several filter types which can be used, as appropriate, for a variety of suspended solids. When supernatant liquid is separated from the toxic-metal solids by decantation and filtration, it will be a low-level waste (LLW) rather than a mixed waste. After passing a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, the solids may also be treated as LLW.

Vandegrift, G.F.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C. [and others

1994-03-01

338

Method for recovering metals from waste  

DOEpatents

A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

1998-12-01

339

Method for recovering metals from waste  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

Wicks, George G. (North Augusta, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

2000-01-01

340

Method for recovering metals from waste  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

Wicks, George G. (North Augusta, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

1998-01-01

341

The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site.

Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hechnova, A. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center of Environmental Studies; Jacobson, R. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States); Voss, C. [Golder Associates, Inc. (United States); Waters, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sully, M.; Levitt, D. [Bechtel Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1999-03-01

342

Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

NONE

1998-07-01

343

Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements  

SciTech Connect

One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.

Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

1997-12-31

344

Do It Together... Or Wait. Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years of nuclear industry and the wide spread use of radioactive materials in Europe have resulted in matured programmes for radioactive waste management. According to the self-sufficiency principle, each country collects, processes, stores and disposes of its radioactive waste. National programmes allow close control of possible environmental and safety impacts, but are not the optimal choice for disposal of

H. D. K. Codee; E. V. Verhoef

2006-01-01

345

Glass matrices for vitrification of radioactive waste - an Update on R & D Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste gets generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle like mining\\/milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing of spent fuel and the production & application of radioisotopes for various industrial, medical and research purposes. High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and it contains most of the radioactivity present in entire fuel cycle.

Kanwar Raj; C. P. Kaushik

2009-01-01

346

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16

347

CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH PHOSPHATE RADIOACTIVE TANK WASTE AND SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

A sample of high-level radioactive tank waste was characterized to provide a basis for developing a waste simulant. The simulant is required for engineered-scaled testing of pretreatment processes in a non-radiological facility. The waste material examined was derived from the bismuth phosphate process, which was the first industrial process implemented to separate plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. The bismuth phosphate sludge is a complex mixture rich in bismuth, iron, sodium, phosphorus, silicon, and uranium. The form of phosphorus in this particular tank waste material is of specific importance because that is the primary component (other than water-soluble sodium salts) that must be removed from the high-level waste solids by pretreatment. This work shows unequivocally that the phosphorus present in this waste material is not present as bismuth phosphate. Rather, the phosphorus appears to be incorporated mostly into an amorphous iron(III) phosphate species. The bismuth in the sludge solids is best described as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3. Infrared spectral data, microscopy, and thermal analysis data are presented to support these conclusions. The behavior of phosphorus during caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge solids is also discussed.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-10-15

348

A Challenge for Radioactive Waste Management: Memory Preservation  

SciTech Connect

ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is responsible for managing all radioactive waste in France over the long term. In the case of short-lived waste for which disposal facilities have a life expectancy of a few centuries, the Agency has set up a system for preserving the memory of those sites. Based on the historical analysis on a comparable timescale and on an appraisal of information-conservation means, a series of regulatory as well as technical provisions was made in order to ensure that sound information be transmitted to future generations. Requirements associated to the provisions deal mostly with legibility and a clear understanding of the information that must be decrypted and understood at least during the lifetime of the facilities (i.e., a few centuries). It must therefore be preserved throughout the same period. Responses to the requirements will be presented notably on various information-recording media, together with the information-diffusion strategy to the different authorities and structures within French society. A concrete illustration of the achievements made so far is the Centre de la Manche Disposal Facility, which was closed down in 1994 and is currently in its post-closure monitoring phase since 2003. In the case of deep geological repositories for long-lived radioactive waste, preserving memory takes a different aspect. First of all, timescales are much longer and are counted in hundreds of thousands of years. It is therefore much more difficult to consider how to maintain the richness of the information over such time periods than it is for short-lived waste. Both the nature and the form of the information to be transmitted must be revised. It would be risky indeed to base memory preservation over the long term on similar mechanisms beyond 1,000 years. Based on the heritage of a much more ancient history, we must seek to find appropriate means in order to develop surface markers and even more to ensure their conservation over compatible timescales with those of deep geological repositories. It will also be necessary, in the light of the experiments and efforts made in order to decrypt the messages written on rupestral paintings or in pyramids, find suitable expression means that will help, not the next few generations, but much more future generations, to grasp the meaning of what we aim at transmitting them. This paper presents the state of the French reflection on memory preservation and transmission over the very long term, for timescales consistent with the long-lived radioactive geological waste disposal projects. (author)

Charton, P.; Ouzounian, G. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

2008-07-01

349

Glass matrices for vitrification of radioactive waste - an Update on R & D Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste gets generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle like mining/milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing of spent fuel and the production & application of radioisotopes for various industrial, medical and research purposes. High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and it contains most of the radioactivity present in entire fuel cycle. Vitrification of HLW in borosilicate matrix is being practiced using induction heated metallic melters at industrial scale plants at Tarapur and Trombay [1]. The nature of HLW largely depends on off - reactor cooling of spent nuclear fuel, its type and burn - up, and reprocessing flow sheet. In view of varying characteristics, processing of HLW at Tarapur and Trombay has offered a wide spectrum of challenges in terms of development of matrices and characterization to accommodate compositional changes in waste. The present paper summarizes details of extensive R and D efforts made in the Department of Atomic Energy towards development and characterization of glass formulations for immobilization of HLW.

Raj, Kanwar; Kaushik, C. P.

2009-07-01

350

Communicating Risk to a Concerned Public in Historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) was established in 1982 to carry out federal government responsibility for historic low-level radioactive waste across Canada. Funded through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and administered by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the LLRWMO has conducted waste characterization, delineation and remediation projects in British Columbia, the Northwest Territories, Alberta and Ontario. Most (95%)

P. Arthurs; J. L. Herod; S. E. Stickley

2007-01-01

351

Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at the Armenian NPP - 12462  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed contaminant transfer dynamics model for radionuclide in geosphere and biosphere medium. The model describes the transport of radionuclides using full equation for the processes of advection, diffusion, decay and sorption. The overall objective is to establish, from a post-closure radiological safety point of view, whether it is practical to convert an existing radioactive waste storage facility at Armenian NPP, to a waste disposal facility. The calculation includes: - Data sources for: the operational waste-source term; options for refurbishment and completion of the waste storage facility as a waste disposal facility; the site and its environs; - Development of an assessment context for the safety assessment, and identification of waste treatment options; - A description of the conceptual and mathematical models, and results calculated for the base case scenario relating to the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway and also precipitation especially important for this site. The results of the calculations showed that the peak individual dose is < 7 E-8 Sv/y arising principally from I-129 after 700 years post closure. Other significant radionuclides, in terms of their contribution to the total dose are I-129, Tc-99 and in little C-14 (U- 234 and Po-210 are not relevant). The study does not explore all issues that might be expected to be presented in a safety case for a near surface disposal facility it mainly focuses on post- closure dose impacts. Most emphasis has been placed on the development of scenarios and conceptual models rather than the presentation and analyses of results and confidence building (only deterministic results are presented). The calculations suggest that, from a perspective the conversion of the waste-storage facility is feasible such that all the predicted doses are well below internationally recognized targets, as well as provisional Armenian regulatory objectives. This conclusion applies to the disposal of the ANPP present and future arising of L/ILW operating wastes. (authors)

Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A.; Gondakyan, Y. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NRSC), 4 Tigran Mets, 375010 Yerevan (Armenia); Stepanyan, A. [Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority(ANRA), 4 Tigran Mets, 375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

2012-07-01

352

76 FR 53980 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, LLC. Radioactive waste Up to 210 Cobalt- Recycling, China August 1, 2011, August 5, consisting of 60 sealed forensic testing 2011, IW030. used Cobalt-60 sources. or storage and radioactive Combined total...

2011-08-30

353

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01

354

Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

Bradley, R.G.

1997-04-01

355

Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

2009-07-01

356

Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.  

PubMed

The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method. PMID:18044538

Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

2007-11-01

357

DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program  

SciTech Connect

Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

Not Available

1990-07-01

358

RSP WASTE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII RADIOACTIVE WASTE PICKUP REQUEST FORM Revision 06/07 (WASTE WHICH CONTAINS RADIOISOTOPES BUT NO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS)  

E-print Network

RSP WASTE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII RADIOACTIVE WASTE PICKUP REQUEST FORM Revision 06/07 (WASTE WHICH CONTAINS RADIOISOTOPES BUT NO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS) INSTRUCTIONS : 1. *NO ISOTOPES MAY BE MIXED IN THE WASTE BOX! One type of isotope per waste box - Except C-14 AND H-3 WHICH MAY BE DISPOSED OF TOGETHER. 2

Browder, Tom

359

FINAL DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN GERMANY: PLAN APPROVAL PROCESS OF KONRAD MINE AND ACCEPTANCE REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Currently no final repository for any type of radioactive waste is operated in Germany. Preliminary Final Storage Acceptance Requirements for radioactive waste packages were published in 1995. Up to now these are the basis for treatment of radioactive waste in Germany. After licensing of the final repository these preliminary waste acceptance requirements are completed with licensing conditions. Some of these conditions affect the preliminary waste acceptance requirements, e. g. behavior of chemo-toxic substances in case of accidents in the final repository or the allowed maximum concentration of fissile material. The presented examples of radioactive waste conditioning campaigns demonstrate that no difficulties are expected in management, characterization and quality assurance of radioactive wastes due to the licensing conditions.

Bandt, Gabriele; Posnatzki, Britta; Beckers, Klaus-Arno

2003-02-27

360

Assessment of Heavy Metals in a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unorganized dumping of solid waste is predominant in developing countries like India and cause adverse impacts to the environment. Sources such as electronic goods, electro plating waste, painting waste, used batteries, etc., when dumped with municipal solid wastes increase the heavy metals in dumpsites. Similarly solid waste dumping without the separation of hazardous waste can raise toxic environmental effects. Slow

S. Esakku; K. Palanivelu; Kurian Joseph

361

Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

1994-04-01

362

Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress  

SciTech Connect

This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

NONE

1996-06-01

363

1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

NONE

1997-11-01

364

Engineering Deinococcus geothermailis for Bioremediation of High-Temperature Radioactive Waste Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deinococcus geothermalis is an extremely radiation-resistant thermophilic bacterium closely related to the mesophile Deinococcus radiodurans, which is being engineered for in situ bioremediation of radioactive wastes.

Hassan Brim; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Heather M. Kostandarithes; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

2003-01-01

365

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing  

E-print Network

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of uncontrolled radioactive source incidents. Aside from radiation exposure to workers and the public, this unwanted radioactive scrap material causes environmental and facility contamination with cleanup costs

366

Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts  

SciTech Connect

This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

Perkins, B.L.

1982-01-01

367

On-line remote monitoring of radioactive waste repositories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost array of modular sensors for online monitoring of radioactive waste was developed at INFN-LNS. We implemented a new kind of gamma counter, based on Silicon PhotoMultipliers and scintillating fibers, that behaves like a cheap scintillating Geiger-Muller counter. It can be placed in shape of a fine grid around each single waste drum in a repository. Front-end electronics and an FPGA-based counting system were developed to handle the field data, also implementing data transmission, a graphical user interface and a data storage system. A test of four sensors in a real radwaste storage site was performed with promising results. Following the tests an agreement was signed between INFN and Sogin for the joint development and installation of a prototype DMNR (Detector Mesh for Nuclear Repository) system inside the Garigliano radwaste repository in Sessa Aurunca (CE, Italy). Such a development is currently under way, with the installation foreseen within 2014.

Cal, Claudio; Cosentino, Luigi; Litrico, Pietro; Pappalardo, Alfio; Scir, Carlotta; Scir, Sergio; Vecchio, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Alfieri, Severino; Mariani, Annamaria

2014-12-01

368

Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

2003-02-24

369

Remote ignitability analysis of high level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is involved in selected regulatory RCRA analyses of high level radioactive wastes. The requirement for characterization of the wastes at the INEL dictated the need for a remote ignitability determination. An ERDCO Model RT-1 Ignitability Tester was extensively modified for remote analysis in the RAL Hot Cell which uses Master Slave manipulators for sample handling and instrument operation. The modifications to the ERDCO instrument were required because of observation problems and remote sample/instrument handling in the hot cell. Highlights of the modifications for remote operation are as follows: a piezo film sensor was added for flash/nonflash detection, a mass flow controller and a thermocouple flame detector were added to ensure flame consistency and ignition, and a small stepper motor was used to activate the shutter. Design features of the remote ignitability instrument and remote sampling techniques are discussed.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-10-01

370

Remote ignitability analysis of high level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is involved in selected regulatory RCRA analyses of high level radioactive wastes. The requirement for characterization of the wastes at the INEL dictated the need for a remote ignitability determination. An ERDCO Model RT-1 Ignitability Tester was extensively modified for remote analysis in the RAL Hot Cell which uses Master Slave manipulators for sample handling and instrument operation. The modifications to the ERDCO instrument were required because of observation problems and remote sample/instrument handling in the hot cell. Highlights of the modifications for remote operation are as follows: a piezo film sensor was added for flash/nonflash detection, a mass flow controller and a thermocouple flame detector were added to ensure flame consistency and ignition, and a small stepper motor was used to activate the shutter. Design features of the remote ignitability instrument and remote sampling techniques are discussed.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-01-01

371

Investigation of Shielding Material in Radioactive Waste Management - 13009  

SciTech Connect

In this study, various waste packages have been prepared by using different materials. Experimental work has been performed on radiation shielding for gamma and neutron radiation. Various materials were evaluated (e.g. concrete, boron, etc.) related to different application areas in radioactive waste management. Effects of addition boric compound mixtures on shielding properties of concrete have been investigated for neutron radiation. The effect of the mixture addition on the shielding properties of concrete was investigated. The results show that negative effects of boric compounds on the strength of concrete decreasing by increasing boric amounts. Shielding efficiency of prepared mixture added concrete up to 80% better than ordinary concretes for neutron radiation. The attenuation was determined theoretically by calculation and practically by using neutron dose rate measurements. In addition of dose rate measurements, strength tests were applied on test shielding materials. (authors)

OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)] [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

2013-07-01

372

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Risk assessment should be an integral part of such projects and should play an important role from beginning to end, i.e., from planning stages to the closing of a disposal facility. A conceptual model that incorporates all potential pathways of exposure and is based on site-specific conditions is key to a successful risk assessment. A baseline comparison with existing standards determines, along with other factors, whether the disposal site is safe. Risk assessment also plays a role in setting priorities between sites during cleanup actions and in setting cleanup standards for certain contaminants at a site. The applicable technologies and waste disposal designs can be screened through risk assessment.

Not Available

1993-09-01

373

Radioactive waste management in Sweden experiences and plans  

SciTech Connect

For some years the necessary facilities have been in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage for long periods of time of radioactive waste and spent fuel from nuclear power production. These include a final repository, SFR, for short-lived low- and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel and a sea-based transport system. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of an encapsulation facility and a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. This work has recently gone from the R and D phase to the demonstration phase with plans for a repository to be in operation at the end of the next decade.

Gustafsson, B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-12-31

374

International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

1984-01-01

375

Investigation of low-level radioactive waste volume reduction options at a university  

SciTech Connect

A radioactive waste storage facility (for temporary storage) is being planned for Ohio State University, a large research university with a medical school. The University generates approximately 1000ft{sup 3} of low-level radioactive wastes, compacted. The waste has been transferred to the Barnwell facility, however, this facility will not be accepting any more wastes after June 30, 1994. Disposal costs after 10 years of accumulation at the university are estimated.

Fentiman, A.W.; Jorat, M.E.

1994-12-31

376

Method for noncontaminating solidification for final storage of aqueous, radioactive waste liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for solidifying medium radioactive aqueous waste liquids, low radioactive aqueous waste liquids, and aqueous waste liquids containing tritium for final non-contaminating storage. The waste liquids are first mixed with absorbing agents, e.g., clay-like substances, hydraulic binders or mixtures thereof, to form granules or pellets of the same. The granules or pellets are then embedded with a binder which

I. Boch; R. Gebauer; J. Jakobs; R. Koster; G. Rudolph; W. Schroter

1982-01-01

377

IONSIV(R) IE911 Performance in Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes cesium sorption from high-level radioactive waste solutions onto IONSIV(R) IE-911 at ambient temperature. Researchers characterized six radioactive waste samples from five high-level waste tanks in the Savannah River Site tank farm, diluted the wastes to 5.6 M Na+, and made equilibrium and kinetic measurements of cesium sorption. The equilibrium measurements were compared to ZAM (Zheng, Anthony, and

2001-01-01

378

Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model  

SciTech Connect

Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

Streatfield, R.E.; Hebditch, D.J. [British Nuclear Group, Berkeley Centre C11, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, GL 13 9PB (United Kingdom); Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R. [Serco Assurance, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX 11 ORA (United Kingdom); Constable, M. [AEA Technology Plc., B44 Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8WQ (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

379

Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

1996-06-01

380

Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

NONE

1996-04-01

381

Acoustic emission monitoring of cement-based structures immobilising radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The long term performance of cementitious structures immobilising radioactive waste can be affected by physical and chemical processes within the encapsulating materials such as formation of new phases (e.g., vaterite, brucite), degradation of cement phases (e.g., CSH gel, portlandite), degradation of some waste components (e.g., organics), corrosion of metallic constituents (aluminium, magnesium), gas emission, further hydration etc. The corrosion of metals in the high pH cementitious environment is of especial concern as it can potentially cause wasteform cracking. One of the perspective non-destructive methods used to monitor and assess the mechanical properties of materials and structures is based on an acoustic emission (AE) technique. In this study an AE non-destructive technique was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious structures with encapsulated metallic waste such as aluminium. AE signals generated as a result of aluminium corrosion in a small-size blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement (OPC) sample were detected, recorded and analysed. A procedure for AE data analysis including conventional parameter-based AE approach and signal-based analysis was applied and demonstrated to provide information on the aluminium corrosion process and its impact on the mechanical performance of the encapsulating cement matrix. (authors)

Spasova, L.M.; Ojovan, M.I. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hayes, M.; Godfrey, H. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

382

High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing  

SciTech Connect

Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

1985-04-01

383

Melting of the metallic wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear research facilities  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of nuclear installations results in considerably large amounts of radioactive metallic wastes such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, copper etc. It is known that the reference 1,000 MWe PWR and 881 MWe PHWR will generate metal wastes of 24,800 ton and 26,500 ton, respectively. In Korea, the D and D of KRR-2 and a UCP at KAERI have been performed. The amount of metallic wastes from the KRR-1 and UCP was about 160 ton and 45 ton, respectively, up to now. These radioactive metallic wastes will induce problems of handling and storing these materials from environmental and economical aspects. For this reason, prompt countermeasures should be taken to deal with the metal wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear facilities. The most interesting materials among the radioactive metal wastes are stainless steel (SUS), carbon steel (CS) and aluminum wastes because they are the largest portions of the metallic wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear research facilities. As most of these steels are slightly contaminated, if they are properly treated they are able to be recycled and reused in the nuclear field. In general, the technology of a metal melting is regarded as one of the most effective methods to treat metallic wastes from nuclear facilities. In conclusion: The melting of metal wastes (Al, SUS, carbon steel) from a decommissioning of research reactor facilities was carried out with the use of a radioisotope such as cobalt and cesium in an electric arc furnace. In the aluminum melting tests, the cobalt was captured at up to 75% into the slag phase. Most of the cesium was completely eliminated from the aluminum ingot phase and moved into the slag and dust phases. In the melting of the stainless steel wastes, the {sup 60}Co could almost be retained uniformly in the ingot phase. However, we found that significant amounts of {sup 60}Co remained in the slag at up to 15%. However the removal of the cobalt from the ingot phase was improved by the addition of a CaF{sub 2} slag former at up to 20%. The {sup 137}Cs was partitioned between the slag and the dust phases in the offgas. In the pilot scale melting test, the cobalt mostly remained in the ingot phase and the cesium was mainly found in the quenching water and slag.

Chong-Hun Jung; Pyung-Seob Song; Byung-Youn Min; Wang-Kyu Choi [150, Dukjin-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

384

Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis  

SciTech Connect

The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

1998-05-01

385

Revision 08 (08/10) Form G Radioactive Waste Disposal Form  

E-print Network

Revision 08 (08/10) Form G Radioactive Waste Disposal Form RS - 19g Proc. 9290, 9501 General Instructions: 1. Do not mix different waste forms together. Keep dry, liquid, and scintillation vials separate. 2. Do not mix waste of different isotopes. 3. Entries are to be made on this form each time waste

Nair, Sankar

386

Volume Reduction of Solid Radioactive Waste From Research Reactor and Nuclear Laboratories - Industrial Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various research reactors and nuclear laboratories at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India generate approximately 600 m of radioactive solid waste annually. These wastes are categorized and segregated based on their radiation field, physical nature and radionuclides present. The low level waste is further segregated based on compactability criteria. The compactable wastes are packed in 200 litres carbon steel drums

B. N. Singh; K. G. Gandhi; M. Chander; K. Raj

2006-01-01

387

Performing a chemical durability test on radioactive high-level nuclear waste glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site (SRS), currently is storing 30 million gallons of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) nearing completion at SRS will incorporate the radionuclides in these wastes into solid borosilicate glass for final disposal in a geologic repository. Because of the variability of the wastes in the tanks, borosilicate glasses of different compositions will be

D. C. Beam; J. A. Napier; J. D. McCurry; N. E. Bibler

1990-01-01

388

Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

1996-02-01

389

Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.  

PubMed

Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry. PMID:16099667

Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

2006-01-01

390

Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides  

SciTech Connect

An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

391

Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.  

PubMed

In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry. PMID:24638274

Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

2014-05-01

392

78 FR 26813 - Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public...licensee name 2013, IW022/03, 11005700. A radioactive total of 5,500 from ``Perma-Fix waste). tons of low- Environmental level...

2013-05-08

393

78 FR 26812 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public...Atomic 2013; XW012/03; 11005699. A radioactive total of 5,500 Energy of Canada waste). tons of low- Limited facilities...

2013-05-08

394

75 FR 27842 - Request for a License to Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b...Storage or Canada. subsidiary of radioactive pounds (53 cubic disposal by the EnergySolutions), April 19, waste in the feet) of dry original...

2010-05-18

395

78 FR 45579 - Request for a License to Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Request for a License to Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public...Canada June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive total of 0.074 decontamination IW032. waste consisting TBq (2 Ci) per of...

2013-07-29

396

18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program  

SciTech Connect

This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

None

1997-05-20

397

Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors

M. D. Abkowitz; S. B. Abkowitz; M. Lepofsky

1989-01-01

398

Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios

1979-01-01

399

Standard test method for static leaching of monolithic waste forms for disposal of radioactive waste  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <100C. 1.3 The test is conducted under static conditions in a constant solution volume and at a constant temperature. The reactivity of the test specimen is determined from the amounts of components released and accumulated in the solution over the test duration. A wide range of test conditions can be used to study material behavior, includin...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

400

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOEpatents

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1998-11-24

401

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOEpatents

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

1999-03-09

402

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOEpatents

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

1998-11-24

403

Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization  

DOEpatents

Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

1999-03-09

404

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different barriers constitute the two main remobilization factors for radionuclides in the geosphere and the biosphere. The study of solid alteration processes and elemental sorption phenomena on mineral surfaces is one of the most efficient basic research approaches to assess the long term performance of waste materials. Ion beam analysis and more recently nuclear microprobe techniques have been applied to investigate exchange mechanisms near representative solid/liquid interfaces such as glass/deionized water, uranium dioxide/granitic or clay water or mineral surface/aqueous solution doped with chemical elements analogue to actinide or fission products. This paper intends to describe the different works that have been carried out in Saclay using the nuclear microprobe facility. The coupling of ?RBS, ?PIXE and ?NRA permits to determine the evolution of the surface composition induced by chemical reactions involved. Complementary observation of solid morphology and solution analysis allows to obtain a complete elemental balance on exchange processes.

Trocellier, P.; Badillo, V.; Barr, N.; Bois, L.; Cachoir, C.; Gallien, J. P.; Guilbert, S.; Mercier, F.; Tiffreau, C.

1999-10-01

405

Processing of historic high radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

At ECN-NRG irradiations of materials have been performed with the aid of the High Flux Reactor at the site for investigations of their properties under different conditions as well for nuclear isotope productions since 1967 e.g. molybdenum. The high radioactive waste (HRW) coming from these nuclear applications are stored since the start in an interim storage facility located at the site. Due to the site license the HRW has to be transported to COVRA. Therefore a project has been set-up to transport all the HRW to COVRA. However, COVRA accepts a limited number of HLW containers among the CASTOR{sup R} MTR-2 container and thus all temporary stored drums have to be over packed. As the existing infra structure at the site is not suited a new facility has to be build. This also creates the opportunity to minimize, by separation of the HRW in low- and intermediate level waste, the amount of waste that has to be classified as HLW. The applied methodology, design and specifications of the HRW-ILW non-destructive assay characterization and separation system will be described. (authors)

Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Vos, R.M. de; Roobol, L.P. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group - NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); IJpelaan, R.; Van Tongeren, R. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2007-07-01

406

Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

Not Available

1981-07-01

407

Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

2011-11-01

408

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Impact on the medical profession  

SciTech Connect

During 1985, low-level radioactive waste disposal has become a critical concern. The issue has been forced by the threatened closure of the three commercial disposal sites. The medical community has used radioactive isotopes for decades in nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, radioimmunoassay, and biomedical research. Loss of disposal capacity for radioactive wastes generated by these activities, by the suppliers of radioisotopes, and by pharmaceutical companies will have a profound impact on the medical profession.

Brill, D.R.; Allen, E.W.; Lutzker, L.G.; McKusick, K.A.; Petersen, R.J.; Powell, O.M.; Weir, G.J.

1985-11-01

409

Treatment of radioactive liquid waste by sorption on natural zeolite in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid radioactive waste has been generated from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine in Turkey. Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) have been studied for the removal of several key radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 110mAg) from liquid radioactive waste. The aim of the present study is to investigate effectiveness of zeolite treatment on decontamination factor (DF) in

Ahmet Erdal Osmanlioglu

2006-01-01

410

Review of research on geological disposal of radioactive waste March 2011 s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Page 1 of 13 Review of research on geological disposal of radioactive waste proposed by  

E-print Network

Review of research on geological disposal of radioactive waste March 2011 s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Page 1 of 13 Review of research on geological disposal of radioactive waste proposed by the UK Nuclear, and future research work needed, on the pathway towards choosing sites for a radioactive waste Repository

411

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

2003-02-27

412

Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste embedded into EPDM and effect of lead filler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste is generated from the nuclear industry and should be processed and disposed of according to the regulations set by the appropriate regulatory authority. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is a widely used polymer and might be considered as a potential candidate radioactive waste encapsulation material. In this study, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the dose rate within the waste drum with different amounts of lead filler was also simulated. It was seen that lead filler would decrease the dose delivered to the polymer by means of energy dissipation. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of EPDM was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the duration of 15, 30 and 300 years after embedding.

zdemir, Tongu

2014-05-01

413

Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Body Position in the Transport of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes safety requirements for transport of radioactive waste in Slovakia and the role of regulatory body in the transport licensing and assessment processes. Importance of radioactive waste shipments have been increased since 1999 by starting of NPP A-1 decommissioning and operation of near surface disposal facility. Also some information from history of shipment as well as future activities are given. Legal basis for radioactive waste transport is resulting from IAEA recommendations in this area. Different types of transport equipment were approved by regulatory body for both liquid and solid waste and transportation permits were issued to their shipment. Regulatory body attention during evaluation of transport safety is focused mainly on ability of individual packages to withstand different transport conditions and on safety analyses performed for transport equipment for liquid waste with high frequency of shipments. During past three years no event was occurred in connection with radioactive waste transport in Slovakia.

Homola, J.

2003-02-27

414

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives  

E-print Network

In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kgler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

2014-01-01

415

Structure and Vibrational Spectra of Slags Produced from Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the anionic motif of aluminosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses containing simulated slags from a solid radioactive waste incinerator was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of melted slag were consistent with Si-O tetrahedra with various numbers of bridging O ions and Al-O tetrahedra embedded in the Si-O network in the slag vitreous and crystalline phases (nepheline, nagelschmidtite). Vibrations of doubly and triply bound Si-O tetrahedra and Al-O tetrahedra embedded between them were mainly responsible for the spectra as the content of sodium disilicate fl ux and the glass fraction in the materials increased. Addition of sodium tetraborate fl ux caused the appearance of B-O vibrations of predominantly three-coordinate B and a tendency toward chemical differentiation preceding phase separation.

Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

2014-05-01

416

Development of a universal solvent for the decontamination of acidic liquid radioactive wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A teritiary solvent containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, polyethylene glycol and diphenylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide was evaluated in different non-nitroaromatic diluents for the separation of cesium, strontium, actinides and rare earth elements from acidic liquid radioactive waste. Decontamination factors of >95% for Cs, 99.7% for Sr, and 99.99% for actinides were achieved in four successive batch contacts using actual radioactive waste. Pilot plant testing in centrifugal contactors using simulated wastes, has demonstrated removal of >99% of all targeted ions.

Todd, T. A.; Brewer, K. N.; Law, J. D.; Wood, D. J.; Herbest, R. S.; Romanovskiy, V. N.; Esimantovskiy, V. M.; Smirnov, I. V.; Babain, V. A.

1999-01-01

417

GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

SciTech Connect

In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are proud on our work and we like to show that. Our work is necessary and useful for society. We will not hide our activities but show them and make it worth looking at them.

Codee, Hans D.K.

2003-02-27

418

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1  

E-print Network

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1 , W-sodium content radioactive waste borosilicate glass buried in a loamy soil (glass K-26) and in an open testing. INTRODUCTION Vitrification of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) is attracting great interest

Sheffield, University of

419

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

420

Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

Not Available

1993-06-01

421

Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70/sup 0/F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle.

Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

1980-02-01

422

New separation chemistry techniques for radioactive waste and other specific applications  

SciTech Connect

This book includes papers presented at a technical seminar jointly organized by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, and the Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). It examines the current state-of-the-art technology for the separation of various metal ions from mixtures, with an emphasis on the separation of radionuclides from radioactive waste. The seminar was comprised of five technical sessions, each devoted to the discussion of the merits of one family of new extractants, exchangers, and absorbers. Section I examines the use of various amine/amide based extractants on several metal cations. Section II discusses bidentate organophosphorus-based extractants, actinides, lanthanides, and other metal ions from liquid waste. Sections III and IV over the application of cyclic phenol-formaldehyde condensates or calixarenes and crown-ethers as complexing agents. Sections V and VI cover other types of extractants (macrocyclic ligands, alkylpyridinium nitrates, and phosphomethyl substitutes phenols) and ion exchanger/absorbers.

Cecille, L.; Casarci, M.; Pietrelli, L. (eds.)

1991-01-01

423

Radioactive waste disposal experience in Europe (including the Centre de Stockage de l`Aube in France)  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with radioactive waste disposal experience in Europe. Just as the radioactive waste disposal systems vary from country to country, so do the waste classification systems and resulting waste disposal programs throughout Europe. The second part of this paper will introduce the Centre de Stockage l`Aube, France`s second low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, which has been in operation since January, 1992.

David, G.A. [Numatec, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-05-01

424

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1999-07-20

425

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1998-03-24

426

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1998-03-24

427

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

1997-01-01

428

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1999-07-20

429

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1997-07-15

430

Radionuclide Transport Behavior in a Generic Geological Radioactive Waste Repository.  

PubMed

We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. PMID:24571606

Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

2014-02-24

431

Radioactive waste management in France: safety demonstration fundamentals.  

PubMed

The main challenge in development of the safety case for deep geological disposal is associated with the long periods of time over which high- and intermediate-level long-lived wastes remain hazardous. A wide range of events and processes may occur over hundreds of thousands of years. These events and processes are characterised by specific timescales. For example, the timescale for heat generation is much shorter than any geological timescale. Therefore, to reach a high level of reliability in the safety case, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the sequence of events and processes likely to occur over the lifetime of the repository. It then becomes possible to assess the capability of the repository to fulfil its safety functions. However, due to the long periods of time and the complexity of the events and processes likely to occur, uncertainties related to all processes, data, and models need to be understood and addressed. Assessment is required over the lifetime of the radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste. PMID:23089028

Ouzounian, G; Voinis, S; Boissier, F

2012-01-01

432

Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, S/sup 2 -/.

Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

1983-01-01

433

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2005  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................... 9 . Disposals of radioactive waste .............................................................................................. 0 .. Radioactive waste disposal from nuclear sites............................................ .. Radioactive waste disposal at sea

434

Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

Not Available

1981-08-01

435

Chemistry of technetium and rhenium species during low-level radioactive waste vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes at the Hanford Reservation will be separated into high-level and low-level waste streams for processing. The low-level wastes will be vitrified. Volatile components and technetium compounds may pose potential problems in the vitrification process. In this paper, the chemistry of technetium species is described.

John G. Darab; Peter A. Smith

1996-01-01

436

Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

1995-05-17

437

Radiation resistant concrete for applications in nuclear power and radioactive waste industries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental components of ordinary concrete contain a variety of metals and rare earth elements that are susceptible to neutron activation. This activation occurs by means of radiative capture, a neutron interaction that results in formation of radioisotopes such as Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154. Studies have shown that these three radioisotopes are responsible for the residual radioactivity found in nuclear power plant concrete reactor dome and shielding walls. Such concrete is classified as Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and requires disposal at appropriate disposal sites. There are only three such sites in the USA, and every nuclear power plant will produce at the time of decommissioning approximately 1,500 tonnes of activated concrete classified as LLRW and VLLW. NAVA ALIGA (ancient word for a new stone) is a new concrete mixture developed mainly by research as presented in this thesis. The purpose of NAVA ALIGA is to satisfy IAEA clearance levels if used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, or radioactive waste canisters. NAVA ALIGA will never be activated above the IAEA clearance level after long-term exposure to neutron radiation when used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, and radioactive waste canisters. Components of NAVA ALIGA were identified using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ISP-MS) to determine trace element composition. In addition, it was tested for compressive strength and permeability, important for nuclear infrastructure. The studied mixture had a high water to cement ratio of 0.56, which likely resulted in the high measured permeability, yet the mixture also showed a compressive strength greater than 6 000 psi after 28 days. In addition to this experimental analysis, which goal was to develop a standard approach to define the concrete mixtures in satisfying the IAEA radiation clearance levels, the NAVA ALIGA concrete was analyzed as to potentially be used together with depleted uranium. This study was purely computational (based on MCNP6 models) and was twofold: to find if this new concrete mix would enhance the radiation shielding properties when combined with depleted uranium and to find if this will be an effective and useful way of using the existing large quantities of disposed depleted uranium.

Burnham, Steven Robert

438

ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

2013-11-13

439

Radioactive Waste Management in the European Union: Initiatives for New Legislation  

SciTech Connect

Improving the management of radioactive waste in the European Union is a major theme of the ''nuclear package'' recently adopted by the European Commission. Included in the package are proposals for new legislation that would bring about the development of common safety standards in Europe covering the full nuclear sector, segregated funds to cover all nuclear liabilities that remain after the operating lifetime of an installation and clearly defined waste programs for radioactive waste management in each of the Member States of the Union. Included in these programs must be firm dates for a number decision points leading to disposal of all forms of radioactive waste. The package also puts significant emphasis on more, and better coordinated, research on radioactive waste management as the present levels are thought to be inadequate.

Taylor, D.

2003-02-25

440

Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

none,

1981-06-01

441

Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

Not Available

1981-07-01

442

Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

Not Available

1980-11-01

443

New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

Not Available

1981-04-01

444

Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

Bradley, D.J.

1991-03-01

445

Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

Bradley, D.J.

1991-03-01

446

Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

Not Available

1981-08-01

447

Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

Not Available

1981-10-01

448

Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

none,

1981-08-01

449

North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

Not Available

1981-08-01

450

Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

Not Available

1981-10-01

451

Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

Not Available

1981-04-01

452

Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

NONE

1995-06-01

453

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

Not Available

1994-09-01

454

Radioactive waste processing: Vitrification. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the processing of radioactive wastes by vitrification (the formation of a glassy material to immobilize radioactive nuclides). In-situ vitrification; proposed glass compositions; glass properties including degradation, leachability, and physical strength; and vitrification processes are discussed. Full-scale vitrification plants and international waste vitrification programs are described. Solidification of radioactive waste with borosilicate glass and synthetic rock or cement and asphalt is discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-01-01

455

Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

1999-03-09

456

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

457

Application of molecular techniques to elucidate the influence of cellulosic waste on the bacterial community structure at a simulated low-level-radioactive-waste site.  

PubMed

Low-level-radioactive-waste (low-level-waste) sites, including those at various U.S. Department of Energy sites, frequently contain cellulosic waste in the form of paper towels, cardboard boxes, or wood contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides such as chromium and uranium. To understand how the soil microbial community is influenced by the presence of cellulosic waste products, multiple soil samples were obtained from a nonradioactive model low-level-waste test pit at the Idaho National Laboratory. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) analyses. Both methods revealed changes in the bacterial community structure with depth. In all samples, the PhyloChip detected significantly more operational taxonomic units, and therefore relative diversity, than the clone libraries. Diversity indices suggest that diversity is lowest in the fill and fill-waste interface (FW) layers and greater in the wood waste and waste-clay interface layers. Principal-coordinate analysis and lineage-specific analysis determined that the Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria phyla account for most of the significant differences observed between the layers. The decreased diversity in the FW layer and increased members of families containing known cellulose-degrading microorganisms suggest that the FW layer is an enrichment environment for these organisms. These results suggest that the presence of the cellulosic material significantly influences the bacterial community structure in a stratified soil system. PMID:20305022

Field, Erin K; D'Imperio, Seth; Miller, Amber R; VanEngelen, Michael R; Gerlach, Robin; Lee, Brady D; Apel, William A; Peyton, Brent M

2010-05-01

458

Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS.

N /A

2003-04-11

459

Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.  

PubMed

In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

2013-01-01