Note: This page contains sample records for the topic radioactive metals columbium from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from ; solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The ; columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an ; inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnOâ. This oxide carrier ; precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved ; in

L. E. Glendenin; H. Gest

1958-01-01

2

TESTING OF COLUMBIUM AND COLUMBIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of laboratory testing of columbium and columbium alloys as ; corrosion resistant materials are sum marized. Columbium, having the lowest ; density of the refractory metals group, has higher thermal conductivity than ; Zircaloy-2 or austenitic stainless steel. In chemical corrosion tests the Nb- ; 10Ti-10Mo alloy was found to be much less resistant than unalloyed columbium. ; Oxidation

Macleary

1962-01-01

3

METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE REFRACTORY METALS HAFNIUM, TITANIUM, VANADIUM, SILICON, ZIRCONIUM, THORIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND CHROMIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and the apparatus used for the liquid phase production of Ti, ; Zr, V, Hf, Si, Th, Cr, and Nb by the reduction of a halide of the desired metal ; with a sufficient amount of reducing agent in a zone surrounded by a twocomponent ; agent halide supported by a metal product lining are described. Suitable ;

1963-01-01

4

Brazed nickel\\/columbium dissimilar metal pipe joints for 720 C service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct brazing was investigated for fabricating Hastelloy X\\/Niobium alloy dissimilar metal pipe joints for possible use in a Brayton cycle space power system. These joints must remain leak-tight in space for up to seven years at 720°C (1328°F). Design and fabrication are complicated because of differences in composition and thermal expansion between the Ni- and Nb-base components. Two filler metals,

G. K. Watson; T. J. Moore

1977-01-01

5

Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

Papp, John F.

2007-01-01

6

Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

7

Columbium Availability--Market Economy Countries. A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has investigated the availability of columbium from 19 deposits (3 producers and 16 nonproducers) in 7 market economy countries (MEC's). Brazil has the largest recoverable columbium resource, posessing approximately 2.39 million metric...

F. W. Miller R. J. Fantel D. A. Buckingham

1986-01-01

8

Explosive bonded TZM-wire-reinforced C129Y columbium composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique consists of positioning layers of TZM metal filaments between thin C129Y columbium sheets and joining multiple sheet stacks by single explosive joining operation. Metallurgical bonds are excellent, external heat is not required, process is relatively inexpensive, and resulting composites are considerably stronger than base alloy.

Reece, O. Y.

1971-01-01

9

Managing potentially radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements published NCRP Report No. 141 on November 19, 2002. Contract DE-FG02-98CH10945 provided the sole support for this report titled ''Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal.'' Some preliminary work supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that led to an NCRP Letter Report provided some background information for this work. NCRP Report No. 141 provides recommendations on the methodologies and techniques available to the United States for disposing of radioactive, contaminated scrap metals.

None

2002-11-19

10

Strategic metals (tantalum, columbium, beryllium) in pegmatites of Copper Mountain, Fremont County, Wyoming. A preliminary report. Open file report, 1987-88  

SciTech Connect

In 1987 and 1988, the Bureau of Mines evaluated pegmatites and granitic rocks on the south side of Copper Mountain, Fremont County, WY, primarily for the strategic metals tantalum, niobium, and beryllium. The U.S. relies on foreign imports for over 90% of the tantalum and niobium consumed annually, and has no major known tantalum deposit. Widely spaced reconnaissance sampling identified subeconomic tantalum resources in two pegmatites on Copper Mountain, amounting to 1.5 million short tons at grades of 0.02% to 0.03% Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} (tantalum pentoxide). Tantalum content is 0.8 million pounds of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, or about 1/5 of the total tantalum resources delineated in the U.S. Tantalum recovery testing showed that 70% recovery is possible. Additionally, niobium and beryllium could be byproducts of tantalum mining. Tungsten, gold, silver, and copper, primarily in quartz veins, are not present in economic amounts. Sample assays suggest additional tantalum resources could be present in other pegmatites in the study area, but more sampling work is required to determine resources. Unsampled pegmatites on an adjacent 2 square miles of land should be examined. Discovery of more tantalum resources could help alleviate U.S. dependence on foreign imports.

Chatman, M.L.

1989-03-31

11

A radioactive metal processing industry perspective source.  

PubMed

The current U.S. economic environment for the disposition of radioactive waste, including very-low-activity metals, is currently experiencing relatively low radioactive disposal costs and readily available disposal space. Despite the recent market increase in demand for recycled scrap metal commodities, there is still little change in the behavior of the nuclear industry (including radioactive waste processors and radioactive scrap metal recyclers) to pursue the recycling of potentially contaminated scrap metal. The relatively low cost of traditional radioactive waste disposal combined with the perceived risks associated with recycling of previously contaminated metals means that most U.S. radioactive facility managers and stakeholders will elect not to recycle. Current technology exists and precedence has been set for prescreening (by means of bulk radioactive assay techniques) scrap metal that is not contaminated and diverting it to industrial landfills for disposal. Other processes also allow some radiologically contaminated metals to be melted and recast into products with low, but acceptable, activity levels for restricted use in the nuclear industry. A new concept is being considered that would create a centralized licensed facility for the process and disposition of "very-low-activity" metals for "directed first use." The advantages to this type of approach would include a standardized method for licensing the clearance process. PMID:17033461

Johnson, A

2006-11-01

12

Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01

13

Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

Bray, L.A.

1996-08-13

14

INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed

Funk

1994-01-01

15

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

16

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive slud...

B. C. Ha D. M. Ferrara N. E. Bibler

1992-01-01

17

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is

L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen; E. J. Kohout; B. Nabelssi; R. W. Tilbrook; S. E. Wilson

1995-01-01

18

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable mate...

J. M. Buckentin B. K. Damkroger M. E. Schlienger

1996-01-01

19

Contamination Hardening of SU-31 and FS-85 Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of the contamination hardening of SU-31 and FS-85 columbium alloys which results when samples are exposed in air temperatures of 1400 to 2600 F. Diffusion coefficients for the principal contaminant, calculated from hardening profiles...

R. B. Herring

1973-01-01

20

The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

1973-01-01

21

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

22

Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.  

PubMed

With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

Turner, Ray

2006-11-01

23

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling

W. E. Murphie; M. J. Lilly; L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen

1993-01-01

24

The effects of composition and annealing conditions on the stability of columbium (niobium)-treated low-carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of composition and annealing conditions on the yielding behavior of vacuum melted, columbium(niobium) -treated,\\u000a low-carbon steels were investigated. Additions of columbium were found to result in stabilization,i.e. freedom from inhomogeneous yielding or Lder’s strain in the as-recrystallized condition. Stabilization is accounted for\\u000a by considering the role of columbium as a carbide former, thereby reducing the carbon content in

R. E. Hook; J. A. Elias

1972-01-01

25

The effects of composition and annealing conditions on the stability of columbium (niobium)-treated low-carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of composition and annealing conditions on the yielding behavior of vacuum melted, columbium(niobium) -treated, low-carbon steels were investigated. Additions of columbium were found to result in stabilization, i.e. freedom from inhomogeneous yielding or Lüder's strain in the as-recrystallized condition. Stabilization is accounted for by considering the role of columbium as a carbide former, thereby reducing the carbon content

R. E. Hook; J. A. Elias

1972-01-01

26

Oxidation at through-hole defects in fused slurry silicide coated columbium alloys FS-85 and Cb-752  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal recession and interstitial contamination at 0.08-centimeter-diameter through-hole intentional defects in fused slurry silicide coated FS-85 and Cb-752 columbium alloys were studied to determine the tolerance of these materials to coating defects. Five external pressure reentry simulation exposures to 1320 C and 4.7 x 1,000 N/sq m (maximum pressure) resulted in a consumed metal zone having about twice the initial defect diameter for both alloys with an interstitial contamination zone extending about three to four initial defect diameters. Self-healing occurred in the 1.33 x 10 N/sq m, 1320 C exposures and to a lesser extent in internal pressure reentry cycles to 1320 C and 1.33 x 100 N/sq m (maximum pressure).

Levine, S. R.

1973-01-01

27

Method for making radioactive metal articles having small dimensions  

DOEpatents

A method for making a radioactive article such as wire, includes the steps of providing a metal article having a first shape, such a cylinder, that is either radioactive itself or can be converted to a second, radioactive isotope by irradiation; melting the metal article one or more times; optionally adding an alloying metal to the molten metal in order to enhance ductility or other properties; placing the metal article having the first shape (e.g., cylindrical) into a cavity in the interior of an extrusion body (e.g., a cylinder having a cylindrical cavity therein); extruding the extrusion body and the article having the first shape located in the cavity therein, resulting in an elongated extrusion body and an article having a second shape; removing the elongated extrusion body, for example by chemical means, leaving the elongated inner article substantially intact; optionally repeating the extrusion procedure one or more times; and then drawing the elongated article to still further elongate it, into wire, foil, or another desired shape. If the starting metal is enriched in a radioactive isotope or a precursor thereof, the end product can provide a more intense radiation source than conventionally manufactured radioactive wire, foil, or the like.

Ohriner, Evan K. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

28

Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.  

PubMed

In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce. PMID:17033456

Chen, S Y

2006-11-01

29

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

30

ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

31

Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal  

DOEpatents

A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

2008-06-10

32

Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloys reentry heat shields. Volume 1: Evaluation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The R-512E (Si-20Cr-20Fe) fused slurry silicide coating process was optimized to coat full size (20in x 20in) single face rib and corrugation stiffened panels fabricated from FS-85 columbium alloy for 100 mission space shuttle heat shield applications. Structural life under simulated space shuttle lift-off stresses and reentry conditions demonstrated reuse capability well beyond 100 flights for R-512E coated FS-85 columbium heat shield panels. Demonstrated coating damage tolerance showed no immediate structural failure on exposure. The FS-85 columbium alloy was selected from five candidate alloys (Cb-752, C-129Y, WC-3015, B-66 and FS-85) based on the evaluation tests which have designed to determine: (1) change in material properties due to coating and reuse; (2) alloy tolerance to coating damage; (3) coating emittance characteristics under reuse conditions; and (4) new coating chemistries for improved coating life.

Fitzgerald, B.

1973-01-01

33

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and\\/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes

W. E. Murphie; M. J. Lilly; L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen

1993-01-01

34

Risk and impact tradeoffs in radioactive scrap metal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two management alternatives for radioactive scrap metal were evaluated: (1) recycling and reuse, and (2) disposal and replacement. The human health risks, environmental impacts, and sociopolitical issues potentially associated with these alternatives were assessed in an international context. For each alternative, the health risks from workplace and transportation accidents are greater in magnitude than the risks from potential exposure to

L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen

1995-01-01

35

The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIINM', Rogova st., 5, 123098, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

36

Effect of reduction of strategic columbium additions in Inconel 718 alloy on the structure and properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of columbium which can be removed from Inconel alloy 718 without degrading its high temperature properties was determined. The elements that are substituted are: vanadium and tungsten together and separately; increasing the molybdenum level from 3.0% to 5.8% and increasing the boron to 0.04%.

Ziegler, K.; Wallace, J. F.

1982-01-01

37

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year.

K. P. Smith; D. L. Blunt

1995-01-01

38

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

39

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [US Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-11-01

40

Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia.  

PubMed

Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the maximal permissible concentration (MPC). The average concentration of total PAHs was 1.92 mg/kg, which is larger than the maximal permissible concentration in Serbia but below the threshold values in the European Union for food production. The average radioactivity of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and the fission product (137)Cs were 60.4+/-26.2, 33.2+/-13.4, 49.1+/-18.5, 379+/-108 and 36.4+/-23.3 Bq/kg. Enhanced radioactivity in the soils was found. The total absorbed dose rate in air above the soil at 1m height calculated for western Serbia was 73.4 nGy/h and the annual effective dose was 90 microSv, which are similar to earlier reports for the study region. PMID:20060645

Dugalic, Goran; Krstic, Dragana; Jelic, Miodrag; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Milenkovic, Biljana; Pucarevic, Mira; Zeremski-Skoric, Tijana

2010-05-15

41

Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1997-01-01

42

Porous metal filter collects radioactive strontium in hot cell operation  

SciTech Connect

The separation of a purified inorganic salt from a batch of slurry containing a high level radionuclide presented some unusual requirements at Rockwell Hanford's fission products production facility in Richland, WA. The product, radioactive strontium, is encapsulated as purified strontium fluoride after the recovered precipitate is sintered in a furnace to drive off all volatiles. The separation process required a filter to collect the finely divided strontium fluoride particles. The filter is required to withstand temperatures of 300-400/sup 0/C and maintain chemical stability in high levels of radioactivity. The filter also has to be sturdy enough to be manageable by a remote master/slave electromechanical manipulator in a hot cell. In addition, the filter must withstand a corrosive environment where the potential of traces of hydrofluoric acid exists. A uniformly permeable filter medium with low pressure drop and high particulate removal efficiency was necessary to ensure total recovery and clean filtrate. Strontium fluoride is precipitated batchwise from a reaction between sodium fluoride and strontium nitrate. After chemical adjustments are completed, the whole batch is filtered through a bank of four vacuum filters which contain a porous metal filter medium. Cylinders of sintered porous stainless steel were chosen as the filter medium because they were adaptable to the handling requirements and met the stringent separation criteria. The overall reaction-to-encapsulation operation at Rockwell Hanford has been developed to achieve better than 99% recovery of the strontium. The consistent performance of the porous metal cartridge filter medium has played an important part in maintaining this high recovery.

Fulton, J.; Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

43

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

2010-08-01

44

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

45

Fate of heavy metals and radioactive metals in gasification of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

The fates of radioactive cadmium, strontium, cesium, cobalt, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and copper spiked into sewage sludge were determined when the sludge was gasified by a process that maximizes production of char from the sludge (ChemChar process). For the most part the metals were retained in the char product in the gasifier. Small, but measurable quantities of arsenic were mobilized by gasification and slightly more than 1% of the arsenic was detected in the effluent gas. Mercury was largely mobilized from the solids in the gasifier, but most of the mercury was retained in a filter composed of char prepared from the sludge. The small amounts of mercury leaving the gasification system were found to be associated with an aerosol product generated during gasification. The metals retained in the char product of gasification were only partially leachable with 50% concentrated nitric acid.

Marrero, Thomas W.; McAuley, Brendan P.; Sutterlin, William R.; Steven Morris, J.; Manahan, Stanley E

2004-07-01

46

Protocols for implementing DOE authorized release of radioactive scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process to implement the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) policy for authorized release of radioactive materials from DOE facilities is provided in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material, published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such

S. Y. Chen; J. Arnish; S. Kamboj; L. A. Nieves

1999-01-01

47

Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear r...

M. I. Ojovan I. A. Sobolev S. A. Dmitriev

2004-01-01

48

The DOE`s radioactively contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of tons of potentially recoverable materials have accumulated over the years at U.S. DOE sites and facilities now undergrowing environmental restoration. These materials include thousands of tones of scrap metals, both radioactively contaminated and not. This article discusses the DOE`s policy on contaminated metal recycling and its implementation in the following topic areas: the recycling policy concept; an innovative

S. Warren; E. Rizkalla

1997-01-01

49

Pollution of the Begej Canal sediment-metals, radioactivity and toxicity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Begej Canal is one among a large number of canals in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia and Montenegro). The paper describes a study of metal and radioactivity contamination of the Begej Canal sediment. It is also concerned with the evaluation of sediment acute toxicity based on standard test species Daphnia magna and simultaneously extracted metals and acid volatile sulfides.

B. Dalmacija; M. Prica; I. Ivancev-Tumbas; A. van der Kooij; S. Roncevic; D. Krcmar; I. Bikit; I. Teodorovic

2006-01-01

50

Natural radioactivity and trace metals in crude oils: implication for health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil samples were collected from six different fields in the central Niger Delta in order to determine their natural\\u000a radioactivity and trace element contents, with the aim of assessing the radiological health implications and environmental\\u000a health hazard of the metals, and also to provide natural radioactivity baseline data that could be used for more comprehensive\\u000a future study in this

T. R. Ajayi; N. Torto; P. Tchokossa; A. Akinlua

2009-01-01

51

Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling

L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen; E. J. Kohout; B. Nabelssi; R. W. Tilbrook; S. E. Wilson

1997-01-01

52

Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of tons of slightly radioactive scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are either to develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling

L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen; E. J. Kohout; B. Nabelssi; R. W. Tilbrook; S. E. Wilson

1998-01-01

53

Potential radioactive scrap metal quantities from nuclear power plants worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 12 million tons of scrap metals are likely to be generated worldwide during the next 50 years from decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. A large portion of this material will be only slightly contaminated it at all, and, it it is releasable, it would have a scrap value of billions of dollars. Disposition of the metal is complicated

L. A. Nieves; R. W. Tilbrook

1996-01-01

54

Natural radioactivity consideration for high-? dielectrics and metal gates choice in nanoelectronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to face downscaling, new chemical elements are used and suggested for the semiconductor industry. However, some of these elements have natural radioactive isotopes, which may cause reliability issues in nanoelectronic devices by triggering soft errors. In this paper, we focus on high-? dielectric materials and metal gates. We show that besides physical, chemical and mechanical properties of high-? dielectrics and metal gates, natural radioactivity is also a crucial property to be considered in order to select suitable materials. Using samarium in gate oxides and platinum in electrodes turns out to be a crucial issue for ground level applications.

Gedion, Michael; Wrobel, Frédéric; Saigné, Frédéric

2010-07-01

55

Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

1990-12-31

56

Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

1990-01-01

57

In situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements and toxic heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental plots of an agricultural land contaminated with radioactive elements (uranium, radium thorium) and toxic heavy metals (copper, zinc, cadmium) were treated by two different biotechnological in situ methods. The soil in this land was characterized by a negative net neutralization potential, and the soil pH was in a slightly acidic pH range (from 4 to 5). The contaminants

S. N. Groudev; I. I. Spasova; P. S. Georgiev

2001-01-01

58

Fernald's dilemma: Recycle the radioactively contaminated scrap metal, or bury it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 5 years, a number of US Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder

Katherine L. Yuracko; Stanton W. Hadley; Robert D. Perlack; Rafael G. Rivera; T. Randall Curlee

1997-01-01

59

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and\\/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates

L. A. Nieves; S. Y. Chen; W. E. Murphie; M. J. Lilly

1994-01-01

60

Natural radioactivity contamination problems. Report no. 2. (final)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides associated with the bauxite, columbium-tantalum, phosphate, tin, pumice, and titanium mineral extraction industries are reported. Data is also presented on radioactivity measurements in ground water, in selected geothermal waters, and in oil production brines. Radiation protection guidance is provided for uranium recovery from wet-process phosphate plants, for soil contamination limits, and for radiological exposure in natural caves. Dose pathways from incidental uses of naturally occurring radioactive materials are presented. Model state regulations for protecting public health and safety from use and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material are outlined.

Not Available

1981-09-01

61

Characterization of Chromized Metallic Surfaces by Means of Radioactive Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of Cr deposited on metallic surfaces at concentrations of about 10 at\\/cm was examined by detecting the radiation components emitted in the Cr decay. The autoradiography revealed a non-homogeneous Cr covering. Combined Auger electron and X-ray spectroscopies yielded information on the Cr concentration, especially in the 2 nm thick surface layer. This concentration was found to depend

V. Rö?iger; A. Freyer; E. Hartmann; C. Treutler; V. Brabec; O. Dragoun; A. Kovalik

1986-01-01

62

Radioactive metals complexed with phosphonate derivatives of dicyclopentadienebis (methylamine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexes of radionuclides with a compound of the formula (X-N(-Y)-CHââ,(A-N(-B)-CHââPerhydro-4,7-Methanoindene wherein substituents A, B, X and Y are each independently selected from radicals including hydrogen, hydroxyalkyl (wherein the alkyl group contains 2-6 carbon atoms) phosphonic, sulfonic, methylenephosphonic, methylene-, ethylene- and propylene-sulfonic, carboxylic acid radicals (having 2-4 carbon atoms) and the alkali or alkaline earth metal, ammonia and amine salts, thereof

J. Simon; W. Volkert; D. A. Wilson

1985-01-01

63

Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported concerning the development of a system of mathematical solutions and computer programs for one- and two-dimensional analyses for thermal stresses. Reports presented include: the investigation of thermal stress and buckling of tantalum and columbium sheet; and analysis of two dimensional thermal strains and metal movement during welding.

Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.

1973-01-01

64

A life cycle decision methodology for recycle of radioactive scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy\\u000a of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. While health and safety and other technical\\u000a issues have been addressed, the question remains: do the benefits of fabricating products from RSM outweigh the costs? This\\u000a paper presents

Katherine L. Yuracko; Stanton W. Hadley; Robert D. Perlack; Rafael G. Rivera; T. Randall Curlee

1997-01-01

65

Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

2014-02-01

66

Analysis of Th, U, Pu, and Am in radioactive metal waste using extraction chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze actinide elements in radioactive metal waste, the dissolution and chemical separation conditions were\\u000a optimized. The surfaces of a type 304 stainless steel plate and of pipe waste sampled from the prototype advanced thermal\\u000a reactor (Fugen) were dissolved in mixed acid solution (HNO3:HCl:H2O = 1:1:4). The resulting solution was evaporated to dryness and dissolved with 2 mol\\/dm3 of HNO3 to

Asako Shimada; Tomoko Haraga; Akiko Hoshi; Yutaka Kameo; Mikio Nakashima; Kuniaki Takahashi

2010-01-01

67

Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

Kessinger, G.F.

1993-10-01

68

Feasibility of producing cast-refractory metal-fiber superalloy composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of direct casting as a practical method for producing cast superalloy tungsten or columbium alloy fiber composites while retaining a high percentage of fiber strength. Fourteen nickel base, four cobalt, and three iron based matrices were surveyed for their degree of reaction with the metal fibers. Some stress-rupture results were obtained at temperatures of 760, 816, 871, and 1093 C for a few composite systems. The feasibility of producing acceptable composites of some cast nickel, cobalt, and iron matrix alloys with tungsten or columbium alloy fibers was demonstrated.

Mcintyre, R. D.

1973-01-01

69

Evaluation of coated columbium test panels having application to a secondary nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine system, parts 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activity performed on the screening and evaluation of various coatings for application on columbium alloy test panels representative of a radiation-cooled nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine is summarized. Vendors and processes of candidate coatings were evaluated. Post engine test evaluations of the two selected coatings are discussed.

Murphy, Kenneth S.; Castro, Joaquin H.

1988-01-01

70

Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass  

SciTech Connect

The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1994-05-02

71

Recycling radioactive scrap metal by producing concrete shielding with steel granules  

SciTech Connect

Siempelkamp foundry at Krefeld, Germany, developed a method for recycling radioactively contaminated steel from nuclear installations. The material is melted and used for producing shielding plates, containers, etc., on a cast-iron basis. Because the percentage of stainless steel has recently increased significantly, problems in the production of high-quality cast iron components have also grown. The metallurgy, the contents of nickel and chromium especially, does not allow for the recycling of stainless steel in a percentage to make this process economical. In Germany, the state of the art is to use shielded concrete containers for the transport of low active waste; this concrete is produced by using hematite as an additive for increasing shielding efficiency. The plan was to produce steel granules from radioactive scrap metal as a substitute for hematite in shielding concrete.

Sappok, M. [Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

1996-12-31

72

The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

1997-05-01

73

The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources  

SciTech Connect

Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Kunstlaan 14, B 1210 Brussels (Belgium); Michiels, Jan; Pepin, Stephane; Schrauben, Manfred; Wertelaers, An [FANC/AFCN, Ravensteinstraat 36 B 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

2007-07-01

74

Pollution of the Begej Canal sediment--metals, radioactivity and toxicity assessment.  

PubMed

The Begej Canal is one among a large number of canals in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia and Montenegro). The paper describes a study of metal and radioactivity contamination of the Begej Canal sediment. It is also concerned with the evaluation of sediment acute toxicity based on standard test species Daphnia magna and simultaneously extracted metals and acid volatile sulfides. The quality of sediment was assessed according to Dutch standards, but the results were also compared with some Canadian and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for sediment quality. The results showed severe pollution with chromium, copper, cadmium and zinc, whereby the anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The tests of toxicity of sediment pore water to D. magna, gave no indication of the presence of substances in acutely toxic concentrations to this species. It can be speculated that, despite of high metal contents, the observed toxicity was low because of the high contents of clay and iron, as well as sulphide. Also, based on a comparison with the Danube sediment and Vojvodina soil in general, the data of the Begej sediment contamination with 238U and 137Cs. The 137Cs data were used for approximate dating of the sediment. No traces of contamination by nuclear power plants in the region were found, while the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) was proved. Conclusions based on different criteria for sediment quality assessment were in some cases contradictory. Study also showed that radioactivity aspects can be useful in sediment quality surveys. The obtained results will be invaluable for the future activities regarding integrated water management based on EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) in the Danube basin, and particularly in the region of crossborder water body of the Begej Canal. PMID:16527352

Dalmacija, B; Prica, M; Ivancev-Tumbas, I; van der Kooij, A; Roncevic, S; Krcmar, D; Bikit, I; Teodorovic, I

2006-07-01

75

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

76

Design and analysis report for the flight weight 20-inch Columbium secondary nozzle for the RL10 engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt & Whitney (P and W) is currently under contract to NASA-LeRC for a multi-year program to evaluate the feasibility of the RL10-IIB/IIC engine models and the various improvements which broaden the engine capabilities and range of applications. The features being evaluated include the operation of the RL10 engine at low thrust levels and/or high mixture ratio levels and the addition of a high area ratio (250:1) translating nozzle to the engine to increase its specific impulse while shortening the installed engine length. The translating nozzle for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine is approximately 55 inches long with an exit plane diameter of 71 inches and an inlet plane diameter of 40 inches. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. The length of the subscale nozzle is 20 in.; its exit diameter is 46 in. With the nozzle in the stowed position, an RL10A-3-3A engine system is 70 inches long (Area Ratio = 61:1); with the nozzle deployed the engine length and area ratio are increased to 90 inches and 83:1 respectively. The increase in area ratio provides a calculated increase of 7 + or - 1 second of specific impulse.

Castro, J. H.

1989-01-01

77

Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

Bayrakal, S.

1993-09-30

78

Assessment of some trace heavy metals and radioactivity concentration in water of Bendimahi River Basin (Van, Turkey).  

PubMed

The levels of heavy metals were determined in the water of Bendimahi River Basin, statistically analysed and compared to natural gross radioactivity concentration. Fifteen samples of water were collected from Bendimahi River and Van Lake for two seasons in 2005. Water samples were analyzed for eight trace elements and concluded together with gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in water samples collected from Bendimahi River basin. Correlation analysis was made for radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations and the Pearson correlation coefficients between gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity and heavy metal were determined. The concentrations of all metals were found to be higher than WHO, EC, EPA and TSE-266 guidelines for drinking water, except for Zn and Cu. Generally, the heavy metal concentrations in water samples obtained in May and in August were found to be in sequence of Fe>Zn>Pb>Cr>Cu>Mn>Co>Cd and Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Mn>Co>Cd, respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentration varies between 0.063 and 0.782, 0.021 and 0.816 Bq l(-1) in samples collected in May, and 0.009 and 0.037, 0.081 and 3.116 Bq l(-1) in samples collected in August. PMID:18085419

Zorer, Ozlem Selçuk; Ceylan, Hasan; Do?ru, Mahmut

2008-12-01

79

Natural radioactivity and trace metals in crude oils: implication for health.  

PubMed

Crude oil samples were collected from six different fields in the central Niger Delta in order to determine their natural radioactivity and trace element contents, with the aim of assessing the radiological health implications and environmental health hazard of the metals, and also to provide natural radioactivity baseline data that could be used for more comprehensive future study in this respect. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were measured using a well, accurately calibrated and shielded vertical cryostat, Canberra coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector system, and the derived doses were evaluated. The metal concentrations were determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopic (GFAAS) method. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by (238)U and (232)Th along with the non-decay series radionuclide, (40)K. The averaged activity concentrations obtained were 10.52 +/- 0.03 Bq kg(-1), 0.80 +/- 0.37 Bq kg(-1) and 0.17 +/- 0.09 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The equivalent doses were very low, ranging from 0.0028 to 0.012 mSv year(-1) with a mean value of 0.0070 mSv year(-1). The results obtained were low, and hence, the radioactivity content from the crude oils in the Niger delta oil province of Nigeria do not constitute any health hazard to occupationally exposed workers, the public and the end user. The concentrations of the elements (As, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and V) determined ranged from 0.73 to 202.90 ppb with an average of 74.35 ppb for the oil samples analysed. The pattern of occurrence of each element agreed with the earlier studies from other parts of the Niger Delta. It was obvious from this study and previous ones that the Niger Delta oils have low metal contents. However, despite the low concentrations, they could still pose an intrinsic health hazard considering their cumulative effects in the environment. Also, various studies on the impact of oil spillage and activities of oil exploration and production on organisms in the immediate environment suggest this. PMID:18320332

Ajayi, T R; Torto, N; Tchokossa, P; Akinlua, A

2009-02-01

80

Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.  

PubMed

Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. PMID:25061724

Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

2014-01-01

81

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under

R. E. Mizia; D. G. Atteridge; J. Buckentin; J. Carter; H. L. Davis; J. H. Devletian; M. R. Scholl; R. B. Turpin; S. L. Webster

1994-01-01

82

Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

PubMed

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data. PMID:15551790

Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

2004-11-01

83

Approach and issues toward development of risk-based release standards for radioactive scrap metal recycle and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is expected to generate large amounts of slightly radioactive scrap metal (RSM). It is likely that some of these materials will be suitable for recycling and reuse. The amount of scrap steel from DOE facilities, for instance, is estimated to be more than one million tons (Hertzler 1993). However, under current practice and

S. Y. Chen; L. A. Nieves; B. K. Nabelssi; D. J. LePoire

1994-01-01

84

Natural radioactive elements and heavy metals in coal, fly ash and bottom ash from a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of coal used as fuel at a thermal power plant and those of the fly and bottom ashes it produces were determined. Radioactive elements were analysed for by alpha and gamma spectrometry, while sulphur, carbon and nitrogen were determined by burning. Heavy metals were quantified by X?ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). The

M. Casas; R. Forteza; V. Cerda; F. Garcias

1993-01-01

85

Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory & tracking system and prototype RSM field survey  

SciTech Connect

Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory & Tracking System (RSM I&TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I&TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers.

Thomas, T.R.

1994-09-01

86

Analysis for metal elements and radioactive isotopes in fly ash produced in lignite combustion at a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the composition of fly ash from a thermal power plant and from the lignites used as mixed fuels at the plant.Heavy metals were analysed for qualitatively by emission spectrography and quantitatively by X?ray fluorescence. On the other hand, radioactive actinide elements were assayed by gamma and alpha spectrometry, and sulphur and carbon were determined by combustion.The analysis of

M. Casas; F. Garcias; Ll. Serra; M. Baucells; G. Lacort; M. Roura; R. Forteza; V. Cerdà

1992-01-01

87

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce

S. Pesente; S. Vanini; M. Benettoni; G. Bonomi; P. Calvini; P. Checchia; E. Conti; F. Gonella; G. Nebbia; S. Squarcia; G. Viesti; A. Zenoni; G. Zumerle

2010-01-01

88

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the

Jing-Jy Cheng; Bassel Kassas; Charley Yu; John Arnish; Dave LePoire; Shih-Yew Chen; W. A. Williams; A. Wallo; H. Peterson

2004-01-01

89

Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices  

SciTech Connect

A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

1981-05-01

90

Development and fabrication of high strength alloy fibers for use in metal-metal matrix composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal fiber reinforced superalloys are being considered for construction of critical components in turbine engines that operate at high temperature. The problems involved in fabricating refractory metal alloys into wire form in such a manner as to maximize their strength properties without developing excessive structural defects are described. The fundamental principles underlying the development of such alloy fibers are also briefly discussed. The progress made to date in developing tungsten, tantalum and columbium base alloys for fiber reinforcement is reported and future prospects for alloy fiber development considered.

King, G. W.; Petrasek, D. W.

1979-01-01

91

Radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations of some commercial fish species consumed in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Marine fish is an important daily diet item for the people of Turkey. The Black Sea Region of Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs) and heavy metal concentrations (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) in four of the most common fish species: Engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy), Oncorhynchus mykiss (trout), Trachurus mediterranus (bluefin) and Merlangius merlangus (whiting) samples collected from eight stations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey during 2010. The dose due to consumption of fish by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human healthy. The concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:22225706

Korkmaz Görür, F; Keser, R; Akçay, N; Dizman, S

2012-04-01

92

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS BY STRONGLY MAGNETIC IRON SULFIDE NANOPARTICLES PRODUCED BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly magnetic iron sulfide material was studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake was rapid and loading on the adsorbent was high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions were chemisorbed. The structural

J. H. P. Watson; I. W. Croudace; P. E. Warwick; P. A. B. James; J. M. Charnock; D. C. Ellwood

2001-01-01

93

Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low level waste, generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection

Sang-Yoon Lee; Kun Jai Lee

1999-01-01

94

Recycling radioactive scrap metal by producing concrete shielding with steel granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siempelkamp foundry at Krefeld, Germany, developed a method for recycling radioactively contaminated steel from nuclear installations. The material is melted and used for producing shielding plates, containers, etc., on a cast-iron basis. Because the percentage of stainless steel has recently increased significantly, problems in the production of high-quality cast iron components have also grown. The metallurgy, the contents of nickel

Sappok

1996-01-01

95

Engineering 'Deinococcus Radiodurans' for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites. (Final Report, 1997-2004).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immense volumes of radioactive waste were generated from the production of 46,000 nuclear weapons in the United States between 1945 and 1986. This is a period when national security priorities often surmounted concerns over the environment. Most wastes in...

M. J. Daly J. K. Fredrickson L. P. Wackett

2005-01-01

96

THERMODYNAMICS OF THE VOLATILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METALS IN THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

We are proposing to perform a detailed study of the volatilization behavior of the U, Pu and possibly Am under conditions relevant to the thermal treatment (destruction) of actinide-containing organic-based mixed and radioactive wastes. The primary objective of this 3-year projec...

97

Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

Stephens, J. R.

1975-01-01

98

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals form water using magnetic resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrite...

R. L. Kochen J. D. Navratil

1995-01-01

99

Galactic Cosmochronometry from Radioactive Elements in the Spectra of Very Old Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a short review of neutron-capture elemental abundances in Galactic halo stars, emphasis is placed on the use of these elements to estimate the age of the Galactic halo. Two prominent characteristics of neutron-capture elements in halo stars are their large star-to-star scatter in the overall abundance level with respect to lighter elements, and the dominance of r-process abundance patterns at lowest stellar metallicities. The r-process abundance signature potentially allows the direct determination of the age of the earliest Galactic halo nucleosynthesis events, but further developments in r-process theory, high resolution spectroscopy of very metal-poor stars, and in basic atomic data are needed to narrow the uncertainties in age estimates. Attention is brought to the importance of accurate transition probabilities in neutron-capture element cosmochronometry. Recent progress in the transition probabilities of rare earth elements is discussed, along with suggestions for future work on other species.

Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.

100

Development of DOE complex wide authorized release protocols for radioactive scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real

1998-01-01

101

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21

102

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21

103

Natural radioactive elements and heavy metals in coal, fly ash and bottom ash from a thermal power plant  

SciTech Connect

The composition of coal used as fuel at a thermal power plant and those of the fly and bottom ashes it produces were determined. Radioactive elements were analysed for by alpha and gamma spectrometry, while sulphur, carbon and nitrogen were determined by burning. Heavy metals were quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). The low sulphur content of the coal (0.68%) gives rise to fly ash containing only 0.21% of this element. The radiochemical analyses performed by alpha spectrometry revealed that most of the uranium remains in the solid residue resulting from disaggregation of the sample with Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] in the separation process. Also, the gamma spectrometric results show that the elements from the 4n and 4n + 2 series and [sup 40]K concentrate in fly ash, the mean particle size of which is the smallest of all the residues assayed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Font, J.; Casas, M.; Forteza, R.; Cerda, V.; Garcias, F. (Univ. of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

1993-11-01

104

P2Pro(RSM) : a computerized management tool for implementing DOE's authorized release process for radioactive scrap metals.  

SciTech Connect

Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal and several million cubic meters of concrete are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for release from regulatory control for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under current DOE policy. The provisions for implementing this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Non-Real Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE Field Offices for interim use and implementation. This manual describes a computer management tool, P2Pro(RSM), that implements the first 5 steps of the 10-step process stipulated by the Handbook. P2Pro(RSM) combines an easy-to-use Windows interface with a comprehensive database to facilitate the development of authorized release limits for non-real property.

Arnish, J.; Chen, S. Y.; Kamboj, S.; Nieves, L.

1999-07-22

105

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

2012-01-01

106

RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

SciTech Connect

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

2004-11-01

107

Decontaimination of radioactive metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of extracting technetium and actinide radiocontaminants from radiocontaminated nickel comprising the steps: fabricating a nickel electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides; and then anodically dissolving the electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides in a oxidizing acid electrolyte solution to produce a solution containing actinide ions and at least 30 grams/liter of nickel and to oxidize the technetium to produce pertechnetate anions; and then removing pertechnetate anions and actinides by counter-current solvent extraction with a barren solution containing TOPO, D[sub 2]EHPA or mixtures thereof dissolved in an organic solvent, to produce a decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate, and a contaminated, loaded solvent stream; and then stripping the technetium values from the contaminated, loaded solvent stream with hydrochloric acid; passing the decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate through an absorbent for organic solvent; and then electrowinning the raffinate in an electrolysis cell with acidic electrolyte to remove residual actinides present, and to recover cathodic nickel.

Snyder, T.S.; Gass, W.R.; Worcester, S.A.; Ayers, L.J.

1992-10-20

108

THE HANDLING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals and the dangers inherent in handling radioactive ; materials are discussed, making particular reference to reactor coolants (gas, ; water, and liquid metals). The danger inherent in handling radioactive ma ; terials lies in the electromagnetic radiation produced when atomic particles ; collide or interact with various substances. Precautions and methods of ; protection from radioactive materials are

Hadrill; H. F. J

1961-01-01

109

Method of preparing bodies containing radioactive substances  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Radioactive substances are disposed of by incorporating glass particles containing the radioactive substance in molten metal, heat treating the molten metal containing the glass particles to convert the glass to glass ceramic, and cooling the resulting composite to solidify the metal and provide the glass ceramic particles embedded in a matrix of the metal.

1980-06-24

110

"Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater and sediments of numerous U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) field sites are contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cr, Pd) and radionuclides (e.g., U, Tc), as well as the fuel hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX); chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene (TCE); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The remediation of such mixed wastes constitutes an immediate and complex waste management challenge for DOE, particularly in light of the costliness and limited efficacy of current physical and chemical strategies for treating mixed wastes. In situ bioremediation via natural microbial processes (e.g., metal reduction) remains a potent, potentially cost-effective approach to the reductive immobilization or detoxification of environmental contaminants. Seventy million cubic meters of soil and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Our recent isolation and characterization of D. radiodurans from a variety of DOE environments, including highly radioactive sediments beneath one of the leaking tanks (SX-108) at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state, underscores the potential for this species to survive in such extreme environments. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive waste sites was started by this group in September 1997 with support from DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-97ER62492. Our grant was renewed for the period 2000-2003, which includes work on the thermophilic radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Work funded by the existing grant contributed to 18 papers in the period 1997-2004 on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of radioactive waste environments. Our progress since September 2000 closely matches the Aims proposed in our second NABIR application and is summarized as follows. We have further refined expression vectors for D. radiodurans and successfully tested engineered strains in natural DOE sediment and groundwater samples. Further, we have shown that D. geothermalis is transformable with plasmids and integration vectors designed for D. radiodurans. This was demonstrated by engineering Hg(II)-resistant D. geothermalis strains capable of reducing Hg(II) at elevated temperatures and under chronic irradiation. Additionally, we showed that D. geothermalis, like D. radiodurans, is naturally capable of reducing U(VI), Cr(VI), and Fe(III). These characteristics support the prospective development of this thermophilic radiophile for bioremediation of radioactive mixed waste environments with temperatures as high as 55 C, of which there are many examples. Our annotation of the D. radiodurans genome has been an important guide throughout this project period and continues to be a source of inspiration in the development of new genetic technologies dedicated to this bacterium. For example, our genome analyses have enabled us to achieve engineering goals that were unattainable in our first NABIR project (1997-2000), where uncertainties relating to its metabolic configuration prevented efforts to expand its metabolic capabilities. As just one example, we showed that D. radiodurans has a functioning tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle glyoxylate bypass which could be integrated with toluene oxidation. And, we successfully engineered D. radiodurans to derive carbon and energy from complete toluene mineralization and showed that toluene oxidation can be coupled to cellular biosynthesis, survival, as well as its native and engineered metal reducing capabilities. We have also constructed a whole genome microarray for D. radiodurans covering {approx}94% of its predicted genes and have successfully used the array to examine the response of cells to radiation and other DOE relevant conditions. Similarly, we have used high throughput proteomic approaches to

Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

2005-03-17

111

P2Pro(RSM) : a computerized management tool for implementing DOE's authorized release process for radioactive scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal and several million cubic meters of concrete are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from

J. Arnish; S. Y. Chen; S. Kamboj; L. Nieves

1999-01-01

112

Consortium seeks solution for low-level radioactive steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has begun testing an innovative radioactive scrap metal recycling program that could reduce utilities radioactive waste disposal costs significantly by allowing them to turn irradiated crap metal from decommissioned nuclear plants into spent fuel canisters.

1994-01-01

113

Metals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reviews the evolution of metals since the discovery of copper in ancient times, and looks at how science and technology are continually upgrading the design and development of metal alloys. There are explanations of five ways the chemical composition of an alloy can be modified to produce different properties; how heat treating is used to process metals; how mining metals can be sped up by microwaving metals; how metals are deformed to test them for structural properties; and how nano-crystalline alloys are designed using computer models to find the best chemical composition and processing parameters with minimal experimentation. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

2007-02-03

114

Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either remov...

A. J. Francis

1992-01-01

115

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

116

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

117

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

118

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: ⢠NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. ⢠DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. ⢠Public sensitivity to the subject

Loewen; Eric Paul

2000-01-01

119

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With knowledge of Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, one should be able to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances and develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

120

Radioactive Iodine  

MedlinePLUS

... form of iodide, is made into two radioactive isotopes that are commonly used in patients with thyroid ... the best results? I-123 is the usual isotope used to take pictures and determine the activity ...

121

Radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews current literature regarding management of radioactive wastes including: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and, environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 193 refs.

Devarakonda, M.S.; Seiler, M.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01

122

Simulated Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

Boettler, James L.

1972-01-01

123

Concentrating Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

Herrmann, Richard A.

1974-01-01

124

Radioactivity Calculations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

Onega, Ronald J.

1969-01-01

125

Handling radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this book is to present an overall view in a descriptive and essentially nonmathematical way of the practicalities of handling radioactivity. It is hoped that the material will be particularly helpful to those entering the nuclear field for the first time and to those working in related areas whose responsibilities require them to have a general knowledge of the subject of radioactivity handling and its vocabulary.

Stewart, D.C.

1988-01-01

126

Radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews research and technological progress in radioactive waste management and disposal. The scope of material covered is very broad, ranging from international cooperation in radioactive waste management to evaluation of specific treatment technologies. The issue of safely managing and disposing of the plutonium resulting from the dismantling of weapons across the world is discussed and a series of papers on low-level waste management practices across the world is mentioned. Environmental restoration, risk assessment, and the health hazards of radon are also discussed.

Devarakonda, M.S. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

127

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Mathcad, Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, the user should be able to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

128

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and discusses storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David

2010-04-29

129

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and to develop a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-07-05

130

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-28

131

Radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A. [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-11-01

132

Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them.  

PubMed

Natural resources such as ores and rocks contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If these resources contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the radioactive activity in these resources. In this study, concentrations of radioactive nuclides in Th, Zr, Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan were investigated. The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while those of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrum. We found the concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series, and (40)K in Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide. The doses received by workers handling these materials were estimated by using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In transport, indoor storage, and outdoor storage scenarios, an effective dose due to the use of Th ore was above 4.3 x 10(-2)Sv y(-1), which was higher than that of the other ores. The maximum value of effective doses for other ores was estimated to be about 4.5 x 10(-4)Sv y(-1), which was lower than intervention exemption levels (1.0 x 10(-3)Sv y(-1)) given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:19703725

Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

2009-11-01

133

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-07-06

134

Radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs.

Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M. (IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-06-01

135

Effect of Surface Roughness on the Reflectance of Refractory Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of surface roughness on the thermal optical properties (reflectance and emittance) of three refractory materials, columbium alloy, D-36, tantalum and tungsten has been studied. Current data obtained by different investigators for the same ma...

D. F. Stevison

1966-01-01

136

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were

Bechtold

1993-01-01

137

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

1980-04-23

138

PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Katharina Breitenecker Fireworks, the one and only amongst all other pyrotechnic applications, have pleased the hearts and minds of billions of people all over the world for almost 1000 years. Even though pyrotechnics were originally developed in order to fulfil the needs of military purposes, fireworks began to form a unique part of the cultural heritage of many countries, presumably starting in ancient China during the Song Dynasty (960-1280 AD). Festivities like New Year's Eve, national holidays or activities like music festivals and parish fairs are crowned by a firework display. Fireworks have traditionally been associated with Independence Day celebrations, like 4 July in the United States, Guy Fawkes' Night (5 November) in Britain, or Bastille Day (14 July) in France. Much of Chinese culture is associated with the use of firecrackers to celebrate the New Year and other important occasions. The fascination of fireworks and firecrackers is due to the brilliant colours and booming noises, which have a universal appeal to our basic senses [1]. The basic components of any traditional civil firework is black powder, a mixture of about 75% potassium nitrate, 15% charcoal, and about 10% sulfur [2]. Without the addition of a colouring agent, the fuel would provide an almost white light. Therefore, several metal salts can be added to cause colourful luminescence upon combustion. In general barium is used to obtain a green coloured flame, strontium for red, copper for blue and sodium for yellow [2, 3]. The use of pyrotechnics has raised issues pertaining to health concerns. The health aspects are not only restricted to injuries by accidental ignition of certain devices. Moreover, several recent works identified fireworks and pyrotechnics as causing environmental pollution, which might result in a potential hazard concerning health aspects. The fundamental problem in this respect is that all chemicals used are dispersed in the environment by combustion. This includes both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols, resulting in potential negative health effects, unless an extensive purification of the ores is

Breitenecker, Katharina

2009-09-01

139

International Recycling of LLW Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting of radioactive scrap metal has been successfully practiced for more than 15 years, with approximately 60,000 tons of steel being processed into beneficial reuse applications. This process has converted radioactive scrap metal at a licensed facility into useful products such as shield blocks, security barriers and shield containers. These products are used within the nuclear industry, such as nuclear

T. Eshleman; J. Jansen; Sawada Shinya

2008-01-01

140

Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

Francis, A.J.

1992-12-31

141

Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg?1, respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l-1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites.

Ademola, Augustine Kolapo; Ayo, Isreal; Babalola; Folasade, Oluwakemi; Alabi; Onyinye, Dorcas; Onuh; Emmanuel, Enifome; Enyenihi

2014-01-01

142

Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l(-1) for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites. PMID:24872608

Ademola, Augustine Kolapo; Ayo, Isreal; Babalola; Folasade, Oluwakemi; Alabi; Onyinye, Dorcas; Onuh; Emmanuel, Enifome; Enyenihi

2014-04-01

143

Investigation of Modified Silicide Coatings for Refractory Metal Alloys with Improved Low-Pressure Oxidation Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of modifications of silicide coatings on columbium and tantalum was conducted to explore the feasibility of upgrading the protective performance of these coatings in low-pressure oxidizing atmospheres. Stabilization of the coatings was sought agai...

H. W. Lavendel A. G. Elliot

1965-01-01

144

Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine  

DOEpatents

Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

Babad, Harry (Richland, WA); Strachan, Denis M. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

145

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

146

Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Management of radioactive wastes is necessary to protect public health, public safety, and the environment from radioactive materials resulting from national defense programs, energy research and development, and commercial activities. Access to informati...

1988-01-01

147

Radioactivity and geophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations. (...

P. Radvanyi

1992-01-01

148

Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Management of radioactive wastes is necessary to protect public health, public safety, and the environment from radioactive materials resulting from national defense programs, energy research and development, and commercial activities. Access to informati...

1990-01-01

149

Procedures for radioactive I-131  

SciTech Connect

Details of the radioactive I-131 administration and radiation safety considerations are presented. Topics covered include patient survey, radioactive labelling, levels in patients containing radioactivity, hospital discharge of radioactive patients, and nursing procedures.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1988-12-01

150

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

151

Over the border - the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called `orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and

K. E. Duftschmid

2002-01-01

152

Radioactive Waste Management Basis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Perkins, B K

2009-06-03

153

Temporary Personal Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances.

Myers, Fred

2012-11-01

154

Radioactivity by the whiff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four important areas in science and industry make use of radioactive gas mixtures: tracing, electronics, leak detection, and research. Oil and natural gas producing companies have instituted the use of radioactive gas mixtures in a technique called radiographic well logging. In this process, specific radiogas mixtures are injected into a known oil field. After the gas has been diluted through

M. S. Stocknoff; F. Scornavacca

1974-01-01

155

Radioactive Wastes. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

Fox, Charles H.

156

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

157

Radioactive Dating Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides a necessarily brief summary of radioactive dating techniques, which can produce dates (“ages”) ranging from tens to thousands through millions to billions of years often with assumptions not universally accepted, especially those involving the assessments of half-lives and radioactive decay constants.

Bowen, R.

158

Temporary Personal Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

Myers, Fred

2012-01-01

159

Radioactive Decay Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the number of radioactive nuclei as a function of time. You can change the initial number of nuclei and the decay constant as well as changing the plot to a semi-log plot. The Radioactive Decay model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecay.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

160

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01

161

Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal

D. E. Large; H. W. Arrowsmith

1993-01-01

162

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

163

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

SciTech Connect

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01

164

Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in

A. D. Kelmers; J. R. Hightower

1987-01-01

165

Table of Radioactive Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given for the Table of Radioactive Isotopes which will be published in 1986. The format of the table is given as to content and organization. 22 refs., 2 figs. (ERA citation 11:010444)

R. B. Firestone E. Browne

1985-01-01

166

Radioactive Material Regulations Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review provides guidance on the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations contained in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (HMR; 49 CFR) which govern the packaging and shipment of radioactive material. These materials have an excellent safety record when...

2012-01-01

167

Radioactivity of Vegetable Crops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potatoes, carrots, onions, turnips, and radishes grown in several areas of the Samarkand Oblast were studied to ascertain their natural radioactivity. Results of beta and gamma measurements are presented. (ERA citation 07:063511)

M. M. Muminov U. Maksudov

1967-01-01

168

Radioactive Waste Material Incinerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The incinerator is for the disposal of combustible radioactive waste material. The structure prevents the release of hazardous amounts of radionuclides into the environment. The structure includes a closed system silo-type combustion chamber for the mass ...

C. F. Berghout M. Dauer F. W. Lanard R. P. Minx W. E. Senoski

1965-01-01

169

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

170

Incineration of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioacti...

C. Thegerstroem

1980-01-01

171

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

Fields, Stanley R. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

172

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

173

Structural Fasteners for Extreme Elevated Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The materials utilized were molybdenum alloy TZM, columbium alloys Cb752 and C129Y, tantalum alloys T-222 and 90 Ta-10W, and several dispersion strengthened metals. Protective coatings were adapted to fasteners, the columbium coating being an electrophore...

T . Roach, A M. H. Ortner E. F. Gowen S. J. Klach

1966-01-01

174

Radioactive Decay Distribution Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Distribution Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the distribution of the number of events (radioactive decays) in a fixed time interval. If each event is assumed to occur independently and spontaneously with a constant probability, the resulting distribution if the Poisson distribution. You can change the initial number of nuclei, the decay constant and the time interval for the event distribution. The Radioactive Decay Distribution model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecayDistribution.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

175

Radioactivity in food crops  

SciTech Connect

Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

1983-05-01

176

Radioactivity of Consumer Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

2006-11-01

177

Trapping radioactive ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

2004-12-01

178

Analytic and experimental evaluation of flowing air test conditions for selected metallics in a shuttle TPS application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions important to the response of these thermal protection system (TPS) materials were calculated, and test conditions appropriate to simulation of these flight conditions in flowing air ground test facilities were defined. The response characteristics of these metallics were then evaluated for the flight and representative ground test conditions by analytical techniques employing appropriate thermochemical and thermal response computer codes and by experimental techniques employing an arc heater flowing air test facility and flat face stagnation point and wedge test models. These results were analyzed to define the ground test requirements to obtain valid TPS response characteristics for application to flight. For both material types in the range of conditions appropriate to the shuttle application, the surface thermochemical response resulted in a small rate of change of mass and a negligible energy contribution. The thermal response in terms of surface temperature was controlled by the net heat flux to the surface; this net flux was influenced significantly by the surface catalycity and surface emissivity. The surface catalycity must be accounted for in defining simulation test conditions so that proper heat flux levels to, and therefore surface temperatures of, the test samples are achieved.

Schaefer, J. W.; Tong, H.; Clark, K. J.; Suchsland, K. E.; Neuner, G. J.

1975-01-01

179

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30

180

Corrosion Studies of Container Materials for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Granite Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the research carried out for the assessment of corrosion behaviour of materials selected for the manufacture of containers for disposal of radioactive waste in granite formation. Metals and alloys included in laboratory test program ...

G. Plante M. Helie O. Sanatine A. Cheniere

1984-01-01

181

49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radioactive) material under conditions normally incident to transportation; (c) The outer surface of any uranium or thorium in its structure is covered with an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material; (d) Internal...

2013-10-01

182

TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.  

SciTech Connect

For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

HOLDEN,N.E.

2001-06-29

183

Sampling airborne radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive contaminants have historically been considered apart from chemical contaminants because it is their radiological properties that determine their biological and environmental impact. Additionally they have been regulated by special government agencies concerned with radiological protection. Radioactive contaminants are also distinguished by the specialized and very sensitive methods available for the detection of radioactivity. Measurements of a few thousand atoms per liter are not uncommon. Radiation detectors in common use are gas filled chambers, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, and the more recently developed thermoluminescent and etched track detectors. Solid-state nuclear track detectors consist of a large group of inorganic and organic dielectrics which register tracks when traversed by heavy charged particles. They do not respond to light, beta particles or gamma ray photons and thus provide a very low background system for the detection of extremely low levels of radioactivity. In addition, no power source or electronic equipment is required. Cellulose nitrate detectors are currently in use for long term integrated sampling of environmental radon. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TID's) are crystalline materials, in which electrons which have been displaced by an interaction with ionizing radiation become trapped at an elevated energy level and emit visible light when released from that energy level. As which etched-track detectors no power or electronic equipment is needed for the TID's at a measurement site, but they respond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are useful for long term environmental monitoring, and have also been newly incorporated into integrating radon detection systems.

Cohen, B.S.

1988-01-01

184

Disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

185

Table of radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the nuclear and atomic properties of radioactive isotopes. Detailed radiation data for about 2000 of the 2755 known nuclides are presented in this up-to-date and concise book. The main section is organized by mass number (A), with entries for a given A derived from and referenced to the most recent corresponding

Edgardo Browne; Richard B. Firestone; V. S. Shirley

1986-01-01

186

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16

187

Radii of radioactive nuclei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section ((sigma)(sub R)) for several light radioactive nuclei (A(le)40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r(sub o)(sup 2)) are obtained. A comparison is...

W. Mittig E. Plagnol Y. Schutz

1989-01-01

188

Material for radioactive protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the

R. S. Taylor; N. W. Boyer

2009-01-01

189

PERSONNEL RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described which measures radioactive contamination on ; hands, shoes, and clothes. It consists of two photomultipliers with ZnS screens ; for alpha contamination of the hands, six Geiger counters to detect beta ; radiation from the shoes, and one probe for monitoring the clothes. The ; instrument is completely transistorized and automatic. Each measurement lasts 10 ;

Mandl

1959-01-01

190

Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

Ronneau, C.

1990-01-01

191

Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

Yin, L. I.

1983-01-01

192

DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of radioactive wastes from isotope users in the Federai ; Republic of Germany is rather small. Adequate provisions of the First Radiation ; Protection Ordinance deal with the waste disposal by the deposition into soil or ; ordinary wastes, and the discharge into sewers or surface waters. (auth) O H7655 ; Research progress is reported on biologicai and

Straimer

1962-01-01

193

Radioactive I-131 from Fallout  

MedlinePLUS

Radioactive I-131 from Fallout Page Options Print This Page Email This Document Share Popular Resources NCI Dictionary of ... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Radioactive I-131 from Fallout Information and resources for Americans ...

194

Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

Riland, Carson A.

1996-01-01

195

Radioactive solid waste handling at the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located on the Hanford Site in the southeast section of Washington State. It has been in operation since 1949. The mission of the plant is to produce plutonium metal and related products for the US Department of Energy defense programs. Solid transuranic, low-level, and mixed wastes are generated at the plant, the radioactive contaminants in

Manthos

1990-01-01

196

Bioremediation of a soil contaminated with radioactive elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some agricultural lands located in the Vromos Bay area, near the Black Sea coast, Southeastern Bulgaria, have been contaminated with radioactive elements (uranium, radium and thorium) and toxic heavy metals (copper, cadmium and lead) as a result of mining and mineral processing of polymetallic ores. Laboratory experiments carried out with soil samples from these lands revealed that an efficient remediation

S. N Groudev; P. S Georgiev; I. I Spasova; K Komnitsas

2001-01-01

197

Radioactive oxide removal by XeCl laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results on cleaning, achieved in nuclear facilities, of metallic surfaces polluted by radioactive oxides. Experimental results of excimer laser decontamination have been obtained for different radionuclides (Cs, Co, Eu, etc.) deposited under various conditions (fixed or unfixed contamination). Our laser decontamination prototype is composed of a XeCl laser, a bundle of fibers for beam transmission, optical systems,

P. Delaporte; M. Gastaud; W. Marine; M. Sentis; O. Uteza; P. Thouvenot; J. L Alcaraz; J. M Le Samedy; D. Blin

2002-01-01

198

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

2003-02-25

199

Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which

T. P. Griffin; J. E. Johnston

1994-01-01

200

Radioactive ion detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01

201

Radioactive ion detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12

202

Table of radioactive elements  

SciTech Connect

As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

Holden, N.E.

1985-01-01

203

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27

204

USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research, development and demonstration programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment are described. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas were selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting.

Vath, J. E.

205

Radioactive Decay of Candium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation, learners use M&M⢠candy to explore radioactive isotope decay. Learners pour out a bag of candy and count and record the number of candy pieces that have "decayed" or show the print side up. Learners get to consume the "decayed atoms." Then, they will shake the bag again and recount the decay. Learners will continue shaking, counting and consuming until all the atoms have decayed, and then graph the results. This activity is a great introduction to half-life and nuclear decay.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

206

Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

Culp, J. D.

1972-01-01

207

Field Repair of Coated Columbium Thermal Protection System (Tps).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey...

J. D. Culp

1972-01-01

208

Oxidation-resistant silicide coating applied to columbium alloy screen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coated screens withstand temperature cycling in special transpiration-cooling systems and provide porous surface that is effective at temperatures well above those limiting superalloy screen efficiency. Thickness of coating depends on time, temperature and activator concentration. Coatings are uniform and resistant to thermal cycling.

Torgerson, R. T.

1971-01-01

209

Natural radioactivity in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination; and presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexities that mark this area of water quality regulation.

Horner, J.K.

1985-01-01

210

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

211

Regulations on radioactive waste from practices using unsealed radioactive sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations on handling and disposal of waste from non-nuclear facilities have been in force in Sweden since 1985. These regulations are applicable on the handling of solid and liquid wastes from laboratories covered with licenses granted by the Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, for work with radioactive substances and where work results in production of radioactive wastes. Patient excreta is exempted

Ann-Louis Söderman; Gunilla Hellström

212

Oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory metals used in inert atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test conditions and results are reported for various coatings on a 1 percent zirconium columbium alloy at a temperature of 2000 deg F. Molybdenum silicide over molybdenum is most effective coating, tin-aluminum coating is adequately protective, chromium-molybdenum silicides are not protective.

Phillips, W. M.

1970-01-01

213

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL FIRE PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is presented en the development of safe pnactices for fire ; protection and fire prevention where radioactive materials might be involved. ; Discussions are inclued on: hazards of radioactive materials and regulations for ; the application of radioactive materials, the increasing use of radioactive ; materials in industry, the behavior of radioactive materials exposed to high ; temperatures or

1958-01-01

214

Design of saltstone vaults. [Radioactive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes from processed spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, are stored in underground tanks. The wastes consist of sludge and supernate. Most of the radionuclides and some non-radioactive constituents are removed from the supernate. These, along with the sludge, are converted into a glass-crystallite matrix and cast into stainless steel canisters for future disposal in

G. S. Aiyar; F. J. Hsiu

1987-01-01

215

Radioactive waste backup threatens research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems in the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are discussed. Due to the closing of the disposal site at Hanford, Washington, radioactive wastes from medical research at various universities and medical centers around the country have begun to stockpile. The reason given for the closing is that the wastes had been carelessly packaged.

E Marshall

1979-01-01

216

Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

Gopka, Vira [Astronomical observatory, Odessa National University, Odessa (Ukraine); Yushchenko, Alexander [Astrophysical Research center for the Structure and Evolution of the Cosmos, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Astronomical observatory, Odessa National University, Odessa (Ukraine); Goriely, Stephane [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Shavrina, Angelina [Main Astronomical observatory, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Kang, Young Woon [Astrophysical Research center for the Structure and Evolution of the Cosmos, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-12

217

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s

T. R. Muth; J. Moore; D. Olson; B. Mishra

1994-01-01

218

Heavy fragment radioactivities  

SciTech Connect

This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

Price, P.B.

1987-12-10

219

Low Radioactivity in CANDLES  

SciTech Connect

CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 crystals. Double beta decay of 48Ca has the highest Q value among all nuclei whose double beta decay is energetically allowed. This feature makes the study almost background free and becomes important once the study is limited by the backgrounds. We studied double beta decays of 48Ca by using ELEGANTS VI detector system which features CaF2(Eu) crystals. We gave the best limit on the lifetime of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca although further development is vital to reach the neutrino mass of current interest for which CANDLES is designed. In this article we present how CANDLES can achieve low radioactivity, which is the key for the future double beta decay experiment.

Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Hazama, R.; Yoshida, S.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, D.; Mukaida, K.; Ichihara, K.; Tatewaki, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Hirano, Y.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ajimura, S. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

2005-09-08

220

Natural radioactivity in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination. It presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexes that mark the rapidly evolving area of water quality regulation. The contents include: radioactivity and risk; an introduction to the atomic theory; an introduction to natural radioactivity; risk assessment; uranium and radium contamination of water; radiobiology of uranium and radium in water. Determination of risk from exposure to uranium and radium in water; the legal milieu; one city's experience; and summary: the determinants of evolving regulation.

Horner, J.K.

1985-01-01

221

TIG WELDER LOCATED IN THE CLEAN ROOM OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES BUILDING TSB - THE INERT GAS WELDING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TIG WELDER LOCATED IN THE CLEAN ROOM OF THE TECHNICAL SERVICES BUILDING TSB - THE INERT GAS WELDING FACILITY IS USED FOR WELDING REFRACTORY METALS IN CONNECTION WITH THE COLUMBIUM LIQUID SODIUM LOOP PROJECT

1963-01-01

222

Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

1982-01-01

223

Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times. The radioactive waste management problem in fact offers a prospect for international participation to engage the DPRK constructively. DPRK nuclear dismantlement, when accompanied with a concerted effort for effective radioactive waste management, can be a mutually beneficial goal.

Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

2005-04-01

224

Potential radiation dose to man from recycle of metals reclaimed from a decommissioned nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic methodology is presented for estimating potential radiation doses to man from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals that may be reclaimed from decommissioned nuclear facilities. The heart of the methodology is a set of tables of radionuclide-specific, radiation-dose factors that may be used to estimate doses to individuals and population groups from recycling any radioactively contaminated scrap metal. The

F. R. ODonnell; S. J. Cotter; D. C. Kocher; E. L. Etnier; A. P. Watson

1978-01-01

225

Star formation and extinct radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1984-01-01

226

Metal Powders (Metall Pulver).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book discusses metal powders for powder metallurgy, specific topics include Electrolytic copper powder, Copper alloy powders, Lead powders, tin powders, Partially prealloyed powders, Premixes, Mixed powders to customers' specifications, Quality contr...

1986-01-01

227

Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment.

Not Available

1982-11-01

228

Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made.

Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

1955-01-01

229

Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism  

MedlinePLUS

... for Hyperthyroidism Share: Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu Espanol Editors ... V. Hennessey, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is hyperthyroidism? The thyroid gland, located at the front of ...

230

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion

V. MacNair; T. Muth; K. Shasteen; A. Liby; G. Hradil; B. Mishra

1996-01-01

231

Radioactivity connected with coal burning.  

PubMed

The enhanced environmental radioactivity resulting from the operation of a 72 MWe brown coal-fired power plant in central Italy is considered. A source-related control procedure is suggested. The calculated values for the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents and the results of some measurements on brown coals, ash, environmental samples and gamma-exposure levels performed at representative points are reported. PMID:4081758

Borio, R; Campos Venuti, G; Risica, S; Simula, S

1985-10-01

232

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

233

Storage depot for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

234

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal

W HENDEE

1986-01-01

235

Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new-to-old-scrap ratio was 36:64. On a weighted-average basis, the recycling rate overall for these metals was 40 percent, and the estimated efficiency of recovery was 63 percent. New scrap consumed was 21 Mt. The United States was a net exporter of most scrap metals, and the net exports of 3.3 Mt were valued at $2 billion in constant 1998 dollars. Metals show a wide range of recycling rates, recycling efficiency, and new-to-old-scrap ratios. Recycling rates cluster in the range from 15 to 45 percent, whereas efficiencies are fairly evenly distributed over a range from 7 to 97 percent.

Sibley, Scott F.

2011-01-01

236

Native metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of native metals and intermetallics (e.g., gold, silver, copper, iron, platinoids, nickel, lead, zinc, and indium) in various geological formations, such as meteorites, mountain rocks, and lunar rocks, is discussed. Data on the composition and forms of occurrence of native metals are presented; associations of native metals are identified. Some hypotheses concerning the origin of native metals are examined.

Novgorodova, Margarita Ivanovna

237

Layered metal sulfides: Exceptionally selective agents for radioactive strontium removal  

PubMed Central

In this article, we report the family of robust layered sulfides K2xMnxSn3-xS6 (x = 0.5–0.95) (KMS-1). These materials feature hexagonal [MnxSn3-xS6]2x? slabs of the CdI2 type and contain highly mobile K+ ions in their interlayer space that are easily exchangeable with other cations and particularly strontium. KMS-1 display outstanding preference for strontium ions in highly alkaline solutions containing extremely large excess of sodium cations as well as in acidic environment where most alternative adsorbents with oxygen ligands are nearly inactive. The implication of these results is that simple layered sulfides should be considered for the efficient remediation of certain nuclear wastes.

Manos, Manolis J.; Ding, Nan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

2008-01-01

238

Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

2014-02-01

239

Storage containers for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Cassidy, Dale A. (Valparaiso, IN); Dates, Leon R. (Elmwood Park, IL)

1981-01-01

240

Storage containers for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

1980-07-31

241

Induced radioactivity in LDEF components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

1992-01-01

242

Metal sorption on kaolinite  

SciTech Connect

A key issue in performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste sites is predicting the transport and retardation of radionuclides through local soils under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Improved transport codes should include a mechanistic model of radionuclide retardation. The authors have been investigating metal sorption (Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Ba{sup 2+}) on a simple clay mineral (kaolinite) to better understand the geochemical interactions of common soil minerals with contaminated groundwaters. These studies include detailed characterizations of kaolinite surfaces, experimental adsorption measurements, surface complexation modeling, and theoretical simulations of cation sorption. The aluminol edge (010) site has been identified as the most likely site for metal sorption on kaolinite in natural solutions. Relative metal binding strengths decrease from Ba{sup 2+} to Sr{sup 2+} to Cs{sup +}, with some portion sorbed on both kaolinite edges and basal surfaces. Some Cs{sup +} also appears to be irreversibly sorbed on both sites. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Cs{sup +} is sorbed at aluminol (010) edge sites as an inner-sphere complex and weakly sorbed as an outer-sphere complex on (001) basal surfaces. These results provide the basis to understand and predict metal sorption onto kaolinite, and a framework to characterize sorption processes on more complex clay minerals.

Westrich, H.R.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Anderson, H.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geochemistry Dept.

1997-03-01

243

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

244

THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

2013-04-15

245

Localization of radioactive lead in ocular and skin melanoma.  

PubMed

The ability of radioactive lead to localize melanomas was studied. The Greene melanoma in the Syrian Golden hamster served as a model for both skin and ocular melanoma. The affinity of heavy metals for neoplasms has been studied but previous reports have been inconsistent as to tumor specificity. For this investigation the radioactive lead (203-Pb,) was studied as the chemical complex 203-Pb-Tris. Significant tumor:nontumor ratios were found in ocular melanoma and the concentration in the lens was minimal. The ratio of per cent uptake per gram of tumor: per cent uptake per gram in control tissue with skin melanoma was 9.4 at 24 hours and for the eye melanoma the ratio was 26.3 at 24 hours. The affinity of 203-Pb-Tris for melanomas appears to be as promising as other compounds presently being evaluated for ocular scintigraphy, namely, labeled quinoline analogs. Therefore, further preclinical evaluation is warranted. PMID:1132948

Packer, S; Lambrecht, R M; Merrill, J C; Atkins, H L; Wolf, A P

1975-06-01

246

Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

What role does public acceptance play in the siting of facilities and the selection of technologies designed to manage nuclear waste That's the question posed by Ray Kemp in The Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal. To answer this question, Kemp assesses and compares the decision-making processes in Western Europe, Canada, and the United States.

Kemp, R.

1994-01-01

247

Electrodynamic radioactivity detector for microparticles  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for the measurement of the radioactive decay of single microparticles has been demonstrated. Although the experiments were made with droplets of order 20 ..mu..m in diameter, microparticles in the range 0.1--100 ..mu..m can be accommodated. An electrodynamic balance and combination light-scattering photometer were used to measure the charge-loss rate and size of a charged microsphere suspended in a laser beam by superposed ac and dc electrical fields. The charged particle undergoes charge loss in the partially ionized gas atmosphere which results from radioactive decay of /sup 14/C-tagged compounds, and the rate of charge loss is proportional to the rate of decay here. The charge on a particle was determined by measuring the dc voltage necessary to stably suspend the particle against gravity while simultaneously determining the droplet size by light-scattering techniques. The parameters which affect the operation of the electrodynamic balance as a radioactivity detector are examined, and the limits of its sensitivity are explored. Radioactivity levels as low as 120 pCi have been measured, and it appears that by reducing the background contamination inside our balance activity levels on the order of 10 pCi can be detected. This new technique has application in the measurement of activity levels and source discrimination of natural and man-made aerosols and smokes and is also useful for studies involving specifically labeled radio-chemical probes.

Ward, T.L.; Davis, E.J.; Jenkins R.W. Jr.; McRae, D.D.

1989-03-01

248

Radioactive Gas in Mineral Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a letter to NATURE of August 13, 1903, it was announced that experiments carried out at the Blythswood Laboratory had shown the presence of a radio-active constituent in the gases derived from the mineral waters of Bath. An account of our further investigations has been given in a paper read before the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, November 18,

Blythswood; H. S. Allen

1904-01-01

249

Radioactive waste: Politics and technology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an analysis of the divergent strategies used to forge radioactive waste policies in great Britain, Germany, and Sweden. Some basic knowledge of nuclear technology and its public policy development is needed. The book points out that developing institutional frameworks that permit agreement and consent is the principal challenge of radwaste management and places the problem of consent in an institutional framework.

Berkhout, F.

1995-08-01

250

Radioactivity and the Biology Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses minimum necessary nuclear fundamentals of radioactive isotopes such as levels of activity, specific activity and the use of carrier materials. Corrections that need to be taken into account in using an isotope to obtain a valid result are also described and statistics for a valid result are included. (BR)

Hornsey, D. J.

1974-01-01

251

METHOD OF PURIFYING RADIOACTIVE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of lithothamnium calcareum as an ion exchanger for the ; decontamination of radioactive water is described. In order to retain cobalt and ; strontium the ion exchanger is mixed with calcium silicate or borate; ; alternatively sodium phosphate is added to the water prior to the purification ; process. (NPO)

D. Acfi; M. Schmitt; M. Neveu

1959-01-01

252

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of

T. R. Muth; K. E. Shasteen; A. L. Liby

1995-01-01

253

Techniques suitable for a portable wear metal analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature study for the techniques suitable for a portable wear metal analyzer has been conducted. The intent was to locate a technique which could lead to the development of a deployable field instrument to analyze metals in used aircraft engine oil for preventive maintenance purposes. Ten techniques, including six optical spectroscopic methods, two X-ray techniques, radioactive tagging, and colorimetry,

W. H. Niu; E. B. Andersen; G. J. Fergusson

1981-01-01

254

Acid Digestion of Combustible Radioactive Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic ...

C. R. Allen M. D. Crippen R. E. Lerch R. G. Cowan

1982-01-01

255

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aircraft operator shall notify the offeror at the earliest practicable moment following any incident in which there has been breakage, spillage, or suspected radioactive contamination involving Class 7 (radioactive) materials...

2010-10-01

256

Radioactive nuclides in the living environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was cons...

K. Ueno M. Hoshi

1993-01-01

257

Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

258

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

259

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

260

Processes for Separating Metals from Metal Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical processes and apparatus for obtaining metals from metal salts, particularly separating alkali metal and borate ions from alkali metal borate compounds, are disclosed. Aqueous solutions of metal borates or metal carbonates are converted to ...

J. C. Brady M. T. Kelly

2005-01-01

261

In-reactor simulation study of zinc injection to reduce radioactive corrosion product transport in PWRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion products containing transition metal elements that deposit in core become radioactive and then are released and redeposited on components such as steam generators, pumps, and coolant piping are a significant source of radiation exposure to workers in commercial power reactors. A number of strategies have been developed to reduce the buildup of radiation fields, including careful control of primary

K. Hsueh; G. Kohse; O. K. Harling

1995-01-01

262

Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

1984-07-24

263

Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from United States gaseous diffusion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US gaseous diffusion plants currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions; liquid effluent treatment sludges; waste oils and solvents; scrap metals; and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags, and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large

J. F. Wing; M. E. Mitchell; J. E. Behrend

1983-01-01

264

Numerical simulation of high-level radioactive nuclear waste glass production  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of radioactive waste has become an international approach for converting highly radioactive wastes into a durable solid prior to placing them in a permanent disposal repository. The technology for the process is not new. The conversion melter is a direct descendant of all electric melters used for manufacturing of some commercial glass types. Therefore, the vitrification process of radioactive wastes inherits typical problems of all electric furnaces and creates some other specific problems such as noble metal sedimentation. The noble metals and nickel sulfides in the melter are heavier than molten glass and have a low solubility. In a reducing condition, these metals amalgamate and tend to settle on the melter floor. The metal deposit resulting from this settling has a potential to short circuit the melter. The objective of this paper is to identify the typical problems that have been encountered in the waste melter operations and to address how these problems can be tackled using state-of-the-art numerical simulation techniques. It is believed that the large amount of pilot-scale melter experience throughout the world, combined with the knowledge gained from state-of-the-art computer modeling techniques would give assurance that the existing and future radioactive wastes can be effectively converted into a durable glass material and safely placed in a permanent repository.

Choi, I.G. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Ungan, A. (Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-01-01

265

Numerical simulation of high-level radioactive nuclear waste glass production  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of radioactive waste has become an international approach for converting highly radioactive wastes into a durable solid prior to placing them in a permanent disposal repository. The technology for the process is not new. The conversion melter is a direct descendant of all electric melters used for manufacturing of some commercial glass types. Therefore, the vitrification process of radioactive wastes inherits typical problems of all electric furnaces and creates some other specific problems such as noble metal sedimentation. The noble metals and nickel sulfides in the melter are heavier than molten glass and have a low solubility. In a reducing condition, these metals amalgamate and tend to settle on the melter floor. The metal deposit resulting from this settling has a potential to short circuit the melter. The objective of this paper is to identify the typical problems that have been encountered in the waste melter operations and to address how these problems can be tackled using state-of-the-art numerical simulation techniques. It is believed that the large amount of pilot-scale melter experience throughout the world, combined with the knowledge gained from state-of-the-art computer modeling techniques would give assurance that the existing and future radioactive wastes can be effectively converted into a durable glass material and safely placed in a permanent repository.

Choi, I.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ungan, A. [Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-12-31

266

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

267

Radioactivity of the JINR Site Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the study of the existing levels of enviromental radioactivity in the JINR region for 1971-1975; content of radioactive products in the grass and surface soil layer, levels of the total alpha - and beta-radioactivity of water of open reserv...

S. I. Alenitskaya V. P. Bamblevskii A. N. Kargin M. M. Komochkov

1977-01-01

268

RADIOACTIVE WATER POSES NEW PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems causcd by water impurities in power reactors are reviewed. ; Although high-pressure conventional steam boilers require high-quality water, the ; standards for nuclear reactor systems are extraordinarily high by comparison. ; Adverse chemical reactions include the normal corrosion reactions between metal ; and water and between metal and dissolved oxygen; the dissociation of water by ; fast neutrons,

C. T. Dickert; R. Hetherington; C. F. Raines

1958-01-01

269

Deposition and removal of radioactive isotopes from LMFBR components  

SciTech Connect

The development of an analytical model to describe the production, transport and eventual removal of radioactive materials in the primary sodium of LMFBR's is a continuing Sodium Technology activity sponsored by the Department of Energy. This paper describes studies directed toward obtaining an understanding of the deposition from sodium of fuel cladding activated corrosion products onto stainless steel alloys and the effect of their diffusion into the base metal on the process required to decontaminate it. The objective of the decontamination operation is to reduce the activity to a level allowing hands on maintenance without causing unacceptable damage to the component.

Hill, E.F.; Lutton, J.M.; Maffei, H.P.

1980-01-01

270

Silicone metalization  

DOEpatents

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2008-12-09

271

Silicone metalization  

DOEpatents

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05

272

Metallic glasses.  

PubMed

Amorphous metallic alloys, relative newcomers to the world of glasses, have properties that are unusual for solid metals. The metallic glasses, which exist in a very wide variety of compositions, combine fundamental interest with practical applications. They also serve as precursors for exciting new nanocrystalline materials. Their magnetic (soft and hard) and mechanical properties are of particular interest. PMID:17770105

Greer, A L

1995-03-31

273

Radiation counting technique allows density measurement of metals in high-pressure/ high-temperature environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioactive tracers induced by neutron irradiation provide a gamma ray flux proportional to the density of a metal, allowing density measurement of these metals in extreme high-temperature and high-pressure environments. This concept is applicable to most metals, as well as other substances.

Dillion, I. G.; Nelson, P. A.; Swanson, B. S.

1967-01-01

274

Laser Trapping of Radioactive Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stuart Freedman conceived the idea of laser trapping radioactive atoms for the purpose of studying beta correlation effects. ``This is really the theorist's view of a radioactive source,'' as he fondly claimed. It is ideal because the atoms form a point source, compressed in both position and momentum space, with no material walls nearby. The Berkeley group succeeded in trapping ^21Na (half-life = 22 s) atoms [Lu et al., PRL 72, 3791 (1994)], and determined its beta-neutrino correlation coefficient a=0.5502(60) to be in agreement with the Standard Model [Vetter et al., PRC 77, 035502 (2008)]. Other groups have joined this effort with searches for scalar or tensor couplings in the weak interaction. Moreover, the technique has been extended to trap very short lived ^8He (0.1 s) to study its halo structure or the very long lived ^81Kr (230,000 yr) to map the movement of groundwater.

Lu, Zheng-Tian

2013-04-01

275

Radon adsorbed in activated charcoal—a simple and safe radiation source for teaching practical radioactivity in schools and colleges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal. Radon gas from ambient air in the laboratory was adsorbed into about 70 g of activated charcoal inside metallic canisters. Gamma radiation was subsequently emitted from the canisters, following the radioactive decay of radon and its progenies. The intensities of the emitted gamma-rays were measured at suitable intervals using a NaI gamma-ray detector. The counts obtained were analysed and used to demonstrate the radioactive decay law and determine the half-life of radon. In addition to learning the basic properties of radioactivity the students also get practical experience about the existence of natural sources of radiation in the environment.

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

2012-07-01

276

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

277

Radioactive fuel cell storage rack  

SciTech Connect

A radioactive fuel cell storage rack is comprised of structural elements including elements which are hollow and cruciform in section. Each leg of the cruciform structural element includes a neutron shield therein. The free end of the legs of the cruciform structural element converge so as to have an included angle of approximately 90/sup 0/. The rack is comprised of such cruciform elements as well as cooperating elements which are generally T and L shaped in section.

Holtz, M.; Singh, K.P.

1983-05-03

278

Radioactive Microspheres for Medical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the preparation and application of radioactive microspheres for medical purposes. It first discusses the\\u000a properties of relevant radioisotopes and then explores the diagnostic uses of gamma-emitter labelled microspheres, such as\\u000a blood flow measurement and imaging of the liver and other organs. The therapeutic uses of alpha- and beta-emitting microspheres,\\u000a such as radioembolization, local tumour therapy and radiosynovectomy,

Urs HÄfeli

279

Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006  

SciTech Connect

This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Perkins, B K

2011-08-31

280

THE MANAGEMENT ROUTES FOR CONTAMINATED METALS FROM DISMANTLING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of cleared materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The paper is focused on the management

O. Emond; M. Klein; Y. Demeulemeester; I. Majkowski; M. Ponnet; V. Massaut; J. Dadoumont

281

Corrosion and fission products in primary systems of liquid metal cooled reactors in the USA  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of the work in the USA to support the measurement and control of radionuclides in primary systems of liquid metal cooled reactors. The efforts to characterize and control the ingress of radioactive corrosion and fission products, fuel particles, and radioactivity in gas systems have been quite successful in the USA.

Brehm, W.F.; Colburn, R.P.; Maffei, H.P.; Stinson, W.P.; Bunch, W.L.; Bechtold, R.A.; Olson, W.H.

1987-01-01

282

Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and ...

J. D. Lutz W. T. Wheelis I. H. Gundiler

1995-01-01

283

Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elimination of poisonous metals possessing chemical or radioactive substances, from soils and waters, and chemistry's contribution towards efficacious and environmentally suitable removal methods are discussed. Various original tactics are studied and compared.

Roundhill, D. Max

2004-01-01

284

Artificial Radioactivity of Ti45  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive isotope possessing a half-life of 3.08+\\/-0.06 hours has been produced by four different types of bombardment. Evidence is presented which indicates that the activity should be assigned to Ti45. The four nuclear reactions are: Ca42+He4-->Ti45+n1 Sc45+H2-->Ti45+2n1Sc45+H1-->Ti45+n1 Ti46+n1-->Ti45+2n1. Nuclear spin considerations indicate that a fifth reaction, Ti46(gamma,n)Ti45, is improbable, as was verified experimentally. Analysis of cloud-chamber pictures reveals the

J. S. Allen; M. L. Pool; J. D. Kurbatov; L. L. Quill

1941-01-01

285

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

1991-01-01

286

Properties of Natural Radiation and Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous natural sources of radiation and radioactive material (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) have exposed humans throughout history. To these natural sources have been added technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) sources and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. This chapter describes the ubiquitous radiation sources that we call background, including primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 87Rb, the 232Th series, the 238U series,

Strom; Daniel J

2009-01-01

287

Radioactive beams with the HHIRF accelerators  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing interest in radioactive ion beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics research and applied programs. This interest has led to an International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams and a Workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams. In addition, a steering committee has been formed to consider the development of a very large and intense RIB facility in North America to produce both proton- and neutron-rich beams. This report discusses development of these beams.

Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Baktash, C.; Dowling, D.T.; Garrett, J.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C., Lane, S.N.; Lee, I.Y.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A. Toth, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carter, H.K. (UNISOR, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

288

Spontaneously generated radioactive nanoparticles in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost 100 years, and perhaps longer, observers have detected spontaneous dispersal of radioactivity from macroscopic quantities of radioactive materials with the first published observations reported in 1910. In the 1960"s and later, radioactivity was observed to migrate through HEPA filters de-spite their well-established filtration characteristics. In measurements of ground water, radioactivity has been found to disperse from its original location of deposition in soil, despite the size, insolubility, and resistance to chemical reactions of the radioactive particles originally deposited. Similarly, measurements of the uptake of these materials in lung tissue and studies of their solubility in simulated biological fluids showed the solubility to be related to the radioactivity of the materials. In numerous practical examples, the migration and deposition of radioactivity affects work and operational practices. Despite this long and varied history indicating the importance of self-dispersal of radioactive materials, no measurements had ever been reported of the materials which were actually dispersed until recently and the results are quite surprising, suggesting a well-defined process creating discrete nanoparticle fractions. This paper will review the history of the observations of spontaneous dispersal of radioactivity and close with a description of the first measure-ments of the dispersed nanoparticles and suggestions of the physical processes involved in their formation.

Marlow, William H.; Cheng, Yung-Sung

2003-04-01

289

Student Understanding of Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how researchers identified specific difficulties students had with ionizing radiation and radioactivity using interviews. They also explore students' pre-instruction thoughts on these topics.

Prather, Edward E.; Harrington, Randal R.

2006-06-19

290

Radioactive material package seal tests  

SciTech Connect

General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

1990-01-01

291

Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The 26A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ˜My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. 60Fe is co-produced by the sources of 26A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. 56Ni and 44Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

Diehl, Roland

2014-05-01

292

Induced radioactivity in LDEF components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systematics of induced radioactivity on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied in a wide range of materials using low level background facilities for detection of gamma rays. Approx. 400 samples of materials processed from structural parts of the spacecraft, as well as materials from onboard experiments, were analyzed at national facilities. These measurements show the variety of radioisotopes that are produced with half-lives greater than 2 wks, most of which are characteristic of proton induced reactions above 20 MeV. For the higher activity, long lived isotopes, it was possible to map the depth and directional dependences of the activity. Due to the stabilized configuration of the LDEF, the induced radioactivity data clearly show contributions from the anisotropic trapped proton flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly. This effect is discussed, along with evidence for activation by galactic protons and thermal neutrons. The discovery of Be-7 was made on leading side parts of the spacecraft, although this was though not to be related to the in situ production of radioisotopes from external particle fluxes.

Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

1991-01-01

293

Radioactivity in the galactic plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

1976-01-01

294

Metal Hypersensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal hypersensitivity leading onto hardware rejection is reported as a rare phenomenon. If not suspected, it can be a harrowing experience for the patient because it can lead to a seemingly never-ending cycle of tests and procedures. This case highlights the fact that although metal hypersensitivity is rare, it should be included in the differential once infection has been excluded.

Ashish Anand; Fred McGlynn; William Jiranek

2009-01-01

295

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

296

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOEpatents

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

297

Overview of techniques for volume reduction and immobilization of radioactive waste, as investigated at KEMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures to decrease the amount of radioactive waste generated by power plants, to decontaminate active material, and to reduce the final volume of the waste, e.g., by incineration or acid digestion are reviewed. Organic radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are treated adequately: only inorganic end-products remain, and they have a relatively small volume and are immobilized. Chemical, biological, and alteration processes therefore do not significantly increase the risk of storage, even if water intrudes the storage facility. The considerable volumes of activated and/or contaminated metal that remain after repair or decommissioning of the plants could be treated. Decontamination and melting may significantly reduce the volume of the final waste. It seems probable that estimates of waste volumes are too pessimistic, and relatively small storage facilities will be sufficient. Waste in those facilities presents unacceptable risk for the biosphere during the period it is considered as radioactive.

Kuypers, J.; Matteman, J. L.; Vanloon, A. J.

298

The decommissioning of accelerators: an exercise in the recycling of radioactive material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with the number of nuclear power plants that will be decommissioned over the next few years accelerators are only a ``small'' source of radioactivity although at CERN the total amount of mostly metallic material activated in the operation of the accelerators is estimated to be of the order of 15 Mtons. Various existing approaches to classify and administer radioactive material will be presented with all of them clearly earmarked by the requirements of the nuclear cycle. There are however important differences between activation in reactors and accelerators that will be worked out. It will be shown that an attitude based on reuse or recycling of activated accelerator material should be preferred to the elimination as radioactive waste.

Höfert, M.; Tuyn, J. W. N.; Forkel-Wirth, D.

1999-06-01

299

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

2003-02-27

300

Physics with beams of radioactive nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the latest results from experiments devoted to studying the structure of nuclei and nuclear-reaction mechanisms by means of accelerated radioactive beams is given. Results obtained in Dubna with the aid of the DRIBs accelerator complex and at other radioactive-beam factories are presented.

Penionzhkevich, Yu. E., E-mail: pyuer@lnr.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15

301

Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower

C. R. Allen; R. E. Lerch; M. D. Crippen; R. G. Cowan

1982-01-01

302

Local area networks in radioactivity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the operation of a Local Area Network at Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory involved in surveillance of environmental radioactivity. Detailed consideration is given separately to computer and network hardware, radiation instrument interfacing, software, as well as operations. The application of a Local Area Network offers considerable improvements in the laboratory preformance, quality assurance of radioactivity analyses, and data reporting.

T. M. Semkow; C. D. Schwenker; M. E. Kitto; J. C. Daly

1994-01-01

303

Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first nuclear explosion test, named the Trinity test, was conducted on July 16, 1945 near Alamogordo, New Mexico. In the tremendous heat of the explosion, the radioactive debris fused with the local soil into a glassy material named Trinitite. Selected Trinitite samples from ground zero (GZ) of the test site were investigated in detail for radioactivity. The techniques used

Pravin P. Parekh; Thomas M. Semkow; Miguel A. Torres; Douglas K. Haines; Joseph M. Cooper; Peter M. Rosenberg; Michael E. Kitto

2006-01-01

304

Physical protection of radioactive material in transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

From conference on transportation of radioactive material; ; Charlottesville, Virginia, USA (26 Oct 1970). In conference on transportation of ; radioactive material held in Charlottesville, Virginia on 26-27 October 1970. ; Regulations pertaining to physical protection of fissile materials during transit ; are briefly discussed. Case histories of misrouted or misplaced shipments are ; given. Some corrective actions to prevent

Wischow

1970-01-01

305

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

306

BWR-GALE. BWR Effluent Radioactivity Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BWR-GALE is a mathematical model for calculating the expected annual releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment. There are two

Cardile

1979-01-01

307

RECENT RESULTS FROM ALPINE AIR RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of various diagrams, the transient pattern of the natural and ; artificial radioactivity and of air impurities in 1959 at a valley and a ; neighboring mountain station was represented and described. It was shown that ; the air layer near the ground added more long-lived radioactive substances by ; repeated eddying up from the ground than from

1960-01-01

308

Metal Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is written as a static display, but can easily be adapted to a hands-on experiment for learners to conduct. Sodium phosphate, a clear colorless solution, is combined with six different metal ion solutions. Each metal (copper, nickel, iron, silver, cobalt, and barium) forms a different color and texture precipitate. Learners discover that a chemical reaction can be identified by a color change, and formation of a precipitate. They also learn that metals can be identified by their precipitates. For safety reasons, this activity should be conducted as a demonstration for younger audiences.

Industry, Oregon M.

1997-01-01

309

Diverter assembly for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

1988-04-11

310

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

SciTech Connect

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01

311

Atmospheric xenon radioactive isotope monitoring.  

PubMed

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) organisation is implementing a world-wide monitoring network in order to check that the State Signatories comply with the treaty. One of the monitoring facilities consists of an atmospheric noble gas monitoring equipment. According to the requirements annexed in the treaty, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed a device, called SPALAX, which automatically extracts xenon from ambient air and makes in situ measurements of the activities of four xenon radioisotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, 135Xe). The originality of this device is noticeable essentially in the gas sample processing method: thanks to the coupling of a gas permeator and of a noble gas specific adsorbent, it can selectively extract and concentrate xenon to more than 3 x 10 E6. This process is carried out continuously without cryogenic cooling, without any regeneration time. The detection of the xenon radioactive isotopes is done automatically by high spectral resolution gamma spectrometry, a robust technology well-suited for on-field instrumentation. In the year 2000, a prototype was involved in an international evaluation exercise directed by the CTBT organisation (CTBTO). This exercise demonstrated that the SPALAX equipment perfectly met the requirements of the CTBTO for such systems. On the basis of the continuous 24-h resolution record of the atmospheric xenon radioactive isotopes concentrations, the SPALAX system also demonstrated that ambient levels of 133Xe can fluctuate quickly from less than the detection limit to over 40 x 10(-3) Bq m(-3). In order to build an industrial version of this equipment, the CEA entered into a partnership with a French engineering company (S.F.I., Marseille, France), which is now able to produce an industrial version of SPALAX, i.e. more compact and more efficient than the prototypes. The 133Xe minimum detectable concentration is 0.15 x 10(-3) Bq m(-3) air per 24 h sampling cycle. PMID:15162864

Fontaine, J P; Pointurier, F; Blanchard, X; Taffary, T

2004-01-01

312

[Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of ?-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages. PMID:23676695

Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

2013-01-01

313

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

314

Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

2012-09-04

315

Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, as a part of the radioactivity survey and research of Science and Technology Agency, the survey of environmental radioactivity level due to the radioactive fallout accompanying nuclear explosion experime...

1990-01-01

316

Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been surveyed, as part of the radioactivity research project by the Science and Technology Agency, radioactivity levels in the environment and safety analysis for radioactive fallouts associated with nuc...

1989-01-01

317

40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Sec. 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following...determine compliance with Sec. 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods...

2009-07-01

318

Metals 2000  

SciTech Connect

This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1993-05-01

319

Safety analysis report for packages: packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 9965, 9966, 9967, and 9968 packages are designed for surface shipment of fissile and other radioactive materials where a high degree of containment (either single or double) is required. Provisions are made to add shielding material to the packaging as required. The package was physically tested to demonstrate that it meets the criteria specified in USDOE Order No. 5480.1, chapter III, dated 5/1/81, which invokes Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71), Packing and Transportation of Radioactive Material, and Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 100-179, Transportation. By restricting the maximum normal operating pressure of the packages to less than 7 kg/cm/sup 2/ (gauge) (99 to 54 psig), the packages will comply with Type B(U) regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Series No. 6, 1973 Revised Edition, and may be used for export and import shipments. These packages have been assessed for transport of up to 14.5 kilograms of uranium, excluding uranium-233, or 4.4 kilograms of plutonium metal, oxides, or scrap having a maximum radioactive decay energy of 30 watts. Specific maximum package contents are given. This quantity and the configuration of uranium or plutonium metal cannot be made critical by any combination of hydrogeneous reflection and moderation regardless of the condition of the package. For a uranium-233 shipment, a separate criticality evaluation for the specific package is required.

Chalfant, G.G. (comp.)

1984-01-01

320

Integrated AMP–PAN, TRUEX, and SREX testing. II. Flowsheet testing for separation of radionuclides from actual acidic radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three separation processes for the removal of selected fission products, actinides, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals (mercury and lead) have been integrated successfully and tested using actual acidic radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The separation processes integrated were ion exchange for Cs removal, followed by TRUEX solvent extraction for actinide, Hg, and

J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst; T. A. Todd

2002-01-01

321

Disintegration and size reduction of slags and metals after melt refining of contaminated metallic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Melting under an oxidizing slag is an attractive method of decontaminating and reducing the volume of radioactively contaminated metal scrap. The contaminants are concentrated in a relatively small volume of slag, which leaves the metal essentially clean. A potential method of permanently disposing of the resulting slags (and metals if necessary) is emplacing them into deep shale by grout hydrofracture. Suspension in grout mixtures requires that the slag and metal be granular. The feasibility of size-reducing slags and disintegrating metals and subsequently incorporating both into grout mixtures was demonstrated. Various types of slags were crushed with a small jaw crusher into particles smaller than 3 mm. Several metals were also melted and water-blasted into coarse metal powder or shot ranging in size from 0.05 to 3 mm. A simple low-pressure water atomizer having a multiple nozzle with a converging-line jet stream was developed and used for this purpose. No significant slag dust and steam were generated during slag crushing and liquid-metal water-blasting tests, indicating that contamination can be well contained within the system. The crushed slags and the coarse metal powders were suspendable in group fluids, which indicates probable disposability by shale hydrofracture. The granulation of slags and metals facilitates their containment, transport, and storage.

Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

1981-04-01

322

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

323

Theoretical modeling of crevice and pitting corrosion processes in relation to corrosion of radioactive waste containers  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical and numerical model for evaluation of crevice and pitting corrosion in radioactive waste containers is presented. The model considers mass transport, mass transfer at the metal/solution interface, and chemical speciation in the corrosion cavity. The model is compared against experimental data obtained in artificial crevices. Excellent agreement is found between modeled and experimental values. The importance of full consideration of complex ion formation in the aqueous solution is emphasized and illustrated. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Walton, J.C. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-09-09

324

Ion Exchange Characteristics of Palladium and Ruthenium from a Simulated Radioactive Liquid Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive high-level liquid wastes contain significant quantities of platinum group metals (PGM), such as palladium [Pd(II)], rhodium [Rh(III)], and ruthenium [Ru(III)]. The PGM are produced as fission products in nuclear reactors. In this study, batch and column experiments were carried out to investigate the ion exchange characteristics of Pd(II) and Ru(III), including the effects of the ionic group of ion

S. H. Lee; H. Chung

2003-01-01

325

Hanford Site radioactive solid waste acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for radioactive solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage or disposal at the 200 Area facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulation, US Department of Energy Orders, Hanford Site requirements, and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of radioactive solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements. 11 refs.

Stickney, R.G.

1990-01-01

326

Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.  

PubMed

The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions. PMID:22166151

Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

2011-12-01

327

Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Interaction Forces  

SciTech Connect

Although some differences have been observed, the transport behavior of radioactive aerosol particles has often been assumed to be analogous to the behavior of nonradioactive aerosols in dispersion models. However, radioactive particles can become electrostatically charged as a result of the decay process. Theories have been proposed to describe this self-charging phenomenon, which may have a significant effect on how these particles interact with one another and with charged surfaces in the environment. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify surface forces between a particle and a planar surface and to compare measurements with and without the involvement of radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to assess directly the effects of radioactivity on the surface interactions of radioactive aerosols via the measurement of the adhesion force. The adhesion force between a silicon nitride AFM tip and an activated gold substrate was measured so that any possible effects due to radioactivity could be observed. The adhesion force between the tip and the gold surface increased significantly when the gold substrate (25 mm{sup 2} surface area) was activated to a level of approximately 0.6 mCi. The results of this investigation will prompt further work into the effects of radioactivity in particle-surface interactions.

Walker, Mark E [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Glasgow, David C [ORNL; Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01

328

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, "The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act," the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993. PMID:3749914

Hendee, W R

1986-07-01

329

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

330

Science with radioactive beams: the alchemist's dream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear science is being transformed by a new capacity to create beams of radioactive nuclei. Until now all of our knowledge of nuclear physics and the applications which flow from it has been derived from studies of radioactive decay and nuclear reactions induced by beams of the 283 stable or long-lived nuclear species we can find on Earth. Here we describe first how beams of radioactive nuclei can be created. The present status of nuclear physics is then reviewed before potential applications to nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, materials science, bio-medical, and environmental studies are described.

Gelletly, W.

2001-05-01

331

Impurity hot atoms in irradiated metals with different nuclear history  

Microsoft Academic Search

General relationships in the effect of the nuclear history on the forms of stabilization of impurity hot atoms and on the\\u000a diffusion mobility and specific features of the physicochemical behavior of radioactive micro-impurities in the course of\\u000a annealing of radiation-induced perturbations and of structural transformations of irradiated metals were elucidated. The forms\\u000a of stabilization of impurity hot atoms in metals

I. E. Alekseev

2008-01-01

332

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities.

Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [and others

1995-12-01

333

Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have

R. Gills; P. Lewandowski; B. Ooms; N. Reusen; W. Van Laer; R. Walthery

2007-01-01

334

Method for solidification of radioactive and other hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

Solidification of liquid radioactive waste, and other hazardous wastes, is accomplished by the method of the invention by incorporating the waste into a porous glass crystalline molded block. The porous block is first loaded with the liquid waste and then dehydrated and exposed to thermal treatment at 50-1,000.degree. C. The porous glass crystalline molded block consists of glass crystalline hollow microspheres separated from fly ash (cenospheres), resulting from incineration of fossil plant coals. In a preferred embodiment, the porous glass crystalline blocks are formed from perforated cenospheres of grain size -400+50, wherein the selected cenospheres are consolidated into the porous molded block with a binder, such as liquid silicate glass. The porous blocks are then subjected to repeated cycles of saturating with liquid waste, and drying, and after the last cycle the blocks are subjected to calcination to transform the dried salts to more stable oxides. Radioactive liquid waste can be further stabilized in the porous blocks by coating the internal surface of the block with metal oxides prior to adding the liquid waste, and by coating the outside of the block with a low-melting glass or a ceramic after the waste is loaded into the block.

Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Voskresenskaya, Elena N. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Kostin, Eduard M. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Pavlov, Vyacheslav F. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

335

Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed.  

PubMed

Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples. PMID:10898404

van Netten, C; Hoption Cann, S A; Morley, D R; van Netten, J P

2000-06-01

336

Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567  

SciTech Connect

The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

2013-07-01

337

Predictions of LDEF radioactivity and comparison with measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the program to utilize LDEF data for evaluation and improvement of current ionizing radiation environmental models and related predictive methods for future LEO missions, calculations have been carried out to compare with the induced radioactivity measured in metal samples placed on LDEF. The predicted activation is about a factor of two lower than observed, which is attributed to deficiencies in the AP8 trapped proton model. It is shown that this finding based on activation sample data is consistent with comparisons made with other LDEF activation and dose data. Plans for confirming these results utilizing additional LDEF data sets, and plans for model modifications to improve the agreement with LDEF data, are discussed.

Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Harmon, B. A.; Laird, C. E.

1995-01-01

338

Polyoxometalates for radioactive waste treatment. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'This research is directed towards the use of polyoxoanions of the early transition metals (primarily tungsten) as possible sequestrants and storage matrices for lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species. The latter substances are important radioactive components of tank wastes from spent commercial nuclear fuel, but are present in low proportion by mass. Technetium is a particularly troublesome component because it is highly mobile in groundwater and is volatilized in vitrification processes currently under examination for long-term storage. Scientific goals: synthesis and characterization of new and selective polyoxotungstate complexes of Ln{sup 3+}, An{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}; exploration of stable polyoxoanions containing Tc (using, in the first instance, Re as a nonradioactive surrogate); thermal conversion of polytungstate complexes to tungsten bronze materials for their evaluation as inert storage matrices. This report summarizes the results after 20 months of a 3-year project.'

Pope, M.T.

1998-06-01

339

Radioactive oxide removal by XeCl laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results on cleaning, achieved in nuclear facilities, of metallic surfaces polluted by radioactive oxides. Experimental results of excimer laser decontamination have been obtained for different radionuclides (Cs, Co, Eu, etc.) deposited under various conditions (fixed or unfixed contamination). Our laser decontamination prototype is composed of a XeCl laser, a bundle of fibers for beam transmission, optical systems, collection cell with filter for ablated particle recovery, computer control of cleaning efficiency and beam displacement. We show that the use of the excimer laser ablation technique for decontamination of nuclear facilities has many advantages such as the possibility of remote control, dry process, and, especially, the absence of secondary wastes (clean process). Decontamination factors (DF: initial activity/residual activity) higher than 15 for fixed contamination and up to 100 for unfixed contamination are obtained.

Delaporte, Ph; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

2002-09-01

340

Field tests using radioactive matter.  

PubMed

During recent years, the assessment of possible radiological consequences of a terrorist attack associated with a release of radioactive substances (RaS) has been in the focus of interest of emergency preparedness and radiation protection specialists, as well as experts dealing with the dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Suitable tools for these analyses are applications of mathematical and physical models and simulation of this attack under 'realistic' conditions. The work presented here summarises the results of four tests, in which a RaS (a Tc-99 m solution) was dispersed over a free area with the use of an industrial explosive. Detection methods and techniques employed in these tests are described and values characterising the RaS dispersion--dose rates, surface activities in horizontal and vertical directions, volume activities, their space and time distributions and mass concentrations of aerosols produced after the explosion are presented and compared. These data will be applied to a comparison of outcomes of models used for the assessment of radiation accidents as well as in future field tests carried out under conditions of more complex geometry (indoor environment, terrain obstacles, etc.). PMID:20089512

Prouza, Z; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Michalek, V; Rulik, P; Skrkal, J; Hovorka, J

2010-06-01

341

Metals processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metals processing effort is directed towards improvement of performance and usefulness of materials through modification and control of shape and internal structure. Interaction of reactive gases, introduced into a plasma arc, with iron alloys were analyzed. The technology of magnesium production was assessed. The study of fast fluidized bed reactors is continued. Aspects of separation processes are being investigated. The development of high field superconducting composites for use in large magnetic fusion devices is also discussed. Processing, structure, and property relationships of superconducting materials and the substitution of precious metals in standard electrical contact and connector applications are tested. The influence of processing procedures on the structure of zircaloy and nickel base alloys with a goal of improving mechanical properties and performance is investigated. Investigation of the potential of metal insulator semiconductor junctions as photovoltaic devices is reported.

1982-01-01

342

Transition Metal Complexes with Metal-Metal Bonds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a program of research on transition metal complexes with metal-metal bonds. Brief summaries are given under the following headings: Photochemical reactions of silicon and tin derivatives of cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl with trival...

R. B. King K. H. Pannell C. R. Bennett

1968-01-01

343

Rational design of metal ion sequestering agents. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'This project addresses fundamental issues and requirements in developing hazardous metal ion separation technologies needed in the treatment and disposal of radioactive and chemical toxic waste. It encompasses the synthesis of new agents, followed by their characterization and evaluation, with the aim to optimize their metal ion sequestering properties for use in applied technologies. This research is focused on the

1998-01-01

344

Techniques suitable for a portable wear metal analyzer. Final report Oct 80Apr 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature study for the techniques suitable for a portable wear metal analyzer has been conducted. The intent was to locate a technique which could lead to the development of a deployable field instrument to analyze metals in used aircraft engine oil for preventive maintenance purposes. Ten techniques, including six optical spectroscopic methods, two x-ray techniques, radioactive tagging, and colorimetry,

W. H. Niu; E. B. Andersen; G. J. Fergusson

1981-01-01

345

Radioactivity distribution in the MAFF beamline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments (MAFF) facility planned at the research reactor FRM-II in Munich is dedicated to produce, cool and accelerate high-intensity neutron-rich radioactive beams. The radioactive beam of fission fragments results from bombarding a uranium target by the thermal neutrons emerging from the reactor. Part of the nuclides is released from the target/ion source unit in a non-ionized state. This contribution is concerned with simulating the distribution of the non-ionized radioactivity along the MAFF beamline. The calculations are performed with the help of the computer program MOVAK3D. The calculated fraction of non-ionized radioactivity at the border of the experimental area is at the level of about 10 -7, relative to the activity produced in the target.

Szerypo, J.; Gross, M.; Grossmann, R.; Habs, D.; Kester, O.; Maier, H.-J.; Thirolf, P.; Zech, E.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Nebel, F.

2006-05-01

346

Radioactive Residues. Current and Prospective Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After having described the principal characteristics of radioactive residues, the author examined the current problems posed by liquid and gaseous effluents and stressed that nuclear installations are definitely much less polluting, with an identical powe...

A. Gauvenet

1975-01-01

347

Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\\\\\

Manfred Deicher

2002-01-01

348

Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure  

DOEpatents

An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

Belmonte, Mark S. (Irwin, PA); Davis, James H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01

349

Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester v...

C. R. Allen

1980-01-01

350

Air Pollution Aspects of Radioactive Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Radioactive substances' Effects on humans (Types of exposure, Biological effects (Somatic effects, Leukemia, Other cancers, Cataracts, Effect on life span), Genetic effects, Acute exposure), Effects on animals; Effects on plants; Effects on mate...

S. Miner

1969-01-01

351

Environmental Radioactivity in Greenland in 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1979 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents o...

A. Aarkrog H. Dahlgaard E. Holm J. Lippert K. Nilsson

1980-01-01

352

Radioactive Dating: A Method for Geochronology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives historical background on the discovery of natural radiation and discusses various techniques for using knowledge of radiochemistry in geochronological studies. Indicates that of these radioactive techniques, Potassium-40/Argon-40 dating is used most often. (JN)

Rowe, M. W.

1985-01-01

353

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed s...

F. G. McNatt

1997-01-01

354

Domestic Smoke Detectors Using Radioactive Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in det...

1979-01-01

355

Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2010-10-18

356

USDOE Radioactive Waste Incineration Technology: Status Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continue...

L. C. Borduin A. L. Taboas

1980-01-01

357

Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

1990-12-01

358

Studies of induced radioactivity at the AGS  

SciTech Connect

With the goals of higher proton intensities, along with the many modes the AGS now runs and those being commissioned to run, we have begun detailed studies of the beam induced radioactivity in the AGS.

Brown, K.A.; Tanaka, M.

1987-01-01

359

Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Lab...

N. Karmali

1987-01-01

360

RADIOACTIVITY STANDARDS DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FY 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

A program is described for the distribution of calibrated radioactive samples, as one function of EPA's quality assurance program for environmental radiation measurements. Included is a discussion of the objectives of the distribution program and a description of the preparation,...

361

RADIOACTIVITY STANDARDS DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM, 1978-1979  

EPA Science Inventory

A program for the distribution of calibrated radioactive samples, as one function of EPA's quality assurance program for environmental radiation measurements, is described. Included is a discussion of the objectives of the distribution program and a description of the preparation...

362

Transportation of Radioactive Materials by Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Canadian regulations for air transportation of radioactive materials are based on the IAEA regulations. The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for enforcement. The IAEA regulations are summarized in this report. A review of 402 210 shipments by ai...

J. M. Jardine

1977-01-01

363

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION AND CONVERSION OF SCRAP METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) confronts the major responsibility of decommissioni ng most of the U.S. Nuclear Complex, which also includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of

Jagdish Malhotra

2000-01-01

364

Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for

Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

1999-01-01

365

Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil  

SciTech Connect

The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

Icenhour, A.S.

2005-05-19

366

Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90.

Joel Lubenau

2004-01-01

367

Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

1995-12-31

368

Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and

A. S. Icenhour

2005-01-01

369

Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

1983-02-01

370

Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21 Na  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ? 5×106 ions\\/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV\\/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg\\/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by

M. A. Schumaker; D. Cline; G. Hackman; C. Pearson; C. E. Svensson; C. Y. Wu; A. Andreyev; R. A. E. Austin; G. C. Ball; D. Bandyopadhyay; J. A. Becker; A. J. Boston; H. C. Boston; L. Buchmann; R. Churchman; F. Cifarelli; R. J. Cooper; D. S. Cross; D. Dashdorj; G. A. Demand; M. R. Dimmock; T. E. Drake; P. Finlay; A. T. Gallant; P. E. Garrett; K. L. Green; A. N. Grint; G. F. Grinyer; L. J. Harkness; A. B. Hayes; R. Kanungo; A. F. Lisetskiy; K. G. Leach; G. Lee; R. Maharaj; J. P. Martin; F. Moisan; A. C. Morton; S. Mythili; L. Nelson; O. Newman; P. J. Nolan; J. N. Orce; E. Padilla-Rodal; A. A. Phillips; M. Porter-Peden; J. J. Ressler; R. Roy; C. Ruiz; F. Sarazin; D. P. Scraggs; J. C. Waddington; J. M. Wan; A. Whitbeck; S. J. Williams; J. Wong

2009-01-01

371

PWR-GALE. PWR Effluent Radioactivity Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

PWR-GALE calculates the expected annual releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized light water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field and laboratory tests, and plant-specific considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment during normal operation including anticipated operational occurrences. PWR-GALE

1992-01-01

372

Metal filled resin for stereolithography metal part  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new route to produce metallic parts through stereolithography is explored in this work. Stereolithography of metallic materials consists of a UV curable metallic suspension prepared with a pre-polymer acting as the binder material, a photo-initiator, metallic powder and additives. The critical material and process parameters are investigated in order to identify appropriate photosensitive metallic suspensions for stereolithography, based on

P. J. Bartolo; J. Gaspar

2008-01-01

373

Metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

The novel internal structures of metallic glasses lead to exceptional strength, corrosion resistance, and ease of magnetization. Combined with low manufacturing costs, these properties make glassy ribbons attractive for many applications. These materials also have scientific fascination because their compositions, structures, and properties have unexpected features.

Gilman, J.J.

1980-05-23

374

Heavy Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

Shoemaker, W. Lee

1998-01-01

375

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

376

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14

377

Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many ductile metals in intimate contact with thin coatings of low melting solid metal which exhibit liquid metal embrittlement, also manifest severe embrittlement when tested at temperatures below the melting point of the coating. A significant decrease i...

M. H. Kamdar

1985-01-01

378

Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.  

PubMed

This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4? counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling. PMID:24342558

Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

2014-05-01

379

Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions  

SciTech Connect

Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

NONE

1994-04-01

380

CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

Marra, J.

2010-05-05

381

Cold Metal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an activity on the conductivity and resistivity of various materials. A thermometer and other everyday materials like wood, metal, and styrofoam are used to compare temperatures detected by oneâÂÂs hands with measured temperatures. The site contains an explanation of the observations and descriptions of insulators and conductors as well as materials needed and assembly for the activity. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2008-06-19

382

Metal Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is exploring a unique application of biometrics technologies: a handgun that can recognize its owner and only fire when being held by that person. This innovation could make it impossible for a criminal to steal an officer's firearm and use it against other people. Metal Storm, the company that is working with the NIJ to develop the gun, has presentations and technology descriptions on its home page.

383

Metal Ion Hypersensitivity in Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total hip arthroplasty with use of metal-on-metal bearings has been reintroduced as an alternative to metal-on-polyethylene\\u000a bearings because of theoretical advantages such as reduced wear and a lower prevalence of osteolysis. However, we have observed\\u000a early osteolysis in nine patients (ten hips) out of 165 patients (169 hips) who had been managed with total hip replacements\\u000a using a contemporary metal-on-metal

Y.-S. Park; Y.-W. Moon; S.-J. Lim

384

Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

1999-10-26

385

Imaging DNA with Fluorochrome Bearing Metals  

PubMed Central

Molecules that fluoresce upon binding DNA are widely used in assaying and visualizing DNA in cells and tissues. However, using light to visualize DNA in animals is limited by the attenuation of light transmission by biological tissues. Moreover, it is now clear that DNA is an important mediator of dead cell clearance, coagulation reactions, and an immunogen in autoimmune lupus. Attaching metals (e.g., superparamagnetic nanoparticles, gadolinium ions, radioactive metal ions) to DNA-binding fluorochromes provides a way of imaging DNA in whole animals, and potentially humans, without light. Imaging metal-bearing, DNA-binding fluorochromes and their target DNA by magnetic resonance imaging may shed light on the many key roles of DNA in health and disease beyond the storage of genetic information.

Cho, Hoonsung; Guo, Yanyan; Sosnovik, David E.; Josephson, Lee

2013-01-01

386

Imaging DNA with fluorochrome bearing metals.  

PubMed

Molecules that fluoresce upon binding DNA are widely used in assaying and visualizing DNA in cells and tissues. However, using light to visualize DNA in animals is limited by the attenuation of light transmission by biological tissues. Moreover, it is now clear that DNA is an important mediator of dead cell clearance, coagulation reactions, and an immunogen in autoimmune lupus. Attaching metals (e.g., superparamagnetic nanoparticles, gadolinium ions, radioactive metal ions) to DNA-binding fluorochromes provides a way of imaging DNA in whole animals, and potentially humans, without light. Imaging metal-bearing, DNA-binding fluorochromes and their target DNA by magnetic resonance imaging may shed light on the many key roles of DNA in health and disease beyond the storage of genetic information. PMID:23646914

Cho, Hoonsung; Guo, Yanyan; Sosnovik, David E; Josephson, Lee

2013-11-01

387

Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

2003-02-26

388

Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic, Antarctic  

SciTech Connect

This conference on radioactivity in the Arctic and Antarctic was held in Kirkenes, Norway and sponsored by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Department of Radiation Physics, Sweden's University of Lund. Radioactivity in the Arctic is the result of both natural phenomena and human activities. Natural or background radioactivity is a result of the breakdown and erosion of rocks that contain naturally radioactive minerals. But the levels introduced by dumping, weapons testing, and industrial activities far exceed such natural levels. Conference delegates cited such contamination sources as: Chernobyl's nuclear reactor accident; Wastes from fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France); Weapons testing in and around Novaya Zemlya; Ocean dumping of reactors, waste containers, and liquid wastes; Runoff from watersheds containing soil and organic material contaminated by atmospheric fallout; Atmospheric fallout from decades of weapons tests by various nations; and, Accidents involving nuclear submarines. The potential for increased radioactive pollution is of great concern and these questions were addressed by several speakers.

Palmer, H.

1993-12-01

389

Radioactivity of the moon and planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major results of studies of the radioactivity of the moon and terrestrial planets are reviewed. Measurements of the cosmogenic and natural radioactivity of the moon and Mars were obtained from planetary orbiter measurements, and those of Venus by in situ measurements, in addition to measurements of lunar samples brought back to earth. For the case of the moon, the Western maria on the near side are found to be the most radioactive areas, with highlands on both sides of the moon exhibiting lower radioactivity than the maria and lunar radioactivity levels in general less than those of the earth, which is correlated with different chemical compositions of the two bodies. The potassium, uranium and thorium contents of the landing sites of Veneras 8, 9 and 10 are shown to differ from each other, but be similar to those of terrestrial basalts, which they also resemble in density. Gamma-radiation and X-ray fluorescence measurements of Mars indicate the content of natural radioelements to be similar to that of the eruptive rocks of the earth crust, with Martian rocks of volcanic formations similar to terrestrial and lunar basalts, and those of the ancient terra formations more closely resembling the anorthosite-norite-troctolite association of the lunar highlands. It is pointed out that natural radioelements contents of all the bodies examined indicate a single chemical differentiation process, while cosmogenic radiation contents can aid in determining cosmic ray intensities as well as the sequences of geological events.

Surkov, Iu. A.

390

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14

391

Design and Construction of Deinococcus radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites  

SciTech Connect

Immense volumes of radioactive waste, generated from nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, were disposed directly to the ground. The current expense of remediating these polluted sites is driving the development of alternative remediation strategies using microorganisms. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is the most radiation resistant organism known and can grow in highly irradiating (>60 Gray/h) environments (1). Numerous microorganisms (e.g., Pseudomonas sp.) have been described, and studied in detail, for their ability to transform and degrade a variety of organic pollutants (e.g., toluene), present at many radioactive DOE waste sites. Detoxification of the organic toxins at these sites is an important goal in remediating or stabilizing contaminated sites as well as preventing their further dissemination. The aim of this project is to engineer strains of D. radiodurans that are capable of degrading organic/aromatic hydrocarbons present in radioactive mixed waste sites--sites that contain mixtures of toxic organic compounds, radionuclides and heavy metals. Conventional bioremediating organisms are unable to survive at many of these sites because of their sensitivity to radiation. Generally, microorganisms are sensitive to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, and most of the bacteria currently being studied as candidates for bioremediation are no exception. For example, Pseudomonas sp. is very sensitive to radiation (more sensitive than E. coli) and is not suited to remediate radioactive wastes. Therefore, radiation resistant microorganisms that can remediate toxic organic compounds need to be found in nature or engineered in the laboratory to address this problem.

Daly, Michael J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

1999-06-01

392

Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

Pope, Ron [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Rawl, Richard R [ORNL

2010-01-01

393

Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector  

DOEpatents

A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

394

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

Shappert, L.B.

1998-02-01

395

Low radioactivity spectral gamma calibration facility  

SciTech Connect

A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a lead-shielded run pipe below each model. These models have been analyzed by laboratory natural gamma ray spectroscopy (NGRS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for their K, U, and Th content. Also, 42 other elements were analyzed in the NAA. The /sup 222/Rn emanation data were collected. Calibrating the spectral gamma tool in this low radioactivity calibration facility allows the spectral gamma log to accurately aid in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentrations of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones.

Mathews, M.A.; Bowman, H.R.; Huang, L., H.; Lavelle, M.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hearst, J.R.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

1986-01-01

396

Summary -- Experiments with Radioactive Beams Working Group  

SciTech Connect

During the course of the workshop, a wide range of futuristic radioactive-beam experiments were discussed. These extended from the study of electroweak interactions in nuclei to materials science, nuclear astrophysics, and a host of nuclear physics investigations. Emphasis was placed on illustrating how these prototypical experiments could be done, discussing what types of detection systems would be needed, exploring the new problems which would be confronting the radioactive beam experimenter, and better defining the beam requirements. Contained herein is a summary of these discussions.

Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

1992-12-31

397

MCNP5 code in radioactive particle tracking.  

PubMed

Radioactive particle tracking techniques have been widely applied in the field of chemical engineering, especially in hydrodynamics in multiphase reactors. In classical approach, the phenomenological model is used to simulate the number of counts measured by the detector and then the tracer position is reconstructed by solving a minimisation problem between the measured events and the mentioned model. The paper presents an original algorithm for reconstruction of the tracer position during the radioactive particle tracking based on the Monte Carlo N-Particle code version 5. The validation of the proposed algorithm is evaluated for two cases: 'ideal' and physically realistic. The advantages of the new algorithm are demonstrated. PMID:21601465

Mosorov, Volodymyr; Abdullah, Jaafar

2011-09-01

398

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOEpatents

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01

399

Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of HRIBF is the production of high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions.

Beene, James R [ORNL; Dowling, Darryl T [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Juras, Raymond C [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Meigs, Martha J [ORNL; Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Sinclair, John William [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL

2011-01-01

400

Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated antifoamer appeared to be as effective as nonirradiated antifoamers. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the successful development, demonstration and deployment of the new antifoam in the Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical processing.

Darsh T. Wasan

2002-02-20

401

Beyond low-level activity: on a "non-radioactive" gas mantle.  

PubMed

Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be "non-radioactive" and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), gamma-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of (232)Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud. PMID:17270253

Poljanc, Karin; Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H; Buchtela, Karl; Bichler, Max

2007-03-01

402

Evaluation and analysis of the residual radioactivity for the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility  

SciTech Connect

For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activation of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During acceleration of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder. Study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure. (author)

Sonkawade, R. G. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, N. Delhi-110 067 (India)

2007-07-01

403

In-situ spectroelectrochemical studies of radionuclide contaminated surface films on metals and the mechanism of their formation and dissolution. 1997 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The incorporation of radioactive contaminants into corrosion product scales on metals is being investigated using in-situ spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. To facilitate the study, stable isotopes are used initially, while the corrosion films ...

M. Balasubramanian A. N. Mansour C. A. Melendres S. Mini D. Papapanayiotou

1997-01-01

404

Fabrication of radioactive stents by ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide about one million patients require treatment of stenosed coronary arteries annually. Often a tubular stainless steel mesh (stent) is implanted to mechanically support the injured vessel. Restenosis, an abundant complication (20%-30%) can be prevented, if the vessel is treated with ionizing radiation. Stents can deliver radiation if they are made radioactive. The radio isotope 32P is well suited when

Erhard Huttel; Johann Kaltenbaek; Klaus Schloesser; Hermann Schweickert

2002-01-01

405

Radioactive Waste Management: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The public believes that there is a radioactive waste problem, but knowledge in the field is so well advanced that the only problem left is how to choose the most economically effective method among many available. Tailings from uranium ore processing cou...

A. T. Prince

1977-01-01

406

Radioactive nuclei in material science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive nuclei are used as probes to study structure and dynamical processes in solids on a microscopic scale. Out of the broad field of applications only a few examples are discussed to illustrate how local structure information is obtained using nuclear probes.

H.-E. Mahnke

1995-01-01

407

Fastener Tightening in a Radioactive (Hot) Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate remote tightening of fasteners in a radioactive (Hot) cell can be a very exasperating experience. Viewing can be difficult (in many places) and work sometimes must be done using mirrors and/or cameras. If electro mechanical manipulators are used,...

J. J. Kalk

1986-01-01

408

Ion beam analysis of radioactive samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear microprobe facility of the Pierre Süe Laboratory is fitted with two microbeam lines. One is dedicated to non-active samples. The other one, located in a controlled shielded area, offers the unique feature of being devoted to radioactive samples. Operational since 1998, it is strongly linked to nuclear research programs and has been dimensioned to accept radioactive but non-contaminant radioactive samples, including small quantities of UOX or MOX irradiated fuel. The samples, transported in a shipping cask, are unloaded and handled in hot cells with slaved arms. The analysis chamber, situated in a concrete cell, is equipped with charged particle detectors and a Si(Li) X-ray detector, shielded in order to reduce the radioactive noise produced by the sample, allowing ERDA, RBS, NRA and PIXE. After a description of the facility, including the sample handling in the hot cells and the analysis chamber, we will give an overview of the various experimental programs which have been performed, with an emphasis on the determination of the hydrogen distribution and local content in nuclear fuel cladding tubes.

Raepsaet, C.; Khodja, H.; Bossis, P.; Pipon, Y.; Roudil, D.

2009-06-01

409

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

410

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

411

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 to 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned.A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes

El-Shinawy, Rifaat M. K.

1994-07-01

412

Thermostable Two-Channel Radioactivity Logging Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermostable two-channel radioactivity logging (RL) apparatus, designed to operate at temperatures up to 220 exp 0 C and a hydrostatic pressure up to 1200 kgf/cm exp 2, developed and produced for conducting operations by the gamma logging (GL) and neutr...

E. S. Bakhromi M. V. Posikera

1976-01-01

413

Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester vessel, RADTU recently completed a six-month campaign of processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During the campaign, 2100 kg of

1980-01-01

414

The ORNL Radioactive Ion Beam Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 30, 1992, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) was shut down as an operating national users' facility for heavy ion physics research and became a construction project to reconfigure the existing accelerator system and develop a first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. During its 11 years of operation, the HHIRF had over 600 users, of which

D. K. Olsen; G. D. Alton; R. L. Auble; C. Baktash; D. T. Dowling; J. D. Garrett; D. L. Haynes; C. M. Jones; R. C. Juras; M. J. Meigs; G. D. Mills; S. W. Mosko; R. L. Robinson; B. A. Tatum; H. Blosser; L. Lee; F. Marti; H. K. Carter; J. Kormicki; P. Mantica; L. Rayburn; C. A. Reed

1992-01-01

415

The ORNL Radioactive Ion Beam Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 30, 1992, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) was shut down as an operating national users` facility for heavy ion physics research and became a construction project to reconfigure the existing accelerator system and develop a first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. During its 11 years of operation, the HHIRF had over 600 users, of which

D. K. Olsen; G. D. Alton; R. L. Auble; C. Baktash; D. T. Dowling; J. D. Garrett; D. L. Haynes; C. M. Jones; R. C. Juras; M. J. Meigs; G. D. Mills; S. W. Mosko; R. L. Robinson; B. A. Tatum; H. Blosser; L. Lee; F. Marti; H. K. Carter; J. Kormicki; P. Mantica; L. Rayburn; C. A. Reed; J. Dellwo; H. Wollnik

1992-01-01

416

Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to

Kenneth D. Jarman; Chad Scherrer; L. E. Smith; Lawrence Chilton; K. K. Anderson; Jennifer J. Ressler; Lynn L. Trease

2011-01-01

417

Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the po...

1995-01-01

418

Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bezpe?nostné aspekty mana?mentu rádioaktívneho odpadu In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short- lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-

Peter W. Brennecke

419

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming f...

P. Egidi

1997-01-01

420

Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels

Egidi

1997-01-01

421

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

McNatt; F. G. Sr

1996-01-01

422

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt

1997-01-01

423

Lithium in RadioActive Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE recent results of Mile. Gleditsch (Comptes rendus, cxlvi., p. 331) corroborating those of Prof. McCoy, viz. that lithium is generally, but not always, a constituent of radio-active minerals containing copper, and that there is no fixed proportionality between the copper and the lithium in these minerals, must not be taken to have the exclusive significance which their authors attribute

W. Ramsay

1908-01-01

424

DETERMINATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN SALINE WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the determination of gross radioactivity in ; saline waters is based on the precipitation of many cations as sulfides from ; ammoniacal solution. Carrier lanthanum, iron(III), cobalt(II), zinc, and nickel ; are precipitated while the major sea water salts are left in solution. An ; alkaline earth fraction containing strontium, barium, and radium can be recovered

V. J. Sodd; A. S. Goldin; R. J. Velten

1960-01-01

425

Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has

C. Yu; Y. C. Yuan; A. J. Zielen; A. Wallo

1989-01-01

426

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1999-10-27

427

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified

Richard A. Reichelt; Marc E. Clay; A. Jeffery Eichorst

1998-01-01

428

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of

R. Reichelt; M. Clay; J. Eichorst

1996-01-01

429

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

430

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

Moore, C.J.

2000-04-14

431

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 1994  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1994 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G. Sr.

1995-04-01

432

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-05-01

433

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

McNatt, F.G. Sr.

1996-04-01

434

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1997-04-01

435

Confinement Chamber for Radioactive Products or Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention deals with a confinement chamber for radioactive products or wastes that are kept in tanks or in silos buried in the ground. The chamber comprises a combination of an impervious reinforced concrete (RC) support buried in the ground with an R...

1977-01-01

436

[Loss and uncontrolled use of radioactive sources].  

PubMed

In the course of history, exposure to radioactive sources escaping regular control, has been the main cause of fatal accidents, with the exception of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, numerous lost sources have been found, sometimes with serious physical damage. The attacks of September 11, 2001 have focussed the attention on the possibility of nuclear terrorism. Although the risks of fatal consequences are rather limited, the possible uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation has an important psycho-social impact on the population. After a brief survey of the types of radioactive sources for medical and industrial applications and a discussion of the risks and exposure routes, possible scenarios are illustrated by well documented case histories. The main conclusions of this analysis are: Radioactive materials are not unique as a potential threat by toxic materials. The most serious consequences for individuals occur as the result of external radiation, mostly with skin contact with medium-active sources which are relatively easily accessible. The collective impact is mostly psycho-social and is more important for a dispersed contamination of the environment. Many sources are detected via medical complaints. The knowledge of the specific symptoms is consequently very important. A dispersion of radioactive contamination has usually considerable economic consequences. Accidents occur particularly, but certainly not exclusively, in relatively unstable countries. Change of owner or final evacuation of the source constitute a critical phase in many scenarios. PMID:16408827

Govaerts, P

2005-01-01

437

Notes on Incineration of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of finding commercial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste and temporary storage of residues containing transuranic elements has led to research on using a method to reduce the volume of the waste originating from nuclear inst...

L. M. Martin

1984-01-01

438

Artificial Radioactivity Reference Horizons in Greenland Firn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total beta measurements have been made on melt water samples from a stratigraphically dated firn core profile from the inland Greenland ice sheet (77 deg 10 min N, 61 deg 08 min W). A marked increase in radioactivity is found in the 1953 firn layer which ...

G. Crozaz C. C. Langway E. Picciotto

1966-01-01

439

Review: Radioactive Microspheres for Medical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reviews the preparation and application of radioactive microspheres for medical purposes. It first discusses the properties of relevant radioisotopes and then explores the diagnostic uses of gamma- emitter labeled microspheres, such as blood flow measurement and imaging of the liver and other organs. The therapeutic uses of alpha- and beta-emitting microspheres, such as radioembolization, local tumor therapy

Urs Häfeli

440

Geochemical behavior of disposed radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the complex issue of radioactive waste disposal and the health hazards at underground waste sites. It assesses the chemical and physical behavior of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle, from nuclear weapons testing, and from medical and research activities. It also reports recent findings in this area and looks at ongoing research.

G. S. Barney; W. W. Schulz; J. D. Navratil

1984-01-01

441

Management of Radioactive Waste and Plutonium in the Swedish Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1976 the Governmental Committee on Radioactive Waste (the Aka Committee) submitted its final report to the Swedish Government. The report summarizes a thorough investigation of questions dealing with spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. For Sw...

A. Larsson A. Hultgren J. Lind

1977-01-01

442

Postaccident cleanup analysis for transportation of radioactive materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 5 to 10 million packages of radioactive material and wastes are shipped annually in the US. Most of these shipments consist of small quantities of medical and research isotopes. However, larger quantities of radioactive wastes are shipped by...

S. Y. Chen B. M. Biwer

1998-01-01

443

Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive w...

P. J. Coughtrey

1992-01-01

444

Centralized Collection of Radioactive Wastes. Terms and Definitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The standard is based upon the regulation concerning the centralized collection and storage of radioactive wastes of 11 May 1981 and specifies the practical conditions and interactions during collection, transport, storage, and disposal of radioactive was...

1985-01-01

445

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID) [Moscow, ID; Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID) [Moscow, ID; Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID) [Moscow, ID

1997-01-01

446

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25

447

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1999-03-16

448

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

449

Metals production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

Beck, Theodore S.

1992-01-01

450

Exploring solid state physics properties with radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics for many years. Established nuclear techniques such as Mbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, -NMR and emission channelling have now been joined by new and successful tracer techniques like radioactive deep level transient spectroscopy, capacitance voltage measurements, Hall-effect measurements or photoluminescence spectroscopy. Numerous radioactive species, ranging from to , are employed to

Doris Forkel-Wirth

1999-01-01

451

Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad

Codee

2002-01-01

452

Naturally occurring radioactive materials and medical isotopes at border crossings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) that triggers alarms at border crossings. This paper discusses experience with radiation portal monitors for the interdiction of radioactive materials and the issues raised by NORM. The

R. T. Kouzes; J. H. Ely; B. D. Geelhood; R. R. Hansen; E. A. Lepel; J. E. Schweppe; L. Siciliano; R. A. Warner

2003-01-01

453

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172... Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as follows:...

2013-10-01

454

RADIATION PROTECTION IN ASSOCIATION WITH BARE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS. PART II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the measures of organization necessary for ; safe handling of radioactive material and the methods for supervising the hazards ; of contamination. Furthermore, radioactive decontamination and removal of ; radioactive waste are briefly referred to. An annexal survey of different types ; of laboratories demonstrates the methods of furnishing these places in regard of ;

Gotte

1960-01-01

455

RADIATION PROTECTION IN HANDLING UNSEALED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS. PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conception of a radioactive contamination is explained and the ; hazards are estimated which may result from the uncontrolled spreading of ; radioactive material. Moreover, measures are described to prevent uncontrolled ; contamination and indications are made on how to handle radioactive materials in ; chemical laboratories. (auth);

Gotte

1960-01-01

456

Radioactive waste management at a large university medical research complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes radioactive waste management at Harvard University. To contain costs and to reduce the impact of the low-level radioactive waste policy act, the program takes advantage of decay in storage, incineration, special packaging techniques, and increased training and awareness. A series of metrics, numerical ratios, are presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the radioactive waste management program. Through

J. Ring; F. Osborne; W. Lorenzen

1995-01-01

457

Review of physics, instrumentation and dosimetry of radioactive isotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General radioactive isotope information, stressing radioactivity, methods of measurement, and dosimetry of radioactive nuclides have been reviewed to serve as a reference for the medical profession. Instability of radionuclides, principal types of emission, and measurement of ionizing radiation are among the topics discussed.

Sinclair, W. K.

1967-01-01

458

METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI  

SciTech Connect

One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

Adamson, D.

2012-05-23

459

Melting, Solidification, Remelting, and Separation of Glass and Metal  

SciTech Connect

Several kinds of radioactive waste exist in mixed forms at DOE sites throughout the United States. These Wastes consist of radionuclides and some usefil bme materials. One purpose of waste treatment technologies is to vitrify the radionuclides into durable, stable glass-like materials to reduce the size of the waste form requiring final disposal. The other purpose is to recycle and reuse most of the usefi.d base materials. Thus, improved techniques for the separation of molten metal and glass are essential. Several high temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. These processes include the plasma hearth process, which is being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and the arc melter vitrification process, which is being developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to suppoti these process. A separation method is also needed for the radioactively contaminated scrap metal recycling processe; in order to obtain highly refined recycled metals.

M. A. Ebadian; R. C.Xin; Z. F. Dong

1998-11-02

460

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

1994-09-01

461

10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy...general population from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive...should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general...

2009-01-01

462

10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy...general population from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive...should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general...

2010-01-01

463

Process for recovering niobium and/or tantalum metal compound from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and/or rare earth metals  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering one or more non-radioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, which comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of an acid so that a portion of the ore is brought into solution in a liquid phase and another portion of the ore remains in a solid phase, said compound or compounds of the transition metal or metals to be recovered passing into only the liquid or into only the solid phase, the uranium in the crushed ore being treated so as to cause substantially all of said uranium to be present in an oxidation state in which it cannot, during the decomposition step, pass into the phase containing the transition metal compound or compounds.

Floeter, W.; Schoening, G.; Schroeer, K.

1984-05-29

464

Removal of cobalt, strontium and cesium from radioactive laundry wastewater by ammonium molybdophosphate–polyacrylonitrile (AMP–PAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of ammonium molybdophosphate–polyacrylonitrile (AMP–PAN) on the adsorptive removal of Co, Sr and Cs in the radioactive laundry wastewater generated from nuclear power plants was investigated. Single- and bi-solute competitive adsorptions of Co2+, Sr2+ and Cs+ onto AMP–PAN were investigated. The influencing factors such as co-existing metal ion and surfactants were investigated. Adsorption of Co2+, Sr2+ and Cs+ onto AMP–PAN

Young-Chae Lee; Won Sik Shin; Sang-June Choi

2010-01-01

465

21 CFR 888.3640 - Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. 888...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. ...shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented...

2010-04-01

466

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOEpatents

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12

467

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04

468

Picosecond Silicon Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultrafast characteristics of crystalline-silicon metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with finger widths and spacings down to 200 nm, subjected to femtosecond optical pulse excitations, was measured with a subpicosecond electro-optic sampling s...

T. Y. Hsiang S. Alexandrou C. C. Wang M. Y. Liu S. Y. Chou

1993-01-01

469

Metal-Rich Metal-Metalloid Phases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews borides, carbides, nitrides, and oxides of transition elements, often in combination with non-transitional elements. In the metal rich compunds the metalloid atom is isolated and surrounded by six or eight transition metal atoms in clos...

H. H. Stadelmaier

1969-01-01

470

Integrating natural and social sciences to inspire public confidence in radioactive waste policy case study - Committee on radioactive waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating Natural and Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on Radioactive Waste Management Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experience is littered with policy and programme failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it must also inspire the confidence

Usher

2007-01-01

471

Effect of reduction of strategic Columbium addition in 718 Alloy on the structure and properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Inconel 718, with reduced Cb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Cb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0% to 5.8% were made for the Cb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Cb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Cb and 1.29% Ti were also studied. Tensile properties at rooom and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and an analysis of extracted phases were carried out for each of the alloys. Additions of solid solution elements to a reduced Cb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition. The solution and age alloys with substitutions of 1.27% i at 3.89% Cb had tensile properties similar top hose of the original alloy and stress-rupture properties superior to the original alloy. The improved stress-rupture properties were the result of significant precipitation of Ni3Ti-gamma prime in the alloy, which is more stable than gamma' at the elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, the new alloy benefits from gamma' strengthening. With more precise control and proper processing, the reduced Cb direct-age alloy could substitute for Alloy 718 in high strength applications.

Ziegler, K. R.; Wallace, J. F.

1985-01-01

472

Effect of Microstructure on Superconductivity in the Columbium-Hafnium System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines sought to correlate the variation of structure-sensitive superconducting properties with microstructure in selected Cb-Hf alloys and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by the GLAG theory. Alloys in wire and rod fo...

R. E. Siemens L. L. Oden D. K. Deardorff

1969-01-01

473

Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-generation metal-on-metal (M\\/M) total hip replacements were introduced into clinical use in the late 1980s and demonstrate equivalent survivorship to conventional metal-on-polyethylene prostheses. Wear rates are comparable to those of first-generation designs that survived for a long time in the body. Biological effects from metal ions remain a concern. Patients with both first- and second-generation M\\/M hips have higher levels

John H. Dumbleton; Michael T. Manley

2005-01-01

474

Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history  

SciTech Connect

An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste. By using the Radioactive Material Incident Report data base to evaluate transportation accidents involving commercial low-level radioactive waste, it was found that there have been only four transportation accidents involving the release of commercial low-level radioactive waste in the last 20 years. The accidents were minor, and the released materials were quickly repackaged. There has never been a radiologically related injury or death associated with a transportation accident involving commercial low-level radioactive waste.

Garcia, R.S.

1992-03-01

475

Metal ion release from metal implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal ion release from metallic materials, e.g. stainless steel, cobalt–chromium alloy, titanium, and titanium alloys, implanted into human body was reviewed in this paper. Surface oxide films on metallic materials play an important role as an inhibitor of ion release and they change with the release in vivo. Low concentration of dissolved oxygen, inorganic ions, proteins, and cells may accelerate

T. Hanawa

2004-01-01

476

Prospecting for Precious Metals in Ultra-Metal-Poor Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical compositions of the most metal-poor halo stars are living records of the very early nucleosynthetic history of the Galaxy. Only a few prior generations, if not a single one, of element-donating supernovae could have been responsible for the heavy elements observed in ultra-metal-poor (UMP; [Fe/H] < --2.5) stars. Abundances of the heavy neutron-capture elements (Z > 30) can yield direct information about the supernova progenitors to UMP stars, and abundances of unstable thorium and uranium (Z = 90, 92) can potentially provide age estimates for the Galactic halo. Already, many studies have demonstrated that abundances of rare-earth elements (56 <= Z <= 72) in UMP stars are completely consistent with their production in rapid neutron-capture synthesis (r-process) events, usually believed to occur during supernovae explosions. Therefore, mapping the entire abundance pattern of UMP stars is of significant interest. In particular, abundances of the most massive stable elements (Os -> Pb or 76 <= Z <= 82) could provide crucial information about the so-called ``third r-process peak,'' and are critical to the radioactive-dating technique that uses unstable thorium as a chronometer. Until recently, abundance determinations for these elements have been virtually non-existent, as the strongest relevant transitions lay in the vacuum UV, inaccessible to ground-based observation. The availability of high-resolution space-based spectrometers has opened up new regions of spectral coverage, including precisely the range in wavelength needed to make these sensitive measurements. We have undertaken a study of about 10 metal-poor halo giants to determine the abundances of several of the heaviest neutron-capture elements including platinum, osmium, lead, and gold. Preliminary results indicate that the abundance pattern of heavy neutron-capture elements (56 <= Z <= 82) in UMP stars does mimic a scaled solar system r-process. Thus, the ability to estimate the initial abundances of thorium and uranium is greatly reinforced.

French, R. S.

2000-05-01

477

A Novel Radioactive Isotope Ion Target SCRIT  

SciTech Connect

Electron scattering is a superior method to investigate the internal structure, such as charge distribution, of atomic nuclei. Most of the radii of nuclei were determined unambiguously by that. However, radioactive isotopes (RI) which recently came up to a major research interest have not been accessible due to the difficulty in making fixed targets and taking measurements before they decay. We proposed a conceptually new target called SCRIT (Self-Confining Radioactive Isotope ion Target) as opposed to a collider method. The luminosity expected for SCRIT is inevitably low (typically on the order of 1.E+27/cm{sup 2}/s) and a large acceptance detector system is required. We plan to perform a coincidence measurement using an electron arm and a recoil ion detector which needs to be developed. Current status of the ion trapping with a prototype SCRIT and the background measurement results in an electron storage ring will be discussed.

Kurita, Kazuyoshi [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro Toshima, Tokyo, 171-8501 (Japan); Cycltron Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuya [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro Toshima, Tokyo, 171-8501 (Japan); Koseki, Tadashi [Accelerator Division I, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Noda, Akira; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tongu, Hiromu [Center for Beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Furukawa, Yukihiro; Tamae, Tadaaki [Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Mikamine, Taihaku, Sendai, 982-0826 (Japan); Ito, Sachiko; Emoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Masato; Wakasugi, Masanori; Yano, Yasushige [Cycltron Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Suda, Toshimi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Wang Shuo [RI Beam Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

2006-11-20

478

Proton radioactivity with a Yukawa effective interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-lives of proton radioactivity of proton emitters are investigated theoretically. Proton-nucleus interaction potentials are obtained by folding the densities of the daughter nuclei with a finite-range effective nucleon-nucleon interaction having Yukawa form. The Wood-Saxon density distributions for the nuclei used in calculating the nuclear as well as the Coulomb interaction potentials are predictions of the interaction. The quantum mechanical tunneling probability is calculated within the WKB framework. These calculations provide reasonable estimates for the observed proton radioactivity lifetimes. The effects of neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich asymmetric matter as well as the nuclear matter incompressibility on the decay probability are investigated.

Routray, T. R.; Tripathy, S. K.; Dash, B. B.; Behera, B.; Basu, D. N.

2011-08-01

479

Permanent disposal of radioactive particulate waste  

SciTech Connect

A system for storage and encapsulation of radioactive particulate waste, is described comprising: a cartridge having a liquid impervious casing enclosing a waster storage region, a ferromagnetic waste storage matrix housed in the cartridge and occupying at least a major portion of the waste storage region, and an inlet conduit and at least one outlet conduit projecting from the cartridge and communicating with the waste storage region; means for establishing a magnetic field in the matrix; fluid handling means including a source of liquid containing the radioactive waste to be stored in the cartridge, a source of encapsulating material, and a receptacle for receiving flushing water; cartridge filling means including conduits releasably couplable to the conduits associated with the cartridge; and fluid flow control means including remotely controllable valves connected between the fluid handling means and the cartridge filling means.

Troy, M.

1988-04-19

480

Radioactive targets for nuclear accelerator experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of a nuclear accelerator target is assessed in terms of its purity, mechanical strength, thickness uniformity and microstructure. High vacuum thin film condensation is the preferred production method, because it results in microscopically smooth targets of high purity. Special variants of this technique are used in our hot laboratory to prepare radioactive targets of good macroscopic and microscopic homogeneity while keeping the consumption of isotopic material on a low level. A particular type of carbon backing provides excellent mechanical strength to the targets. New equipment including modern production plants as well as glove boxes and hot cell facilities permits to maintain the service for a long period. In nuclear physics experiments with radioactive targets problems may arise from a possible contamination of the beam line or other equipment. A few protective measures to overcome these difficulties are mentioned.

Maier, H. J.; Grossmann, R.; Friebel, H. U.

1991-05-01

481

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

Moxham, Robert M.

1954-01-01

482

ORNL Radioactive Beams for Stellar Explosion Studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear reactions on unstable nuclei generate the energy that power nova explosions and X-ray bursts. In these explosions and others such as supernovae, these reactions serve to synthesize nuclei that (via their decay) can serve as tracers of the explosion mechanism. A powerful approach to improve our understanding of these explosions is to utilize beams of radioactive nuclei for direct and indirect measurements of these reactions. We are pursuing this approach at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study reactions in the rp-process (with beams of {sup 17,18}F) and the r-process (with beams of {sup 82}Ge, {sup 84}Se {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te). These measurements are combined with synergistic data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Highlights of recent results are presented.

Smith, Michael S. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6354 (United States)

2008-05-21

483

USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review  

SciTech Connect

Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included.

Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

1980-01-01

484

Two-proton radioactivity of 45Fe  

SciTech Connect

In an experiment at the SISSI-LISE3 facility of GANIL, the decay of the proton drip line nucleus 45Fe has been studied. Fragment-implantation events have been correlated with radioactive decay events in a 16x16 pixel silicon-strip detector. The decay-energy spectrum of 45Fe implants shows a distinct peak at (1.14+/-0.04) MeV with a half-life of T(1/2)=(4.7(+3.4)(-1.4)) ms. None of the events in this peak is in coincidence with beta particles. For a longer correlation interval, daughter decays of the two-proton daughter 43Cr can be observed after 45Fe implantation. The decay energy for 45Fe agrees nicely with several theoretical predictions for two-proton radioactivity.

Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Grigorenko, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, Mustafa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2009-01-01

485

Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

Sattler, L.R.

1992-10-01

486

Fabrication of radioactive stents by ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide about one million patients require treatment of stenosed coronary arteries annually. Often a tubular stainless steel mesh (stent) is implanted to mechanically support the injured vessel. Restenosis, an abundant complication (20%-30%) can be prevented, if the vessel is treated with ionizing radiation. Stents can deliver radiation if they are made radioactive. The radio isotope 32P is well suited when ion implanted. Radioactive ions sources require high efficiency to keep the radioactive inventory small. Reliability, ease of operation, and maintenance are mandatory. A small emittance is important to minimize losses during mass separation and beam transport. A 2.45 GHz ECR source was developed for the implantation of 32P. The source consists of two coils for the axial and a permanent hexapole for the radial confinement. The microwaves are fed in radially by a loop connected to a silver plated brass tube surrounding the plasma chamber. The plasma chamber is made from Pyrex. Neutron activated phosphorus, containing 30 ppm 32P, is introduced from the rear end on a rod. As support gas D2 is used. By this 32P+ can be separated from (31PD)+. The extraction is done in two steps: 60 kV-30 kV-ground. Mass separation is accomplished by a double focusing 90° magnet (radius 500 mm). During four years of operation about 1000 radioactive stents per year have been provided for animal experiments and clinical trials. Only one maintenance to exchange the extraction system due to degradation of high voltage stability was required so far.

Huttel, Erhard; Kaltenbaek, Johann; Schloesser, Klaus; Schweickert, Hermann

2002-02-01

487

Radioactive fuel cask railcar humping study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of two radioactive shipping casks due to railroad humping shocks was calculated using a spring-mass model. The two railcars for these casks had different coupling mechanisms and different tiedown arrangements. Humping tests had been performed on one of the railcars (ATMX-600) and the resulting shock spectra was used to adjust the spring-mass model to get matching results. One

1978-01-01

488

Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists\\u000a no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil,\\u000a building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity\\u000a concentrations of the natural radionuclides

Nevzat Damla; Ugur Cevik; Ali Ihsan Kobya; Berna Ataksor; Umit Is?k

2010-01-01

489

Radioactive isotopes in solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of solid state physics techniques is using radioactive ion beams, both from on-line and off-line separators. The different techniques can be roughly subdivided into two classes: one, including the hyperfine techniques like Mößbauer spectroscopy (MS), Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy, beta-NMR and the ion-beam technique of Emission Channeling (EC). They all crucially depend on the availability of

D. Forkel-Wirth

1996-01-01

490

Radioactive isotopes in solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of solid state physics techniques is using radioactive ion beams, both from on-line and off-line separators. The different techniques can be roughly subdivided into two classes: one, including the hyperfine techniques like Mößbauer spectroscopy (MS), Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy, ?-NMR and the ion-beam technique of Emission Channeling (EC). They all crucially depend on the availability of

Doris Forkel-Wirth

1997-01-01

491

Radioactive-ion-beam research at Livermore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to produce secondary radioactive heavy ion beams which can be isolated, focused, and transported to a secondary target can enable reaction studies and other research with the approximately more than 1300 nuclei with decay lifetimes approximately more than 1 microsec. Current research in secondary beam production and future applications in astrophysics, nuclear structure, heavy ion physics, and radiotherapy are examined as well as associated spin off and technology transfer in applied physics.

Haight, R. C.; Mathews, G. J.; Ward, R. A.; Woosley, S. E.

1983-06-01

492

Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observational data in the period 1971–1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24Na, 32P, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce and 239Np

E. G. Tertyshnik

1995-01-01

493

Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

2003-01-28

494

Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes  

SciTech Connect

The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

1999-12-03

495

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Darío R. Gómez; Michael Tyacke

496

Natural radioactivity levels in Andalusian spas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross-? and gross-? activity, 222Rn, 226Ra and 224Ra of waters from several spas of Andalusia (Spain) were performed in order to determine their radioactivity. Radon concentration ranged from 0.225 to 130Bq\\/l. 226Ra and 224Ra concentrations ranged from 2 to 1367mBq\\/l and from 2 to 122mBq\\/l respectively. Correlations between the 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations and gross-? activity were obtained. A correlation

C Dueñas; M. C Fernández; C Enr??quez; J Carretero; E Liger

1998-01-01

497

Radioactive Particles Released from Different Nuclear Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following releases from severe nuclear events such as nuclear weapon tests, use of depleted uranium ammunition and reactor\\u000a explosions or fire, a major fraction of refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) is present as particles,\\u000a often ranging from submicrons to fragments. Radioactive particles and colloids are also released via effluents from reprocessing\\u000a facilities and civil reactors, and

Brit Salbu