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1

SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/. This oxide carrier precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved in an aqueous acidic solution and nonradioactive tellurium, in an ionic form, is then introduced into such solution, for example in the form of H/sub 2/TeO/sub 3/. The tellurium present in the solution is then reduced to the elemental state and precipitates, and is then separated from the supernataat solution. A basic acetate precipitate is formed in the supernatant and carries the remaining columblum values therefrom. After separation, this basic ferric acetate precipitate is dissolved, and the ferric ions are removed by means of an organic solvent extraction process utilizing ether. The remaining solution contains carrier-free columbium as its only metal ion.

Glendenin, L.E.; Gest, H.

1958-08-26

2

Method for the Controlled Addition of Oxygen to Columbium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for making additions of small amounts of oxygen to columbium (niobium) is presented. The technique involves complete reduction of a carefully weighed metal-metal oxide mixture by the columbium in a sealed evacuated chamber at 900 deg C. The ox...

J. D. Gerber F. E. Rizzo R. D. Daniels

1968-01-01

3

METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE REFRACTORY METALS HAFNIUM, TITANIUM, VANADIUM, SILICON, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND CHROMIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and the apparatus used for the liquid phase production of Ti, ; Zr, V, Hf, Si, Th, Cr, and Nb by the reduction of a halide of the desired metal ; with a sufficient amount of reducing agent in a zone surrounded by a twocomponent ; agent halide supported by a metal product lining are described. Suitable ;

1963-01-01

4

Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Its not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium also called columbium and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

Papp, John F.

2007-01-01

5

Investment Casting of Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the art of columbium alloy investment castings has been advanced. In addition to demonstration of castability of four different alloys, the cast material itself has been characterized with respect to microstructure, alloy segregation, weldabi...

J. R. Humphrey A. I. Niravath

1975-01-01

6

Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

7

Ion Exchange Analysis of Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ion-exchange method developed at AMRA (see AD-653 767) was applied to the analysis of synthetic mixtures representing various columbium-base alloys. The alloying elements which were separated and determined include vanadium, zirconium, hafnium, titaniu...

T. A. Ferraro

1967-01-01

8

Minerals Yearbook 1989: Columbium (Niobium) and Tantalum  

SciTech Connect

The United States remained dependent on imports of columbium and tantalum materials, and the net trade deficit for these minerals was at the highest level since 1981. Most columbium price quotations rose slightly, whereas tantalum concentrate prices declined significantly. Overall reported consumption of columbium in the form of ferrocolumbium and nickel columbium was down, in line with a decline in steel production and a soft superalloy industry. The overall tantalum industry, which had showed signs of some improvement in recent years, was also down. Factory sales of tantalum capacitors were at the lowest level since 1986. However, much interest was being generated relating to tantalum's use in certain armor-piercing penetrator weapon systems.

Cunningham, L.D.

1989-01-01

9

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Columbium (Cb) is vital as an alloying element in steels and in superalloys for aircraft turbine engines and is in greatest demand in industrialized countries. Tantalum (Ta) is used mostly in the electronics industry, mainly in capacitors, and in aerospace and transportation applications. The United States continued to be dependent on imports of columbium and tantalum materials. Brazil remained the major source for columbium imports, and Australia remained the major source for tantalum imports. Columbium and tantalum price quotations remained stable.

Cunningham, L.D.

1994-11-01

10

Performance of Coated Columbium and Tantalum Alloys in Plasma Arc Reentry Simulation Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of coated refractory metals screened in stagnation model plasma arc tests is reported. Columbium alloys FS-85, C-129Y, and Cb-752 coated with Si-20Cr-20Fe (R512E) were tested at 1390 C. Three silicide coatings on Ta-10W were tested at 1470 ...

S. R. Levine J. P. Merutka

1974-01-01

11

Process Improvement of Columbium (CB-752) Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 800 pounds of Cb-752 alloy (columbium-10 percent tungsten-2.5 percent zirconium) 1/4-inch thick sheet bar were processed to 0.060-inch thickness, 30-inches width sheets. About 200 pounds of sheet in 0.060-, 0.030-, 0.018-, and 0.012-inch gag...

J. G. Bewley M. Schussler

1964-01-01

12

Mineral's yearbook, 1990: Columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Columbium is vital as an alloying element in steels and in superalloys for aircraft turbine engines and is in greatest demand in industrialized countries. Tantalum is used mostly in the electronics industry, mainly in capacitors, and in aerospace and transportation applications. The United States continued to be dependent on imports of columbium and tantalum materials, with Brazil remaining the major source for columbium imports and the Federal Republic of Germany the major source for tantalum imports. Columbium price quotations were unchanged for the year, and tantalum prices remained stable. The National Defense Stockpile (NDS) requirement (goal) for the columbium group nearly tripled in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991. Also, to ensure future availability to the United States, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) awarded contracts for purchase of tantalum minerals for the NDS. Overall reported consumption of columbium in the form of ferrocolumbium and nickel columbium rose slightly, with demand for columbium in superalloys at the highest level since 1986. Tantalum consumption was up for the year, aided by increased demand from the electronics industry.

Cunningham, L.D.

1991-11-01

13

Critical and Strategic Minerals in Alaska. Tin, Tantalum, and Columbium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alaska contains many critical and strategic minerals that are scarce in the conterminous United States. Among these are tin, tantalum, and columbium. The Bureau of Mines report summarizes available data on the production, reserves, and occurrences of thes...

J. D. Warner

1985-01-01

14

Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

Bray, L.A.

1996-08-13

15

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

16

Coated Columbium Thermal Protection Systems: An Assessment of Technological Readiness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties a...

S. R. Levine S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

17

Contamination Hardening of SU-31 and FS-85 Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of the contamination hardening of SU-31 and FS-85 columbium alloys which results when samples are exposed in air temperatures of 1400 to 2600 F. Diffusion coefficients for the principal contaminant, calculated from hardening profiles...

R. B. Herring

1973-01-01

18

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Columbium is used principally as an additive in steelmaking, which annually accounts for about 80% of the U.S. reported consumption. The outlook for steel is discussed in the annual report for iron and steel. The outlook for columbium will also be dependent to a lesser degree on the performance of the aerospace industry. Continued reduction in military spending is expected to lead to reduced aerospace shipments throughout the decade. For the past decade, more than 60% of the tantalum consumed in the United States was used to produce electronic components, mainly tantalum capacitors, with major markets in recent years being computer and communication systems. Annual U.S. apparent consumption of tantalum is anticipated to be less than 400 tons through most of the 1990s. The major components of U.S. supply-demand relationships for tantalum in 1982-92 are given.

Cunningham, L.D.

1993-12-01

19

Applied High Temperature Technology Program. Volume II. Evaluation of Coated Columbium Alloys for Advanced Turbine Airfoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the columbium alloy evaluation. The objective of these evaluations was to determine the applicability of coated columbium alloys for advanced gas turbine vanes. The alloy SU-31 (Cb-17W-3.5 Hf-0.1C) was selected for evaluation following ...

C. W. Hayes J. J. Jackson

1975-01-01

20

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

21

TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM  

DOEpatents

Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

Foote, F.G.

1960-08-01

22

Research Development and Test of Refractory Metal Alloy Fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of producing and using standard fasteners (metallic) for use to 3000 F was investigated. The final production phase consisted of one molybdenum alloy, TZM, and one columbium alloy, Cb752, with the threaded fasteners incorporating a special thr...

C. J. Shaver

1964-01-01

23

ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

24

Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal  

DOEpatents

A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

2008-06-10

25

Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the

Goran Dugalic; Dragana Krstic; Miodrag Jelic; Dragoslav Nikezic; Biljana Milenkovic; Mira Pucarevic; Tijana Zeremski-Skoric

2010-01-01

26

Molten Salt Oxidation of Ion-exchange Resins Doped with Toxic Metals and Radioactive Metal Surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates were test-burned in a bench-scale molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system. The purposes of this study are to confirm the destruction performance of the two-stage MSO reactor system for the organic ion-exchange resin and to obtain an understanding of the behavior of the fixed toxic metals and the sulfur in

Hee-Chul YANG; Yong-Jun CHO; Hee-Chul EUN; Jae-Hyung YOO; Joon-Hyung KIM

2005-01-01

27

Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF. When used energy of exothermic reactions in waste thermochemical treatment processing, the problems concerned with heating method choice, appropriate heating equipment operation, and maintenance of this equipment reliability are excluded. Generally, the PMF consists of combustible powder metal, oxygen containing component, and some additives (pore-forming materials, stabilizers, surface-active substances, and other) with a predominance of metal powder. A thermodynamic simulation is applied widely at the designing of the PMF.

Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

2003-02-25

28

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

29

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-09-01

30

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

31

PRODUCIBILITY OF AN ALLOY OF COLUMBIUM WITH ONE PERCENT ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proven mineral resources show that niobium is the most abundant of the ; refractory metals and extraction capacity is adequate to meet foreseeable ; requirements. Approximately four tons of Nb-1% Zr alloy were melted, forged, ; drawn, and rolled to produce various mill forms and relatively large die ; impression forgings. It was demonstrated that the Nb-1% Zr alloy is

Raring

1959-01-01

32

Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

1990-12-31

33

Assessment of natural radioactivity and heavy metals in water and soil around seismically active area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural radioactivity concentration and some heavy metals in various water and soil samples collected from seismically\\u000a active area have been determined. Gross-alpha and beta concentrations of different 33 water samples and some heavy metal (Fe,\\u000a Pb, Cu, K, Mn, Cr and Zn) concentration in 72 soil samples collected from two major fault systems (North and East Anatolian\\u000a Active Fault

Oktay Baykara; Mahmut Do?ru

2010-01-01

34

Treatment and Stabilization of Potentially Pyrophoric Radioactive Metal Chips and Turnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the continuing mission to decontaminate, decommission, and restore environmental quality at multiple sites throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear complex, approximately 2,000 containers of potentially pyrophoric radioactive metal chips and turnings, weighing over 192,000 kilograms have been identified. These wastes, mostly depleted uranium (DU) and thorium metals, must be treated to remove or immobilize

B. R. Crocker; R. Grondin; T. Yarbrough

2006-01-01

35

Characterization of Chromized Metallic Surfaces by Means of Radioactive Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Cr deposited on metallic surfaces at concentrations of about 10 at\\/cm was examined by detecting the radiation components emitted in the Cr decay. The autoradiography revealed a non-homogeneous Cr covering. Combined Auger electron and X-ray spectroscopies yielded information on the Cr concentration, especially in the 2 nm thick surface layer. This concentration was found to depend

V. R?iger; A. Freyer; E. Hartmann; C. Treutler; V. Brabec; O. Dragoun; A. Kovalik

1986-01-01

36

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES  

SciTech Connect

The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

2007-06-06

37

Development of a Be-7 beam: Techniques for the ionization of radioactive metallic elements (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Louvain-la-Neuve ECR ion source is used to ionize metallic radioactive elements like Be-7 (T1/2=53d) for postacceleration in its radioactive beam facility. Because of the minute quantities of primary material available, dedicated techniques had to be developed to inject the radioactive atoms in a controlled manner and to recycle the atoms lost on the plasma chamber walls. For this purpose, a heated plasma chamber has been constructed which allows the use of ``on-line chemistry in the source'' to effectively recycle the deposited material. The presence of a radioactive tracer proved to be a strong diagnostic tool to locate the material loss in the different parts of the source. This development resulted in the production of a postaccelerated beam of Be-7 in 1+ and 2+ charge states. Up to 110 h of continuous beam have been provided with primary material quantities of a few ng. The total efficiency of the source reached a few percent. These beams were initially developed for experiments in nuclear physics. The implantation of Be-7 is now also used as a powerful tool to measure the wear properties of various materials like ceramics and amorphous carbon layers. This will be illustrated with a few examples.

Gaelens, M.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckewaert, G.

2004-05-01

38

The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

1997-05-01

39

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

40

Analysis for metal elements and radioactive isotopes in fly ash produced in lignite combustion at a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the composition of fly ash from a thermal power plant and from the lignites used as mixed fuels at the plant.Heavy metals were analysed for qualitatively by emission spectrography and quantitatively by X?ray fluorescence. On the other hand, radioactive actinide elements were assayed by gamma and alpha spectrometry, and sulphur and carbon were determined by combustion.The analysis of

M. Casas; F. Garcias; Ll. Serra; M. Baucells; G. Lacort; M. Roura; R. Forteza; V. Cerd

1992-01-01

41

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico- chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. Ex- situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment test using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils.

NONE

1995-05-01

42

Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth had very good capacity for these two metals. However, the mechanical strength of Fullers earth granules available commercially was not sufficient for use in a column. In this study chitosan was used as a binder to make Fullers earth beads and were used for adsorption of Cs(I) and Sr(II). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Hasan, Md. Shameem

43

Determination of Heavy Metals and Comparison to Gross Radioactivity Concentration in Soil and Sediment Samples of the Bendimahi River Basin (Van, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of radioactivity and some heavy metal distribution in soil and sediment of the river basin (Bendimahi River,\\u000a Van-Turkey) was conducted in two seasons of 2005. The samples of soil and sediment were collected from the basin and investigated\\u000a for concentrations of some heavy metal and natural radioactivity. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Cd

zlem Seluk Zorer; Hasan Ceylan; Mahmut Do?ru

2009-01-01

44

Identification of Metals (Heavy and Radioactive) in Drinking Water by an Indirect Analysis Method Based on Scale Tests  

PubMed Central

The analysis of water quality, regarding the content of metals, especially heavy and radioactive ones, has been carried out in an indirect way, by testing scale formed in a hot-water heater, using water from the water-supply network of the city of Belgrade the district of New Belgrade. The determination of the composition and the structure of the scale has resulted in its complete identification, and its crystallochemical formula has been defined. It has unequivocally been established that the obtained results are within the tolerance boundary with the results acquired by a conventional analysis of water, when it is a matter of very low concentrations. The presence of radioactive elements of uranium and strontium in a scale sample has been found and the way of their penetrating its composition and structure has been explained. Applying the fractional extraction method, uranium has been established to be of an anthropogenic origin.

Rajkovic, Milos B.; Lacnjevac, Caslav M.; Ralevic, Nebojsa R.; Stojanovic, Mirjana D.; Toskovic, Dragan V.; Pantelic, Gordana K.; Ristic, Nikola M.; Jovanic, Sasa

2008-01-01

45

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap me...

L. A. Nieves S. Y. Chen W. E. Murphie M. J. Lilly

1994-01-01

46

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

47

Radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations of some commercial fish species consumed in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Marine fish is an important daily diet item for the people of Turkey. The Black Sea Region of Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs) and heavy metal concentrations (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) in four of the most common fish species: Engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy), Oncorhynchus mykiss (trout), Trachurus mediterranus (bluefin) and Merlangius merlangus (whiting) samples collected from eight stations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey during 2010. The dose due to consumption of fish by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human healthy. The concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:22225706

Korkmaz Grr, F; Keser, R; Akay, N; Dizman, S

2012-01-04

48

Engineering 'Deinococcus Radiodurans' for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites. (Final Report, 1997-2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immense volumes of radioactive waste were generated from the production of 46,000 nuclear weapons in the United States between 1945 and 1986. This is a period when national security priorities often surmounted concerns over the environment. Most wastes in...

M. J. Daly J. K. Fredrickson L. P. Wackett

2005-01-01

49

THERMODYNAMICS OF THE VOLATILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METALS IN THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

We are proposing to perform a detailed study of the volatilization behavior of the U, Pu and possibly Am under conditions relevant to the thermal treatment (destruction) of actinide-containing organic-based mixed and radioactive wastes. The primary objective of this 3-year projec...

50

Application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. O...

R. F. Fogle R. M. Younkins

1997-01-01

51

Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release  

SciTech Connect

Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)

2007-07-01

52

Removal of Radioactive Cesium from Nuclear Waste Solutions with the Transition Metal Hexacyanoferrate Ion Exchanger CsTreat  

SciTech Connect

A transition metal hexacyanoferrate product CsTreat has been utilized at industrial scale for radioactive cesium separation at several nuclear power plants (NPPs) in several countries. A granular hexacyanoferrate ion exchanger has been used in packed-bed column mode operations for the removal of cesium from a variety of wastewater types. CsTreat beds have successfully purified both high-salt evaporator concentrates and dilute floor drain waters at NPPs in Finland and the United States. Furthermore, medium-active reprocessing solutions, containing high concentrations of sodium nitrate, have been decontaminated by a CsTreat bed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These solutions are described as are other industrial applications of this ion exchange material, which, of all the commercial materials, has been shown to be the most selective exchanger for cesium. In addition, some prospective fields of hexacyanoferrate utilization, such as the use of CsTreat powder in a precoat filtration system, are discussed.

Harjula, R. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehto, J. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Paajanen, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Brodkin, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Tusa, E. [Fortum Engineering (Finland)

2001-02-15

53

Relationship between impact of dose distribution and energy of radioactive ray for metal contraceptive ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe studied the relationship between impact of dose distribution and energy of radioactive ray in teletherapy with contraceptive\\u000a ring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsThe SI Virtual Water Phantom was used to monitor medium of dose. PTW ionization chamber was used to detect the dose. AP-PA\\u000a (10 cm 10 cm) and SAD technique were adopted. Monitoring dose of different locations with different energy of

Jianwen Zhang; Huiqun Luo; Bo Yang; Haowen Pang

2010-01-01

54

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

1996-01-01

55

Heavy Metal and Radioactivity Concentrations in Soil and Moss Samples from Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in the moss (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum) and topsoil (0-5 cm) samples collected from Istanbul were analysed to estimate heavy metal deposition. The activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 238U, 232Th), organic matter contents and pH values of the topsoil samples were also measured. The trace element

nder Kili; Yavuz otuk

56

BRAZE BONDING OF COLUMBIUM  

DOEpatents

A method of brazing niobium parts together is described. The surfaces of the parts to be brazed together are placed in abutting relationship with a brazing alloy disposed adjacent. The alloy consists essentially of, by weight, 12 to 25% niobium, 0.5 to 5% molybdenum, and the balance zirconium, The alloy is heated to at least its melting point to braze the parts together. The brazed joint is then cooled. The heating, melting and cooling take place in an inert atmosphere. (AEC)

Heestand, R.L.; Picklesimer, M.L.

1962-07-31

57

Radioactivity measurements of metallic [sup 192]Ir sources by calorimetric methods  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of establishing the traceability of dose measurement in brachytherapy [sup 192]Ir sources is realized by physicians and researchers in the medical field. Standard sources of various shapes such as [open quotes]hairpin,[close quotes] [open quotes]single pin,[close quotes] [open quotes]thin wire,[close quotes] and [open quotes]seed[close quotes] for calibrating ionization chambers in hospitals are being demanded. Nominal activities of not only these source products but also the standard sources have been so far specified by [open quotes]apparent[close quotes] values. Determination of [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by an established means such as 4pi-beta-gamma coincidence counting is not practical because quantitative dissolution of metallic iridium is very difficult. We tried to determine the [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by a calorimetric method in a fully nondestructive way.

Genka, Tsuguo; Iwamoto, Seikichi; Takeuchi, Norio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan))

1992-01-01

58

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

59

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

60

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.55.2-106.37.5, 5.11.6-9.93.2. and 462.621-607.314Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

2011-08-26

61

Decontaimination of radioactive metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of extracting technetium and actinide radiocontaminants from radiocontaminated nickel comprising the steps: fabricating a nickel electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides; and then anodically dissolving the electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides in a oxidizing acid electrolyte solution to produce a solution containing actinide ions and at least 30 grams/liter of nickel and to oxidize the technetium to produce pertechnetate anions; and then removing pertechnetate anions and actinides by counter-current solvent extraction with a barren solution containing TOPO, D[sub 2]EHPA or mixtures thereof dissolved in an organic solvent, to produce a decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate, and a contaminated, loaded solvent stream; and then stripping the technetium values from the contaminated, loaded solvent stream with hydrochloric acid; passing the decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate through an absorbent for organic solvent; and then electrowinning the raffinate in an electrolysis cell with acidic electrolyte to remove residual actinides present, and to recover cathodic nickel.

Snyder, T.S.; Gass, W.R.; Worcester, S.A.; Ayers, L.J.

1992-10-20

62

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies.

Not Available

1994-11-01

63

"Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater and sediments of numerous U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) field sites are contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cr, Pd) and radionuclides (e.g., U, Tc), as well as the fuel hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX); chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene (TCE); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The remediation of such mixed wastes constitutes an immediate and complex waste management challenge for DOE, particularly in light of the costliness and limited efficacy of current physical and chemical strategies for treating mixed wastes. In situ bioremediation via natural microbial processes (e.g., metal reduction) remains a potent, potentially cost-effective approach to the reductive immobilization or detoxification of environmental contaminants. Seventy million cubic meters of soil and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Our recent isolation and characterization of D. radiodurans from a variety of DOE environments, including highly radioactive sediments beneath one of the leaking tanks (SX-108) at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state, underscores the potential for this species to survive in such extreme environments. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive waste sites was started by this group in September 1997 with support from DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-97ER62492. Our grant was renewed for the period 2000-2003, which includes work on the thermophilic radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Work funded by the existing grant contributed to 18 papers in the period 1997-2004 on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of radioactive waste environments. Our progress since September 2000 closely matches the Aims proposed in our second NABIR application and is summarized as follows. We have further refined expression vectors for D. radiodurans and successfully tested engineered strains in natural DOE sediment and groundwater samples. Further, we have shown that D. geothermalis is transformable with plasmids and integration vectors designed for D. radiodurans. This was demonstrated by engineering Hg(II)-resistant D. geothermalis strains capable of reducing Hg(II) at elevated temperatures and under chronic irradiation. Additionally, we showed that D. geothermalis, like D. radiodurans, is naturally capable of reducing U(VI), Cr(VI), and Fe(III). These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 C, of which there are many examples. Our annotation of the D. radiodurans genome has been an important guide throughout this project period and continues to be a source of inspiration in the development of new genetic technologies dedicated to this bacterium. For example, our genome analyses have enabled us to achieve engineering goals that were unattainable in our first NABIR project (1997-2000), where uncertainties relating to its metabolic configuration prevented efforts to expand its metabolic capabilities. As just one example, we showed that D. radiodurans has a functioning tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle glyoxylate bypass which could be integrated with toluene oxidation. And, we successfully engineered D. radiodurans to derive carbon and energy from complete toluene mineralization and showed that toluene oxidation can be coupled to cellular biosynthesis, survival, as well as its native and engineered metal reducing capabilities. We have also constructed a whole genome microarray for D. radiodurans covering {approx}94% of its predicted genes and have successfully used the array to examine the response of cells to radiation and other DOE relevant conditions. Similarly, we have used high throughput proteomic approaches to

Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

2005-03-17

64

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

65

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Ninth quarterly technical and financial progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. In accordance with 10CFR 600.31 (d)(i), an extension of the project period including final report submission to 31 July 1995 was made in anticipation of potential delays in receiving Fernald soil samples at Chalk River Laboratories for the planned pilot-scale verification tests. Ex-situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment tests using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils ({approximately}416 kg) by FERMCO and paperwork required to arrange for export/import licenses.

NONE

1995-05-01

66

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. The Task 2 Topical Report (milestone No. 4) summarizing contaminant removal results obtained from bench-scale studies using Fernald uranium soils and Chalk River Laboratories Chemical Pit soils was completed and issued on August 8, 1994. The results have shown that the soils containing uranium (about 400 pCi/g of soil) and strontium-90 (about 1200 pCi/g of soil) can be decontaminated to the target level of 35 pCi/g of treated soil in the presence of an ultrasonic field. Preliminary results obtained from the in-situ soil leaching tests are the average strontium-90 concentration in the cell was about 250 pCi/g; and the use of a dilute mineral acid (0. 1 mol/L HCl) removed in excess of 85% of strontium-90 originally present in the soil.

Buckley, L.P.

1994-12-31

67

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700 800 C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

68

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

69

Radioactivity Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

Onega, Ronald J.

1969-01-01

70

Radioactivity Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)|

Onega, Ronald J.

1969-01-01

71

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David; Moore, Lang

2000-09-02

72

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David

2000-09-02

73

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With knowledge of Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, one should be able to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances and develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

74

Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line show that most contained concentrations of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu above the RSRLs. Overall, all concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs that were detected above background levels in soils collected around the perimeter of Area G and towards the Pueblo de San Ildefonso boundary were still very low and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

P. R. Fresquez

2007-02-28

75

RADIOACTIVE BATTERY  

DOEpatents

A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

1959-11-17

76

Potential impacts of pending residual radioactivity rules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of pending rules governing residual radioactive release criteria and radioactive waste management, and the potential impact of these rules on the Fernald Scrap Metal program. More than 300,000 cubic mete...

D. D. Burns

1995-01-01

77

Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinate Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the n...

2006-01-01

78

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evoluti...

D. F. Bickford C. J. Coleman C. L. W. Hsu R. E. Eibling

1990-01-01

79

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

2010-04-29

80

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and to develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Barker, William

2010-07-05

81

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Barker, William

2010-06-28

82

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)|

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

83

Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly

1983-01-01

84

Removal of Radioactive Heavy Metal Ions From Solution by Superconducting High-Gradient Magnetic Separation With Schwertmannite and Zirconium-Ferrite Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schwertmannite, i.e. iron oxyhydroxysulfate and zirconium-ferrite particles are excellent adsorbents for uranium ions. The magnetic separation characteristics for removal of radioactive ions, i.e. uranium and radium ions, from solution with the adsorbents of synthesized schwertmannite and the zirconium-ferrite particles have been studied. By a 10 tesla superconducting high-gradient magnetic separator, 10 ppb uranium ions in sample solution could be reduced

Kenji Nishimura; Osuke Miura; Daisuke Ito; Yasumichi Tsunasima; Yukio Wada

2009-01-01

85

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid\\/denitration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or

D. F. Bickford; C. J. Coleman; C. L. W. Hsu; R. E. Eibling

1990-01-01

86

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Moore, Lang

2010-07-06

87

Radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the treatment, storage, fixation and disposal of radioactive wastes. Various methods are described for extracting and separating the radionuclides, for example ¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs, ²°⁴Tl and ⁶°Co ions were simultaneously deactivated on natural sorbents by precipitation reactions. For long term storage, wastes should be solidified and immobilized to ensure containment, reduce surveillance, and reduce the need

Straub

1977-01-01

88

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01

89

Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

Francis, A.J.

1992-12-31

90

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

91

75 FR 68840 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Oregon Specialty Metals......... Radioactive Waste 186,000 kilograms Return of U.S. Canada...

2010-11-09

92

FLIGHTS ACROSS RADIOACTIVE CLOUDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danger to personnel and equipment arising from radioactive contamination ; of aircraft after flying across radioactive clouds is discussed. Flights ; performed 20-30 minutes after an atomic bomb explosion are no longer dangerous. ; Radioactive dust penetrating into the aircraft constitutes a serious danger. ; Formation of nitrate in the aircraft decreases the radioactivity. Immediate ; decontamination of the aircraft

Chabowski

1960-01-01

93

Columbium and tantalum. A materials survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report summarizes the demand-supply position in the United States and includes information on production, imports, consumption, exports, capacity, interchangeability, substitutes, and history. It describes properties of the commodity, principal compounds and alloys, domestic and foreign resources and reserves, the structure of the industry, pertinent laws and taxation policies, tariffs, Government controls, and history of wartime control experiences. Survey was prepared

1962-01-01

94

WHAT COLUMBIUM DOES TO CARBON STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>When added in amounts up to 0.05%, niobiuna raised tensile and yield ; strengths, lowered ductilities, and refined grain sizes in carbon steels. Though ; transition temperatures were raised in hot rolled material, this effect was ; reversed by normalizing. Niobium alloyed plates up to 3\\/8 in. are being applied ; commercially. (auth);

Van Voris

1962-01-01

95

Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

White, Max Gregg

1975-01-01

96

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

97

RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER  

DOEpatents

ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

Wanetick, S.

1962-03-01

98

PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY  

DOEpatents

A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

1958-09-16

99

Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

1994-07-01

100

Electrochemical treatment of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical treatment technologies for mixed hazardous waste are currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For a mixed waste containing toxic components such as heavy metals and cyanides in addition to a radioactive component, the toxic components can be removed or destroyed by electrochemical technologies allowing for recovery of the radioactive component prior to disposal of the solution. Mixed

J. Dziewinski; C. Zawodzinski; W. H. Smith

1995-01-01

101

Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Management of radioactive wastes is necessary to protect public health, public safety, and the environment from radioactive materials resulting from national defense programs, energy research and development, and commercial activities. Access to informati...

1990-01-01

102

Radioactivity and geophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations. (...

P. Radvanyi

1992-01-01

103

Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with c...

L. P. Buckley J. A. Slade S. Vijayan C. F. Wong

1993-01-01

104

Procedures for radioactive I-131  

SciTech Connect

Details of the radioactive I-131 administration and radiation safety considerations are presented. Topics covered include patient survey, radioactive labelling, levels in patients containing radioactivity, hospital discharge of radioactive patients, and nursing procedures.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1988-12-01

105

Procedures for radioactive I-131.  

PubMed

Details of the radioactive I-131 administration and radiation safety considerations are presented. Topics covered include patient survey, radioactive labelling, levels in patients containing radioactivity, hospital discharge of radioactive patients, and nursing procedures. PMID:3252901

Sharma, S C

1988-12-01

106

Structural Fasteners for Extreme Elevated Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The materials utilized were molybdenum alloy TZM, columbium alloys Cb752 and C129Y, tantalum alloys T-222 and 90 Ta-10W, and several dispersion strengthened metals. Protective coatings were adapted to fasteners, the columbium coating being an electrophore...

T . Roach, A M. H. Ortner E. F. Gowen S. J. Klach

1966-01-01

107

Radioactivity and food  

SciTech Connect

Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Laboratorio Unificado de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (LUCAM) (Guatemala))

1990-03-01

108

Radioactive isotope study of the formation of a continuous casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a continuous casting is studied using radioactive isotopes. The depth of penetration of a metal stream into a melt, the velocities of circulation flows, the stirred metal mass, the solidification coefficient, and the quality of a workpiece structure are determined.

Skrebtsov, A. M.; Dyudkin, D. A.

2012-06-01

109

Radioactive Waste Management Basis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Perkins, B K

2009-06-03

110

Basic chemistry for radioactive waste management. Studies on the chemical behaviors of radioactive elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study is to obtain the information about the chemical behavior of radionuclides in groundwater for the safety of radioactive waste management. The effect of o-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine on the adsorption of metal(II) (Mn, Fe, Co, ...

T. Y. Eom K. K. Park W. H. Kim K. Y. Jee J. K. Kim

1992-01-01

111

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

112

Radioactivity in Spanish spas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are large number of spas in Spain and there is a lack of data concerning their radioactivity. The levels of radioactivity in a wide sample of Spanish spas were measured with special attention being paid to the radon and radium concentrations in the water, and to radon concentration in the indoor air of the spas. This study is primarily

J. Soto; P. L. Fernndez; L. S. Quinds; J. Gmez-Arozamena

1995-01-01

113

Radioactive Wastes. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are

Fox, Charles H.

114

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

115

ORNL radioactive waste operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently

J. D. Sease; E. M. King; J. H. Coobs; T. H. Row

1982-01-01

116

Temporary Personal Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2

Myers, Fred

2012-01-01

117

Calibration of Radioactive Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All detector systems for the measurement of radioactivity in the different fields of applications need to be calibrated in terms of efficiency with radioactive sources of known activities and of known radionuclides. This is true for the measurement of environmental radioactivity, activities of sources for medical applications, or activities in the field of nuclear industry and nuclear research. It is the task of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Calibration Laboratories to calibrate radioactive sources in terms of activity and to provide activity standards appropriate to the special needs of their customers. This chapter describes the methods to calibrate the activity of radioactive materials, the different types of calibration sources, and the wayto establish the traceability and international comparability of activity standards.

Arnold, Dirk; Janen, Herbert

118

Radioactive Decay Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the number of radioactive nuclei as a function of time. You can change the initial number of nuclei and the decay constant as well as changing the plot to a semi-log plot. The Radioactive Decay model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecay.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

119

Soil washing and radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

1992-03-20

120

Incineration of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioacti...

C. Thegerstroem

1980-01-01

121

Table of Radioactive Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given for the Table of Radioactive Isotopes which will be published in 1986. The format of the table is given as to content and organization. 22 refs., 2 figs. (ERA citation 11:010444)

R. B. Firestone E. Browne

1985-01-01

122

Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following on from two previous environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercises, NPL conducted a third intercomparison of this sort in 1992. The results from the first two exercises were generally satisfactory, although the problem of cas...

S. M. Jerome M. J. Woods S. E. M. Lucas A. C. Hooley

1993-01-01

123

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

124

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

125

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

Fields, Stanley R. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

126

Radioactive Decay Distribution Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Distribution Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the distribution of the number of events (radioactive decays) in a fixed time interval. If each event is assumed to occur independently and spontaneously with a constant probability, the resulting distribution if the Poisson distribution. You can change the initial number of nuclei, the decay constant and the time interval for the event distribution. The Radioactive Decay Distribution model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecayDistribution.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

127

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30

128

Evaluation of the Transport of Natural Radioactive Materials in Large Lysimeters Using Hydrus-1D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining industry in Brazil often uses raw materials that contain relatively high concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (referred to as NORM). Ores of relatively low grade typically are used to produce refined metals of high purity (e.g., Nb, Ta, Sn, and Au) using pyrometallurgic processes. The final waste is a slag rich in natural radioactive contaminants (the U

E. Pontedeiro; M. Cipriani; M. van Genuchten; J. Simunek

2007-01-01

129

Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles

Karel Svoboda; Josef Podlaha; Josef Mudra

2007-01-01

130

Application of ceramic membranes for hazardous wastes processing: pilot plant experiments with radioactive solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane method combined with complexation was applied for hazardous wastes containing radioactive substance processing. Such complexing agents like soluble chetating polymers and cyanoferrates of transient metals, tested and selected in the laboratory, were used to bind radioactive ions and to enlarge the separated molecule size. The preliminary pilot plant experiments are presented with installation equipped with a ceramic 23-channel

Gra?yna Zakrzewska-Trznadel; Marian Harasimowicz

2004-01-01

131

49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Class 7 (radioactive) material under conditions normally incident to transportation; (c) The outer surface of any uranium or thorium in its structure is covered with an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material; (d)...

2011-10-01

132

Corrosion Studies of Container Materials for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Granite Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the research carried out for the assessment of corrosion behaviour of materials selected for the manufacture of containers for disposal of radioactive waste in granite formation. Metals and alloys included in laboratory test program ...

G. Plante M. Helie O. Sanatine A. Cheniere

1984-01-01

133

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

ScienceCinema

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

134

Radioactivity of Fiestaware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to investigate the question of the radioactivity of Fiestaware, I borrowed from Lee Schroeder 9 small Fiestaware plates of different colors. Eight of these plates are shown in the photograph below. The ninth was a rose colored plate that I got fr...

E. B. Norman

2002-01-01

135

Radioactivity and foods  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Unified Lab. of Food and Drug Control, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

1991-01-01

136

TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.  

SciTech Connect

For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

HOLDEN,N.E.

2001-06-29

137

AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR  

DOEpatents

The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

1961-04-11

138

Table of radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the nuclear and atomic properties of radioactive isotopes. Detailed radiation data for about 2000 of the 2755 known nuclides are presented in this up-to-date and concise book. The main section is organized by mass number (A), with entries for a given A derived from and referenced to the most recent corresponding

Edgardo Browne; Richard B. Firestone; V. S. Shirley

1986-01-01

139

Radioactive Decay - An Analog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)|

McGeachy, Frank

1988-01-01

140

Radioactive decay data tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains

Kocher

1981-01-01

141

Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioactive wastes are the leftovers from the use of nuclear materials for the production of electricity, diagnosis and treatment of disease, and other purposes. The materials are either naturally occurring or man-made. Certain kinds of radioactive materi...

2002-01-01

142

Radioactive I-131 from Fallout  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Radioactive I-131 from Fallout Page Options Print This ... Americans exposed to I-131 (a form of radioactive iodine) through fallout from above-ground nuclear testing ...

143

Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

Riland, Carson A.

1996-01-01

144

Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)|

Riland, Carson A.

1996-01-01

145

Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require ...

N. R. Soelberg G. A. Reimann

1994-01-01

146

PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

Sutton, J.B.

1958-02-18

147

SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LEAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of pounds of lead has been used by the DOE and their contractors as radioactive shielding over the last fifty years. In the process, radioisotopes in different chemical forms have adhered or adsorbed into the surface corrosion matrices, making the lead metal a hazard and expensive to stabilize and bury at approved sites. Physical decontamination methods are generally applicable

Thomas C. Zietlow

148

Bioremediation of a soil contaminated with radioactive elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some agricultural lands located in the Vromos Bay area, near the Black Sea coast, Southeastern Bulgaria, have been contaminated with radioactive elements (uranium, radium and thorium) and toxic heavy metals (copper, cadmium and lead) as a result of mining and mineral processing of polymetallic ores. Laboratory experiments carried out with soil samples from these lands revealed that an efficient remediation

S. N Groudev; P. S Georgiev; I. I Spasova; K Komnitsas

2001-01-01

149

Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration

S. N. Rudnick; D. Leith; M. W. First

1976-01-01

150

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

2003-02-25

151

Process for treating radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for treating radioactive sludge waste wasted in a nuclear power plant comprises the steps of pulverizing the radioactive sludge waste into dry powder which is combustible, burning the powder into ashes, and pelletizing the ashes. The radioactive sludge waste including granular ion-exchange resins, powder resins, filter sludge, etc. is reduced in volume by subjecting to combustion.

M. Hirano; S. Horiuchi

1985-01-01

152

Fusion reactor radioactive waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed.

J. D. Kaser; A. K. Postma; D. J. Bradley

1976-01-01

153

QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF CLOUD ELEMENT RADIOACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is outlined for calculating the concentration of radioactive ; substances in cloud elements from their alpha tracks in a nuclear emulsion. ; Computational formulas were derived for the concentration of the radioactive ; elemerte of three radioactive families. The concentrations of radioactive ; substances and the radioactivity in cloud elements were calculated. The ; radioactivity of cloud elements

Potsius; V. Yu

1963-01-01

154

Soil washing and radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

1992-03-20

155

Radioactive Isotopes of Lanthanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive isotope La140, known to be produced by deuteron and slow neutron bombardments of lanthanum is found to have a half-life of 40.0+\\/-0.3 hours. This isotope has now been produced by the reaction Ce140(n,p)La140. Evidence for the occurrence of a d, y reaction has been obtained through the formation of La140 by the reaction Ba138(d,y)La140. The 40-hour isotope decays

Katherine E. Weimer; M. L. Pool; J. D. Kurbatov

1943-01-01

156

Table of radioactive elements  

SciTech Connect

As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

Holden, N.E.

1985-01-01

157

PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

DOEpatents

A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

1961-11-14

158

49 CFR 178.356 - Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356 Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal...

2011-10-01

159

49 CFR 178.356 - Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356 Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal...

2012-10-01

160

[The investigation of the composition of liquid radioactive waste].  

PubMed

In investigation the process of composition sediment of liquid unorganic radioactive waste, that are forming in cistern-selectors at PNPI RAS, it was discovered apart from great quantity of ions of different metals and radionuclides considerable maintenance of organic material (to 30% and more from volume of sediment) unknown origin. A supposition was made about its microbiological origin. Investigation shows, that the main microorganisms, setting this sediment, are the bacterious of Pseudomonas kind, capable of effectively bind in process of grow the radionuclide 90Sr, that confirms the potential posibility of using this microorganisms for bioremediation of liquid low radioactive wastes (LRW). PMID:18825999

Suslov, A V; Suslova, I N; Bagiian, A; Leonov, V V; Kapustin, V K

161

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15

162

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

163

Radioactivity in Urals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the problems due to the radioactive contamination of the environment has been frequently stimulated by rumors of an occurrence of severe contamination of lakes and rivers in areas of the Ural Mountains. Occasional evidence appearing in publications and provided by Soviet emigrants has been pieced together and seems to suggest that there is an ideal opportunity for groundwater geochemists and others to evaluate such major radioactivity in the environment. The reasons that such a study probably will not take place is that the contamination may have been caused for the most part by a nuclear explosion in a Soviet weapons plant.F. Parker, an environmental scientist at Vanderbilt University, in a study for the Department of Energy, deduced that a large explosion occurred in 1958 at a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Kyshtym in the Ural Mountains, according to a recent report (Science, July 8, 1983). The report refers to the original interpretations of Z. Medvedev, a Soviet geneticist, who concluded that nuclear fallout has contaminated a very extensive area around Kyshtym.

164

Analytic and Experimental Evaluation of Flowing Air Test Conditions for Selected Metallics in a Shuttle Tps Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions impo...

J. W. Schaefer H. Tong K. J. Clark K. E. Suchsland G. J. Neuner

1975-01-01

165

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of

A. R. Diederich; M. J. Akins

2008-01-01

166

RADIOACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN BODY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is not yet possible to assess the biological role of natural ; raddoactivity in human life, it is important to determine its magnitude before ; any substantial change takes place in its level due to acquired radioactivity. ; Various techniques for measuring natural body radioactivity are reviewed. The ; low-level activities encountered require that the radiation detector should

F. W. Spiers; P. R. J. Burch

1957-01-01

167

Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

Reiter, Wolfgang L.

2001-03-01

168

TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE GASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of radioactive waste gases from the plant-scale processes ; at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation presents a problem that is of ; coniderable importance in plant operation. Equipment developed for the efficicnt ; removal of the two prinipal contaminants: 1) gaseous radioactive iodine; and 2) ; an aerosol composed of other fission products is described. The program has

A. G. Blasewitz; W. C. Schmidt

1958-01-01

169

Heavy fragment radioactivities  

SciTech Connect

This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

Price, P.B.

1987-12-10

170

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

171

Coated columbium thermal protection systems: an assessment of technological readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated niobium ; alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal ; protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention ; of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry ; simulation. Production of- the alloy, the coating, and fullsized TPS panels

S. R. Levine; S. J. Grisaffe

1973-01-01

172

SOME DEVELOPMENTS IN THE EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF COLUMBIUM (NIOBIUM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program at the U.S. Bureau of Mines has involved the extraction and ; purification of niobium from the complex mineral euxenite, which is native to the ; United States, and from niobium and tantalum bearing metallurgical slags that ; result from the smelting of tin in the Belgian Congo. The major problem in ; recovering niobium involves its separation

M. L. Wright; F. E. Block

1958-01-01

173

Minerals yearbook, 1991: Columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Domestic production data for ferrocolumbium are developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines from the annual voluntary domestic survey for ferroalloys. Of the four operations to which a survey request was sent, two responded. Thus, ferrocolumbium production data for 1991 were incomplete at the time the report was prepared.

Cunningham, L.D.

1993-01-01

174

Advancement of High Temperature Protective Coatings for Columbium Alloys (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program was (a) to advance and optimize the Cr-Ti-Si coating process for laboratory scale and pilot scale coating furnaces, (b) to determine the protective reliability of the Cr-Ti-Si coating, and (c) to investigate the effects of ele...

D. B. Warmuth J. D. Gadd R. A. Jefferys

1964-01-01

175

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2012-10-01

176

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2011-10-01

177

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2011-10-01

178

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2012-10-01

179

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47...WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2013-01-01

180

Metallic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The chemical interaction between metals or between metals and metalloids, which results in the formation of various substances having metallic properties, is characterized essentially by the formation of metallic solutions and metallic compounds.2.The chemical resemblance. and differences between metallic elements, which are associated with the dispositions of the elements in the same or different group of the periodic system,

I. I. Kornilo

1953-01-01

181

Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement, or CVID. It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times. The radioactive waste management problem in fact offers a prospect for international participation to engage the DPRK constructively. DPRK nuclear dismantlement, when accompanied with a concerted effort for effective radioactive waste management, can be a mutually beneficial goal.

Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

2005-04-01

182

Identification of Metal Reductases Using Proteomic Analysis. 2006 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central to the NABIR goal to develop the scientific basis for in situ remediation of radioactive contaminants is the fundamental understanding of microorganisms with dissimilatory metal reducing activity. In order to effectively exploit these bacteria, it...

M. Lipton

2006-01-01

183

Final disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

Freiesleben, H.

2013-06-01

184

How Does Radioactive Decay Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide with exercises is intended to help teach the topics of radioactive decay and its use to determine age. It identifies four main concepts that students are likely to struggle with: spontaneity (randomness) of radioactive decay; the importance of isotopes; the concept of half-life; and how to choose which system of isotopes to use to determine age. The guide presents suggestions on how to make these ideas more understandable, and provides three exercises that can be used to demonstrate radioactive decay. Links to additional materials and information are embedded in the resource.

Wenner, Jennifer M.

2010-11-17

185

Apparatus for infectious radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for housing solid, radioactively and biologically contaminated waste during steam autoclave treatment thereof. It comprises a container means for housing solid infectious radioactive biological wastes, suitable for use during an autoclaving procedure, having at least one opening therein; a filter means for entrapping radioactive compounds contained in gases exiting the container means during autoclave treatment, the filter means being securely disposed within an opening of the container means such that any gas exiting the container means during autoclave treatment passes through the filter means; and indicator means for establishing that the biologically contaminated waste has been inactivated by exposure to a predetermined autoclaving temperature.

Stinson, M.C.; Galanek, M.S.

1991-11-19

186

RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE  

DOEpatents

A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

Hatch, L.P.

1959-12-29

187

Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

1997-07-01

188

Fred Hoyle, primary nucleosynthesis and radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary nucleosynthesis is defined as that which occurs efficiently in stars born of only H and He. It is responsible not only for increasing the metallicity of the galaxy but also for the most abundant gamma-ray-line emitters. Astrophysicists have inappropriately cited early work in this regard. The heavily cited B2FH paper (Burbidge et al., 1957) did not effectively address primary nucleosynthesis whereas Hoyle (Hoyle, 1954) had done so quite thoroughly in his infrequently cited 1954 paper. Even B2FH with Hoyle as coauthor seems strangely to not have appreciated what Hoyle (Hoyle, 1954) had achieved. I speculate that Hoyle must not have thoroughly proofread the draft written in 1956 by E.M. and G.R. Burbidge. The clear roadmap of primary nucleosynthesis advanced in 1954 by Hoyle describes the synthesis yielding the most abundant of the radioactive isotopes for astronomy, although that aspect was unrealized at the time. Secondary nucleosynthesis has also produced many observable radioactive nuclei, including the first gamma-ray-line emitter to be discovered in the galaxy and several others within stardust grains. Primary gamma-ray emitters would have been even more detectable in the early galaxy, when the birth rate of massive stars was greater; but secondary emitters, such as 26Al, would have been produced with smaller yield then owing to smaller abundance of seed nuclei from which to create them.

Clayton, Donald D.

2008-10-01

189

Produced water radioactivity study. Final draft  

SciTech Connect

During the extraction of oil and gas from geological formations, connate (ie., fossil) water associated with the hydrocarbon formations is brought to the surface along with hydrocarbons. These waters, referred to as produced water, generally have dissolved salt concentrations higher than those in seawater, contain dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons and related non-hydrocarbon organic compounds, and contain elevated concentrations of certain trace metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). In order to address these concerns, EPA initiated this study, which consisted of a field sampling and analysis program and a quantitative risk assessment. The field sampling and analysis program characterizes the Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters in the marine environment in the vicinity of the produced water outfalls for three offshore oil platforms.

NONE

1993-01-15

190

Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

1996-12-31

191

Metal Powders (Metall Pulver).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book discusses metal powders for powder metallurgy, specific topics include Electrolytic copper powder, Copper alloy powders, Lead powders, tin powders, Partially prealloyed powders, Premixes, Mixed powders to customers' specifications, Quality contr...

1986-01-01

192

Separation of no-carrier-added radioactive scandium from neutron irradiated titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of radioactive scandium by irradiating natural titanium metal in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 was evaluated. The\\u000a production rate of 47Sc and other radioactive scandium was estimated. High specific activity 47Sc can be produced by irradiating enriched 47Ti in sufficient quantities needed for therapeutic applications. A new separation technique based on column chromatography\\u000a was developed. Neutron irradiated titanium was dissolved in

Tanveer Hussain Bokhari; A. Mushtaq; Islam Ullah Khan

2010-01-01

193

Radioactive Waste Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

194

Airborne Penetration of Radioactive Clouds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the threat to aircrew members when their aircraft approaches and subsequently penetrates a descending radioactive cloud generated by a nuclear weapon surface burst. The re-development of Hickman's program consists of a remodeling of ...

T. R. Kling

1983-01-01

195

Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, periodically issues bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books....

1980-01-01

196

Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, periodically issues bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 3597 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books....

1980-01-01

197

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

198

Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites  

SciTech Connect

Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

Michael J. Daly; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson

2001-04-22

199

Radioactive Organic Bromo-Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSIDERABLE attention has recently been focused on the use of artificially radioactive substances in biological work. The radioactive isotope 82Br has been chosen by us because it has a conveniently long half-life (34 hours), it is chemically reactive, it gives off gamma-rays which aid in its detection, and finally, it can be prepared from 81Br either by the action of

E. Friedmann; A. K. Solomon; N. T. Werthessen

1939-01-01

200

Radioactive waste disposal and geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an excellent, well-presented treatise on the nature and types of radioactive wastes, disposal alternatives and strategies, radionuclide release and disposal models, geologic repositories, natural analogues, subsea-bed options, and low-level wastes. The authors provide national and international perspectives on radioactive waste disposal problems. They carefully dissected each issue, treating its pros and cons equally. Moreover, they is careful

K. B. Krauskopf

1988-01-01

201

Storage depot for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

202

Radioactive boulders in Hawks Crag Breccia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radioactive hornfels and granite boulders have been found scattered through the Hawks Crag Breccia in the Big River and Lower Buller Gorge areas., Uraninite has been identified in the radioactive biotite hornfels from the Lower Buller Gorge. An unidentified, iron-rich, uranium-bearing mineral occurs in the radioactive biotite hornfels from the Big River area. The radioactivity in the biotite granite

A. Wodzicki

1959-01-01

203

Experimental determination of metal\\/silicate partition coefficients for P, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, and W and some implications for the early evolution of the earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-silicate partition coefficients were determined at 1600 C for P, Ga, Ge, and W and at 1300 C for P, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mo, and W, using well-homogenized tholeiitic basalt powder as a starting material for silicates; parallel samples, containing either radioactive metal or radioactive metal oxide as tracers, were placed simultaneously into a furnace. For all

W. Schmitt; H. Palme; H. Waenke

1989-01-01

204

Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very difficult to understand for any standard supernova models. This situation is puzzling. Searches for 60Fe gamma rays have also produced only upper limits, corresponding to a limit of 1.7 M(sub)solar mass in the present interstellar medium. Given the usual assumption of steady state between production and decay, the current rate of synthesis of 60Fe is less than 1.7 M(sub)solar mass/2.2 m.y. It has been suggested that a neutron-rich NSE occurs in small regions in both Type Ia supernovae supernovae and in core-collapse supernovae [7]. Either type might eject significant quantities of 60Fe. If we know the frequency of a particular type of 60Fe-producing event in the past few million years, then we can limit the mean 60Fe mass ejected per event. We have M(sub)ej (60Fe) <= 8 x 10^-5/R(SN) M(sub)solar mass where R(sub)SN is the frequency of the supernovae that eject 60Fe, in number per century. Type Ia supernovae might eject roughly 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 60Fe [8], which is very close to this limit. References: [1] Leising M. D. and Share G. H. (1990) Astrophys. J., 357, 638. [2] Kurfess J. D. et al. (1992) Astrophys. J. Lett., 399, L137. [3] Clayton D. D. et al. (1993) Astrophys. J. Lett., submitted. [4] Nomoto K. et al. (1984) Astrophys. J., 286, 644. [5] Woosley S. E. (1988) Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust., 7, 355. [6] Leising M. D. and Share G. H. (1993) Astrophys. J., submitted. [7] Hartmann D. H. et al. (1985) Astrophys. J., 297, 837. [8] Woosley S. E. (1991) In Gamma-Ray Line Astrophysics (P. Durouchoux and N. Prantzos, eds.), 270-290, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 232, New York.

Leising, M. D.

1993-07-01

205

Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic.

McCabe, D.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Reynolds, B.A. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-02-01

206

Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain

H. M. O'Keeffe; T. H. Burritt; B. T. Cleveland; G. Doucas; N. Gagnon; N. A. Jelley; C. Kraus; I. T. Lawson; S. Majerus; S. R. McGee; A. W. Myers; A. W. P. Poon; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; R. C. Rosten; L. C. Stonehill; B. A. VanDevender; T. D. Van Wechel

2011-01-01

207

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

208

FINAL REPORT. OPTIMIZATION OF THERMOCHEMICAL, KINETIC, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING PARTITIONING OF RADIONUCLIDES DURING MELT DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED STAINLESS STEEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Corre...

209

RADIOACTIVE TRACERS IN HYDROLOGIC STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out in lakes and reservoirs in Massachusetts to ; determine eddy diffusion coefficients. The average eddy diffusion coefficient ; divided by the radius of the eddy was found to be 0.09 ft\\/sec. Experiments to ; determine the average velocity of streams and the dilution in streams by use of ; radioactive tracers were then performed. The diffusion

1958-01-01

210

Radioactivity air monitoring in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program used for monitoring air for radioactivity in Mexico is ; described. It was designed to fit the following local conditions: Geographical ; and meteorological conditions have prevented the country from receiving ; considerable contamination from nuclear debris. Almost all activities being ; detected are transported to the eanth's surface from the stratosphere, where they ; were previously injected,

M. B. Skertchly; R. M. Nulman; M. B. Vasquez; C. A. Willis

1972-01-01

211

Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of foreign works on the study of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere due primarily to diffusion of fission fragments from atomic tests. Several properties of fission fragment activity, namely its decay rate and the composition of its radiation, are considered, and methods are described for monitoring the fallout from the atmosphere and calculating the resulting

L. I. Gedeonov

1957-01-01

212

Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... radium. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the plants is low and does not harm the plant. Food Food contains a variety of different types ... generally fail to penetrate the dead layers of cells covering the skin and can be easily stopped ...

213

High-Level Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and

Hayden, Howard C.

1995-01-01

214

Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain.

A Mart??n Snchez; M. P Rubio Montero; V Gmez Escobar; M Jurado Vargas

1999-01-01

215

Apparatus for treating radioactive concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for treating various radioactive concentrates having a liquid component, such as suspensions and salt solutions, which are present separately in a processing plant from evaporation systems, resin bead ion exchange filters, and from at least one further separating stage provided with, for example, mechanical filters, sedimentation basins and\\/or powdered resin ion exchange filters. The filter concentrates

O. Meichsner; H. Queiser

1981-01-01

216

Measurement of radioactivity in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of soils originating from different rock types has been examined for their radioactive contents. The activities due to Ra 226 plus daughters, Th 232 plus daughters and K 40 were determined in 3 kg samples on a stablilized scintillation -ray spectrometer. The resulting pulse-height spectra were analysed by a least squares method using existing computer programmes. The purpose

Maria Vassilaki; L. Salmon; J. A. B. Gibson

1966-01-01

217

Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between

L. S. Quindos; P. L. Fernandez; J. Soto; C. Rodenas; J. Gomez

1994-01-01

218

Radioactivity and the Biology Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses minimum necessary nuclear fundamentals of radioactive isotopes such as levels of activity, specific activity and the use of carrier materials. Corrections that need to be taken into account in using an isotope to obtain a valid result are also described and statistics for a valid result are included. (BR)|

Hornsey, D. J.

1974-01-01

219

Monitoring of Radioactivity in 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are given on the monitoring of radioactive contamination of air and some food stuff at world locations throughout Western South America, South Pacific and Africa during 1979. Data are included on the total beta and gamma activity and radionuclide con...

1979-01-01

220

Intense beams of radioactive nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research reactors, for example, IBR-2, IBR-30 (Dubna), and BR-10 (Obninsk), have more than ten channels. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that one of these channels can be used as a source of heavy radioactive ions. This substantially extends the range of applications of these reactors in physical investigations. A method based on the electrostatic extraction of ions is

O. E. Kolyaskin; Yu. V. Norseev; L. N. Somov

1995-01-01

221

Radioactive waste disposal in granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

222

Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes

1995-01-01

223

Processes for Separating Metals from Metal Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical processes and apparatus for obtaining metals from metal salts, particularly separating alkali metal and borate ions from alkali metal borate compounds, are disclosed. Aqueous solutions of metal borates or metal carbonates are converted to ...

J. C. Brady M. T. Kelly

2005-01-01

224

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

225

Source, Transport and Dumping of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described,...

1980-01-01

226

Nuclear-Transfer Spectroscopy Using Radioactive Targets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibiity and techniques for carrying out transfer spectroscopic experiments with radioactive targets having half lives down to a fraction of a year are reviewed. The use of such radioactive targets is illustrated by recent studies of the spectroscop...

R. A. Naumann R. Dewberry R. T. Kouzes R. Hoff H. Boerner

1981-01-01

227

Encapsulation of radioactive [sup 159]Gd and [sup 161]Tb atoms in fullerene cages  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a novel form of metallofullerenes, namely, those with radioactive atoms encapsulated in the C[sub 82]cage. The metal atoms were made radioactive by a neutron capture reaction or through a nuclear decay process. The most important and intriguing finding of the present study is that the endohedral form of metallofullerenes is not affected by the recoil energy of the metal atom resulting from emission of electrons in the [beta] decay. Such a stability of the cage against the recoil energy of the encapsulated atom was confirmed by the elution behavior of the metallofullerene in liquid chromatography. Successful encapsulation of radioactive atoms inside the fullerene cage will greatly widen the potential use of endohedral metallofullerenes not only in basic science and technology but also in other areas, such as medicine. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Kikuchi, Koichi; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sueki, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shinzo; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Achiba, Yohji; Katada, Motomi (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)); Tomura, Kenji (Rikkyo Univ., Kanagawa (Japan))

1994-10-19

228

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

229

Measurements of the Adhesion Component in Friction by Means of Radioactive Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In friction experiments material is exchanged between the sliding surfaces. A study of this transfer of material was made possible by the development of a radioactive tracer method by means of which one could detect quantities of metal as small as 10?4 microgram. Spherical or hemispherical specimens were slid over an activated base surface. After the friction experiments, the riders

B. W. Sakmann; J. T. Burwell; J. W. Irvine

1944-01-01

230

Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from United States gaseous diffusion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US gaseous diffusion plants currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions; liquid effluent treatment sludges; waste oils and solvents; scrap metals; and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags, and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large

J. F. Wing; M. E. Mitchell; J. E. Behrend

1983-01-01

231

Alpha radioactive background in BGO crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe some cases of unusual internal radioactive background in BGO crystals. Routinely produced at the Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry during nearly a quarter of a century, BGO crystals have low radioactive background caused by 207Bi contamination. However, some BGO crystals incidentally have higher internal radioactive background with activity up to 10 Bq/kg. This background is pure alpha radioactivity. It is caused by 210Po contamination and has technogenic origin.

Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuznetcov, G. N.; Novoselov, I. I.; Schotanus, P.; Shavinski, B. M.; Shepelev, S. N.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

2010-11-01

232

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section...Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A carrier...contact by any person with Class 7 (radioactive) materials that may have been...

2012-10-01

233

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section...Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A carrier...contact by any person with Class 7 (radioactive) materials that may have been...

2011-10-01

234

Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is

Jan HORVATH; Dusan KRASNY

2007-01-01

235

Process for decontaminating gas containing radioactive iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vent gas containing radioactive iodine and methyl iodide is effectively decontaminated by chemically adsorbing the iodine contained in the vent gas onto an activated carbon layer at first, then physically adsorbing the methyl iodide contained in the vent gas onto another activated carbon layer separately disposed from the former activated carbon layer, and retaining the radioactive iodine and radioactive

M. Hirano; M. Takeshima; T. Saito; A. Shimozato

1977-01-01

236

METAL PHTHALOCYANINES  

DOEpatents

A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

Frigerio, N.A.

1962-03-27

237

Deposition and removal of radioactive isotopes from LMFBR components  

SciTech Connect

The development of an analytical model to describe the production, transport and eventual removal of radioactive materials in the primary sodium of LMFBR's is a continuing Sodium Technology activity sponsored by the Department of Energy. This paper describes studies directed toward obtaining an understanding of the deposition from sodium of fuel cladding activated corrosion products onto stainless steel alloys and the effect of their diffusion into the base metal on the process required to decontaminate it. The objective of the decontamination operation is to reduce the activity to a level allowing hands on maintenance without causing unacceptable damage to the component.

Hill, E.F.; Lutton, J.M.; Maffei, H.P.

1980-01-01

238

Silicone metalization  

DOEpatents

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2008-12-09

239

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2013-01-01

240

Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting;\\u000aprocesses is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling;\\u000aand refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and;\\u000asolidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide ;\\u000adistribution have been characterized by scanning electron

M. A. Ebadian; R. C. Xin; Z. F. Dong

1997-01-01

241

Radioactive Decays in Geant4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.

Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Batic, Matej; Bell, Zane W.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Lang, Philipp M.; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

2013-08-01

242

Stratospheric Mixing from Radioactive Fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive fallout during 1959 shows that the Russian October 1958 debris dominated the northern hemisphere and came down with a residence time corresponding to about 8 months. The rest of the world had a steady fallout rate of about .06 mC\\/miS\\/inch of rain throughout the year, whereas values for the northern hemisphere came down to this value in the

W. F. Libby; C. E. Palmer

1960-01-01

243

Radioactive fuel cell storage rack  

SciTech Connect

A radioactive fuel cell storage rack is comprised of structural elements including elements which are hollow and cruciform in section. Each leg of the cruciform structural element includes a neutron shield therein. The free end of the legs of the cruciform structural element converge so as to have an included angle of approximately 90/sup 0/. The rack is comprised of such cruciform elements as well as cooperating elements which are generally T and L shaped in section.

Holtz, M.; Singh, K.P.

1983-05-03

244

Radioactive Aerosols Emission in Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner walls of glove-boxes used in nuclear facilities may be contaminated by radioactive aerosols. It is therefore necessary to be able to predict the release rate of these aerosols in the case of a fire. This phenomenon has been studied in a small-scale test-chamber (volume 0.085 m), using 10 cm 10 cm Plexiglas samples, with cerium oxide (CeO2)

Yvette Fernandez; Patrick Burghoffer

1995-01-01

245

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

246

Chernobyl radioactivity persists in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in 1986, the concentration of radioactive caesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in fish was expected to decline rapidly. The estimated ecological half-life (the time needed to reduce the average caesium concentration by 50%) was 0.3 to 4.6 years,. Since 1986, we have measured radiocaesium in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus

Bror Jonsson; Torbjrn Forseth; Ola Ugedal

1999-01-01

247

Intense beams of radioactive nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Most research reactors, for example, IBR-2, IBR-30 (Dubna), and BR-10 (Obninsk), have more than ten channels. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that one of these channels can be used as a source of heavy radioactive ions. This substantially extends the range of applications of these reactors in physical investigations. A method based on the electrostatic extraction of ions is considered. This method makes it possible to obtain isotopically pure beams of radioactive nuclei with an intensity of about 10{sup 10} nuclei/s and higher by exposing gaseous and solid targets to reactor neutrons. Following neutron capture by a nucleus, the atom is ionized with a certain probability as the result of conversion of a photon produced in the reaction (n, {gamma}) on an electron or as the result of ensuing K capture or {beta} decay of the nucleus that captured the neutron. The radioactive ions produced are extracted from the volume by an electric field and are then accelerated or deposited on an appropriate electrode. It is shown experimentally that, for a proper choice of the target geometry, the collection coefficient of {sup 125}I ions for a gaseous target containing {sup 124}Xe and for a solid target (containing, for example, {sup 181}Ta) amounts to about 50%. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Kolyaskin, O.E.; Men`shikov, L.I. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Norseev, Y.N.; Somov, L.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01

248

METALS: MICROBIAL PROCESSES AFFECTING METALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of metals in the environment due to anthropogenic activities has led to concern over the long-term fate of metal contaminants and the impact of metal accumulation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In nature, microorganisms carry out many different processes that influence the b...

249

The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program  

SciTech Connect

LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

1996-04-01

250

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

1997-04-01

251

Investigation of Lublin town environment contamination by radionuclides and heavy metals with application of Parmeliaceae lichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of ground level air at Lublin town was studied by measurements of radioactive isotope and heavy metal contents in Parmeliaceae lichens exposed during six months on the area of the town. The concentration of the elements studied was compared with these ones measured in unexposed (blank) samples of lichens. The highest increase of radioactivity was noticed for 232Th, 226Ra

S. Chibowski; M. Reszka

2001-01-01

252

THE MANAGEMENT ROUTES FOR CONTAMINATED METALS FROM DISMANTLING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of cleared materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The paper is focused on the management

O. Emond; M. Klein; Y. Demeulemeester; I. Majkowski; M. Ponnet; V. Massaut; J. Dadoumont

253

Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The elimination of poisonous metals possessing chemical or radioactive substances, from soils and waters, and chemistry's contribution towards efficacious and environmentally suitable removal methods are discussed. Various original tactics are studied and compared.|

Roundhill, D. Max

2004-01-01

254

Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first

Baratta

1997-01-01

255

Radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first action. Search is continuing for a new Associated Referee. Plutonium-239: The Associate Referee is doing a literature search for a method for the determination of plutonium in foods. When one is selected, she will prepared a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Radium-228: Search is ongoing for a new Associate Referee. When one is appointed, a method should be selected and tested. Strontium-89 and -90: The Associate Referee is investigating methods using resin discs and/or resin columns for these radionuclides. These methods are now being used in analyses for strontium-89 and -90 in water. She will now attempt to apply it to milk. If successful, she will prepare a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Tritium: Search is continuing for a new Associate Referee for this topic.

Baratta, E.J. [Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center, Winchester, MA (United States)

1997-01-01

256

Attempts to Manipulate the Decay Time of Radioactive Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known for 20 years that electron screening strongly changes nuclear reaction cross sections at sub-Coulomb charged-particle projectile energies. The screening energy can be increased considerably if the target atoms are implanted in a metallic host and cooled to low temperature (T10 K). The large screening in metals derives from the Debye plasma model applied to the quasi-free metallic electrons. If ``time reversed,'' this model implies that the lifetime of radioactive nuclei placed in a metallic host can be manipulated by orders of magnitude. For ? and ?^+ decay one expects a shorter half-life, while for ?^- decay and EC, a longer half-life is expected. The results of prior experiments testing this theory are controversial; about half of the published data confirm an effect, while the other half observe no effect. We will report on our experimental studies using ^64Cu and ^65Zn nuclei produced at TUNL via the ^63Cu(d,p) and ^65Cu(p,n) reactions, respectively. For ^64Cu, we detected the 511 keV annihilation ? rays and for ^65Zn the 1115.5 keV ? rays using HPGe detectors. In both cases we did not observe a half-life change outside experimental uncertainties between measurements at room temperature and those with the samples cooled to T=12 K.

Fallin, B.; Grabow, B.; Tornow, W.

2008-04-01

257

Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001  

SciTech Connect

This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Goodwin, S S

2011-08-31

258

SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL  

DOEpatents

A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

1963-01-15

259

Radioactive beams with the HHIRF accelerators  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing interest in radioactive ion beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics research and applied programs. This interest has led to an International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams and a Workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams. In addition, a steering committee has been formed to consider the development of a very large and intense RIB facility in North America to produce both proton- and neutron-rich beams. This report discusses development of these beams.

Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Baktash, C.; Dowling, D.T.; Garrett, J.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C., Lane, S.N.; Lee, I.Y.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A. Toth, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carter, H.K. (UNISOR, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

260

Radioactive Drug Research Committee (RDRC) Program  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... qualified study investigators. properly licensed medical facility to possess and handle radioactive materials. ... Developing Medical Imaging Drug and ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch/researchareas

261

Spontaneously generated radioactive nanoparticles in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost 100 years, and perhaps longer, observers have detected spontaneous dispersal of radioactivity from macroscopic quantities of radioactive materials with the first published observations reported in 1910. In the 1960"s and later, radioactivity was observed to migrate through HEPA filters de-spite their well-established filtration characteristics. In measurements of ground water, radioactivity has been found to disperse from its original location of deposition in soil, despite the size, insolubility, and resistance to chemical reactions of the radioactive particles originally deposited. Similarly, measurements of the uptake of these materials in lung tissue and studies of their solubility in simulated biological fluids showed the solubility to be related to the radioactivity of the materials. In numerous practical examples, the migration and deposition of radioactivity affects work and operational practices. Despite this long and varied history indicating the importance of self-dispersal of radioactive materials, no measurements had ever been reported of the materials which were actually dispersed until recently and the results are quite surprising, suggesting a well-defined process creating discrete nanoparticle fractions. This paper will review the history of the observations of spontaneous dispersal of radioactivity and close with a description of the first measure-ments of the dispersed nanoparticles and suggestions of the physical processes involved in their formation.

Marlow, William H.; Cheng, Yung-Sung

2003-04-01

262

Radioactive Waste: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since World War II, hundreds of thousands of tons of radioactive materials have been produced in the United States. How we will dispose of nuclear waste is a controversial issue with a large technical component. This book provides a useful resource for enhancing student understanding of the physics of radioactivity as well as the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It encourages students to discuss these complex environmental issues using arguments based on the science behind issues related to radioactivity, technology, risk assessment, and tradeoffs.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

263

Student Understanding of Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how researchers identified specific difficulties students had with ionizing radiation and radioactivity using interviews. They also explore students' pre-instruction thoughts on these topics.

Prather, Edward E.; Harrington, Randal R.

2006-06-19

264

Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests. [High-pressure, hot water decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190/sup 0/F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of <1 sec/in./sup 2/. Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90/sup 0/ blast angle was more effective than a 45/sup 0/ blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft.

Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

1985-10-08

265

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

266

Overview of techniques for volume reduction and immobilization of radioactive waste, as investigated at KEMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures to decrease the amount of radioactive waste generated by power plants, to decontaminate active material, and to reduce the final volume of the waste, e.g., by incineration or acid digestion are reviewed. Organic radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are treated adequately: only inorganic end-products remain, and they have a relatively small volume and are immobilized. Chemical, biological, and alteration processes therefore do not significantly increase the risk of storage, even if water intrudes the storage facility. The considerable volumes of activated and/or contaminated metal that remain after repair or decommissioning of the plants could be treated. Decontamination and melting may significantly reduce the volume of the final waste. It seems probable that estimates of waste volumes are too pessimistic, and relatively small storage facilities will be sufficient. Waste in those facilities presents unacceptable risk for the biosphere during the period it is considered as radioactive.

Kuypers, J.; Matteman, J. L.; Vanloon, A. J.

267

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

2003-02-27

268

Local area networks in radioactivity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the operation of a Local Area Network at Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory involved in surveillance of environmental radioactivity. Detailed consideration is given separately to computer and network hardware, radiation instrument interfacing, software, as well as operations. The application of a Local Area Network offers considerable improvements in the laboratory preformance, quality assurance of radioactivity analyses, and data reporting.

T. M. Semkow; C. D. Schwenker; M. E. Kitto; J. C. Daly

1994-01-01

269

RECENT RESULTS FROM ALPINE AIR RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of various diagrams, the transient pattern of the natural and ; artificial radioactivity and of air impurities in 1959 at a valley and a ; neighboring mountain station was represented and described. It was shown that ; the air layer near the ground added more long-lived radioactive substances by ; repeated eddying up from the ground than from

1960-01-01

270

RADIOACTIVE CONTROL ON ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICAL BASIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical investigations were made of how far survey measurements of ; radioactivity in the air may be carried out by methods of atmospheric electricity. ; For this, the influence of a radioactive cloud on the elements of atmospheric ; electricity in the cloud and in its surrounding was estimated. The derived ; formulas were applied on some examples. These show

Oster

1963-01-01

271

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

272

Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower

C. R. Allen; R. E. Lerch; M. D. Crippen; R. G. Cowan

1982-01-01

273

Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first nuclear explosion test, named the Trinity test, was conducted on July 16, 1945 near Alamogordo, New Mexico. In the tremendous heat of the explosion, the radioactive debris fused with the local soil into a glassy material named Trinitite. Selected Trinitite samples from ground zero (GZ) of the test site were investigated in detail for radioactivity. The techniques used

Pravin P. Parekh; Thomas M. Semkow; Miguel A. Torres; Douglas K. Haines; Joseph M. Cooper; Peter M. Rosenberg; Michael E. Kitto

2006-01-01

274

Passive radar detection of radioactive pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new method of passive radar detection of radioactive pollution based on electromagnetic radiation registration on wavelength of 2 1 cm is offered. This radiation is spontaneous and it appears in result of atmospheric components dissociation at its interaction with radioactive elements. Experimental measurement results and their theoretical processing for detection of potentially dangerous objects on the territory of Siberian

V. P. Yakubov; V. B. Antipov; D. Y. Losev; I. A. Yuriev

1999-01-01

275

AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AFTER A REACTOR ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

For operation of nuclear reactors in densely populated areas elaborate ; precautions are necessary. In planning safety measures attention should be given ; not only to normal operating conditions but also to the procedures to he adopted ; for an accidental release of radioactive substances. When a radioactive aerosol ; is created as a resuli of a reactor accident, it

Blok

1959-01-01

276

The changing face of radioactivity in steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of radioactivity in iron and steel is a matter of definition and limits of detectability. A broad statement could be made that all steel that started with blast furnace iron is radioactive. This statement is not due to the practice of using wear-indication sources in the refractory of blast furnaces. Rather, it is because of the nature of

LaMastra

1995-01-01

277

Transition metals  

PubMed Central

Transition metals such as Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) are essential for plant cell development. At the same time, due their capability to generate hydroxyl radicals they can be potentially toxic to plant metabolism. Recent works on hydroxyl-radical activation of ion transporters suggest that hydroxyl radicals generated by transition metals could play an important role in plant growth and adaptation to imbalanced environments. In this mini-review, the relation between transition metals uptake and utilization and oxidative stress-activated ion transport in plant cells is analyzed, and a new model depicting both apoplastic and cytosolic mode of ROS signaling to plasma membrane transporters is suggested.

Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Shabala, Sergey

2013-01-01

278

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

SciTech Connect

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01

279

Radioactive Target Production at RIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the production of samples of long-lived isotopes (t1/2 >1 h) at an advanced radioactive ion beam facility, RIA. Production yields at RIA are compared to capabilities at stable beam facilities and at high-flux reactors. Long-lived neutron-rich nuclei can generally be produced more efficiently in a nuclear reactor if appropriate target samples are available. As a result, only two s process branch point nuclei, 135Cs and 163Ho, seem suitable for sample production at RIA. In contrast, samples of many long-lived proton-rich nuclei are produced effectively at RIA, including isotopes important for the p process. Sample production at RIA is more favored when the lifetime of the isotope is shorter.

Blackmon, J. C.

2002-12-01

280

Radioactive effluents in Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

Winn, W.G.

1991-11-27

281

Diverter assembly for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

Andrews, Katherine M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Starenchak, Robert W. (Youngwood, PA)

1989-01-01

282

[Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of ?-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages. PMID:23676695

Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

2013-01-01

283

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive wastereactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industryand discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

284

Production of high intensity radioactive beams  

SciTech Connect

The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Nitschke, J.M.

1990-04-01

285

Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

2012-09-04

286

Radioactive Contamination Control Work Practices  

SciTech Connect

At Hanford, loose radioactive material can be found in plant systems, rooms, ventilation ducts, fuel pools, and outside radiological work facilities. Work practices used to accomplish radiological work in nuclear facilities often concern keeping radioactive contamination from spreading. This is not an easy task as the contamination activity levels can be very high and the material can be very unstable. Most of the time, the contamination is not visible, so we have to rely on surveys taken by Radiological Controls personnel to tell workers where the contamination is located and the activity levels present. The work practices used by workers are critical in controlling contamination spread, but it is impossible to document all of the work practices a worker should use. Many times, something will happen during the job that could result in a contamination spread. We rely on the workers knowledge and experience to realize when a potential spread of contamination is occurring, and take the actions necessary to prevent it from happening. It is important that a worker understand the concepts of contamination control in order to make the right decisions when work is accomplished. In facilities that work with ''fissile'' materials there is increased concern that nothing be done that increases the chance that a ''criticality accident'' might occur during work. Criticality safety personnel need to be consulted and approve contamination control practices that could increase the potential for a criticality accident. This Workshop includes a discussion of fundamental contamination control practices and new techniques used for radiological work. This is intended to be very informative and include hands-on exercises to provide the attendees with an appreciation of the methods being used to confine contamination spread.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2002-10-01

287

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

288

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each...

2009-01-01

289

46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109...Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on a...

2012-10-01

290

49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section... Marking § 172.310 Class 7 (radioactive) materials. In addition to any...subpart, each package containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be marked as...

2012-10-01

291

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

292

49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section... Marking § 172.310 Class 7 (radioactive) materials. In addition to any...subpart, each package containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be marked as...

2011-10-01

293

48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Notice of radioactive materials. 52.223-7 Section...and Clauses 52.223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23...insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997)...

2012-10-01

294

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76... Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as authorized...

2013-01-01

295

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2013-07-01

296

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized...possession and use of radioactive material to the locations...

2009-01-01

297

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized...possession and use of radioactive material to the locations...

2010-01-01

298

Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been surveyed, as part of the radioactivity research project by the Science and Technology Agency, radioactivity levels in the environment and safety analysis for radioactive fallouts associated with nuc...

1989-01-01

299

40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Sec. 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following...determine compliance with Sec. 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with...

2009-07-01

300

40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Sec. 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following...determine compliance with Sec. 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods...

2009-07-01

301

Memory Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980...

1995-01-01

302

Metals 2000  

SciTech Connect

This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1993-05-01

303

Rare Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book contains general information on rare metals, their compounds, their occurrence in nature, and their preparation and uses. An especially detailed treatment is given of the chemistry of rare elements, including the chemical properties and the princ...

O. A. Songina

1970-01-01

304

Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation. PMID:21451948

Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2011-03-31

305

A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel  

SciTech Connect

A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Arie, Kazuo [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Dev., Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Koyama, Tadafumi [Central research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

2007-07-01

306

Experimental and modelling investigations of the biogeochemistry of gas production from low and intermediate level radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of organic wastes and the corrosion of metallic wastes and steel containers in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLW\\/ILW) repositories are important processes that affect repository geochemistry and the speciation and transport of radionuclides. Gas is generated in association with these degradation processes and this has the potential to overpressure the repository, which can promote transport of

Joe Small; Mikko Nykyri; Mika Helin; Ulla Hovi; Tuija Sarlin; Merja Itvaara

2008-01-01

307

Conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new vitrification process has been invented. The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) allows direct conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes to borosilicate glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics and amorphous solids to glass, oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass, and converts halides (such as chlorides) to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium halide stream.

C. W. Forsberg; E. C. Beahm; G. W. Parker; K. R. Elam

1996-01-01

308

Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to develop, optimize, and evaluate new separation methods for removal of hazardous (radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive contaminants) metal ions from either ground water or aqueous waste solutions produced during Decontamination and Decommissioning operations at DOE sites. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material

John F. Scamehorn; Richard W. Taylor; Cynthia E. Palmer

2001-01-01

309

Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG&G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, wast...

G. R. Darnell W. C. Aldrich J. A. Logan

1992-01-01

310

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

311

Radioactive Material Transportation Considerations with Respect to DOE 3013 Storage Containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates sealed hardware that meets the requirements of DOE-STD-3013, ''Criteria for Preparing and packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage'' with respect to radioactive material (Type B quantity) transportation requirements. The Standard provides criteria for packaging of the plutonium materials for storage periods of at least 50 years. The standard requires the hardware to maintain integrity under

2004-01-01

312

Radionuclide characterization studies of radioactive waste produced at high-energy accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has been operating accelerators for high-energy physics both on Swiss and French territory for over 50 years. Due to the interaction of the particle beams with matter, the accelerator components and the surroundings become activated and shall be treated as radioactive waste once the end of their operational lifetime is reached. For disposal towards the final repositories the radioactive waste legislation of both CERN Host-States requires the knowledge of the radionuclide inventory. This paper discusses the studies that are carried out at CERN for the characterization of the metallic radioactive waste produced every year in the several high-energy accelerators. The radionuclide inventory as well as the specific activity of radioactive waste originating from accelerators varies depending on the accelerated beam, on the location of the material with respect to the beam losses and the decay time already elapsed. The approach proposed at CERN is based on an estimate of the specific activity per radionuclide with the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA, by simulating the radiation environment to which the radioactive waste was exposed during its operational lifetime. This method has been validated for the CERN ISOLDE facility by both ?-spectrometry and Monte-Carlo simulation of the target. The use of this method in those cases where the irradiation conditions are not known with sufficient precision requires careful extrapolation based on additional dose-rate and gamma-spectrometry measurements.

Ulrici, L.; Brugger, M.; Otto, Th.; Roesler, S.

2006-06-01

313

Influence of surface potential on the adhesive force of radioactive gold surfaces.  

PubMed

Radioactive particles may acquire surface potential through self-charging, and thus can behave differently from natural aerosols in atmospheric systems with respect to aggregation, deposition, resuspension, and transport to areas surrounding a radioactive source. This work focuses on the adhesive force between radioactive particles and metallic surfaces, which relates to the deposition and resuspension of particles on surrounding surfaces. Scanning surface potential microscopy was employed to measure the surface potential of radioactive gold foil. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the adhesive force for gold that acquired surface charge either by irradiation or by application of an equivalent electrical bias. Overall, the adhesive force increases with increasing surface potential or relative humidity. However, a behavior that does not follow the general trend was observed for the irradiated gold at a high decay rate. A comparison between experimental measurements and calculated values revealed that the surface potential promotes adhesion. The contribution of the electrostatic force at high levels of relative humidity was lower than the one found using theoretical calculations due to the effects caused by enhanced adsorption rate of water molecules under a high surface charge density. The results of this study can be used to provide a better understanding of the behavior of radioactive particles in atmospheric systems. PMID:23971793

Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

2013-09-11

314

A powder metallurgy approach for production of innovative radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of producing a single metal-matrix composite form rather than two separate forms consisting of a cast metal alloy ingot (such as Type 316SS + Zr) and a ceramic glass-bonded zeolite Na{sub 12}(AlO{sub 2}){sub 12}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 12} has been demonstrated. This powder metallurgy approach consists of mixing the powder of the two separate waste forms together followed by compaction by hot isostatic pressing. Such a radioactive waste form would have the potential advantages of reducing the total waste volume, good thermal conductivity, stability, and surfaces with limited oxide layer formation. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Crawford, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhaduri, S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01

315

Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Interaction Forces  

SciTech Connect

Although some differences have been observed, the transport behavior of radioactive aerosol particles has often been assumed to be analogous to the behavior of nonradioactive aerosols in dispersion models. However, radioactive particles can become electrostatically charged as a result of the decay process. Theories have been proposed to describe this self-charging phenomenon, which may have a significant effect on how these particles interact with one another and with charged surfaces in the environment. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify surface forces between a particle and a planar surface and to compare measurements with and without the involvement of radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to assess directly the effects of radioactivity on the surface interactions of radioactive aerosols via the measurement of the adhesion force. The adhesion force between a silicon nitride AFM tip and an activated gold substrate was measured so that any possible effects due to radioactivity could be observed. The adhesion force between the tip and the gold surface increased significantly when the gold substrate (25 mm{sup 2} surface area) was activated to a level of approximately 0.6 mCi. The results of this investigation will prompt further work into the effects of radioactivity in particle-surface interactions.

Walker, Mark E [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Glasgow, David C [ORNL; Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01

316

Status report of stable and radioactive ion beam production at GANIL  

SciTech Connect

GANIL has been producing many stable and radioactive ion beams for nearly 25 years. Constant progresses have been made in terms of intensity, stability, and reliability. The intensity for some stable metallic beams now exceeds or approaches the p {mu}A level at an energy up to 95 MeV/u, e.g., 1.14 p {mu}A for {sup 36}S (65% enriched) at 77 MeV/u, 0.35 p {mu}A for {sup 58}Ni (63% enriched) at 74 MeV/u. Some recent results with Magnesocene using the metallic ions from volatile compounds method should also make possible the production of metallic beams with an intensity greater than 1 p {mu}A. This has still to be measured. The ISOL facility SPIRAL I has been in operation for almost six years. Up to now, 17 exotic He experiments have been done with 14 target/ion-source (TIS) units; 19 other experiments (with O, Ne, Ar, and Kr) have been achieved with 14 TISs. Statistics show a fairly good ratio of available beam time to scheduled beam time. The radioactive beams and available intensities are compiled in this report. Future developments on radioactive ion beam production are briefly presented, while more details will be discussed elsewhere at this conference.

Gaubert, G.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Cornell, J. C.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Eleon, C.; Flambard, J. L.; Frigot, R.; Jardin, P.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J. Y. [GANIL - Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Bvd Henry Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

2008-02-15

317

Antiprotonic Radioactive Atom for Nuclear Structure Studies  

SciTech Connect

A future experiment to synthesize antiprotonic radioactive nuclear ions is proposed for nuclear structure studies. Antiprotonic radioactive nuclear atom can be synthesized in a nested Penning trap where a cloud of antiprotons is prestored and slow radioactive nuclear ions are bunch-injected into the trap. By observing of the ratio of {pi}+ and {pi}- produced in the annihilation process, we can deduce the different abundance of protons and neutrons at the surface of the nuclei. The proposed method would provide a unique probe for investigating the nuclear structure of unstable nuclei.

Wada, M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamazaki, Y. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

2005-10-19

318

Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains  

SciTech Connect

Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1989-01-01

319

Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions.  

PubMed

Optimal thermodynamic stability conditions must prevail when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared. These conditions are studied, they relate to: * The nature of the radioactive ion, which makes it possible to establish the pH of the solubilization medium at a given concentration, * The carrier concentration, which is determined by considering the radionuclide production method and the prior concentration in the original solution from the supplier, * The most stable oxidation state of the radioactive ion and of the carrier ion, which must be considered at the pH established by the solubilization medium. A procedure for all the glassware used in preparation has been implemented. PMID:16679023

Iroulart, Marie Gabrielle

2006-05-06

320

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

321

Radioactive Beams and Exploding Stars at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Beams of radioactive nuclei from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to make direct and indirect measurements of reactions important in novae, X-ray bursts, supernovae, and our Sun. Experimental results are used in nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations to determine their astrophysical impact. Recent accomplishments include: the first neutron transfer reaction [(d, p)] measurements on nuclei in the r-process path in supernovae; precision measurements with radioactive 18F beams for novae; and a direct 7Be(p,{gamma})8B measurement relevant for the solar neutrino flux determination.

Smith, Michael S. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6354 (United States)

2006-07-12

322

Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains.  

PubMed

Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients. PMID:2742746

Sharma, S C

1989-01-01

323

Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the analysis is that environmental management generated radioactive wastes have substantially less impact than radioactive sources if dispersed by terrorist-induced explosion or fire. From a health standpoint, the impact is very small. However, there is no basis to conclude that wastes are totally unattractive for use in a disruptive or economic damage event. Waste managers should be cognizant of this potential and take measures to ensure security of stored waste and waste shipments. (authors)

McFee, J.N.; Langsted, J.M.; Young, M.E. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc., 9201 East Dry Creek Rd. Centennial, CO 80112 (United States); Day, J.E. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc., 1725 Duke St, Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

2006-07-01

324

Science with radioactive beams: the alchemist's dream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear science is being transformed by a new capacity to create beams of radioactive nuclei. Until now all of our knowledge of nuclear physics and the applications which flow from it has been derived from studies of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions induced by beams of the 283 stable or long-lived nuclear species we can find on Earth. Here we describe first how beams of radioactive nuclei can be created. The present status of nuclear physics is then reviewed before potential applications to nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, bio-medical, and environmental studies are described.

Gelletly, W.

2001-05-01

325

Radioactive Beams and Exploding Stars at ORNL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beams of radioactive nuclei from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to make direct and indirect measurements of reactions important in novae, X-ray bursts, supernovae, and our Sun. Experimental results are used in nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations to determine their astrophysical impact. Recent accomplishments include: the first neutron transfer reaction [(d, p)] measurements on nuclei in the r-process path in supernovae; precision measurements with radioactive 18F beams for novae; and a direct 7Be(p,?)8B measurement relevant for the solar neutrino flux determination.

Smith, Michael S.

2006-07-01

326

Method for solidification of radioactive and other hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Solidification of liquid radioactive waste, and other hazardous wastes, is accomplished by the method of the invention by incorporating the waste into a porous glass crystalline molded block. The porous block is first loaded with the liquid waste and then dehydrated and exposed to thermal treatment at 50-1,000.degree. C. The porous glass crystalline molded block consists of glass crystalline hollow microspheres separated from fly ash (cenospheres), resulting from incineration of fossil plant coals. In a preferred embodiment, the porous glass crystalline blocks are formed from perforated cenospheres of grain size -400+50, wherein the selected cenospheres are consolidated into the porous molded block with a binder, such as liquid silicate glass. The porous blocks are then subjected to repeated cycles of saturating with liquid waste, and drying, and after the last cycle the blocks are subjected to calcination to transform the dried salts to more stable oxides. Radioactive liquid waste can be further stabilized in the porous blocks by coating the internal surface of the block with metal oxides prior to adding the liquid waste, and by coating the outside of the block with a low-melting glass or a ceramic after the waste is loaded into the block.

Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Voskresenskaya, Elena N. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Kostin, Eduard M. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Pavlov, Vyacheslav F. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

327

Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed.  

PubMed

Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples. PMID:10898404

van Netten, C; Hoption Cann, S A; Morley, D R; van Netten, J P

2000-06-01

328

Polyoxometalates for radioactive waste treatment. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'This research is directed towards the use of polyoxoanions of the early transition metals (primarily tungsten) as possible sequestrants and storage matrices for lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species. The latter substances are important radioactive components of tank wastes from spent commercial nuclear fuel, but are present in low proportion by mass. Technetium is a particularly troublesome component because it is highly mobile in groundwater and is volatilized in vitrification processes currently under examination for long-term storage. Scientific goals: synthesis and characterization of new and selective polyoxotungstate complexes of Ln{sup 3+}, An{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}; exploration of stable polyoxoanions containing Tc (using, in the first instance, Re as a nonradioactive surrogate); thermal conversion of polytungstate complexes to tungsten bronze materials for their evaluation as inert storage matrices. This report summarizes the results after 20 months of a 3-year project.'

Pope, M.T.

1998-06-01

329

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-01-01

330

Radioactivities related to coal mining.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

2005-06-30

331

Field tests using radioactive matter.  

PubMed

During recent years, the assessment of possible radiological consequences of a terrorist attack associated with a release of radioactive substances (RaS) has been in the focus of interest of emergency preparedness and radiation protection specialists, as well as experts dealing with the dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Suitable tools for these analyses are applications of mathematical and physical models and simulation of this attack under 'realistic' conditions. The work presented here summarises the results of four tests, in which a RaS (a Tc-99 m solution) was dispersed over a free area with the use of an industrial explosive. Detection methods and techniques employed in these tests are described and values characterising the RaS dispersion--dose rates, surface activities in horizontal and vertical directions, volume activities, their space and time distributions and mass concentrations of aerosols produced after the explosion are presented and compared. These data will be applied to a comparison of outcomes of models used for the assessment of radiation accidents as well as in future field tests carried out under conditions of more complex geometry (indoor environment, terrain obstacles, etc.). PMID:20089512

Prouza, Z; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Michalek, V; Rulik, P; Skrkal, J; Hovorka, J

2010-01-19

332

Behavior of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides During Molten Salt Oxidation of Chlorinated Plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt oxidation is one of the promising alternatives to incineration for chlorinated organics without the emission of chlorinated organic pollutants. This study investigated the behavior of three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Cr) and four radioactive metal surrogates (Cs, Ce, Gd, and Sm) in the molten Na2CO3 oxidation reactor during the destruction of PVC plastics. In the tested temperature

Hee-Chul Yang; Yong-Jun Cho; Hee-Chul Eun; Jae-Hyung Yoo; Joon-Hyung Kim

2004-01-01

333

Using contraband simulators for portal metal detector testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because contraband materials or items are either too dangerous or too expensive, contraband simulators have been widely used to test contraband detection equipment. Very realistic bomb simulators have been used to test x-ray scanners, and common radioactive sources have been used successfully to test the operation of special nuclear material (SNM) radiation detectors. The simulators used to test early metal

1992-01-01

334

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and\\/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and\\/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about

J. M. Googin; R. F. Simandl; L. M. Thompson

1993-01-01

335

Low-Level Radioactive Biomedical Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from usin...

G. W. Casarett

1978-01-01

336

Legal Approach to Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors of this paper review the major legal problems raised by radioactive waste management. They stress the complexity of such problems by posing three main queries: surveillance or no surveillance; liability or no liability and finally internationa...

B. Derche P. Rocamora A. Salelles

1983-01-01

337

Determination of a Radioactive Waste Classification System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several classification systems for radioactive wastes are reviewed and a system is developed that provides guidance on disposition of the waste. The system has three classes: high-level waste (HLW), which requires complete isolation from the biosphere for...

J. J. Cohen W. C. King

1978-01-01

338

Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioactive waste is a byproduct of nuclear weapons production, commercial nuclear power generation, and the naval reactor program. Waste byproducts also result from radioisotopes used for scientific, medical, and industrial purposes. The legislative defi...

A. Andrews

2006-01-01

339

M&M Model for Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A tasty in-class demonstration of radioactive decay using two colors of M&M's. Illustrates the quantitative concepts of probability and exponential decay. This activity is appropriate for small classes (<40 students).

Wenner, Jennifer

340

Radioactive Dating: A Method for Geochronology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives historical background on the discovery of natural radiation and discusses various techniques for using knowledge of radiochemistry in geochronological studies. Indicates that of these radioactive techniques, Potassium-40/Argon-40 dating is used most often. (JN)|

Rowe, M. W.

1985-01-01

341

Domestic Smoke Detectors Using Radioactive Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in det...

1979-01-01

342

Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS  

SciTech Connect

With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

1987-01-01

343

Radioactive Dating: A Method for Geochronology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives historical background on the discovery of natural radiation and discusses various techniques for using knowledge of radiochemistry in geochronological studies. Indicates that of these radioactive techniques, Potassium-40/Argon-40 dating is used most often. (JN)

Rowe, M. W.

1985-01-01

344

Using Popcorn to Simulate Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popping popcorn in your class is an excellent way to illustrate both the spontaneity and irreversible change associated with radioactive decay. It helps students to understand the unpredictability of decay.

Wenner, Jennifer

345

Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\\\\\

Manfred Deicher

2002-01-01

346

Demonstration of radioactive decay using pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A demonstration (with full class participation) to illustrate radioactive decay by flipping coins. Shows students visually the concepts of exponential decay, half-life and randomness. Works best in large classes -- the more people, the better.

Wenner, Jennifer

347

RADIOACTIVITY STANDARDS DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FY 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

A program is described for the distribution of calibrated radioactive samples, as one function of EPA's quality assurance program for environmental radiation measurements. Included is a discussion of the objectives of the distribution program and a description of the preparation,...

348

RADIOACTIVITY STANDARDS DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM, 1978-1979  

EPA Science Inventory

A program for the distribution of calibrated radioactive samples, as one function of EPA's quality assurance program for environmental radiation measurements, is described. Included is a discussion of the objectives of the distribution program and a description of the preparation...

349

Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2010-10-18

350

Radioactive diagnostic agent for bone scanning and non-radioactive carrier therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive diagnostic agent for bone scanning, is disclosed which comprises \\/SUP 99mTC and a non-radioactive carrier comprising at least one chosen from methanehydroxydiphosphonic acid and their salts and at least one reducing agent for pertechnetates in a weight ratio of about 1:1 to 7:1 and prevents the accumulation of radioactivity in liver so that definite diagnosis can be assured.

M. Hayashi; M. Hazue; K. Takahashi

1984-01-01

351

Use of Radioactive Iodine for Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Substantial uncertainty persists over the indications for radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. Use of radioactive iodine over time and the correlates of its use remain unknown. Objective To determine practice patterns, the degree to which hospitals vary in their use of radioactive iodine, and factors that contribute to this variation Design, Setting, Patients We performed time trend analysis of radioactive iodine use in a cohort of 189,219 well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated at 981 hospitals associated with the National Cancer Database between 1990 and 2008. We used multilevel analysis to assess the correlates of patient and hospital characteristics on radioactive iodine use in the cohort treated from 20042008. Main Outcome Measure Use of radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy Results Between 1990 and 2008, across all tumor sizes, there was a significant rise in the proportion of well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients receiving radioactive iodine (1373/3397, versus 11539/20620, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis of patients treated from 2004 to 2008 found that there was a statistical difference in radioactive iodine use between AJCC stage I and IV (odds ratios (OR) 0.34 (0.310.37) but not between stage II/III versus IV (OR 0.97 (0.881.07), 1.06 (0.951.17), respectively). In addition to patient and tumor characteristics, hospital volume was associated with radioactive iodine use. Wide variation in radioactive iodine use existed, and only 21.1% of this variation was accounted for by patient and tumor characteristics. Hospital type and case volume accounted for 17.1% of the variation. After adjusting for available patient, tumor, and hospital characteristics, much of the variance, 29.1%, was attributable to unexplained hospital characteristics. Conclusions Among patients treated for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at hospitals in the National Cancer Database, there was an increase in the proportion receiving radioactive iodine between 1990 and 2008; much of the variation in use was associated with hospital characteristics.

Haymart, MR; Banerjee, M; Stewart, AK; Koenig, RJ; Birkmeyer, JD; Griggs, JJ

2012-01-01

352

Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal thermodynamic stability conditions must prevail when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared. These conditions are studied, they relate to:The nature of the radioactive ion, which makes it possible to establish the pH of the solubilization medium at a given concentration,The carrier concentration, which is determined by considering the radionuclide production method and the prior concentration in the original solution from

Marie Gabrielle Iroulart

2006-01-01

353

Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) has been constructed for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei and\\u000a studies of exotic nuclei far from the ?-stability line. It has been put into operation recently at the National Laboratory\\u000a of Heavy Ion Accelerator Lanzhou. RIBLL consists of two doubly achromatic parts with a solid acceptance ???6.5 msr, momentum\\u000a acceptance ?p\\/p=5% and

Wenlong Zhan; Zhongyan Guo; Guanhua Liu; Jianrong Dang; Ruirong He; Sixin Zhou; Quanmin Yin; Yixiao Luo; Yifang Wang; Baowen Wei; Zhiyu Sun; Guoqing Xiao; Jinchuan Wang; Shanhong Jiang; Jiaxing Li; Xiangwei Meng; Wansheng Zhang; Lijun Qing; Quanjin Wang

1999-01-01

354

Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ISOL-based radioactive nuclear beam (RNB) facility, Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC), has been jointly developed by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The facility started to supply RNBs for experiments in 2005 and RNBs including fission fragments with energies up to 1.1MeV/A are available in the present. Several experimental studies were performed successfully using 8Li beams with various energies.

Watanabe, Y. X.; Arai, S.; Arakaki, Y.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Kawakami, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Nomura, T.; Okada, M.; Oyaizu, M.; Tanaka, M. H.; Tomizawa, M.; Yoshikawa, N.; Abe, S.; Hanashima, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Ishii, T.; Ishizaki, N.; Kabumoto, H.; Katayama, I.; Koizumi, M.; Matsuda, M.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nakanoya, T.; Nishio, K.; Ohuchi, I.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Takeuchi, S.; Tayama, H.; Tsukihashi, Y.

2007-11-01

355

Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil  

SciTech Connect

The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

Icenhour, A.S.

2005-05-19

356

Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and

A. S. Icenhour

2005-01-01

357

Liquid radioactive waste subsystem design description  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides a reliable system to safely control liquid waste radiation and to collect, process, and dispose of all radioactive liquid waste without impairing plant operation. Liquid waste is stored in radwaste receiver tanks and is processed through demineralizers and temporarily stored in test tanks prior to sampling and discharge. Radwastes unsuitable for discharge are transferred to the Solid Radwaste System.

NONE

1986-06-01

358

Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity: fireclay mine and refractory plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity were measured at a fireclay mine and the associated plant that produces refractory brick products. The only significant radioactive emission from the mine was radon-222. An analysis of the ore radioactivity and surface area of the mine indicated that the radon released is comparable to that from any similar surface area of similar radioactivity.

1981-01-01

359

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14

360

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

361

Heavy Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)|

Shoemaker, W. Lee

1998-01-01

362

Metallic corrosion  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews current research on metal corrosion processes. Some of the topics covered are the effect of copper on the rusting of steels, the use of scanning tunneling microscopy to study corrosion processes, the study of thin films with x-rays, etc. 25 refs., 3 figs.

Newman, R.C. (Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)); Sieradzki, K. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1994-03-25

363

METAL COMPOSITIONS  

DOEpatents

Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

Seybolt, A.U.

1959-02-01

364

Transition-Metal Oxides with Metallic Conductivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two possible mechanisms for metallic conductivity in transition-metal oxides are discussed: band formation on the transition-meta subbary and band formation via pi bonding orbitals. This permits a general classification of metallic oxides. Two electron-tr...

J. B. Goodenough

1964-01-01

365

Metal Film Coatings on Amorphous Metallic Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fe-metalloid amorphous metallic alloy ribbons, when properly annealed in a transverse magnetic field, exhibit extremely high magnetomechanical coupling. Other amorphous metallic alloys (or glassy metals) have desirable properties such as high strength, co...

L. Kabacoff

1989-01-01

366

Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

BREHM, W.F.

2003-01-01

367

Metallic hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryWith the aid of a second-order perturbation scheme, the energy of metallic hydrogen is calculated for pressures ranging from\\u000a 0 to 110 Mbar. The zero-point energy is taken into account by evaluating the density of states resulting from the phonon spectra.\\u000a For pressures higher than 3 Mbar the compressibilities as derived from the total energy and from the elastic constants

E. Stoll; P. F. Meier; T. Schneider

1974-01-01

368

Metallization: Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation depicting an overview of the metallization evaporation processes. Objective: Identify the process of evaporation. This simulation is from Module 061 of the Process & Equipment II Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment II." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtml

2012-10-05

369

Metal glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of producing amorphous alloys of various systems (e.g., Pd-Si, Fe-B, Ni-P, Ni-Nb, Ni-Ta, Co-Gd, Fe-Gd, Mg-Zn,and Ca-Al) are briefly discussed, and the atomic structure and properties of such alloys are examined. In particular, attention is given to anomalies in the low-temperature behavior of amorphous alloys, their electrical and magnetic properties, strength, ductility, and corosion stability. Some aplications of metal

Aleksei Iakovlevich Belen'kii

1987-01-01

370

Cold Metal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an activity on the conductivity and resistivity of various materials. A thermometer and other everyday materials like wood, metal, and styrofoam are used to compare temperatures detected by ones hands with measured temperatures. The site contains an explanation of the observations and descriptions of insulators and conductors as well as materials needed and assembly for the activity. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2006-07-22

371

Metal Oxides in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

Oxides are ubiquitous in much of environmental chemistry. Silica and related glasses are potential vehicles by which radioactive elements may be sequestered and stored. The migration of toxic waste in ground water is largely influenced by interactions at the liquid-solid interface, with several metal oxides making up the bulk of soil. In addition, metal oxides with Bronsted acid or Lewis base functionality are potential replacements for many traditional liquid catalysis that are hazardous to work with and difficult to dispose. In this proposal, we targeted two such areas of oxide chemistry. The long-term behavior of silicate materials slated for use in the entombment of high-level waste (HLW), and the use of solid acid metal oxides as replacements for toxic sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid used in industry (referred to as Green Chemistry). Thus, this project encompassed technology that can be used to both remediate and prevent pollution. These oxide systems were studied using density functional theory (DFT). The comparatively large size and complexity of the systems that will bweree studied made use of high-accuracy electronic structure studies intractable on conventional computers. The 512 node parallel processor housed in the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) provided the required capability.

Jonsson, Hannes; Corrales, L. Rene; Gabriel, Peggy; Haw, James F.; Henkelman, Graeme A.; Neurock, Matthew; Nicholas, John B.; Park, Byeongwon; Song, Jakyoung; Trout, Bernhardt; Tsemekhman, Kiril L.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.

2002-08-30

372

Clad metal joint closure  

SciTech Connect

A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

Siebert, O.W.

1985-04-09

373

PWR-GALE. PWR Effluent Radioactivity Releases  

SciTech Connect

PWR-GALE calculates the expected annual releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized light water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field and laboratory tests, and plant-specific considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment during normal operation including anticipated operational occurrences. PWR-GALE consists of two program, PGALEGS and PGALELQ. PGALEGS calculates the releases of radioactive materials (noble gases, radioactive particulates, carbon-14, tritium, argon-41, and iodine) in gaseous effluents from the waste gas processing system, steam generator blowdown system, condenser air ejector exhaust, containment purge exhaust, ventilation exhaust air from the auxiliary and turbine buildings and the spent fuel area, and steam leakage from the secondary system. PGALELQ calculates the releases of radioactive materials in liquid effluents from processed water generated from the boron recovery system to maintain plant water balance or for tritium control; processed liquid waste discharged from the waste systems, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and that discharged from the chemical waste and condensate demineralizer regeneration system; liquid waste discharged from the turbine building floor drain sumps; and detergent waste.

Willis, C.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-01-13

374

Radioactive waste management in a hospital.  

PubMed

Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

2010-01-01

375

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14

376

Design and Construction of Deinococcus radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites  

SciTech Connect

Immense volumes of radioactive waste, generated from nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, were disposed directly to the ground. The current expense of remediating these polluted sites is driving the development of alternative remediation strategies using microorganisms. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is the most radiation resistant organism known and can grow in highly irradiating (>60 Gray/h) environments (1). Numerous microorganisms (e.g., Pseudomonas sp.) have been described, and studied in detail, for their ability to transform and degrade a variety of organic pollutants (e.g., toluene), present at many radioactive DOE waste sites. Detoxification of the organic toxins at these sites is an important goal in remediating or stabilizing contaminated sites as well as preventing their further dissemination. The aim of this project is to engineer strains of D. radiodurans that are capable of degrading organic/aromatic hydrocarbons present in radioactive mixed waste sites--sites that contain mixtures of toxic organic compounds, radionuclides and heavy metals. Conventional bioremediating organisms are unable to survive at many of these sites because of their sensitivity to radiation. Generally, microorganisms are sensitive to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, and most of the bacteria currently being studied as candidates for bioremediation are no exception. For example, Pseudomonas sp. is very sensitive to radiation (more sensitive than E. coli) and is not suited to remediate radioactive wastes. Therefore, radiation resistant microorganisms that can remediate toxic organic compounds need to be found in nature or engineered in the laboratory to address this problem.

Daly, Michael J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

1999-06-01

377

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

378

Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

Pope, Ron [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Rawl, Richard R [ORNL

2010-01-01

379

Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area  

SciTech Connect

EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

NONE

1996-08-01

380

Tilted foil polarization of radioactive beam nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tilted foil polarization has up to now been mostly applied to nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a target traversed by a primary particle beam. Being a universal phenomenon it can be applied equally well to beams of particles, primary or secondary, radioactive or other. There are however some technical considerations arising from the nature of the beam particles. Radioactive beams are associated with ground state nuclei. They usually have low nuclear spin and as a consequence-as will be shown later-low polarization. Secondary beams are usually low in intensity and do not impose any constraints on the foils they traverse; unlike intense primary heavy ion beams which, if they traverse the foils, essentially limit the foil material to carbon. We review here briefly the tilted foil polarization process and then discuss an experiment with an isomer beam. Finally we review experiments with radioactive beams, past, present and planned for the future.

Goldring, Gvirol

1992-11-01

381

Radioactivity and electron acceleration in supernova remnants  

SciTech Connect

We argue that the decays of radioactive nuclei related to {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni ejected during supernova explosions can provide a vast pool of mildly relativistic positrons and electrons which are further accelerated to ultrarelativistic energies by reverse and forward shocks. This interesting link between two independent processes - the radioactivity and the particle acceleration - can be a clue for solution of the well known theoretical problem of electron injection in supernova remnants. In the case of the brightest radio source Cas A, we demonstrate that the radioactivity can supply adequate number of energetic electrons and positrons for interpretation of observational data provided that they are stochastically preaccelerated in the upstream regions of the forward and reverse shocks.

Zirakashvili, V. N. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aharonian, F. A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-10-15

382

Landscape of Two-Proton Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-state two-proton (2p) radioactivity is a decay mode found in isotopes of elements with even atomic numbers located beyond the two-proton drip line. So far, this exotic process has been experimentally observed in a few light- and medium-mass nuclides with Z?30. In this study, using state-of-the-art nuclear density functional theory, we globally analyze 2p radioactivity and for the first time identify 2p-decay candidates in elements heavier than strontium. We predict a few cases where the competition between 2p emission and ? decay may be observed. In nuclei above lead, the ?-decay mode is found to be dominating and no measurable candidates for the 2p radioactivity are expected.

Olsen, E.; Pftzner, M.; Birge, N.; Brown, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Perhac, A.

2013-05-01

383

Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades brought impressive progress in synthesizing and studying properties of nuclides located very far from the beta stability line. Among the most fundamental properties of such exotic nuclides, the ones usually established first are the half-life, possible radioactive decay modes, and their relative probabilities. When approaching limits of nuclear stability, new decay modes set in. First, beta decays are accompanied by emission of nucleons from highly excited states of daughter nuclei. Second, when the nucleon separation energy becomes negative, nucleons start being emitted from the ground state. A review of the decay modes occurring close to the limits of stability is presented. The experimental methods used to produce, identify, and detect new species and their radiation are discussed. The current theoretical understanding of these decay processes is reviewed. The theoretical description of the most recently discovered and most complex radioactive processthe two-proton radioactivityis discussed in more detail.

Pftzner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Riisager, K.

2012-04-01

384

The UK Committee on Radioactive Waste Management.  

PubMed

The UK Committee on Radioactive Waste Management is charged with recommending to Government, by July 2006, options for the long term management of the UK's radioactive waste legacy. These options should inspire public confidence. Now, more than halfway into the time allotted, we, as two former members of the Committee, express our concerns at the wayward approach that has been adopted. The Committee has placed emphasis on gaining public confidence but this has been done at the expense of recruiting the best scientific expertise in the management of radioactive waste, an act which we believe will actually undermine public confidence. Furthermore, given also the immense importance of this decision to public safety, national security and the national interest, we believe urgent steps should be taken to review the Committee's process, its management and its sponsorship. PMID:16286694

Baverstock, Keith; Ball, David J

2005-09-06

385

Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector  

DOEpatents

A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

386

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

Shappert, L.B.

1998-02-01

387

Metal Value Recovery from Metal Hydroxide Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two-year study investigating the potential for metal value recovery from metal hydroxide sludges has been completed. The objectives of the study were to: Develop a flowsheet to separate and recover metal values from metal finishing hydroxide sludge mate...

L. G. Twidwell

1985-01-01

388

Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War  

PubMed Central

The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas.

Waters, W. R.

1967-01-01

389

Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a An ISOL-based radioactive nuclear beam (RNB) facility,\\u000a Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC),\\u000a has been jointly developed\\u000a by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)\\u000a and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).\\u000a The facility started to supply RNBs for experiments in 2005\\u000a and RNBs including fission fragments with energies up to 1.1MeV\\/A\\u000a are available in the present.\\u000a Several experimental studies were

Y. X. Watanabe; S. Arai; Y. Arakaki; Y. Fuchi; Y. Hirayama; N. Imai; H. Ishiyama; S. C. Jeong; H. Kawakami; H. Miyatake; K. Niki; T. Nomura; M. Okada; M. Oyaizu; M. H. Tanaka; M. Tomizawa; N. Yoshikawa; S. Abe; S. Hanashima; T. Hashimoto; S. Ichikawa; H. Ikezoe; T. Ishii; N. Ishizaki; H. Kabumoto; I. Katayama; M. Koizumi; M. Matsuda; S. Mitsuoka; T. Nakanoya; K. Nishio; I. Ohuchi; A. Osa; T. K. Sato; S. Takeuchi; H. Tayama; Y. Tsukihashi

2007-01-01

390

Metal dusting  

SciTech Connect

This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

Edited by K. Natesan

2004-01-01

391

Metal glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of producing amorphous alloys of various systems (e.g., Pd-Si, Fe-B, Ni-P, Ni-Nb, Ni-Ta, Co-Gd, Fe-Gd, Mg-Zn,and Ca-Al) are briefly discussed, and the atomic structure and properties of such alloys are examined. In particular, attention is given to anomalies in the low-temperature behavior of amorphous alloys, their electrical and magnetic properties, strength, ductility, and corosion stability. Some aplications of metal glasses are mentioned.

Belen'kii, Aleksei Iakovlevich

1987-02-01

392

In-situ spectroelectrochemical studies of radionuclide contaminated surface films on metals and the mechanism of their formation and dissolution. 1997 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The incorporation of radioactive contaminants into corrosion product scales on metals is being investigated using in-situ spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. To facilitate the study, stable isotopes are used initially, while the corrosion films ...

M. Balasubramanian A. N. Mansour C. A. Melendres S. Mini D. Papapanayiotou

1997-01-01

393

Electroflotation for groundwater decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electroflotation device was built using a platinum-clad columbium screen as anode, and a stainless steel screen as cathode. A rock salt solution was used as the electrolyte, generating hypochlorite to oxidize cyanide, and hydroxides to form metal hydroxide precipitates which were carried to the top of the electroflotation device by the rising gas bubbles. The device was used successfully

Calvin P. C. Poon

1997-01-01

394

49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178...Radioactive) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal...

2011-10-01

395

49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178...Radioactive) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal...

2012-10-01

396

Radioactive-Waste Incineration at Purdue University.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator wa...

1982-01-01

397

Notes on Incineration of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of finding commercial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste and temporary storage of residues containing transuranic elements has led to research on using a method to reduce the volume of the waste originating from nuclear inst...

L. M. Martin

1984-01-01

398

Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present details of explosive nucleosynthesis in the helium-burning shell of a 25 solar mass star. We describe the production of short-lived radioactivities in this environment. We finally describe how to access the details of our calculations over the world-wide web.

Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; El Eid, M. F.

2004-03-01

399

Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that

Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu; Earl O. Knutson

1994-01-01

400

Survey of Radioactivities Induced by Lithium Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-induced nuclear reactions which lead to radioactivities are surveyed for application to experiments with intense lithium-ion beams from pulsed power generators. Positive Q-value reactions for 7Li ions of up to 15 MeV on carbon, aluminum, steel, br...

F. C. Young D. V. Rose

1992-01-01

401

Airborne radioactivity measurements from the chernobyl plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne gamma-ray measurements were made aboard the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) DC-3 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) King Air research aircraft before and during the first passage of the Chernobyl radioactive cloud over the west coast of the North American continent. Measurements were made from Anchorage, Alaska south to Reno, Nevada. Calculated trajectories were used to estimate

E. A. Lepel; W. K. Hensley; J. F. Boatman; K. M. Busness; W. E. Davis; D. E. Robertson; W. G. N. Slinn

1988-01-01

402

A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)|

Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

2012-01-01

403

Airborne penetration of radioactive clouds. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the threat to aircrew members when their aircraft approaches and subsequently penetrates a descending radioactive cloud generated by a nuclear weapon surface burst. The re-development of Hickman's program consists of a remodeling of the computational methods for sky-shine dose and cloud model. The code also computes the ionizing dose rate an air crew member receives when flying

1983-01-01

404

MIDGE LARVAE AS INDICATORS OF RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of midge larvae, or blood worms, as an indicator or radioactive ; pollution of surface waters was investigated. The larvae of two species were ; obtained from a silt deposit and studies were made on larvae ecology and feeding ; habits and their position in specific food chains. The uptake of Fe⁵⁹ and ; P³² by the larvae

1961-01-01

405

Effect of Scattering Neutrons on Induced Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. DANYSZ, J. Rotblat, L. Wertenstein and M. Zyw1 have found that iodine and silver exposed to neutrons acquire a stronger radioactivity if the neutrons are allowed to pass through lead or gold. We have investigated further this effect using different substances as scatterers, in the form of cylinders of 55 mm. height and 24.5 mm. diameter, with a coaxial

J. Rotblat; M. Zyw

1936-01-01

406

Half-lives of some Radioactive Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of investigations with radioactive isotopes in this Department, anomalous rates of decay have been observed with some isotopes in particular chemical forms. The escape of iodine-131 from evaporated samples of sodium iodide has already been reported by one of us1, and Hevesy2 has reported the escape of carbon-14 from exposed samples of barium carbonate. Anomalies have also

W. K. Sinclair; A. F. Holloway

1951-01-01

407

OXIDATION OF RADIOACTIVITY GLUCOSE BY AERATED SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of organic waste by aerated sludge depends on the metabolic ; activitles of many microorganisms present in the mixed liquor. A study was made ; of carbohydrate dissimilation by sludge organisms present in organic wastes. ; Radioactive glucose, labeled at the carbon-1 or carbon-6 atom, was used to follow ; the fate of the glucose molecule with respect to

N. Porges; A. E. Wasserman; W. J. Hopkins; L. Jasewicz

1958-01-01

408

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1992-12-31

409

Institutional storage and disposal of radioactive materials.  

PubMed

Storage and disposal of radioactive materials from nuclear medicine operations must be considered in the overall program design. The storage of materials from daily operation, materials in transit, and long-term storage represent sources of exposure. The design of storage facilities must include consideration of available space, choice of material, occupancy of surrounding areas, and amount of radioactivity anticipated. Neglect of any of these factors will lead to exposure problems. The ultimate product of any manipulation of radioactive material will be some form of radioactive waste. This waste may be discharged into the environment or placed within a storage area for packaging and transfer to a broker for ultimate disposal. Personnel must be keenly aware of packaging regulations of the burial site as well as applicable federal and local codes. Fire codes should be reviewed if there is to be storage of flammable materials in any area. Radiation protection personnel should be aware of community attitudes when considering the design of the waste program. PMID:3749915

St Germain, J

1986-07-01

410

Remediation of groundwater contaminated with radioactive compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both naturally radioactive isotopes and isotopes from man-made sources may appear in groundwater. Depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant, different types of treatment methods must be applied to reduce the concentration. The following chapter discusses treatment opt...

411

Simplifying the Mathematical Treatment of Radioactive Decay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Derivation of the law of radioactive decay is considered without prior knowledge of calculus or the exponential series. Calculus notation and exponential functions are used because ultimately they cannot be avoided, but they are introduced in a simple way and explained as needed. (Contains 10 figures, 1 box, and 1 table.)|

Auty, Geoff

2011-01-01

412

Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams  

SciTech Connect

Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized.

Henning, W.F.

1996-12-31

413

X-Ray Diffraction on Radioactive Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray diffraction studies on radioactive materials are discussed with the aim of providing a guide to new researchers in the field. Considerable emphasis is placed on the safe handling and loading of not-too-exotic samples. Special considerations such as ...

D. Schiferl R. B. Roof

1978-01-01

414

Low Radioactivity Spectral gamma Calibration Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a...

M. A. Mathews H. R. Bowman L. H. Huang M. J. Lavelle A. R. Smith

1986-01-01

415

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 to 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes

El-Shinawy, Rifaat M. K.

1994-07-01

416

Use of Radioactive Tracers in Dynamic Sedimentology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first part, developments in the use of radioactive tracers in sedimentology are recalled together with the corresponding fields of application and the identities of the main users. The state-of-the-art in France is also discussed; The main characte...

F. Tola

1982-01-01

417

X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, ast...

P. Radvanyi M. Bordry

1995-01-01

418

Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to

Kenneth D. Jarman; Chad Scherrer; L. E. Smith; Lawrence Chilton; K. K. Anderson; Jennifer J. Ressler; Lynn L. Trease

2011-01-01

419

Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the

Lapp, David R.

2010-01-01

420

Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use

Joseph S. Mitchell; Ian Brown; B. Chir; Robert N. Carpenter

1983-01-01

421

THE DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVE LABORATORY WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of radioactively poisoned waste water is, in many ; respects, problematic in spite of numerous investigations. Some results, ; obtained in coprecipitation studies on Ca⁴⁵, Fe⁵⁹, Zn⁶⁵, and Tl\\/; sup 204\\/ in distilled and tap wate r with or without carriers, are discussed. A ; table shows the most favorable precipitation conditions or results on additionai ; radioisotopes,

H. Koch; W. Weiland

1962-01-01

422

Radioactive source detection by sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection limits of sensor networks for moving radioactive sources are characterized, using Bayesian methods in conjunction with computer simulation. These studies involve point sources moving at constant velocity, emulating vehicular conveyance on a straight road. For networks involving ten nodes, respective Bayesian methods are implementable in real time. We probe the increased computational requirements incurred by larger numbers of nodes

Sean M. Brennan; Angela M. Mielke; David C. Torney

2005-01-01

423

Fastener tightening in a radioactive (hot) cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate remote tightening of fasteners in a radioactive (Hot) cell can be a very exasperating experience. Viewing can be difficult (in many places) and work sometimes must be done using mirrors and\\/or cameras. If electro mechanical manipulators are used, the operator has no ''feel,'' which often can result in cross threading, or improper torquing of fasteners. At the Interim Examination

Kalk

1986-01-01

424

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1997-04-01

425

Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE\\/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance

Ron Pope; Richard R Rawl

2010-01-01

426

Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed

J. N. McFee; J. M. Langsted; M. E. Young; J. E. Day

2006-01-01

427

Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive fallout from this Chinese nuclear test resulted in measurable deposition of short-lived debris over much of the United States. The fallout levels varied by more than 1000-fold and showed significant temporary or spatial fractionation with higher levels of deposition being associated with rain. The particle size with which the airborne debris was associated decreased continuously with time following detonation

C. W. Thomas; J. K. Soldat; W. B. Silker; R. W. Perkins

1976-01-01

428

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

429

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

430

Repository for radioactive waste-vault backfill  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of forming a repository for radioactive waste comprises locating the waste in a subterranean vault and backfilling the vault with a filling material which is water permeable and provides a substantial reservoir of available alkalinity such that any ground water permeating through the filling material to the waste has a pH of at least 10.5.

Hooper; Alan James (Gloucester, GB)

1998-04-14

431

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-05-01

432

Gamma spectrometry calibrations with natural radioactive materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radioactive materials were used for detector calibration. We found that KCl is a very suitable material for this purpose. The efficiency curve shape was derived by using ? ray lines of 214Bi normalised using a known quantity of KCl in the same geometry. The best fit was found by the least squares method. The summing correction coefficients for 214Bi are determined.

Panteli?, Gordana

1996-02-01

433

Clay barriers in radioactive waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep geological is one of the preferred options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste. In most designs, the canisters placed in drifts or boreholes are surrounded by an engineered barrier usually made of compacted swelling clay. The barrier undergoes severe heating from the canisters and hydration from the host rock. In this situation a number of interacting thermal,

Antonio Gens; Sebasti Olivella

2001-01-01

434

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1999-10-27

435

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2009-06-11

436

Artificial Radioactivity Reference Horizons in Greenland Firn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total beta measurements have been made on melt water samples from a stratigraphically dated firn core profile from the inland Greenland ice sheet (77 deg 10 min N, 61 deg 08 min W). A marked increase in radioactivity is found in the 1953 firn layer which ...

G. Crozaz C. C. Langway E. Picciotto

1966-01-01

437

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

438

Radioactive waste disposal in granite. [Stripa mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

439

RADIOACTIVITY OF BATHOLITHE OF ELBEMA (HOGGAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of uranium, potassium, and alpha and gamma ; radioactivity of a granite massif in the Hoggar, Sahara was examined. ; Statistical application of results show the existence of a close relationship ; between activity fluctuations and uranium content variations. There is, on the ; other hand, no clear correlation between activity and KO content. (auth);

Coulomb

1958-01-01

440

RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently few licensed repositories for disposal of radioactive waste within the Russian Federation. This impasse has evolved due to extreme concerns by local and state governments about the safety of such facilities and the lack of coordinated action by the many ministries and agencies that each have some responsibility for the design, siting, licensing and operation of these

Nikolai Laverov; Yuriy Shiyan; Paul Childress

2000-01-01

441

EVALUATION OF BITUMENS FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE IMMOBILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian research center CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - has been carrying out research on the incorporation of radioactive wastes in different types of bitumen, aiming to obtain monolithic, homogeneous, chemically and mechanically stable waste forms. The solidification of waste is mandatory if compliance with the safety standards for transport, storage and disposal are sought. The

Marcia Flavia; Righi Guzella; Tnia Valria da Silva

442

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

443

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To complete the process development, ESR melting experiments, which include actual radioactive contaminates as well as surrogates, are being conducted at the Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia. These experiments measure decontamination efficiencies in ingots for uranium and plutonium in stainless steel, as well as correlate removal of radioactive and surrogate compounds in the same melts. This will ''close the loop'' and allow us to use measured surrogate behaviors to model removal of radioactive species.

VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

1999-06-15

444

Radioactive Waste Management Criteria in Fusion Reactor Materials Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion reactors will have to meet both quantitative and qualitative criteria for the disposal and/or reuse of radioactive materials. The most important quantitative criteria presently govern the near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes in the United St...

J. S. Herring S. Fetter

1987-01-01

445

49 CFR 172.438 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. 172.438 Section 172.438 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.438 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II label. (a) Except...

2012-10-01

446

77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0012] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...assessment as part of its radioactive waste management decision-making. The DOE...Assessment Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental...

2012-02-22

447

77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management'' (76 FR 50500; August...Assessment Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental...

2012-05-08

448

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2013-01-01

449

Radioactive Effluents, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Calendar Year 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioactive discharges from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed and tabulated. Tables indicate both the location of the discharge and the nuclides discharged. All discharges for 1982 are well below the Radioactive Concentration Guide limi...

T. A. Acox L. F. Hary L. S. Klein

1983-01-01

450

Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Mater...

J. B. Reed J. Cummins

1993-01-01

451

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section 835.1201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL...RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed...

2013-01-01

452

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable...

2013-01-01

453

Status of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility received authorization in December 1996 to commence routine operation as a National User Facility. Significant progress has been made toward the goal of providing high-quality radioactive ion beams. The task of ...

M. J. Meigs

2001-01-01

454

Aspects of Underground Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Rock Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of the thesis concerns disposal of radioactive waste in underground rock-salt formations. Rock salt is one of the few potential host formations for accomodating radioactive waste; it has a relatively high thermal conductivity and is practicall...

W. M. G. T. van den Broek

1989-01-01

455

Radioactive waste vitrification offgas analysis proposal  

SciTech Connect

Further validation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed simulants will be performed by analyzing offgases during crucible melting of actual waste glasses and simulants. The existing method of vitrifying radioactive laboratory-scale samples will be modified to allow offgas analysis during preparation of glass for product testing. The analysis equipment will include two gas chromatographs (GC) with thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and one NO/NO{sub x} analyzer. This equipment is part of the radioactive formating offgas system. The system will provide real-time analysis of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and SO{sub 2}. As with the prior melting method, the product glass will be compatible with durability testing, i.e., Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Material Characterization Center (MCC-1), and crystallinity analysis. Procedures have been included to ensure glass homogeneity and quenching. The radioactive glass will be adaptable to Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe measurement procedures because the atmosphere above the melt can be controlled. The 325 A-hot cell facility is being established as the permanent location for radioactive offgas analysis during formating, and can be easily adapted to crucible melt tests. The total costs necessary to set up and perform offgas measurements on the first radioactive core sample is estimated at $115K. Costs for repeating the test on each additional core sample are estimated to be $60K. The schedule allows for performing the test on the next available core sample.

Nelson, C.W.; Morrey, E.V.

1993-11-01

456

Accelerated radioactive beams from REX-ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2001 the linear accelerator of the Radioactive beam EXperiment (REX-ISOLDE) delivered for the first time accelerated radioactive ion beams, at a beam energy of 2 MeV/u. REX-ISOLDE uses the method of charge-state breeding, in order to enhance the charge state of the ions before injection into the LINAC. Radioactive singly-charged ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are first accumulated in a Penning trap, then charge bred to an /A/q<4.5 in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in a LINAC from 5 keV/u to energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV/u. Dedicated measurements with REXTRAP, the transfer line and the EBIS have been carried out in conjunction with the first commissioning of the accelerator. Thus the properties of the different elements could be determined for further optimization of the system. In two test beam times in 2001 stable and radioactive Na isotopes (23Na-26Na) have been accelerated and transmitted to a preliminary target station. There 58Ni- and 9Be- and 2H-targets have been used to study exited states via Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions. One MINIBALL triple cluster detector was used together with a double sided silicon strip detector to detect scattered particles in coincidence with ?-rays. The aim was to study the operation of the detector under realistic conditions with ?-background from the ?-decay of the radioactive ions and from the cavities. Recently for efficient detection eight tripple Ge-detectors of MINIBALL and a double sided silicon strip detector have been installed. We will present the first results obtained in the commissioning experiments and will give an overview of realistic beam parameters for future experiments to be started in the spring 2002.

ISOLDE Collaboration; Kester, O.; Sieber, T.; Emhofer, S.; Ames, F.; Reisinger, K.; Reiter, P.; Thirolf, P. G.; Lutter, R.; Habs, D.; Wolf, B. H.; Huber, G.; Schmidt, P.; Ostrowski, A. N.; von Hahn, R.; Repnow, R.; Fitting, J.; Lauer, M.; Scheit, H.; Schwalm, D.; Podlech, H.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Forstner, O.; Wenander, F.; Cederkll, J.; Nilsson, T.; Lindroos, M.; Fynbo, H.; Franchoo, S.; Bergmann, U.; Oinonen, M.; yst, J.; den Bergh, P. Van; Duppen, P. Van; Huyse, M.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Eberth, J.; Jonson, B.; Nyman, G.; Pantea, M.; Simon, H.; Shrieder, G.; Richter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.; Bollen, G.; Weissmann, L.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K. G.

2003-05-01

457

Radioactivity release and dust production during the cutting of the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant: The case of E. Fermi NPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the cutting operations and spread of radioactive contamination during the dismantling of a nuclear metal component, carried on with thermal cutting. Our analysis relates to E.Fermi nuclear power plant (Trino Vercellese, Italy), a Pressurized Water Reactor, which had an electrical power of 272MWe, and was in operation from 1965 to 1987. The plant included four primary loops

L. Bonavigo; M. De Salve; M. Zucchetti; D. Annunziata

2010-01-01

458

Removal of radioactive cations and anions from polluted water using ligand-modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic non-radioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte

J. F. Scamehorn; C. E. Palmer; R. W. Taylor

1998-01-01

459

Radioactivity concentrations in soils of the Xiazhuang granite area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural radioactivity of soils at the Xiazhuang granite massif of Southern China has been studied. The radioactivities of 55 samples have been measured with a low-background HPGe detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 40K ranged from 40.2 to 442 and from 442 to 913Bq\\/kg, respectively, while the radioactivity concentration of 232Th varied only slightly. In order to evaluate

Ya-xin Yang; Xin-min Wu; Zhong-ying Jiang; Wei-xing Wang; Ji-gen Lu; Jun Lin; Lei-Ming Wang; Yuan-fu Hsia

2005-01-01

460

Stable radioactive diagnostic agent and a non-radioactive carrier therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable non-radioactive carrier for use in production of ⁹⁹ \\/SUP m\\/ Tc-labeled radioactive diagnostic agent comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent for pertechnetate and a stabilizer chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid, and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters in an amount of more than about 100 moles per 1 mol of said water-soluble reducing agent.

M. Azuma; M. Hazue

1984-01-01

461

Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR). RAMTEMP users manual  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to familiarize the potential user with RadioActive Materials PACkaging (RAMPAC), Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR), and RAMTEMP databases. RAMTEMP is a minor image of RAMPAC. This reference document will enable the user to access and obtain reports from databases while in an interactive mode. This manual will be revised as necessary to reflect enhancements made to the system.

Tyron-Hopko, A.K.; Driscoll, K.L.

1985-10-01

462

Organic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their crystal structure, conducting organic charge-transfer complexes are similar to arrays of one-dimensional molecules with more than the complement of electrons required for valence bonding. The extra electrons will then partially fill a conduction band whose width is determined by the interactions among neighbors. Synthetic chemists have given much attention to new donors which contain the 1, 3-dithiole ring system of tetrathiafulvalene, which, together with the electron acceptor, tetracyano-p-quinodimethane, has been the focus of organic metals research. The most exciting advances in this field over the last few years have come from studies of tetramethyl-tetraselenafulvalene salts, in some of which a trully superconducting state can be stabilized, under pressure, down to 1 K. It is the search for high temperature superconductivity, however, that is the driving interest in this research.

Bryce, M. R.; Murphy, L. C.

1984-05-01

463

Process for recovering niobium and/or tantalum metal compound from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and/or rare earth metals  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering one or more non-radioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, which comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of an acid so that a portion of the ore is brought into solution in a liquid phase and another portion of the ore remains in a solid phase, said compound or compounds of the transition metal or metals to be recovered passing into only the liquid or into only the solid phase, the uranium in the crushed ore being treated so as to cause substantially all of said uranium to be present in an oxidation state in which it cannot, during the decomposition step, pass into the phase containing the transition metal compound or compounds.

Floeter, W.; Schoening, G.; Schroeer, K.

1984-05-29

464

METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI  

SciTech Connect

One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

Adamson, D.

2012-05-23

465

Melting, Solidification, Remelting, and Separation of Glass and Metal  

SciTech Connect

Several kinds of radioactive waste exist in mixed forms at DOE sites throughout the United States. These Wastes consist of radionuclides and some usefil bme materials. One purpose of waste treatment technologies is to vitrify the radionuclides into durable, stable glass-like materials to reduce the size of the waste form requiring final disposal. The other purpose is to recycle and reuse most of the usefi.d base materials. Thus, improved techniques for the separation of molten metal and glass are essential. Several high temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. These processes include the plasma hearth process, which is being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and the arc melter vitrification process, which is being developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to suppoti these process. A separation method is also needed for the radioactively contaminated scrap metal recycling processe; in order to obtain highly refined recycled metals.

M. A. Ebadian; R. C.Xin; Z. F. Dong

1998-11-02

466

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

1994-09-01

467

21 CFR 888.3640 - Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. 888...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. ...shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented...

2013-04-01

468

Evaluation of Method for Counting Gross Radioactivity in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and measurement of radioactivity in water is discussed ; with respect to the evaluation of methods for counting gross radioactivity. The ; results obtained when two samples of water containing a radioisotope were sent to ; various laboratories are presented. Approximately half the agencies were able to ; determine gross radioactivity within 10 to 15% of the true

J. W. Mullins; R. C. Kroner; D. G. Ballinger; H. P. Kramer

1961-01-01

469

Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with 241Am (alpha radioactivity), 90Sr\\/90Y (beta

A. Bari; A. J. Khan; T. M. Semkow; U.-F. Syed; A. Roselan; D. K. Haines; G. Roth; M. Arndt

2011-01-01

470

On the radioactivity of summer clouds on Mount Olympus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactivity in different parts of a cloud as well as the radioactivity of the atmosphere before and after the cloud's passage are examined with stationary samplers --- fall-out pans, Grunow cloud-catchers of various materials, and air-pumps --- at elevations of 1800 m and 2817 m, on Mt Olympus --- Greece. The relation between the cloud's density and its radioactivity

Susan D. Danali

1969-01-01

471

On the radioactivity of summer clouds on Mount Olympus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactivity in different parts of a cloud as well as the radioactivity of the atmosphere before and after the cloud's passage are examined with stationary samplers fall-out pans, Grunow cloud-catchers of various materials, and air-pumps at elevations of 1800 m and 2817 m, on Mt Olympus Greece. The relation between the cloud's density and its radioactivity

Susan D. Danali

1969-01-01

472

The importance of radioactivity in geoscience and mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost simultaneously with Roentgen rays, natural radioactivity was discovered. Its investigation led to important fundamentals of the geosciences: petrophysics, terrestrial heat flow, isotope geology, and absolute geological chronology. In applied geophysics and geology, exploration of radioactive ores and of tectonic faults, and radiometric well loggings, are used. Production of radioactive water and mining for uranium ores are discussed, including their

H.-G. Reinhardt; H. Gast

1995-01-01

473

Stirring system for radioactive waste water storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stirring system for 100-m[sup 3] radioactive liquid waste tanks was constructed to unify radioactive concentrations in the tank. The stirring system is effective in certifying that the radioactive concentrations in the tanks are less than the legal limits before they are drained away as waste liquid. This system is composed of discharge units, pipe lines, and a controller. The

Yoshimune Ogata; Kunihide Nishizawa

1999-01-01

474

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005...Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding...operators of wells used to dispose of radioactive waste (as defined in 10 CFR part...

2013-07-01

475

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76...Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized...shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations...

2013-01-01

476

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2011-10-01

477

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2012-10-01

478

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2013-07-01

479

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2012-10-01

480

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2011-10-01

481

Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste

J. H. Horton; J. C. Corey

1976-01-01

482

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from Living Cells to Fixed Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of radioactive materials to fixed cells from an overlying layer of living cells has been examined to determine whether fixed cells can act as acce'ptors of glycosyltransferases of living cells. After the incubation of living cells lying upon fixed cells along with radioactive precursor, the living cells were removed by EDTA treatment, and the radioactivity associated with the fixed

HISAKO SAKIYAMA; HIROSHI OTSU; SHIRO KANEGASAKI

483

Exploring solid state physics properties with radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics for many years. Established nuclear techniques such as Mbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, -NMR and emission channelling have now been joined by new and successful tracer techniques like radioactive deep level transient spectroscopy, capacitance voltage measurements, Hall-effect measurements or photoluminescence spectroscopy. Numerous radioactive species, ranging from to , are employed to

Doris Forkel-Wirth

1999-01-01

484

Beneficial role of conflict in radioactive waste management programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict, we believe, can be found

B. A. Payne; R. G. Williams

1985-01-01

485

40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Analytical methods for radioactivity. 141.25 Section 141.25 ...141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following...determine compliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the...

2010-07-01

486

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

487

49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying...requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying...passenger-carrying aircraft between Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE...

2012-10-01

488

10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy...general population from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive...should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general...

2009-01-01

489

10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy...general population from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive...should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general...

2010-01-01

490

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOEpatents

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12

491

Metal-Rich Metal-Metalloid Phases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews borides, carbides, nitrides, and oxides of transition elements, often in combination with non-transitional elements. In the metal rich compunds the metalloid atom is isolated and surrounded by six or eight transition metal atoms in clos...

H. H. Stadelmaier

1969-01-01

492

Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity: fireclay mine and refractory plant  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity were measured at a fireclay mine and the associated plant that produces refractory brick products. The only significant radioactive emission from the mine was radon-222. An analysis of the ore radioactivity and surface area of the mine indicated that the radon released is comparable to that from any similar surface area of similar radioactivity. The major particulate radioactivity from the refractory operation was polonium-210, released as the brick was fired. Approximately 26 percent of the polonium-210 in green brick was driven off in the kilns.

Andrews, V.E.

1981-02-01

493

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01

494

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, E.C.

1993-12-23

495

ELECTRONIC ANALOG COMPUTER FOR DETERMINING RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION  

DOEpatents

A computer is presented for determining growth and decay curves for elements in a radioactive disintegration series wherein one unstable element decays to form a second unstable element or isotope, which in turn forms a third element, etc. The growth and decay curves of radioactive elements are simulated by the charge and discharge curves of a resistance-capacitance network. Several such networks having readily adjustable values are connected in series with an amplifier between each successive pair. The time constant of each of the various networks is set proportional to the half-life of a corresponding element in the series represented and the charge and discharge curves of each of the networks simulates the element growth and decay curve.

Robinson, H.P.

1959-07-14

496

A Novel Radioactive Isotope Ion Target SCRIT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron scattering is a superior method to investigate the internal structure, such as charge distribution, of atomic nuclei. Most of the radii of nuclei were determined unambiguously by that. However, radioactive isotopes (RI) which recently came up to a major research interest have not been accessible due to the difficulty in making fixed targets and taking measurements before they decay. We proposed a conceptually new target called SCRIT (Self-Confining Radioactive Isotope ion Target) as opposed to a collider method. The luminosity expected for SCRIT is inevitably low (typically on the order of 1.E+27/cm2/s) and a large acceptance detector system is required. We plan to perform a coincidence measurement using an electron arm and a recoil ion detector which needs to be developed. Current status of the ion trapping with a prototype SCRIT and the background measurement results in an electron storage ring will be discussed.

Kurita, Kazuyoshi; Masuda, Tetsuya; Koseki, Tadashi; Noda, Akira; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tongu, Hiromu; Furukawa, Yukihiro; Tamae, Tadaaki; Ito, Sachiko; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Suda, Toshimi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Wang, Shuo; Emoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Masato; Wakasugi, Masanori; Yano, Yasushige

2006-11-01

497

A simple description of cluster radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial half-life of radioactive decay of nuclei by the emission of fragments heavier than the ?-particle, such as the emission of carbon, oxygen, neon, magnesium and silicon isotopes from trans-lead nuclei (known as cluster radioactivity), is re-evaluated in the framework of a semi-empirical, one-parameter model based on the quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism through a potential barrier where the Coulomb, centrifugal and overlapping contributions to the barrier are considered within the spherical nucleus approximation. This treatment has proven adequate not only to fit all the existing half-life data, but also to give more reliable half-life predictions for new, yet unmeasured cases of spontaneous emission of massive nuclear fragments from both heavy and intermediate-mass parent nuclei. In celebration of the 80th anniversary of the discovery of the neutron.

Tavares, O. A. P.; Medeiros, E. L.

2012-07-01

498

Two-proton radioactivity of 45Fe  

SciTech Connect

In an experiment at the SISSI-LISE3 facility of GANIL, the decay of the proton drip line nucleus 45Fe has been studied. Fragment-implantation events have been correlated with radioactive decay events in a 16x16 pixel silicon-strip detector. The decay-energy spectrum of 45Fe implants shows a distinct peak at (1.14+/-0.04) MeV with a half-life of T(1/2)=(4.7(+3.4)(-1.4)) ms. None of the events in this peak is in coincidence with beta particles. For a longer correlation interval, daughter decays of the two-proton daughter 43Cr can be observed after 45Fe implantation. The decay energy for 45Fe agrees nicely with several theoretical predictions for two-proton radioactivity.

Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Grigorenko, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, Mustafa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2009-01-01

499

Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines  

SciTech Connect

Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-02

500

Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico.  

PubMed

Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters. PMID:12102353

Dvila Rangel, J I; Lpez del Rio, H; Mireles Garca, F; Quirino Torres, L L; Villalba, M L; Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E

2002-06-01