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1

40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum...

2010-07-01

2

40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum...

2013-07-01

3

40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum...

2012-07-01

4

40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory...NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory...Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum...

2011-07-01

5

Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

Papp, John F.

2007-01-01

6

Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2001-01-01

7

Columbium Availability--Market Economy Countries. A Minerals Availability Appraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has investigated the availability of columbium from 19 deposits (3 producers and 16 nonproducers) in 7 market economy countries (MEC's). Brazil has the largest recoverable columbium resource, posessing approximately 2.39 million metric...

F. W. Miller, R. J. Fantel, D. A. Buckingham

1986-01-01

8

Vanadium and columbium additions in pressure vessel steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistically designed series of vanadium and columbium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in post weld heat treated (PWHT) multi-pass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the columbium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.% GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of

P. Xu; B. R. Somers; A. W. Pense

1994-01-01

9

Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

1971-01-01

10

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

11

Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

Culp, J. D.

1973-01-01

12

INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report  

SciTech Connect

DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

Funk, D.M.

1994-09-01

13

Effect of solutes in binary columbium /Nb/ alloys on creep strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of seven different solutes in binary columbium (Nb) alloys on creep strength was determined from 1400 to 3400 F for solute concentrations to 20 at.%, using a new method of creep-strength measurement. The technique permits rapid determination of approximate creep strength over a large temperature span. All of the elements were found to increase the creep strength of columbium except tantalum. This element did not strengthen columbium until the concentration exceeded 10 at.%. Hafnium, zirconium, and vanadium strengthed columbium most at low temperatures and concentrations, whereas tungsten, molybdenum, and rhenium contributed more to creep strength at high temperatures and concentrations.

Klein, M. J.; Metcalfe, A. G.

1973-01-01

14

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

15

Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.  

PubMed

With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

Turner, Ray

2006-11-01

16

The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

1973-01-01

17

Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-phase program to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a metallic heat shield suitable for use on Space Shuttle Orbiter class vehicles at operating surface temperatures of up to 1590 K (2400 F) is summarized. An orderly progression of configuration studies, material screening tests, and subscale structural tests was performed. Scale-up feasibility was demonstrated in the final phase when a sizable nine-panel array was fabricated and successfully tested. The full-scale tests included cyclic testing at reduced air pressure to 1590 K (2400 F) and up to 158 dB overall sound pressure level. The selected structural configuration and design techniques succesfully eliminated thermal induced failures. The thermal/structural performance of the system was repeatedly demonstrated. Practical and effective field repair methods for coated columbium alloys were demonstrated. Major uncertainties of accessibility, refurbishability, and durability were eliminated.

Black, W. E.

1977-01-01

18

Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States [Chapters A-M : gold, platinum, chromium, zinc, magnesium, lead, iron, manganese, columbium (niobium), tantalum, tin, molybdenum, and cobalt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

USGS Circular 1196, 'Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,' presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than half of the U.S. metal supply by weight and roughly 40 percent by value.

Sibley, Scott F., (Edited By)

2004-01-01

19

Radioactive materials in recycled metals--an update.  

PubMed

In April 1995, Health Physics published a review paper titled "Radioactive Materials in Recycled Metals." At that time, 35 accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills were reported, including 22 in the U.S., along with 293 other events in the U.S. where radioactive material was found in metals for recycling. Since that date, there have been additional accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills both in the U.S. and elsewhere. There also was an incident in Texas that involved stolen radioactive devices, which resulted in exposures of members of the general public. Also, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission took steps to address the underlying problem of inadequate control and accountability of radioactive materials licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Steel Manufacturers Association made available data collected by its members beginning in 1994 that expanded the database for radioactive materials found by the metal recycling industry in recycled metal scrap to over 2,300 reports as of 30 June 1997. PMID:9482594

Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

1998-03-01

20

Coated columbium thermal protection systems: An assessment of technological readiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry simulation. Production of the alloy, the coating, and full-sized TPS panels is well within current manufacturing technology. Small defects which arise from impact damage or from local coating breakdown do not appear to have serious immediate consequences in the use environment anticipated for the space shuttle orbiter TPS.

Levine, S. R.; Grisaffe, S. J.

1973-01-01

21

WELDING CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL COLUMBIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welding characteristics of three commercial Nb-base alloys (FS82, ; D31, and F48) were investigated. Both gas tungsten-arc and electron beam welding ; were included. Welds were evaiuated for bend ductility transition temperature, ; hardness, tensile strength, and microstructure. The effects of travei speed, ; shielding gas composition and purity, filler metal additions, preheat, and ; postheat were investigated. Gas

J. M. Gerken; J. M. Faulkner

1963-01-01

22

Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.  

PubMed

In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce. PMID:17033456

Chen, S Y

2006-11-01

23

Oxidation at through-hole defects in fused slurry silicide coated columbium alloys FS-85 and Cb-752  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal recession and interstitial contamination at 0.08-centimeter-diameter through-hole intentional defects in fused slurry silicide coated FS-85 and Cb-752 columbium alloys were studied to determine the tolerance of these materials to coating defects. Five external pressure reentry simulation exposures to 1320 C and 4.7 x 1,000 N/sq m (maximum pressure) resulted in a consumed metal zone having about twice the initial defect diameter for both alloys with an interstitial contamination zone extending about three to four initial defect diameters. Self-healing occurred in the 1.33 x 10 N/sq m, 1320 C exposures and to a lesser extent in internal pressure reentry cycles to 1320 C and 1.33 x 100 N/sq m (maximum pressure).

Levine, S. R.

1973-01-01

24

Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

1995-08-01

25

48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following elements: Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium (columbium...iron in excess of 10 percent; or (B) Cobalt alloys that contain a total of alloying metals other than cobalt and iron in excess of 10 percent;...

2011-10-01

26

48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent; or (B) Containing more than 0.25 percent of any of the following elements: Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium (columbium), titanium, tungsten, or vanadium; (ii) Metal alloys consisting of— (A)...

2013-10-01

27

Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [US Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-11-01

28

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

2010-08-01

29

Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova Italy (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-04

30

Characterization of Solidified Products Yielded by Plasma Melting Treatment of Simulated Non-Metallic Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of an advanced volume reduction program for low level radioactive wastes in JAERI, melting tests of non-metallic solid wastes have been conducted with the aim of establishing the optimum melting condition for preparation of a stable solid that is suitable for disposal. Simulated non-metallic wastes containing Co, Cs and Eu tracers were melted with a plasma torch

Mikio NAKASHIMA; Toshiki FUKUI; Nobuyuki NAKASHIO; Motoyasu ISOBE; Atsushi OHTAKE; Takuji WAKUI; Takakuni HIRABAYASHI

2002-01-01

31

Development and fabrication of a diffusion welded Columbium alloy heat exchanger. [for space power generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mini Brayton space power generation system required the development of a Columbium alloy heat exchanger to transfer heat from a radioisotope heat source to a He/Xe working fluid. A light-weight design featured the simultaneous diffusion welding of 148 longitudinal fins in an annular heat exchanger about 9-1/2 in. in diameter, 13-1/2 in. in length and 1/4 in. in radial thickness. To complete the heat exchanger, additional gas ducting elements and attachment supports were added by GTA welding in a vacuum-purged inert atmosphere welding chamber. The development required the modification of an existing large size hot isostatic press to achieve HIP capabilities of 2800 F and 10,000 psi for at least 3 hr. Excellent diffusion welds were achieved in a high-quality component which met all system requirements.

Zimmerman, W. F.; Duderstadt, E. C.; Wein, D.; Titran, R. H.

1978-01-01

32

Development of melt refining decontamination technology for low level radioactive metal waste contaminated with uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of Melt Refining Decontamination by Slagging (MRDS) havs been performed for the release and recycling of Low Level Radioactive Metal Waste (LLRMW) contaminated with uranium discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Experiments and their evaluation have been performed for the decontamination performance of the waste containing aluminum and have clarified the followings. Simulated waste was decontaminated to 0.01 Bq/g when the addition of aluminum is below 1.5 wt% in laboratory scale test equipment. This was demonstrated also in the engineering scale experiment for MRDS. These results demonstrate that the MRDS is an effective processing technology for low level radioactive metal waste with uranium.

Aoyama, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Suto, O.

2005-02-01

33

Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported concerning the development of a system of mathematical solutions and computer programs for one- and two-dimensional analyses for thermal stresses. Reports presented include: the investigation of thermal stress and buckling of tantalum and columbium sheet; and analysis of two dimensional thermal strains and metal movement during welding.

Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.

1973-01-01

34

Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

2014-02-01

35

Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

Kessinger, G.F.

1993-10-01

36

Feasibility of producing cast-refractory metal-fiber superalloy composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of direct casting as a practical method for producing cast superalloy tungsten or columbium alloy fiber composites while retaining a high percentage of fiber strength. Fourteen nickel base, four cobalt, and three iron based matrices were surveyed for their degree of reaction with the metal fibers. Some stress-rupture results were obtained at temperatures of 760, 816, 871, and 1093 C for a few composite systems. The feasibility of producing acceptable composites of some cast nickel, cobalt, and iron matrix alloys with tungsten or columbium alloy fibers was demonstrated.

Mcintyre, R. D.

1973-01-01

37

Traitement par fusion des dechets metalliques contamines faible activite. (Fusion process for metallic wastes slightly contaminated by radioactive substances).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To ameliorate the management of metallic wastes lightly contaminated by radioactive substances and coming from nuclear installations dismantling, the Radiation Protection Service of Saclay has undertaken the study of fusion process for these wastes. After...

C. Doucet

1988-01-01

38

The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments  

SciTech Connect

The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

1997-05-01

39

Evaluation of coated columbium test panels having application to a secondary nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine system, parts 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activity performed on the screening and evaluation of various coatings for application on columbium alloy test panels representative of a radiation-cooled nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine is summarized. Vendors and processes of candidate coatings were evaluated. Post engine test evaluations of the two selected coatings are discussed.

Murphy, Kenneth S.; Castro, Joaquin H.

1988-01-01

40

Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

41

Natural radioactivity and trace metals in crude oils: implication for health.  

PubMed

Crude oil samples were collected from six different fields in the central Niger Delta in order to determine their natural radioactivity and trace element contents, with the aim of assessing the radiological health implications and environmental health hazard of the metals, and also to provide natural radioactivity baseline data that could be used for more comprehensive future study in this respect. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were measured using a well, accurately calibrated and shielded vertical cryostat, Canberra coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector system, and the derived doses were evaluated. The metal concentrations were determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopic (GFAAS) method. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by (238)U and (232)Th along with the non-decay series radionuclide, (40)K. The averaged activity concentrations obtained were 10.52 +/- 0.03 Bq kg(-1), 0.80 +/- 0.37 Bq kg(-1) and 0.17 +/- 0.09 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th, respectively. The equivalent doses were very low, ranging from 0.0028 to 0.012 mSv year(-1) with a mean value of 0.0070 mSv year(-1). The results obtained were low, and hence, the radioactivity content from the crude oils in the Niger delta oil province of Nigeria do not constitute any health hazard to occupationally exposed workers, the public and the end user. The concentrations of the elements (As, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and V) determined ranged from 0.73 to 202.90 ppb with an average of 74.35 ppb for the oil samples analysed. The pattern of occurrence of each element agreed with the earlier studies from other parts of the Niger Delta. It was obvious from this study and previous ones that the Niger Delta oils have low metal contents. However, despite the low concentrations, they could still pose an intrinsic health hazard considering their cumulative effects in the environment. Also, various studies on the impact of oil spillage and activities of oil exploration and production on organisms in the immediate environment suggest this. PMID:18320332

Ajayi, T R; Torto, N; Tchokossa, P; Akinlua, A

2009-02-01

42

Design and analysis report for the flight weight 20-inch Columbium secondary nozzle for the RL10 engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pratt & Whitney (P and W) is currently under contract to NASA-LeRC for a multi-year program to evaluate the feasibility of the RL10-IIB/IIC engine models and the various improvements which broaden the engine capabilities and range of applications. The features being evaluated include the operation of the RL10 engine at low thrust levels and/or high mixture ratio levels and the addition of a high area ratio (250:1) translating nozzle to the engine to increase its specific impulse while shortening the installed engine length. The translating nozzle for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine is approximately 55 inches long with an exit plane diameter of 71 inches and an inlet plane diameter of 40 inches. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. The length of the subscale nozzle is 20 in.; its exit diameter is 46 in. With the nozzle in the stowed position, an RL10A-3-3A engine system is 70 inches long (Area Ratio = 61:1); with the nozzle deployed the engine length and area ratio are increased to 90 inches and 83:1 respectively. The increase in area ratio provides a calculated increase of 7 + or - 1 second of specific impulse.

Castro, J. H.

1989-01-01

43

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

44

Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?  

SciTech Connect

During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D. [and others

1996-06-01

45

Viscoplasticity of simulated high-level radioactive waste glass containing platinum group metal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear rate dependency of the viscosity of three simulated high-level radioactive waste glasses containing 0, 1.2 and 4.5 wt% platinum group metals (PGMs) was examined at a temperature range of 1173-1473 K by a rotating viscometer. Shear stress when the shear rate equals zero, i.e. yield stress, was also measured by capillary method. The viscosity of the glass containing no PGM was shear rate-independent Newtonian fluid. On the other hand, the apparent viscosity of the glasses containing PGMs increased with decreasing shear rate, and nonzero amount of yield stresses were detected from both glasses. The viscosity and yield stress of the glass containing 4.5 wt% PGMs was roughly one to two orders of magnitude greater than the glass containing 1.2 wt% PGMs. These viscoplastic properties were numerically expressed by Casson equation.

Uruga, Kazuyoshi; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji

2014-09-01

46

Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.  

PubMed

Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well ?-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. PMID:25061724

Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

2014-01-01

47

Treatment of waters polluted with radioactive elements and heavy metals by means of a laboratory passive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waters polluted with toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, arsenic and sulphates were efficiently treated by means of a laboratory-scale passive system consisting of an anaerobic cell and a constructed wetland. These waters were polluted in a stream receiving leachates from an operating copper tailings dam and other effluents from man-induced activities at the area of Vromos Bay in Bulgaria. The

S. N. Groudev; S. G. Bratcova; K. Komnitsas

1999-01-01

48

RADIOACTIVE TRACER STUDIES ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF SOLID SOLUTIONS OF METALS. II. THE SYSTEM Mg-Cd  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the formation of a surface layer on Mg--Cd alloys in ; O.1N HâSOâ at room temperature. The radioactive isotope Rb⁸⁶ ; was used to determine the depth of the micropores at the metal and alloy surfaces. ; As a result the following mean values for the depths of the micropores before ; corrosion were obtained:

N. N. Gratsianskii; P. F. Kaluzhnaya

1959-01-01

49

Conditions of accumulation of radioactive metals in the process of differentiation of ultrabasic alkaline-carbonatite rock associations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of radioactive elements in alkaline rocks from Polar Siberia and Ukraine shows that U and Th are markedly concentrated in carbonatite complex and nepheline syenite as final products of magma fractionation. Peralkaline nepheline syenites from Polar Siberia are characterized by very high contents of radioactive elements, which are close to the economic level. Radioactive elements are also concentrated in rocks of the carbonatite complex. For example, some soevites contain up to 294 × 10-4%U and 916 × 10-4% Th. In late dolomite carbonatites, the contents of radioactive elements are appreciably lower. The Th/U ratio in alkaline rocks of Polar Siberia is close to the chondrite value in primary high-Mg rocks and increases in late derivatives: phoscorite, calcite and dolomite carbonatites. The main amount of radioactive elements is contained in rare-metal accessory minerals: perovskite, pyrochlore, calzirtite, and apatite. Rock-forming minerals are distinguished by very low concentrations of radioactive elements. In alkaline series of the Chernigovka massif (Ukraine), U and Th also accumulate in the course of crystal fractionation, especially in phoscorites from the carbonatite complex. Mantle xenoliths and alkaline rocks from Ukraine reveal uranium specialization. Most likely, the discrepancy in fractionation of radioactive elements between Polar Siberia and Ukraine is caused by different geodynamic regimes of these provinces. The Mesozoic alkaline magmatism of Polar Siberia is a part of the Siberian superplume, whereas the Proterozoic alkaline complex in Ukraine is related to subduction of the oceanic crust.

Kogarko, L. N.

2014-07-01

50

Consistency and efficiency of standard swipe procedures taken on slightly radioactive contaminated metal surfaces.  

PubMed

In radiation work areas, a standard "swipe" procedure is widely used to evaluate the extent of contamination on surfaces. This report documents the variability in results of swipes carried out on various metal surfaces and the variability between different experienced health physics technicians. Also, there is an issue of the efficiency of the first swipe in terms of what fraction of the total absorbed surface contamination is detected by a swipe. The samples used for this study were metal surfaces uniformly exposed in the spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant The primary surfaces studied were those usually found on spent fuel transportation casks (mainly 304 stainless steel in the U.S.), which are submerged in the spent fuel pools for loading or unloading of the highly radioactive fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants. These surfaces become contaminated with suspended and dissolved radionuclides, primarily 137Cs, 134Cs, and 60Co, in the spent fuel pool. A detailed evaluation was conducted of variations in the swipe measurements made on these metal samples using repeated swipes of the same area by the same technician and comparing swipes of one technician to those of another on similar surfaces. Rough surface finishes showed considerable inconsistency (approximately 30% variation) from one technician to another, but smooth surface finishes show substantially better consistency (<10% variation) between technicians. The "efficiencies" of a single swipe, particularly the initial swipe, expressed as a fraction of total "removable" contamination, ranged from approximately 10% to 20% for the stainless steel and titanium surfaces. Aluminum surfaces, on the other hand, showed much higher efficiencies on the initial swipe. However, in terms of the total contamination imbedded in the surfaces, the first swipe picked up only between 0.5% and 3% of the total adsorbed contamination. The overall results show the wide variations that routinely occur in swipe results on portions of surfaces that would be expected to give consistent results. These difference are an order of magnitude or more greater than the counting statistical errors. PMID:11316089

Jung, H; Kunze, J F; Nurrenbern, J D

2001-05-01

51

Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report  

SciTech Connect

The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

Mizia, R.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Metal Recycle; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1994-08-01

52

Development and fabrication of high strength alloy fibers for use in metal-metal matrix composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal fiber reinforced superalloys are being considered for construction of critical components in turbine engines that operate at high temperature. The problems involved in fabricating refractory metal alloys into wire form in such a manner as to maximize their strength properties without developing excessive structural defects are described. The fundamental principles underlying the development of such alloy fibers are also briefly discussed. The progress made to date in developing tungsten, tantalum and columbium base alloys for fiber reinforcement is reported and future prospects for alloy fiber development considered.

King, G. W.; Petrasek, D. W.

1979-01-01

53

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS BY STRONGLY MAGNETIC IRON SULFIDE NANOPARTICLES PRODUCED BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly magnetic iron sulfide material was studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake was rapid and loading on the adsorbent was high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions were chemisorbed. The structural

J. H. P. Watson; I. W. Croudace; P. E. Warwick; P. A. B. James; J. M. Charnock; D. C. Ellwood

2001-01-01

54

Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments.  

PubMed

We have developed a radiation resistant bacterium for the treatment of mixed radioactive wastes containing ionic mercury. The high cost of remediating radioactive waste sites from nuclear weapons production has stimulated the development of bioremediation strategies using Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation resistant organism known. As a frequent constituent of these sites is the highly toxic ionic mercury (Hg) (II), we have generated several D. radiodurans strains expressing the cloned Hg (II) resistance gene (merA) from Escherichia coli strain BL308. We designed four different expression vectors for this purpose, and compared the relative advantages of each. The strains were shown to grow in the presence of both radiation and ionic mercury at concentrations well above those found in radioactive waste sites, and to effectively reduce Hg (II) to the less toxic volatile elemental mercury. We also demonstrated that different gene clusters could be used to engineer D. radiodurans for treatment of mixed radioactive wastes by developing a strain to detoxify both mercury and toluene. These expression systems could provide models to guide future D. radiodurans engineering efforts aimed at integrating several remediation functions into a single host. PMID:10625398

Brim, H; McFarlan, S C; Fredrickson, J K; Minton, K W; Zhai, M; Wackett, L P; Daly, M J

2000-01-01

55

Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release  

SciTech Connect

Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (Germany)

2007-07-01

56

Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

Stephens, J. R.

1975-01-01

57

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

1996-01-01

58

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21

59

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21

60

Heavy Metal and Radioactivity Concentrations in Soil and Moss Samples from Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in the moss (Hypnum cupressiforme and Scleropodium purum) and topsoil (0-5 cm) samples collected from Istanbul were analysed to estimate heavy metal deposition. The activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 238U, 232Th), organic matter contents and pH values of the topsoil samples were also measured. The trace element

Önder Kiliç; Yavuz Çotuk

61

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

62

Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

1993-02-01

63

Slag-based materials for toxic metal and radioactive waste stabilization  

SciTech Connect

The salt solution produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a low-level hazardous waste and has both corrosive and metal toxicity characteristics. A wasteform was designed to stabilize this solution. The objectives were: to eliminate the hazardous characteristics of the waste; and to minimize the release of potential contaminants, such as NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, so that drinking water standards would be maintained for groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site. The ability to produce the wasteform in high volumes and emplace it in an engineered landfill was also necessary for treating and disposing of the large amount of waste. EP toxicity and TCLP testing was conducted to determine whether various saltstone mixes qualified as nonhazardous according to EPA guidelines. Impact of the design landfill on the groundwater was modeled by numeric methods. Data from laboratory leaching studies, large-scale saltstone lysimeter experiments, and disposal site characterization studies were used in the performance assessment. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Langton, C.A.

1989-01-01

64

M551 metals melting experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron beam welding studies were conducted in the Skylab M551 metals melting experiment, on three different materials; namely 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 304L stainless steel, and commercially pure tantalum (0.5 wt % columbium). Welds were made in both one gravity and zero gravity (Skylab) environments. Segments from each of the welds were investigated by microhardness, optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, and electron probe techniques. In the 2219-T87 aluminum alloy samples, macroscopic banding and the presence of an eutectic phase in the grain boundaries of the heat affected zone were observed. The stainless steel samples exhibited a sharp weld interface and macroscopic bands. The primary microstructural features found in the tantalum were the presence of either columnar grains (ground base) or equiaxed grains (Skylab). The factors contributing to these effects are discussed and the role of reduced gravity in welding is considered.

Busch, G.

1977-01-01

65

Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous\\/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and

Laura A. Vanderberg; Trudi M. Foreman; Moses Attrep; James R. Brainard; Nancy N. Sauer

1999-01-01

66

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 6, Noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition, and formic acid/denitration  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

67

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

68

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

69

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

70

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

71

WM '04 Conference, February 29 March 4, 2004, Tucson, AZ WM-4085 METAL MATRIX IMMOBILISATION OF SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES FOR SAFE  

E-print Network

of radiation fields and concentrations of radionuclides from SRS may far exceed high-level radioactive wasteBq/kgCategory of Waste beta alpha transuranic Low Level Level 103 and considerably enhances the level of physical protection of SRS. INTRODUCTION Sealed radioactive sources (SRS

Sheffield, University of

72

Simulated Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

Boettler, James L.

1972-01-01

73

Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 3, phase 3: Full size TPS evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal protection system (TPS), designed for incorporation with space shuttle orbiter systems, consists of one primary heat shield thermally and structurally isolated from the test fixture by eight peripheral guard panels, all encompassing an area of approximately 12 sq ft. TPS components include tee-stiffened Cb 752/R-512E heat shields, bi-metallic support posts, panel retainers, and high temperature insulation blankets. The vehicle primary structure was simulated by a titanium skin, frames, and stiffeners. Test procedures, manufacturing processes, and methods of analysis are fully documented. For Vol. 1, see N72-30948; for Vol. 2, see N74-15660.

Baer, J. W.; Black, W. E.

1974-01-01

74

Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them.  

PubMed

Natural resources such as ores and rocks contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If these resources contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the radioactive activity in these resources. In this study, concentrations of radioactive nuclides in Th, Zr, Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan were investigated. The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while those of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrum. We found the concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series, and (40)K in Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide. The doses received by workers handling these materials were estimated by using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In transport, indoor storage, and outdoor storage scenarios, an effective dose due to the use of Th ore was above 4.3 x 10(-2)Sv y(-1), which was higher than that of the other ores. The maximum value of effective doses for other ores was estimated to be about 4.5 x 10(-4)Sv y(-1), which was lower than intervention exemption levels (1.0 x 10(-3)Sv y(-1)) given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:19703725

Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

2009-11-01

75

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

76

Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-28

77

Radioactive Wastes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to develop multiple representations for decay of radioactive substances, in the context of environmental policies on a university campus, and to determine storage times for wastes to decay to safe levels for disposal. This is one lesson within a larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-07-06

78

Environmental impact of radioactive silver released from nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive silver 110mAg is not a fission product, but as a contaminant originating from Chernobyl, was registered in many European countries. The environmental impact of radioactive silver was specially expressed in the process of obtaining copper and noble metals from ores originating from opencast mines. Direct consequence was contaminated metal silver in the period of several years after the Chernobyl

Ž. Vukovi?

2002-01-01

79

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

1980-04-23

80

Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates  

SciTech Connect

The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany); Schnier, C. [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Scholten, L.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

81

75 FR 68840 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70...Specialty Metals......... Radioactive Waste 186,000 kilograms Return of...export Utah for licenses XW003 management and and XW007....

2010-11-09

82

Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive labelling of guanidine-bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy—texaphyrin with selected radionuclides (166Ho and 90Y) is described. A basic characterisation of studied porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour in a wide range of pH values and data on holmium and yttrium complexation with these compounds was probed using UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The labelling yield of these macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal: ligand ratio and time of incubation. Optimal reaction conditions for formation of porphyrin and texaphyrin radioactive complexes were determined by thin layer chromatography with the detection of ?- activity. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was examined as well. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4 -) because radiopharmaceuticals labelled with isotopes 186Re and 188Re play an important role in therapy of numerous tumour diseases. The possibility of applying ReO4 - anion directly for labelling purposes, without the necessity of its reduction to lower oxidation state, was not proved.

Koní?ová, R.; Ernestová, M.; Jedináková-K?ížová, V.; Král, V.

2003-01-01

83

Recycling radioactively contaminated materials: Experience and prognosis  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, federal agencies, especially the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as the commercial nuclear enterprise, have begun to consider certain radioactively contaminated materials as resources for beneficial reuse rather than wastes. Most outstanding among these materials is metal that has become radioactively contaminated in various activities of the nuclear enterprise. The DOE began to move in the early 1970s to manage contaminated scrap metals as a potential resource rather than a waste. In the mid-1980s, Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) initiated moves to involve private industry in responding to DOE needs in dealing with scrap metal. As a result of this action, three firms showed positive moves toward the beneficial reuse of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, both surface and volumetrically contaminated. From among these industrial firms, one was selected to deal with the specified ORO scrap metal inventories and has, at its own expense, developed technologies and constructed processing facilities to deal with large masses of radioactively contaminated metals from any source.

Large, D.E.; Arrowsmith, H.W. (SEG Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1993-01-01

84

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

85

Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine  

DOEpatents

Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

Babad, Harry (Richland, WA); Strachan, Denis M. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

86

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

87

Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship  

E-print Network

...................................................................................................26 Low Level Waste (LLW) Disposal RegulationsRadioactive Materials Product Stewardship ABackground Report for the National Dialogue on Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship Prepared by the: Product Stewardship Institute University

88

Radioactive iodine uptake  

MedlinePLUS

Iodine uptake test; RAIU ... to swallow a liquid or capsule containing radioactive iodine. After a certain period of time (usually 4 ... have: Diarrhea (may decrease absorption of the radioactive iodine) Had recent CT scans using intravenous or oral ...

89

Radioactive Materials License Commitments  

E-print Network

Radioactive Materials License Commitments for The University of Texas at Austin May 2009 July 2009 in the use of radioactive materials. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means

90

Procedures for radioactive I-131  

SciTech Connect

Details of the radioactive I-131 administration and radiation safety considerations are presented. Topics covered include patient survey, radioactive labelling, levels in patients containing radioactivity, hospital discharge of radioactive patients, and nursing procedures.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1988-12-01

91

Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

2014-02-01

92

OXIDATION BEHAVIOR AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR COLUMBIUM AND COLUMBIUM-BASE ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available information on the oxidation behavior of and protective ; coatings for Nb and Nb-base alloys is summarized and discussed. Unalloyed Nb ; forms a tarnish film and reacts parabolically with air or oxygen up to about 450 ; deg C. In this temperature range the protective film blisters and unprotective, ; white NbâOâ forms. Oxidation behavior is linear after

Klopp

1960-01-01

93

Metal Preferences and Metallation*  

PubMed Central

The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ?25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ?70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

2014-01-01

94

Radioactive isotope study of the formation of a continuous casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a continuous casting is studied using radioactive isotopes. The depth of penetration of a metal stream into a melt, the velocities of circulation flows, the stirred metal mass, the solidification coefficient, and the quality of a workpiece structure are determined.

Skrebtsov, A. M.; Dyudkin, D. A.

2012-06-01

95

ORNL radioactive waste operations  

SciTech Connect

Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

1982-01-01

96

New heavy proton radioactivities  

SciTech Connect

The new proton radioactivities {sup 165,166,167}Ir, {sup 171}Au, and {sup 185}Bi have been observed, extending our knowledge of proton radioactivity up to and beyond the Z=82 closed shell. For Z=77 and 79, the transitions can be explained using simple shell-model arguments. The case of {sup 185}Bi represents the first example of proton radioactivity from an intruder state.

Davids, C.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Batchelder, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

97

Characterization and conditioning of radioactive graphite  

SciTech Connect

The shutdown of Vandellos I nuclear power station and JEN-1 experimental reactor in Spain presents the problem of the future conditioning and disposal of radioactive graphite from the decommissioning of both reactors. The main aim of this work is the study and development of chemical processes for the treatment of radioactive graphite from nuclear installations in order to achieve its proper disposal. The following stages are being studied: characterization of inactive and radioactive graphite, extraction of radionuclides, leaching of tritium and C-14, impermeabilization of graphite by a metallic coating or cement covering, in order to minimize leaching of radionuclides during disposal. In this work the authors review the study covering the first three tasks listed with the Graphite from the Spanish nuclear power station Vandellos I.

Esteban-Duque, A.; Uriarte, A.; Suarez, A.; Fabrellas, B.; Gonzalez, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Div. Tecnologia de Residuos

1993-12-31

98

Radioactive Wastes. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

Fox, Charles H.

99

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

100

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

101

Radioactive Decay Events Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Events Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the number of events (radioactive decays) as a function of time in a given time interval. You can change the initial number of nuclei, the decay constant and the time interval for the event distribution. The Radioactive Decay Events model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecayEvents.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

102

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01

103

Comparative alkali washing of simulated radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of large volumes of radioactive sludge generated from uranium and plutonium recovery processes is a pressing problem in the environmental restoration currently planned at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. This sludge, commonly stored in underground tanks, is mainly in the form of metal oxides or precipitated metal hydroxides and the bulk of this material is nonradioactive. One method being developed to pretreat this waste takes advantage of the amphoteric character of aluminum and other nonradioactive elements. Previous studies have reported on the dissolution of eleven elements from simulated sludge using NaOH solutions up to 6M. This work provides a comparative study using KOH. The effectiveness of the alkali washing as a treatment method to reduce the bulk of radioactive sludge requiring long term isolation will be discussed.

Fugate, G.A.; Ensor, D.D. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

104

An integrated decontamination process for metals  

SciTech Connect

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, T.S.; Whitlow, G.A.

1989-06-08

105

A Remote Radioactivity Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

2013-01-01

106

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is  

E-print Network

Radioactive Waste: 1. Radioactive waste from your lab is collected by the RSO. 2. Dry radioactive waste must be segregated by isotope. 3. Liquid radioactive waste must be separated by isotope. 4. Liquid scintillation vials must be collected separately. 5. Any "mixed waste" must be cleared with the RSO and labeled

Jia, Songtao

107

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

108

Radioactivity in Spanish spas.  

PubMed

There are large number of spas in Spain and there is a lack of data concerning their radioactivity. The levels of radioactivity in a wide sample of Spanish spas were measured with special attention being paid to the radon and radium concentrations in the water, and to radon concentration in the indoor air of the spas. This study is primarily concerned with the radioactivity of the spas of one region in Spain--Cantabria--and particularly one spa where we measured radon levels in water as high as 824 Bq/l and over 5000 Bq/m3 in the air of the rooms. We then considered a wider sample including virtually all of the radioactive spas in the country. The results indicate that a fairly large number of spas have radon levels in water that are moderately high and they are used for the treatment of diseases without radiation protection measures for patients or staff at the spas. PMID:7899856

Soto, J; Fernández, P L; Quindós, L S; Gómez-Arozamena, J

1995-01-27

109

Commentary on Residual Radioactivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Upon the recommendation of its Radiation Advisory Committee, the Science Advisory Board urges the Agency to develop Federal radiation protection guidance specifically for removal or remediation actions for radioactive substances at various locations, incl...

1992-01-01

110

Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the fourth in a series of environmental radioactivity intercomparison exercises is detailed. In general, the results are satisfactory and a comparable performance to the previous exercises has been achieved. In particular there has been an ...

S. M. Jerome, E. M. E. Perkin, S. E. M. Lucas, M. J. Woods, J. C. J. Dean

1994-01-01

111

Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following on from two previous environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercises, NPL conducted a third intercomparison of this sort in 1992. The results from the first two exercises were generally satisfactory, although the problem of cas...

S. M. Jerome, M. J. Woods, S. E. M. Lucas, A. C. Hooley

1993-01-01

112

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

113

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

Fields, Stanley R. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01

114

Kinetics of Radioactive Decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radioactivity also known as radioactive decay, nuclear transformation, and nuclear disintegration is a spontaneous process\\u000a by which an unstable parent nucleus emits a particle or electromagnetic radiation and transforms into a more stable daughter\\u000a nucleus that may or may not be stable. An unstable daughter nucleus will decay further in a decay series until a stable nuclear\\u000a configuration is reached.

Ervin B. Podgoršak

115

Radioactive gold ring dermatitis  

SciTech Connect

A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

1990-08-01

116

Radioactive Decay Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online calculator computes radioactive decay, timed decay, and timed solid disposal for a databank containing 116 isotopes. It also features University of British Columbia disposal limits and a unit converter and date/time calculators. These tools calculate the half-life for selected isotopes; radioactive decay final activity, given the initial activity and decay time; the decay time, given the initial and final activities; and the decay time, given the mass of a solid and the initial activity.

Enns, Alan

117

Analytic and experimental evaluation of flowing air test conditions for selected metallics in a shuttle TPS application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions important to the response of these thermal protection system (TPS) materials were calculated, and test conditions appropriate to simulation of these flight conditions in flowing air ground test facilities were defined. The response characteristics of these metallics were then evaluated for the flight and representative ground test conditions by analytical techniques employing appropriate thermochemical and thermal response computer codes and by experimental techniques employing an arc heater flowing air test facility and flat face stagnation point and wedge test models. These results were analyzed to define the ground test requirements to obtain valid TPS response characteristics for application to flight. For both material types in the range of conditions appropriate to the shuttle application, the surface thermochemical response resulted in a small rate of change of mass and a negligible energy contribution. The thermal response in terms of surface temperature was controlled by the net heat flux to the surface; this net flux was influenced significantly by the surface catalycity and surface emissivity. The surface catalycity must be accounted for in defining simulation test conditions so that proper heat flux levels to, and therefore surface temperatures of, the test samples are achieved.

Schaefer, J. W.; Tong, H.; Clark, K. J.; Suchsland, K. E.; Neuner, G. J.

1975-01-01

118

Radioactive Decay Distribution Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Radioactive Decay Distribution Model simulates the decay of a radioactive sample using discrete random events. It displays the distribution of the number of events (radioactive decays) in a fixed time interval. If each event is assumed to occur independently and spontaneously with a constant probability, the resulting distribution if the Poisson distribution. You can change the initial number of nuclei, the decay constant and the time interval for the event distribution. The Radioactive Decay Distribution model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_RadioactiveDecayDistribution.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-23

119

Radioactivity in food crops  

SciTech Connect

Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

1983-05-01

120

Container for radioactive materials  

DOEpatents

A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

Fields, S.R.

1984-05-30

121

Beyond low-level activity: On a “non-radioactive” gas mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be “non-radioactive” and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were

Karin Poljanc; Georg Steinhauser; Johannes H. Sterba; Karl Buchtela; Max Bichler

2007-01-01

122

Residual radioactivity criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of current and future decommissioning standards applicable in the United States. The standards promulgated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as standards proposed by the American National Standards Institute, are presented. A summary is presented of the recent NRC actions to produce revised residual radioactivity criteria.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1992-06-01

123

Table of radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the nuclear and atomic properties of radioactive isotopes. Detailed radiation data for about 2000 of the 2755 known nuclides are presented in this up-to-date and concise book. The main section is organized by mass number (A), with entries for a given A derived from and referenced to the most recent corresponding

Edgardo Browne; Richard B. Firestone; V. S. Shirley

1986-01-01

124

Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

Riland, Carson A.

1996-01-01

125

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing of the low energies involved. There are many radioactive elements that have decays at lower energies which;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino

126

Hazardous and radioactive substances in  

E-print Network

Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters Ingela Dahllöf & Jesper H. Andersen University #12;#12;Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters #12;#12;Hazardous and radioactive substances in danisH Marine Waters Ingela Dahllöf and Jesper H. Andersen Editors Agency

127

Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

Burns, R. E.

1975-01-01

128

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level

R. H. Little; P. R. Maul; J. S. S. Penfoldag

2003-01-01

129

Radioactive ion detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01

130

Radioactive ion detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12

131

MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

1999-09-01

132

Radioactive waste storage issues  

SciTech Connect

In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

Kunz, D.E.

1994-08-15

133

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27

134

Radioactive and magnetic investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

1979-01-01

135

Radioactive Ion Sources  

E-print Network

This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

Stora, T

2014-01-01

136

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15

137

Ignition and oxidation behavior of F-48 columbium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declassified 26 Nov 1973. Axial tie rod base blocks used to support the ; Tory II-C reactor were tested for oxidation and ignition at 2450 deg F. The ; blocks are made of F-48 Nb alloy coated with a silicide. Test data are discussed ; and predicted operational behavior is summarized. (JRD)

E. Y. Robinson; W. W. Wells

1965-01-01

138

Oxidation-resistant silicide coating applied to columbium alloy screen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coated screens withstand temperature cycling in special transpiration-cooling systems and provide porous surface that is effective at temperatures well above those limiting superalloy screen efficiency. Thickness of coating depends on time, temperature and activator concentration. Coatings are uniform and resistant to thermal cycling.

Torgerson, R. T.

1971-01-01

139

Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

Culp, J. D.

1972-01-01

140

International strategic minerals inventory summary report; niobium (columbium) and tantalum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major world resources of niobium and tantalum are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of niobium and tantalum based on inventory information; Part II contains tables of both geologic and mineral-resource information and includes production data collected by ISMI participants. Niobium is used principally as an alloying element in special steels and superalloys, and tantalum is used mainly in electronics. Minerals in the columbite-tantalite series are principal ore minerals of niobium and tantalum. Pyrochlore is a principal source of niobium. These minerals are found in carbonatite, certain rocks in alkaline igneous complexes, pegmatite, and placer deposits. ISMI estimates show that there are over 7 million metric tons of niobium and almost 0.5 million metric tons of tantalum in known deposits, outside of China and the former Soviet Union, for which reliable estimates have been made. Brazilian deposits, followed by Canadian deposits, contain by far the largest source of niobium. Tantalum production is spread widely among several countries, and Brazil and Canada are the most significant of these producers. Brazil's position is further strengthened by potential byproduct columbite from tin mining. Present economically exploitable resources of niobium appear to be sufficient for the near future, but Brazil will continue to be the predominant world supplier of ferrocolumbium. Tantalum, a byproduct of tin production, has been captive to the fluctuations of that market, but resources in pegmatite in Canada and Australia make it likely that future increases in the present modest demand will be met.

Crockett, R.N.; Sutphin, D.M.

1993-01-01

141

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for ...

Van Den Avyle Malgaard Molecke Pal Williamson

1999-01-01

142

WM'05 Conference, February 27 March 3, 2005, Tucson, AZ WM-5278 IDENTIFYING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES AT THE DEMOLITION SITE  

E-print Network

in a pipe, the fill level in cans and bottles and the density of various materials including tobacco treatment, cigarette manufacturing and metal fabrication. These gauges and devices containing radioactive

143

RADIOACTIVE PLANT MAINTENANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of practices in the maintenance of nuclear power ; plants and radiochemical plants. The plants for which practices are summarized ; are the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment No. 2, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, ; Sodium Reactor Experiment, Liquid-Metal Fuel Reactor, and Vallecitos Boiling-; Water Reactor. The maintenance philosophies of various radiochemical plants are ; tabulated. (D.L.C.);

1963-01-01

144

Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

1996-12-31

145

Tracking Radioactive Sources in Commerce  

E-print Network

Area Network­mobile phone, ethernet and/or satellite � security--encryption, short broadcast bursts of specific packages © Missing sealed radioactive sources pose a significant environmental and health risk of radioactive consumer products � Use in terrorist activities Effective package tracking system can prevent loss

146

CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY  

E-print Network

MAY 1990 THE NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Nordic liaison CHERNOBYL DATA BASE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Final Report of the NKA Project AKT 242 Edited the members of the working group. Graphic Systems AB, Malmo 1990 #12;111 ABSTRACT. The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA

147

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835—Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2013-01-01

148

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835—Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2010-01-01

149

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835—Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2012-01-01

150

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835—Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2014-01-01

151

10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements...Part 835—Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive...

2011-01-01

152

Low Radioactivity in CANDLES  

SciTech Connect

CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 crystals. Double beta decay of 48Ca has the highest Q value among all nuclei whose double beta decay is energetically allowed. This feature makes the study almost background free and becomes important once the study is limited by the backgrounds. We studied double beta decays of 48Ca by using ELEGANTS VI detector system which features CaF2(Eu) crystals. We gave the best limit on the lifetime of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca although further development is vital to reach the neutrino mass of current interest for which CANDLES is designed. In this article we present how CANDLES can achieve low radioactivity, which is the key for the future double beta decay experiment.

Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Hazama, R.; Yoshida, S.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, D.; Mukaida, K.; Ichihara, K.; Tatewaki, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Hirano, Y.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ajimura, S. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

2005-09-08

153

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47 Energy NUCLEAR...LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2010-01-01

154

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2010-10-01

155

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47...WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2012-01-01

156

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47...WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2011-01-01

157

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2010-10-01

158

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2012-10-01

159

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2014-10-01

160

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2014-10-01

161

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2011-10-01

162

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47...WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2013-01-01

163

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2013-10-01

164

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2013-10-01

165

46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100...Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on...

2012-10-01

166

49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE placard must be as follows:...

2011-10-01

167

10 CFR 39.47 - Radioactive markers.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radioactive markers. 39.47 Section 39.47...WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.47 Radioactive markers. The licensee may use radioactive markers in wells only if the individual...

2014-01-01

168

Radioactive Materials Manual Scope and Applicability  

E-print Network

Radioactive Materials Manual Scope and Applicability Procedures and information in this manual material. Radioactive material covered includes all sealed and unsealed sources. Sealed sources of radioactive material contained within machinery such as liquid scintillation counters, gas chromatographs

Rhoads, James

169

Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times. The radioactive waste management problem in fact offers a prospect for international participation to engage the DPRK constructively. DPRK nuclear dismantlement, when accompanied with a concerted effort for effective radioactive waste management, can be a mutually beneficial goal.

Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

2005-04-01

170

Process for the conditioning of solid radioactive waste with large dimensions  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the conditioning of solid radioactive waste with large dimensions, constituted by contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal chips, tools etc. Said waste is incorporated into an ambient temperature-thermosetting resin to which has previously been added at least one inert filler, and the said resin is then cross-linked. One application is the encasing of solid radioactive waste below water, particularly at the bottom of a pond.

Morin, B.; Thiery, D.

1982-02-16

171

Radioactive-waste incineration at Purdue University  

SciTech Connect

A study conducted at Purdue University to evaluate the feasibility of using a small (45 kg/h), inexpensive (less than $10K) incinerator for incinerating low-level radioactive waste is described. An oil-fired, dual-chamber pathological waste incinerator was installed on a 12.7-cm-thick concrete floor in a metal quonset building. A standard EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to obtain stack samples. Also, stack gas velocity was measured with a type 5 pitot tube; stack temperature was measured with a thermocouple and pyrometer. The incinerator was tested for emissions from incineration of laboratory animal carcasses, liquid scintillation fluid, and trash. Emissions measured were particulates, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, Cl, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and unburned hydrocarbons in the particulate fraction. Three analyses were then averaged to arrive at the final determinations. Results of the study demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of incinerating radioactive animal carcasses and liquid scintillation fluids, since emissions from those waste types were within EPA and State of Indiana limits. However, emissions from burning of trash exceeded State of Indiana limits. Therefore, incineration of trash alone, particularly if it contains glass or significant amounts of plastic, is not a recommended use of the tested equipment.

Not Available

1982-11-01

172

How Does Radioactive Decay Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide with exercises is intended to help teach the topics of radioactive decay and its use to determine age. It identifies four main concepts that students are likely to struggle with: spontaneity (randomness) of radioactive decay; the importance of isotopes; the concept of half-life; and how to choose which system of isotopes to use to determine age. The guide presents suggestions on how to make these ideas more understandable, and provides three exercises that can be used to demonstrate radioactive decay. Links to additional materials and information are embedded in the resource.

Wenner, Jennifer M.

2010-11-17

173

Radioactive decay data tables  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

Kocher, D.C.

1981-01-01

174

Radioactive Waste Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

175

Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

2011-03-22

176

Storage depot for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

Szulinski, Milton J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

177

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal

W HENDEE

1986-01-01

178

The New Orphaned Radioactive Sources Program in the United States International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive  

E-print Network

of Energy (DOE) facilities and nuclear power plants which are decommissioned are potential sources on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials. September 14-18, 1998 Neil Naraine of millions of tons of metal that could be recycled. In addition, there are nuclear facilities around

179

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals

A. Mancini; P. Tuite; K. Tuite; S. Woodberry

1994-01-01

180

Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.  

PubMed

Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

Duftschmid, K E

2002-03-01

181

Layered metal sulfides: Exceptionally selective agents for radioactive strontium removal  

PubMed Central

In this article, we report the family of robust layered sulfides K2xMnxSn3-xS6 (x = 0.5–0.95) (KMS-1). These materials feature hexagonal [MnxSn3-xS6]2x? slabs of the CdI2 type and contain highly mobile K+ ions in their interlayer space that are easily exchangeable with other cations and particularly strontium. KMS-1 display outstanding preference for strontium ions in highly alkaline solutions containing extremely large excess of sodium cations as well as in acidic environment where most alternative adsorbents with oxygen ligands are nearly inactive. The implication of these results is that simple layered sulfides should be considered for the efficient remediation of certain nuclear wastes. PMID:18316731

Manos, Manolis J.; Ding, Nan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

2008-01-01

182

Metallization failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallization-related failure mechanisms were shown to be a major cause of integrated circuit failures under accelerated stress conditions, as well as in actual use under field operation. The integrated circuit industry is aware of the problem and is attempting to solve it in one of two ways: (1) better understanding of the aluminum system, which is the most widely used metallization material for silicon integrated circuits both as a single level and multilevel metallization, or (2) evaluating alternative metal systems. Aluminum metallization offers many advantages, but also has limitations particularly at elevated temperatures and high current densities. As an alternative, multilayer systems of the general form, silicon device-metal-inorganic insulator-metal, are being considered to produce large scale integrated arrays. The merits and restrictions of metallization systems in current usage and systems under development are defined.

Beatty, R.

1971-01-01

183

Analysis of metallic fuels by laser ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hot cell-based solid sampling system has been developed for application to the analyses of irradiated materials such as metallic reactor fuel from a nuclear reactor, and radioactive waste forms. This system employs one of two sampling techniques, glow discharge or laser ablation, for introduction of material into one of two instruments for analysis, either a time of flight mass

Stephen G. Johnson; Phillip S. Goodall; Sandra M. Kimbrell; Elon L. Wood

1995-01-01

184

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

options for mixed waste and the University's storage capacity for this material is limited. CarefullyRSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal

Slatton, Clint

185

Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal  

E-print Network

Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

H. M. O'Keeffe; T. H. Burritt; B. T. Cleveland; G. Doucas; N. Gagnon; N. A. Jelley; C. Kraus; I. T. Lawson; S. Majerus; S. R. McGee; A. W. Myers; A. W. P. Poon; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; R. C. Rosten; L. C. Stonehill; B. A. VanDevender; T. D. Van Wechel

2011-03-29

186

Silicone metalization  

DOEpatents

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05

187

Silicone metalization  

DOEpatents

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2008-12-09

188

Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources will be presented in the paper. (authors)

Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01

189

Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic.

McCabe, D.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Reynolds, B.A. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-02-01

190

Co-axial ECR plasma system for radioactive ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulsed, co-axial electron cyclotron resonance (ECR, 2.45 GHz) plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (32P radioisotope). The geometry of the reactor was designed to produce an efficient implantation of cylindrical implants. Therefore, the reactor is cylindrical in shape, and is equipped with a cylindrical grid in a co-axial geometry. The plasma is created between the wall and the grid; the plasma surrounds the implant, allowing for a radial implantation. A 1 ms microwave pulse creates a plasma in argon, which sputters material from a radioactive cathode. A fraction of the radioisotopes is then ionized, and the ions are implanted into negatively biased metal samples. The plasma was characterized by means of electrostatic probes, giving spatial evaluations of the electron temperature, plasma potential and electron density. Titanium samples were implanted with 32P during a study that aimed at optimizing the position of the radioactive sputter cathode in the plasma. From an analysis of the distribution of the radioactive fragments, we deduce that the plasma potential has a marked effect on the ion trajectories. In particular, it provides a more uniform implantation distribution than one would otherwise expect. For plasma densities ~8 × 1010 cm-3, implantation efficiencies as high as 1% are measured; this is about 100 times higher than conventional beam-line ion implantation.

Fortin, M. A.; Marion, F.; Stansfield, B.; Paynter, R. W.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkissian, A.; Terreault, B.

2005-08-01

191

Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

2014-02-01

192

Induced radioactivity in LDEF components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

1992-01-01

193

Radioactive dating of the elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which an accurate determination of the age of the Galaxy, and thus a lower bound on the age of the universe, can be obtained from radioactive dating is discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the long-lived radioactive nuclei Re-187, Th-232, U-238, and U-235. The nature of the production sites of these and other potential Galactic chronometers is examined along with their production ratios. Age determinations from models of nucleocosmochronology are reviewed and compared with age determination from stellar sources and age constraints form cosmological considerations.

Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Truran, James W.

1991-01-01

194

FINAL REPORT. OPTIMIZATION OF THERMOCHEMICAL, KINETIC, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING PARTITIONING OF RADIONUCLIDES DURING MELT DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED STAINLESS STEEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Corre...

195

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

196

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

197

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

198

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

199

METHOD OF PURIFYING RADIOACTIVE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of lithothamnium calcareum as an ion exchanger for the ; decontamination of radioactive water is described. In order to retain cobalt and ; strontium the ion exchanger is mixed with calcium silicate or borate; ; alternatively sodium phosphate is added to the water prior to the purification ; process. (NPO)

D. Acfi; M. Schmitt; M. Neveu

1959-01-01

200

High-Level Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

Hayden, Howard C.

1995-01-01

201

Radioactive iodine labeled phenolic amines  

SciTech Connect

The invention is accomplished by the formation at the site of use of the radioactive amine of the invention which is then injected immediately into the mammal for diagnostic purposes. The compounds of the invention are as follows: 1-HO,2-(R1-N(-R2)-(H2C)N-N(-R3)-H2C-);4-I,6-R4-BENZENE In the above compound, R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/, R/sub 3/ and R/sub 4/ are independently any straight or branched alkyl of between 1 and about 10 carbons; n may be between 1 and about 20. In the invention, the radio labeling of the invention compound is accomplished immediately prior to use of the radio labeled material. The compounds of the invention when boiled for about 15 minutes with iodine-123, a radioactive material, undergo a substitution of radioactive for non-radioactive iodine such that the compound becomes labeled and suitable for use. The compound itself, prior to radio labeling, is storage stable.

Blau, M.; Kung, H.F.; Tramposch, K.M.

1984-02-07

202

Radioactive waste: Politics and technology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an analysis of the divergent strategies used to forge radioactive waste policies in great Britain, Germany, and Sweden. Some basic knowledge of nuclear technology and its public policy development is needed. The book points out that developing institutional frameworks that permit agreement and consent is the principal challenge of radwaste management and places the problem of consent in an institutional framework.

Berkhout, F.

1995-08-01

203

Radioactivity and the Biology Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses minimum necessary nuclear fundamentals of radioactive isotopes such as levels of activity, specific activity and the use of carrier materials. Corrections that need to be taken into account in using an isotope to obtain a valid result are also described and statistics for a valid result are included. (BR)

Hornsey, D. J.

1974-01-01

204

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power

M. D. Siegel; C. R. Bryan

2003-01-01

205

DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction

Paul Humphreys; Ray McGarry; Alex Hoffmann; Peter Binks

1997-01-01

206

Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year...

W. P. Chernicoff, K. C. Chou, H. Gao, C. J. MacDonald, M. A. Molecke

1999-01-01

207

Determination of nitric acid in highly radioactive solutions by the method of coulometric titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure, a cell, and an electronic block have been developed for a long-distance determination of nitric acid in highly radioactive industrial solutions by coulometric titration under hot chamber conditions. A solution of a mixture of ammonium and potassium oxalates was used for the background and anoide electrolytes. This solution prevents the hydrolysis of the metal ions and appreciably decreases

V. S. Gromov; A. Ya. Kuperman; Yu. A. Smirnov

1988-01-01

208

Radioactive Au for potential radiotherapeutic application .  

E-print Network

??Radioactive gold-198/199 can be used in therapeutic radiopharmaceutical agents to combat cancer. In this thesis, two projects involving the development of radioactive gold-198/199 are described.… (more)

Kan, Para, 1980-

2010-01-01

209

The Radioactive Beam Program at Argonne  

E-print Network

In this talk I will present selected topics of the ongoing radioactive beam program at Argonne and discuss the capabilities of the CARIBU radioactive ion production facility as well as plans for construction of a novel superconducting solenoid spectrometer.

B. B. Back

2006-06-06

210

Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could bring the health impact.

Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

2013-04-01

211

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2006  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................................27 2. Nuclear fuel production and reprocessing ................................................................................................................22 1.2.1 Radioactive waste disposal from nuclear sites

212

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section...Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A carrier...contact by any person with Class 7 (radioactive) materials that may have been...

2014-10-01

213

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

214

Natural radioactivity in groundwater – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term ‘natural radioactivity’ is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including

Nguyen Dinh Chau; Marek Dulinski; Pawel Jodlowski; Jakub Nowak; Kazimierz Rozanski; Monika Sleziak; Przemyslaw Wachniew

2011-01-01

215

Future radioactive liquid waste streams study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup

Rey

1993-01-01

216

Device for the pulverization of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is claimed for pulverizing incombustible large solid radioactive wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like. The device comprises a furnace body provided with a vacant space for melting radioactive wastes, a gripper mounted on the furnace body to support the radioactive waste, plasma torches mounted on the furnace body to irradiate a plasma arc toward the

T. Adachi; S. Hiratake

1982-01-01

217

On the production of radioactive stents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years radioactive stents proved to inhibit neointima formation. This paper describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. After a short discussion of the different radioisotopes suitable for radioactive stents, potential production methods are discussed. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Karlsruhe Research Center shall be described in more detail.

Schlösser, K.; Schweickert, H.

2001-07-01

218

Uptake and distribution of trace metal elements in wheat seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake and distribution of eight metallic elements were examined in wheat seedlings for a period of 12 d with a radioactive\\u000a multitracer technique. The radioactive nuclides of the seedlings were simultaneously determined by ?-ray spectrometry. All\\u000a of the elements studied were taken up by the wheat seedlings and mainly accumulated in the roots. Only some elements were\\u000a transported to

Xiaorong Tan; Zhi Qin; Rongliang Zheng

2002-01-01

219

Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

220

Public attitudes about radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public`s changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I`d like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective.

Bisconti, A.S. [Council for Energy Awareness, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

221

Optimization of radioactive waste storage.  

PubMed

In several countries, low-level radioactive wastes are treated and stored awaiting construction and operation of a final repository. In some cases, interim storage may be extended for decades requiring special attention regarding security issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends segregation of wastes that may be exempted from interim storage or ultimate disposal. The paper presents a method to optimize the decision making process regarding exemption vs. interim storage or ultimate disposal of these wastes. PMID:17228185

Dellamano, José Claudio; Sordi, Gian-Maria A A

2007-02-01

222

Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of

1984-01-01

223

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

224

Radioactive fuel cell storage rack  

SciTech Connect

A radioactive fuel cell storage rack is comprised of structural elements including elements which are hollow and cruciform in section. Each leg of the cruciform structural element includes a neutron shield therein. The free end of the legs of the cruciform structural element converge so as to have an included angle of approximately 90/sup 0/. The rack is comprised of such cruciform elements as well as cooperating elements which are generally T and L shaped in section.

Holtz, M.; Singh, K.P.

1983-05-03

225

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOEpatents

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

226

Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

1997-04-01

227

Metals 2000  

SciTech Connect

This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1993-05-01

228

Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001  

SciTech Connect

This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

Goodwin, S S

2011-08-31

229

Radioactive iodine labeled phenolic amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is accomplished by the formation at the site of use of the radioactive amine of the invention which is then injected immediately into the mammal for diagnostic purposes. The compounds of the invention are as follows: 1-HO,2-(R1-N(-R2)-(H2C)N-N(-R3)-H2C-);4-I,6-R4-BENZENE In the above compound, Râ, Râ, Râ and Râ are independently any straight or branched alkyl of between 1 and about

M. Blau; H. F. Kung; K. M. Tramposch

1984-01-01

230

Radioactive beams with the HHIRF accelerators  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing interest in radioactive ion beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics research and applied programs. This interest has led to an International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams and a Workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams. In addition, a steering committee has been formed to consider the development of a very large and intense RIB facility in North America to produce both proton- and neutron-rich beams. This report discusses development of these beams.

Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Baktash, C.; Dowling, D.T.; Garrett, J.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C., Lane, S.N.; Lee, I.Y.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A. Toth, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carter, H.K. (UNISOR, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

231

A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel  

SciTech Connect

A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Arie, Kazuo [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Dev., Toshiba Corporation, 4-1, Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Koyama, Tadafumi [Central research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

2007-07-01

232

Radioactive Waste: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since World War II, hundreds of thousands of tons of radioactive materials have been produced in the United States. How we will dispose of nuclear waste is a controversial issue with a large technical component. This book provides a useful resource for enhancing student understanding of the physics of radioactivity as well as the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It encourages students to discuss these complex environmental issues using arguments based on the science behind issues related to radioactivity, technology, risk assessment, and tradeoffs.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

233

Natural radioactivity of the moon and planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the main results of the study of natural radioactivity of the solar system bodies are considered. The radioactivity of the moon and planets was measured from orbiters and landers. The radioactivity of the returned lunar samples was studied with laboratory equipment. Analysis of the radioactivity data shows the bimodal structure of surfaces of the moon, Venus, Mars (ancient crust and young volcanic formations). Volcanic formations on all bodies, probably, consist of basaltic rocks. The compositions of ancient crusts are different (gabbro-anorthositic on the moon and maybe on Mars, granite-metamorphic on the earth and maybe on Venus).

Surkov, Iu. A.

234

Subseabed storage of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of the storage of nuclear wastes products incites emotional responses from the public, and thus the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Program will have to make a good case for waste storage beneath the ocean floor. The facts attendant, however, describe circumstances necessitating cool-headed analysis to achieve a solution to the growing nuclear waste problem. Emotion aside, a good case indeed is being made for safe disposal beneath the ocean floor.The problems of nuclear waste storage are acute. A year ago, U.S. military weapons production had accumulated over seventy-five million gallons of high-level radioactive liquid waste; solid wastes, such as spent nuclear fuel rods from reactors, amounted to more than 12,000 tons. These wastes are corrosive and will release heat for 1000 years or more. The wastes will remain dangerously radioactive for a period of 10,000 years. There are advantages in storing the wastes on land, in special underground repositories, or on the surface. These include the accessibility to monitor the waste and the possibility of taking action should a container rupture occur, and thus the major efforts to determine suitable disposal at this time are focused on land-based storage. New efforts, not to be confused with ocean dumping practices of the past, are demonstrating that waste containers isolated in the clays and sediments of the ocean floor may be superior (Environ. Sci. Tech., 16, 28A-37A 1982).

Bell, Peter M.

235

Magic radioactivity of 252Cf  

E-print Network

We show that the sharp maximum corresponding to 107Mo in the fragment distribution of the 252Cf cold fission is actually a Sn-like radioactivity, similar to other decay processes in which magic nuclei are involved, namely alpha-decay and heavy cluster emission, also called Pb-like radioactivity. It turns out that the mass asymmetry degree of freedom has a key role in connecting initial Sn with the final Mo isotopes along the fission path. We suppose the cold rearrangement of nucleons within the framework of the two center shell model, in order to compute the cold valleys in the charge equilibrated fragmentation potential. The fission yields are estimated by using the semiclassical penetration approach. We consider five degrees of freedom, namely the inter-fragment distance, the shapes of fragments, the neck parameter and mass asymmetry. We found an isomeric minimum between the internal and external barriers. It turns out that the inner cold valley of the total potential energy is connected to the double magic isotope 132Sn

M. Mirea; D. S. Delion; A. Sandulescu

2010-03-30

236

Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions  

E-print Network

Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

Wenander, F J C

2013-01-01

237

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

238

Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing a coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta is disclosed. The method comprises preparing a soluble metal adduct of said isonitrile ligand by admixing said ligand with a salt of a displaceable metal having a complete d-electron shell selected from the group consisting of Zn, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi to form a soluble metal-isonitrile salt, and admixing said metal isonitrile salt with a salt comprising said radioactive metal in a suitable solvent to displace said displaceable metal with the radioactive metal thereby forming said coordination. The complex is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

1987-01-01

239

Natural and artificial radioactivity in the lower atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of natural terrestrial radioactivity was studied including: ; radioactive element families; decay chains of Rn and Th; and radioactive half-; lives of daughter products. Natural radioactivity due to the action of cosmic ; radiation was also considered. The production of artificial radioactive aerosols ; in the air as a result of nuclear explosions and nuclear reactor Operation (in

A. Renoux; G. Madelaine

1973-01-01

240

The decommissioning of accelerators: an exercise in the recycling of radioactive material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with the number of nuclear power plants that will be decommissioned over the next few years accelerators are only a "small" source of radioactivity although at CERN the total amount of mostly metallic material activated in the operation of the accelerators is estimated to be of the order of 15 Mtons. Various existing approaches to classify and administer radioactive material will be presented with all of them clearly earmarked by the requirements of the nuclear cycle. There are however important differences between activation in reactors and accelerators that will be worked out. It will be shown that an attitude based on reuse or recycling of activated accelerator material should be preferred to the elimination as radioactive waste.

Höfert, M.; Tuyn, J. W. N.; Forkel-Wirth, D.

1999-06-01

241

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

2003-02-27

242

Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

1989-01-01

243

Spills of Radioactive Materials -Emergency Procedures  

E-print Network

with low-level contamination and working towards the center or highest contamination areas. Clean up to radioactive waste container. For surface decontamination, use soap and water and cleansers appropriateSpills of Radioactive Materials - Emergency Procedures Procedure: 7.53 Created: 1/16/2014 Version

Jia, Songtao

244

THE RADIOACTIVITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND HYDROSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is given of the nature of geochemical, meteorological, ; and oceanographic problems involved in the interpretation of the distribution of ; radioactivity in the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The radioactivity is discussed ; as to source, primary radionuclides and their daughters, cosmic-ray production, ; and artificial production. (W.D.M.);

H E Suess

1958-01-01

245

Pb-Radioactivity in superheavy elements  

E-print Network

The Pb-radioactivity in the superheavy mass region is studied within the frame work of PCM model,the calculation of Pb-Radioactivity looks favorably for the cluster decay studies in superheavy mass region as in the heavy mass region.

Sushil Kumar

2011-10-24

246

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2002  

E-print Network

, Food Standards Agency Mr Ken Ledgerwood Chief Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical InspectorRadioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2002 RIFE - 8 2003 #12;1 ENVIRONMENT AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE SERVICE FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY Radioactivity in Food

247

Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the  

E-print Network

* IK s Dfc2looX|o Risø-R-443 Bioindicators for Monitoring Radioactive Pollution of the Marine-R-443 BIOINDICATORS FOR MONITORING RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Experiments Dahlgaard Abstract. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are globally used as bio- indicators for pollution of coastal

248

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 1995  

E-print Network

, of the Directorate of Fisheries Research (DFR) at Lowestoft for the Radiological Safety Division of the Food ScienceRadioactivity in Food and the Environment, 1995 Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1996 RIFE - 1 #12;#12;1 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD Radioactivity in Food

249

Metallic glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the present state of knowledge concerning the production, stability and structure of metallic glasses made by rapid quenching from the melt, and outlines their principal magnetic, electrical and mechanical properties. Emphasis is placed on the influence of annealing, at temperatures below the glass transition, on a range of properties. The prospect for practical applications is examined, with

R. W. Cahn

1980-01-01

250

Metallic Glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel internal structures of metallic glasses lead to exceptional strength, corrosion resistance, and ease of magnetization. Combined with low manufacturing costs, these properties make glassy ribbons attractive for many applications. These materials also have scientific fascination because their compositions, structures, and properties have unexpected features.

John J. Gilman

1980-01-01

251

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

252

Diverter assembly for radioactive material  

DOEpatents

A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

Andrews, Katherine M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Starenchak, Robert W. (Youngwood, PA)

1989-01-01

253

Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Black, R.L.

1984-07-01

254

Astrophysics with Radioactive Atomic Nuclei  

E-print Network

We propose to advance investigations of electromagnetic radiation originating in atomic nuclei beyond its current infancy to a true astronomy. This nuclear emission is independent from conditions of gas, thus complements more traditional stronomical methods used to probe the nearby universe. Radioactive gamma-rays arise from isotopes which are made in specific locations inside massive stars, their decay in interstellar space traces an otherwise not directly observable hot and tenuous phase of the ISM, which is crucial for feedback from massive stars. Its intrinsic clocks can measure characteristic times of processes within the ISM. Frontier questions that can be addressed with studies in this field are the complex interiors of massive stars and supernovae which are key agents in galactic dynamics and chemical evolution, the history of star-forming and supernova activity affecting our solar-system environment, and explorations of occulted and inaccessible regions of young stellar nurseries in our Galaxy.

Diehl, R; Boggs, S; Burkert, A; Chieffi, A; Gehrels, N; Greiner, J; Hartmann, D H; Kanbach, G; Meynet, G; Prantzos, N; Ryan, J; Thielemann, F K; Zinnecker, H

2009-01-01

255

Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils  

SciTech Connect

The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between absorbed dose rates in air calculated from natural radionuclide concentrations in soil and terrestrial gamma dose rates measured experimentally outdoors are shown for the different autonomous regions of Spain. Assessment is also made of the dose to the Spanish population from outdoor exposure to terrestrial gamma rays. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Soto, J. [Univ. of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)] [and others

1994-02-01

256

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

257

Effect of the militarily-relevant heavy metals, depleted uranium and heavy metal tungsten-alloy on gene expression in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depleted uranium (DU) and heavy-metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) are dense heavy-metals used primarily in military applications. Chemically similar to natural uranium, but depleted of the higher activity 235U and 234U isotopes, DU is a low specific activity, high-density heavy metal. In contrast, the non-radioactive HMTAs are composed of a mixture of tungsten (91–93%), nickel (3–5%), and cobalt (2–4%) particles. The

Alexandra C. Miller; Kia Brooks; Jan Smith; Natalie Page

2004-01-01

258

46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109...Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on a...

2011-10-01

259

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2011-07-01

260

46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109...Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on a...

2010-10-01

261

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed...

2012-01-01

262

46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109...Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on a...

2013-10-01

263

49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.  

... 2014-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section... Marking § 172.310 Class 7 (radioactive) materials. In addition to any...subpart, each package containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be marked as...

2014-10-01

264

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2013-07-01

265

46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section 109...Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized...charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on a...

2012-10-01

266

49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 172.403 Section 172... Labeling § 172.403 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) Unless excepted...of this subchapter, each package of radioactive material must be labeled as...

2013-10-01

267

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

268

48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Notice of radioactive materials. 52.223-7 Section...and Clauses 52.223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23...insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997)...

2013-10-01

269

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed...

2014-01-01

270

49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.  

... 2014-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 172.403 Section 172... Labeling § 172.403 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) Unless excepted...of this subchapter, each package of radioactive material must be labeled as...

2014-10-01

271

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2012-07-01

272

48 CFR 245.7310-6 - Radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive material. 245.7310-6 Section...Contractor Inventory 245.7310-6 Radioactive material. The following shall be...capable of emitting ionized radiation: Radioactive Material Purchasers are warned...

2010-10-01

273

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

274

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2014-07-01

275

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed...

2010-01-01

276

48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Notice of radioactive materials. 52.223-7 Section...and Clauses 52.223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23...insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997)...

2012-10-01

277

41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204...Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a nonradiation area...

2010-07-01

278

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable sealed radioactive sources. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

279

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed...

2011-01-01

280

10 CFR 835.1201 - Sealed radioactive source control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sealed radioactive source control. 835.1201 Section...OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1201 Sealed radioactive source control. Sealed...

2013-01-01

281

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive...

2012-01-01

282

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive...

2010-01-01

283

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive...

2013-01-01

284

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

...radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive...

2014-01-01

285

10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive...

2011-01-01

286

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section 172... Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as follows:...

2012-10-01

287

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14

288

Composite metal membrane  

DOEpatents

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

289

Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys  

SciTech Connect

When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

1997-11-01

290

Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year 2000. Out of which contaminated stainless steel with high chromium and nickel contents constitutes 25-30 wt. % [1]. Disposal of this material not only represents resource and value lost, but also necessitates long term monitoring for environmental compliance. The latter results in additional recurring expense. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to decontaminate the radioactive stainless steel to a satisfactory level that can be recycled or at least used for fabrication of containers for RSM disposal instead of using virgin stainless steel. Decontamination of radioactive stainless steel using the ESR process is investigated. In this paper the relevant slag properties, capacity to incorporate the radioactive contaminant, slag-metal partition coefficient, volatilization rate, volatile species, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension are presented as a function of temperature. The impact of these properties on the ESR decontamination process is discussed.

Chernicoff, W.P.; Chou, K.C.; Gao, H.; MacDonald, C.J.; Molecke, M.A.; Pal, U.B.; Van Den, J.; Woolley, D.

1999-06-30

291

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to

1995-01-01

292

Transition metal analysis in isotopes produced at the BLIP and HFBR at BNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production or radioisotopes entails a great deal of handling and chemical coprocessing, during which time the sample may get contaminated with trace metals. For radiolabelling monoclonal antibodies, and other bioactive molecules, high specific activity isotopes with very low trace metal contamination are required. Since the final radioisotope product is highly radioactive and contained in a very small volume (â¼

G. E. Meinken; L. F. Mausner; S. C. Srivastava

1996-01-01

293

Reliable metal-to-metal oxide antifuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new high performance, reliable metal-to-metal antifuse. The problem of switch-off in the programmed antifuses is avoided by using metals with low thermal conductivity and thin oxide

G. Zhang; C. Hu; P. Yu; S. Chiang; S. Eltoukhy; E. Hamdy

1994-01-01

294

Design of high-power ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we provide lists of refractory oxides, carbides and refractory metals suitable for use as targets for producing short-lived, proton-rich isotopes of elements (He through Pu) and neutron-rich isotopes of elements (As through Dy) for potential use at high-energy, ISOL-based radioactive ion beam facilities. Complex structure, highly permeable C matrices are described for coating with optimum thicknesses of

Y. Zhang; G. D. Alton

2004-01-01

295

Theoretical modeling of crevice and pitting corrosion processes in relation to corrosion of radioactive waste containers  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical and numerical model for evaluation of crevice and pitting corrosion in radioactive waste containers is presented. The model considers mass transport, mass transfer at the metal/solution interface, and chemical speciation in the corrosion cavity. The model is compared against experimental data obtained in artificial crevices. Excellent agreement is found between modeled and experimental values. The importance of full consideration of complex ion formation in the aqueous solution is emphasized and illustrated. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Walton, J.C. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-09-09

296

The use of non-radioactive chromium as an alternative to 51Cr in NK assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method to measure target cell cytolysis based on the use of ‘cold’, non-radioactive chromium and on the determination of metal release by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is proposed. Natural killer (NK) assays were performed by labelling target cells with chromium as Na2CrO4, and results were compared with those obtained by conventional overnight labelling with 51Cr of

Paola Borella; Annalisa Bargellini; Stefano Salvioli; Cristina Incerti Medici; Andrea Cossarizza

1995-01-01

297

A powder metallurgy approach for production of innovative radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of producing a single metal-matrix composite form rather than two separate forms consisting of a cast metal alloy ingot (such as Type 316SS + Zr) and a ceramic glass-bonded zeolite Na{sub 12}(AlO{sub 2}){sub 12}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 12} has been demonstrated. This powder metallurgy approach consists of mixing the powder of the two separate waste forms together followed by compaction by hot isostatic pressing. Such a radioactive waste form would have the potential advantages of reducing the total waste volume, good thermal conductivity, stability, and surfaces with limited oxide layer formation. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Crawford, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhaduri, S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01

298

Waste characterization for radioactive liquid waste evaporators at Argonne National Laboratory - West.  

SciTech Connect

Several facilities at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) generate many thousand gallons of radioactive liquid waste per year. These waste streams are sent to the AFL-W Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) where they are processed through hot air evaporators. These evaporators remove the liquid portion of the waste and leave a relatively small volume of solids in a shielded container. The ANL-W sampling, characterization and tracking programs ensure that these solids ultimately meet the disposal requirements of a low-level radioactive waste landfill. One set of evaporators will process an average 25,000 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, provide shielding, and reduce it to a volume of six cubic meters (container volume) for disposal. Waste characterization of the shielded evaporators poses some challenges. The process of evaporating the liquid and reducing the volume of waste increases the concentrations of RCIU regulated metals and radionuclides in the final waste form. Also, once the liquid waste has been processed through the evaporators it is not possible to obtain sample material for characterization. The process for tracking and assessing the final radioactive waste concentrations is described in this paper, The structural components of the evaporator are an approved and integral part of the final waste stream and they are included in the final waste characterization.

Christensen, B. D.

1999-02-15

299

Cold Metal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an activity on the conductivity and resistivity of various materials. A thermometer and other everyday materials like wood, metal, and styrofoam are used to compare temperatures detected by oneâÂÂs hands with measured temperatures. The site contains an explanation of the observations and descriptions of insulators and conductors as well as materials needed and assembly for the activity. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2008-06-19

300

Radioactive waste management and practice in Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes are being generated in different parts of Bangladesh. The solid wastes are being collected in steel containers and liquid wastes are collected in plastic carboys and drums. Gaseous Ar-41 is discharged into the atmosphere through the 25 m height stack under controlled conditions after proper monitoring. The solid radioactive wastes collected are approximately 5 m{sup 3} (1988--1992) with gross beta-gamma surface dose rates from 0.30 {micro}Sv/h to 250 {micro}Sv/h. The liquid radioactive wastes are approximately 200 liters (1988--1992) with gross-beta-gamma surface dose rates from 0.30 {micro}Sv/h to 1 mSv/h. The solid and liquid wastes presently being collected are mostly short lived and low level and safely stored according to international safety codes of practice. Radioactive waste packages collected during the 5-yrs study totaled 16, representing a collective volume of {approximately} 7.5 m{sup 3}. The problem of management of radioactive waste in Bangladesh is not so serious at present because the wastes arising are small now. A computerized data base has been developed to document inventory of all radioactive waste arising in the country. The current practices of collection, handling, safe storage and management of the radioactive wastes are reported in this paper.

Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

1993-12-31

301

Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.  

PubMed

This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4? counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling. PMID:24342558

Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

2014-05-01

302

Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix F: Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste streams, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates their radionuclide content and distribution. Several types of low-level radioactive wastes produced by light water reactors were identified in an earlier study as being potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste, including specific activated metal components and certain process wastes in the form of

P. Tuite; K. Tuite; A. Levin

1991-01-01

303

Predictions of LDEF radioactivity and comparison with measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the program to utilize LDEF data for evaluation and improvement of current ionizing radiation environmental models and related predictive methods for future LEO missions, calculations have been carried out to compare with the induced radioactivity measured in metal samples placed on LDEF. The predicted activation is about a factor of two lower than observed, which is attributed to deficiencies in the AP8 trapped proton model. It is shown that this finding based on activation sample data is consistent with comparisons made with other LDEF activation and dose data. Plans for confirming these results utilizing additional LDEF data sets, and plans for model modifications to improve the agreement with LDEF data, are discussed.

Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Harmon, B. A.; Laird, C. E.

1995-01-01

304

Compaction of radioactive incinerator ash: Gas generation effects  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive incinerator ash is produced from the incineration of low-level waste at Ontario Hydro. The presence of toxic metals in the ash requires that the ash be immobilized for disposal. Compaction of ash was investigated along with the use of various binders for immobilizing the ash and yielded waste forms with the highest ash loadings. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions were examined for wetting the ash prior to compaction. Based on ash loadings and waste form properties, compaction of sodium hydroxide wetted ash was found to be the preferred method for conditioning the ash. Significant volumes of hydrogen and methane gases were evolved during the wetting step as a result of reaction with aluminum present in the ash. Dissipation of these gases was crucial in obtaining good waste form properties and necessitated the addition of excess liquid. The excess liquid, however, can be reused.

Husain, A.; Krasznai, J.P. (Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1994-01-01

305

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-06-01

306

Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted.

Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

1980-01-01

307

Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains  

SciTech Connect

Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1989-01-01

308

Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the analysis is that environmental management generated radioactive wastes have substantially less impact than radioactive sources if dispersed by terrorist-induced explosion or fire. From a health standpoint, the impact is very small. However, there is no basis to conclude that wastes are totally unattractive for use in a disruptive or economic damage event. Waste managers should be cognizant of this potential and take measures to ensure security of stored waste and waste shipments. (authors)

McFee, J.N.; Langsted, J.M.; Young, M.E. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc., 9201 East Dry Creek Rd. Centennial, CO 80112 (United States); Day, J.E. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc., 1725 Duke St, Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

2006-07-01

309

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOEpatents

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20

310

Radioactivities related to coal mining.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

2005-08-01

311

Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?  

E-print Network

Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating methods will have been removed, requiring a radical reappraisal both of radioisotope dating methods and of currently predicted dates obtained using these methods.

Philip J. Aston

2012-04-26

312

The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

2012-03-01

313

Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

2003-02-26

314

Genome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: metal reduction in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a delta-proteobacterium, reveals unsuspected capabilities, including evidence of aerobic metabolism, one-carbon and complex carbon metabolism, motility, and chemotactic behavior. These characteristics, coupled with the possession of many two-component sensors and many c-type cytochromes, reveal an ability to create alternative, redundant, electron transport networks and offer insights into the process of metal ion reduction in subsurface environments. As well as playing roles in the global cycling of metals and carbon, this organism clearly has the potential for use in bioremediation of radioactive metals and in the generation of electricity. PMID:14671304

Methé, B A; Nelson, K E; Eisen, J A; Paulsen, I T; Nelson, W; Heidelberg, J F; Wu, D; Wu, M; Ward, N; Beanan, M J; Dodson, R J; Madupu, R; Brinkac, L M; Daugherty, S C; DeBoy, R T; Durkin, A S; Gwinn, M; Kolonay, J F; Sullivan, S A; Haft, D H; Selengut, J; Davidsen, T M; Zafar, N; White, O; Tran, B; Romero, C; Forberger, H A; Weidman, J; Khouri, H; Feldblyum, T V; Utterback, T R; Van Aken, S E; Lovley, D R; Fraser, C M

2003-12-12

315

METAL VALUE RECOVERY FROM METAL HYDROXIDE SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-year study investigating the potential for metal value recovery from metal hydroxide sludges has been completed. The objectives of the study were to: Develop a flowsheet to separate and recover metal values from metal finishing hydroxide sludge materials and operate on a la...

316

Radioactive Materials Released from Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report su...

J. Tichler, C. Benkovitz

1981-01-01

317

Demonstration of radioactive decay using pennies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A demonstration (with full class participation) to illustrate radioactive decay by flipping coins. Shows students visually the concepts of exponential decay, half-life and randomness. Works best in large classes -- the more people, the better.

Wenner, Jennifer

318

Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\\\\\

Manfred Deicher

2002-01-01

319

Fractal and Topological Complexity of Radioactive Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is verified the hypothesis about multifractal nature of radioactive contamination due to nuclear explosions on Semipalatinsk test site (STS) in Kazakhstan. The fields of terrestrial contamination have extreme high variability caused by a number of n...

N. G. Makarenko, L. M. Karimova, A. G. Terekhov, M. M. Novak

2000-01-01

320

Using Popcorn to Simulate Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popping popcorn in your class is an excellent way to illustrate both the spontaneity and irreversible change associated with radioactive decay. It helps students to understand the unpredictability of decay.

Wenner, Jennifer

321

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2009  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................................................29 2. Nuclear fuel production and reprocessing ................................................................................................................22 1.2.1 Radioactive waste disposal from nuclear sites ..................................................................................22 1.2.2 International agreements, the UK Discharge Strategy and building new nuclear power stations

322

Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, ther...

2005-01-01

323

Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks  

SciTech Connect

This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

Glissmeyer, John A.

2010-10-18

324

Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure  

DOEpatents

An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

Belmonte, Mark S. (Irwin, PA); Davis, James H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01

325

Use of Radioactive Iodine for Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Substantial uncertainty persists over the indications for radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. Use of radioactive iodine over time and the correlates of its use remain unknown. Objective To determine practice patterns, the degree to which hospitals vary in their use of radioactive iodine, and factors that contribute to this variation Design, Setting, Patients We performed time trend analysis of radioactive iodine use in a cohort of 189,219 well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated at 981 hospitals associated with the National Cancer Database between 1990 and 2008. We used multilevel analysis to assess the correlates of patient and hospital characteristics on radioactive iodine use in the cohort treated from 2004–2008. Main Outcome Measure Use of radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy Results Between 1990 and 2008, across all tumor sizes, there was a significant rise in the proportion of well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients receiving radioactive iodine (1373/3397, versus 11539/20620, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis of patients treated from 2004 to 2008 found that there was a statistical difference in radioactive iodine use between AJCC stage I and IV (odds ratios (OR) 0.34 (0.31–0.37) but not between stage II/III versus IV (OR 0.97 (0.88–1.07), 1.06 (0.95–1.17), respectively). In addition to patient and tumor characteristics, hospital volume was associated with radioactive iodine use. Wide variation in radioactive iodine use existed, and only 21.1% of this variation was accounted for by patient and tumor characteristics. Hospital type and case volume accounted for 17.1% of the variation. After adjusting for available patient, tumor, and hospital characteristics, much of the variance, 29.1%, was attributable to unexplained hospital characteristics. Conclusions Among patients treated for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at hospitals in the National Cancer Database, there was an increase in the proportion receiving radioactive iodine between 1990 and 2008; much of the variation in use was associated with hospital characteristics. PMID:21846853

Haymart, MR; Banerjee, M; Stewart, AK; Koenig, RJ; Birkmeyer, JD; Griggs, JJ

2012-01-01

326

Liquid radioactive waste subsystem design description  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides a reliable system to safely control liquid waste radiation and to collect, process, and dispose of all radioactive liquid waste without impairing plant operation. Liquid waste is stored in radwaste receiver tanks and is processed through demineralizers and temporarily stored in test tanks prior to sampling and discharge. Radwastes unsuitable for discharge are transferred to the Solid Radwaste System.

NONE

1986-06-01

327

Radioactivity in Silver Induced by Fast Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive silver, Ag112, has been produced by fast neutron bombardment of Cd112 and In115. A half-life period of 3.2 hours is observed with the upper limit of the electron beta-ray spectrum at 2.2 Mev. Gamma-rays are also emitted, the number per beta-ray is about four. The radioactive silver isomer, Ag106, produced by fast neutron bombardment of Ag107, has a positron

M. L. Pool

1938-01-01

328

Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ISOL-based radioactive nuclear beam (RNB) facility, Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC), has been jointly developed by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The facility started to supply RNBs for experiments in 2005 and RNBs including fission fragments with energies up to 1.1MeV/A are available in the present. Several experimental studies were performed successfully using 8Li beams with various energies.

Watanabe, Y. X.; Arai, S.; Arakaki, Y.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Kawakami, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Nomura, T.; Okada, M.; Oyaizu, M.; Tanaka, M. H.; Tomizawa, M.; Yoshikawa, N.; Abe, S.; Hanashima, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Ishii, T.; Ishizaki, N.; Kabumoto, H.; Katayama, I.; Koizumi, M.; Matsuda, M.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nakanoya, T.; Nishio, K.; Ohuchi, I.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Takeuchi, S.; Tayama, H.; Tsukihashi, Y.

2007-11-01

329

Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil  

SciTech Connect

The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

Icenhour, A.S.

2005-05-19

330

Separation of critical radioactive and non-radioactive species from aqueous waste streams.  

PubMed

The separation of radioactive and non-radioactive species from the simulated DOE neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stream was studied. Cation and anion species were referred to their possible basic compounds, and divided into seven groups (nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, fluoride, nitrite, carbonate, and hydroxide). The nitrate group (the major anion in the DOE waste streams) contains several cations species, while the rest of the groups are only in the form of sodium. The precipitation measurements were conducted in three experimental stages. In the first stage, the precipitation of sodium sulfate, sodium phosphate, sodium-sulfate-phosphate, and aluminum nitrate systems were studied using isopropylamine (IPA) as a precipitation solvent. The objectives of this stage were to evaluate the precipitation ability of IPA in precipitating these compounds individually, and to validate the consistency of the analytical instruments and the employed experimental procedure. Tests performed on the acquired data indicated a high level of experimental consistency. The removal of phosphate, sulfate and aluminum were very high. In the second stage, the precipitation studies were conducted on the: (1) nitrate group alone; (2) binary groups containing the groups of nitrate-phosphate, nitrate-sulfate, nitrate-fluoride, nitrate-nitrite, and nitrate-carbonate; (3) combined nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride groups and (4) combined nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, fluoride, nitrite, and carbonate groups. IPA was used as a precipitation solvent. The objectives of this stage were to evaluate the interactions of these groups in the absence of the hydroxide group (e.g. DOE acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate streams), and the influence of such interactions on the individual removal of the targeted species. The removal of the aluminum, phosphate, fluoride, and alkaline cations were significantly high (reached 99.9%). The removal of sulfate were moderately high (reached 87%), and the removal of nitrate and alkali cations including cesium were to some extent low (reached about 50%). In the third stage, the precipitation of inorganic species from the simulated NCAW stream was studied using IPA and ethylamine (EA). The precipitation process is very feasible for reducing the radioactivity contents of alkaline cations. However, the process is less effective in separating alkali cations including cesium. The removal of polyvalent transition metals such as aluminum ion is negatively influenced by the significant presence of hydroxide. While the process is effectively capable of separating phosphate, fluoride, and sulfate, it is significantly less effective in separating nitrate and nitrite. A previously derived thermodynamics framework was used to model the precipitation measurements. The framework provided two predictive equations (the 2-Suffix and 3-Suffix equations). Both equations were reasonably adequate for predicting the solubility phase behavior of tested inorganic species in a mixed-solvents mixture as well as for estimating optimum interaction parameters. However, the 3-Suffix equation was better than the 2-Suffix equation. The parameters were useful for estimating the: (1) precipitation fractions (%P) of the studied species, for instance, at different concentration levels of similar targeted species, or in different waste streams with similar or approximate abundance of species, or at different solvents volume ratio (V(r)) where no experimental data are available. PMID:11230913

Bader, M S

2001-03-30

331

Decontamination of metal surfaces in nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of decontaminating metal surfaces coated with oxides containing radioactive substances which consists of: (A) providing a decontamination solution which comprises (1) water; (2) about 0.02 to about 0.5% of at least one water-soluble organic acid which has an equilibrium constant in a complex with ferric ion of at least 10/sup 9/, and which is capable of producing a pH of 2 to 3 in water; and (3) about 0.01 to about 0.4% of a chelate in free acid form which has an equilibrium constant in a complex with ferric ion of about 10/sup 15/ to about 10/sup 19/, and which is soluble at at least 0.4% at 40/sup 0/C in water having a pH of about 2 to about 3; (B) heating the decontamination solution to about 70/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/C; (C) circulating the decontamination solution over he metal surfaces and through a cation exchange resin until until the radioactivity of the decontamination solution does not increase significantly after contacting the metal surfaces; (D) providing an oxidizing solution which comprises (1) water; (2) 0.2 to 2.5% of an alkali metal permanganate; and (3) about 0.2 to about 2.5% of an alkali metal hydroxide; (E) heating the oxidizing solution to about 70/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/C; (F) circulating the oxidizing solution over the metal surfaces until the dichromate level in the oxidizing solution ceases to increase significantly; and (G) circulating the decontamination solution over the metal surfaces and through a cation exchange resin until the radioactivity of the decontamination solution does not increase significantly after contacting the metal surfaces.

Murray, A.P.; Weisberg, S.L.; Becker, L.F. Jr.

1986-05-06

332

Metal filled porous carbon  

DOEpatents

A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

2011-03-22

333

Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration  

SciTech Connect

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne`s Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne`s TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment.

Dwight, C.C.; Felicione, F.S.; Black, D.B.; Kelso, R.B.; McClellan, G.C.

1995-03-01

334

Determination of Barium and selected rare-earth elements in geological materials employing a HpGe detector by radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laterite material (geological) from Cerro Impacto was first studied by air radiometric techniques in the 1970's and was found to have an abnormally high radioactive background. Further studies showed this deposit to be rich in thorium, columbium, barium and rare-earth elements (mostly La, Ce, Pr and Nd). A similar work has been reported for the analysis of Brazil's lateritic

J. J. LaBrecque; I. L. Preiss

1984-01-01

335

Organic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their crystal structure, conducting organic charge-transfer complexes are similar to arrays of one-dimensional molecules with more than the complement of electrons required for valence bonding. The extra electrons will then partially fill a conduction band whose width is determined by the interactions among neighbors. Synthetic chemists have given much attention to new donors which contain the 1, 3-dithiole ring system of tetrathiafulvalene, which, together with the electron acceptor, tetracyano-p-quinodimethane, has been the focus of organic metals research. The most exciting advances in this field over the last few years have come from studies of tetramethyl-tetraselenafulvalene salts, in some of which a trully superconducting state can be stabilized, under pressure, down to 1 K. It is the search for high temperature superconductivity, however, that is the driving interest in this research.

Bryce, M. R.; Murphy, L. C.

1984-05-01

336

Metals production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing procedures for design of electrochemical plants can be used for design of lunar processes taking into consideration the differences in environmental conditions. These differences include: 1/6 Earth gravity, high vacuum, solar electrical and heat source, space radiation heat sink, long days and nights, and different availability and economics of materials, energy, and labor. Techniques have already been developed for operation of relatively small scale hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell systems used in the U.S. lunar landing program. Design and operation of lunar aqueous electrolytic process plants appears to be within the state-of-the-art. Finding or developing compatible materials for construction and designing of fused-magma metal winning cells will present a real engineering challenge.

Beck, Theodore S.

1992-01-01

337

Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions  

SciTech Connect

Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

NONE

1994-04-01

338

CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense application that formed the basis for the commercial nuclear power industry.

Marra, J.

2010-05-05

339

In-situ spectroelectrochemical studies of radionuclide contaminated surface films on metals and the mechanism of their formation and dissolution. 1997 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The incorporation of radioactive contaminants into corrosion product scales on metals is being investigated using in-situ spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. To facilitate the study, stable isotopes are used initially, while the corrosion films ...

M. Balasubramanian, A. N. Mansour, C. A. Melendres, S. Mini, D. Papapanayiotou

1997-01-01

340

Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic, Antarctic  

SciTech Connect

This conference on radioactivity in the Arctic and Antarctic was held in Kirkenes, Norway and sponsored by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Department of Radiation Physics, Sweden's University of Lund. Radioactivity in the Arctic is the result of both natural phenomena and human activities. Natural or background radioactivity is a result of the breakdown and erosion of rocks that contain naturally radioactive minerals. But the levels introduced by dumping, weapons testing, and industrial activities far exceed such natural levels. Conference delegates cited such contamination sources as: Chernobyl's nuclear reactor accident; Wastes from fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France); Weapons testing in and around Novaya Zemlya; Ocean dumping of reactors, waste containers, and liquid wastes; Runoff from watersheds containing soil and organic material contaminated by atmospheric fallout; Atmospheric fallout from decades of weapons tests by various nations; and, Accidents involving nuclear submarines. The potential for increased radioactive pollution is of great concern and these questions were addressed by several speakers.

Palmer, H.

1993-12-01

341

Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital  

PubMed Central

Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

2010-01-01

342

Process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for encapsulating and stabilizing radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes in a modified sulfur cement composition. The waste may be incinerator fly ash or bottom ash including radioactive contaminants, toxic metal salts and other wastes commonly found in refuse. The process may use glass fibers mixed into the composition to improve the tensile strength and a low concentration of anhydrous sodium sulfide to reduce toxic metal solubility. The present invention preferably includes a method for encapsulating radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially anhydrous wastes, molten modified sulfur cement, preferably glass fibers, as well as anhydrous sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide in a heated double-planetary orbital mixer. The modified sulfur cement is preheated to about 135.degree..+-.5.degree. C., then the remaining substantially dry components are added and mixed to homogeneity. The homogeneous molten mixture is poured or extruded into a suitable mold. The mold is allowed to cool, while the mixture hardens, thereby immobilizing and encapsulating the contaminants present in the ash.

Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Heiser, III, John H. (Bayport, NY)

1997-11-14

343

Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility  

E-print Network

The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRI$\\mu$P facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation up to 99.95% could be achieved for $^{21}$Na. A novel transmitting thermal ionizing device was developed to stop the energetic isotopes. Some 50% of stopped $^{21}$Na could be extracted and transported as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher with 35% transmission efficiency. The ions are transported lossless via a drift tube and a low energy electrostatic beam line into the experimental setup. Such ions can be neutralized on hot metal foils and the resulting atoms can be stored in a magneto-optical trap. The functioning of that principle was demonstrated with stable Na extracted from the thermal ionizer, radioactive beams will follow next.

E. Traykov; U. Dammalapati; S. De; O. C. Dermois; L. Huisman; K. Jungmann; W. Kruithof; A. J. Mol; C. J. G. Onderwater; A. Rogachevskiy; M. da Silva e Silva; M. Sohani; O. Versolato; L. Willmann; H. W. Wilschut

2007-09-24

344

Biofilm formation in spent nuclear fuel pools and bioremediation of radioactive water.  

PubMed

Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel pools at the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Valencia, Spain) were initiated to determine the microbial populations in the pools' water. Biofilm formation at the nuclear power plant facilities and the potential use of those microbial populations in the bioremediation of radioactive water were also studied. Biofilm formation was analyzed by immersing different austenitic stainless steel coupons (UNS S30400, UNS S30466, UNS S31600), as well as balls of stainless steel (UNS S44200) and titanium (99.9%) in a spent nuclear fuel pool (under static and dynamic conditions) for 34 months. Epifluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that biofilm formed on the samples, in spite of the radioactive and oligotrophic conditions of the water. Based on standard culture methods and sequencing of 16S rDNA fragments, 57 bacteria belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteridae were identified in the biofilms. The radioactivity of the biofilm was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, which revealed that biofilms were able to retain radionuclides, especially (60)Co. Using metallic materials to decontaminate radioactive water could become a new approach for bioremediation. PMID:16200501

Sarró, M Isabel; García, Ana M; Moreno, Diego A

2005-09-01

345

Low-activity radioactive materials management at the U.S. Department of Energy.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is making significant progress with the cleanup of its legacy radioactively-contaminated facilities and sites left from research and development and production of nuclear materials and weapons. Sites like Rocky Flats, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Fernald, Mound, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are faced daily with decisions related to disposition of waste and radioactive material. One key to this success is the disposition of waste arising from cleanup. Most of the generated waste volume has very low levels of radioactive contamination. The waste includes contaminated soil, debris from demolition, or scrap metal and equipment. The cost of disposing of large volumes of waste can be prohibitive, so there is incentive to find innovative ways to disposition wastes. This paper describes the current status of policy development in this area, such as development of a draft programmatic environmental impact statement and monitoring of related rulemaking at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper also provides an overview of draft U.S. DOE guidance on control and release of property with residual radioactive material, and site-specific applications of DOE guidance. PMID:17033462

Marcinowski, Frank; Tonkay, Douglas W

2006-11-01

346

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

347

21 CFR 888.3640 - Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. 888...Shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. ...shoulder joint metal/metal or metal/polymer constrained cemented...

2010-04-01

348

Atomic Transport/ Dense Metallic  

E-print Network

Atomic Transport/ Dense Metallic Hydrogen Separation Systems #12;Participants -- Atomic Transport contaminants + partial pressure #12;Technology Options ­ Atomic Transport/Dense Metallic Systems Pd alloy intensification Membrane plus reactor #12;Barrier Categories-- Atomic Transport/Dense Metallic Systems Membrane

349

METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI  

SciTech Connect

One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

Adamson, D.

2012-05-23

350

Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector  

DOEpatents

A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

351

Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics  

E-print Network

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

Deicher, M

2002-01-01

352

Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

Edwards, W.S.

1995-11-01

353

Low radioactivity spectral gamma calibration facility  

SciTech Connect

A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a lead-shielded run pipe below each model. These models have been analyzed by laboratory natural gamma ray spectroscopy (NGRS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for their K, U, and Th content. Also, 42 other elements were analyzed in the NAA. The /sup 222/Rn emanation data were collected. Calibrating the spectral gamma tool in this low radioactivity calibration facility allows the spectral gamma log to accurately aid in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentrations of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones.

Mathews, M.A.; Bowman, H.R.; Huang, L., H.; Lavelle, M.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hearst, J.R.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

1986-01-01

354

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

355

Metal treatment  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for increasing the corrosion resistance of a metal object bearing a preexisting protective conversion coating, said process comprising steps of: (A) contacting the pre-existing coating with a composition having a pH from about 5 to about 12 and consisting essentially of: (1) water, (2) from 25-5,000 ppm of triazole molecules selected from the group consisting of aryl triazoles containing from 6 to about 10 carbon atoms and alkyl triazoles containing from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, and, optionally, (3) at least partially substituted poly(vinylphenol) polymer or copolymer including substituents on at least some of the phenol rings: wherein each of R[sub 5] through R[sub 12] is selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an aryl, an aryl, a hydroxy-alkyl, an amino-alkyl, a mercapto-alkyl, or a phospho-alkyl moiety, except that R[sub 12] can also be [minus]O[sup [minus]1] or [minus]OH and that at least one of R[sub 9] and R[sub 10] must include a polyhydroxy functionality resulting from the condensation of an amine or ammonia with a ketose, aldose, or other polyhydroxyl compound having from about 3 to about 8 carbon atoms, followed by reduction from imino to amino, and, optionally, (4) polar organic solvents; and (B) drying the object completion of step (A).

Carlson, R.; Johnson, P.M.; Pierce, J.R.

1993-07-13

356

Memory Metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

1995-01-01

357

Process for recovering niobium and/or tantalum metal compound from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and/or rare earth metals  

SciTech Connect

A process for recovering one or more non-radioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, which comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of an acid so that a portion of the ore is brought into solution in a liquid phase and another portion of the ore remains in a solid phase, said compound or compounds of the transition metal or metals to be recovered passing into only the liquid or into only the solid phase, the uranium in the crushed ore being treated so as to cause substantially all of said uranium to be present in an oxidation state in which it cannot, during the decomposition step, pass into the phase containing the transition metal compound or compounds.

Floeter, W.; Schoening, G.; Schroeer, K.

1984-05-29

358

Summary -- Experiments with Radioactive Beams Working Group  

SciTech Connect

During the course of the workshop, a wide range of futuristic radioactive-beam experiments were discussed. These extended from the study of electroweak interactions in nuclei to materials science, nuclear astrophysics, and a host of nuclear physics investigations. Emphasis was placed on illustrating how these prototypical experiments could be done, discussing what types of detection systems would be needed, exploring the new problems which would be confronting the radioactive beam experimenter, and better defining the beam requirements. Contained herein is a summary of these discussions.

Vieira, D.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Wiescher, M. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States))

1992-01-01

359

Summary -- Experiments with Radioactive Beams Working Group  

SciTech Connect

During the course of the workshop, a wide range of futuristic radioactive-beam experiments were discussed. These extended from the study of electroweak interactions in nuclei to materials science, nuclear astrophysics, and a host of nuclear physics investigations. Emphasis was placed on illustrating how these prototypical experiments could be done, discussing what types of detection systems would be needed, exploring the new problems which would be confronting the radioactive beam experimenter, and better defining the beam requirements. Contained herein is a summary of these discussions.

Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

1992-12-31

360

Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01

361

Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War  

PubMed Central

The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas. PMID:6015741

Waters, W. R.

1967-01-01

362

Microwave remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

A team from the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (WSRC - a DOE Laboratory), and the University of Florida (UF - academia), has been active for about a decade in development of microwave technology for specialized waste management applications. This interaction has resulted in the development of unique equipment and uses of microwave energy for a variety of important applications for remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Discussed are results of this unique technology for processing of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, discarded tires, and transuranic radioactive wastes.

Wicks, G.G.

2000-04-28

363

Level Statistics of Stable and Radioactive Nuclei  

E-print Network

The spectral statistics of nuclei undergo through the major forms of radioactive decays ((\\alpha)(\\beta^-), and(\\beta^+) (or EC)) and also stable nuclei are investigated. With employing the MLE technique in the nearest neighbor spacing framework, the chaoticity parameters are estimated for sequences prepared by all the available empirical data. The ML-based estimated values propose a deviation to more regular dynamics in sequences constructed by stable nuclei in compare to unstable ones. In the same mass regions, nuclei transmitted through (\\alpha)decay explore less regularity in their spectra in compare to other radioactive nuclei.

M. A. Jafarizadeh; N. Fouladi; H. Sabri; B. Rashidian Maleki

2012-02-28

364

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01

365

Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of HRIBF is the production of high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions.

Beene, James R [ORNL; Dowling, Darryl T [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Juras, Raymond C [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Meigs, Martha J [ORNL; Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Sinclair, John William [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL

2011-01-01

366

Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base  

SciTech Connect

This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

1995-01-01

367

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16

368

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1999-03-16

369

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To complete the process development, ESR melting experiments, which include actual radioactive contaminates as well as surrogates, are being conducted at the Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia. These experiments measure decontamination efficiencies in ingots for uranium and plutonium in stainless steel, as well as correlate removal of radioactive and surrogate compounds in the same melts. This will ''close the loop'' and allow us to use measured surrogate behaviors to model removal of radioactive species.

VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

1999-06-15

370

Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

371

Isolation and characterization of a radiation-resistant bacterium from Taklamakan Desert showing potent ability to accumulate Lead (II) and considerable potential for bioremediation of radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

Radioactive wastes always contain radioactive substances and a lot of Pb compound and other heavy metals, which severely contaminate soils and groundwater. Thus, search for radiation-resistant microorganisms that are capable of sequestering Pb contaminants from the contaminated sites is urgently needed. However, very few such microorganisms have been found so far. In the present study, we discovered a novel Gram-negative bacterium from the arid Taklamakan desert, which can strongly resist both radiation and Pb(2+). Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis indicated that this bacterial strain is closely affiliated with Microvirga aerilata, and was thus referred to as Microvirga aerilata LM (=CCTCC AB 208311). We found that M. aerilata LM can effectively accumulate Pb and form intracellular precipitations. It also keeps similar ability to remove Pb(2+) under radioactive stress. Our data suggest that M. aerilata LM may offer an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to remove soluble Pb contaminants from radioactive wastes. PMID:25182517

Luo, Xuesong; Zeng, Xian-Chun; He, Zhancan; Lu, Xiaolu; Yuan, Jie; Shi, Jingjing; Liu, Ming; Pan, Yunfan; Wang, Yan-Xin

2014-12-01

372

Solid radioactive waste subsystem design description  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides reliable processing of collected solid waste to meet the requirements of 10CFR20 and 10CFR61. The methods utilized are cement solidification for sludges, resins, liquids, and noncompactible waste, and compaction for dry compressible waste. The drums of processed waste will be stored until transported off-site for disposal at a licensed burial site.

NONE

1986-06-01

373

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 to 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned.A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes

El-Shinawy, Rifaat M. K.

1994-07-01

374

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01

375

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1999-10-27

376

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

Moore, C.J.

2000-04-14

377

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

McNatt, F.G. Sr.

1996-04-01

378

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2009-06-11

379

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1992-12-31

380

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-05-01

381

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1997-04-01

382

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 1994  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1994 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G. Sr.

1995-04-01

383

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

384

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

385

Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

Fasso, Alberto

1999-08-27

386

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2004  

E-print Network

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2004 RIFE - 10 2005 #12;Food Standards Agency Emergency Service Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate Calvert House 23 Castle Place Belfast BT1 1FY ISSN 1365-6414 #12;1 ENVIRONMENT AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE SERVICE FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY SCOTTISH

387

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2005  

E-print Network

Radioactivity in Food and the Environment, 2005 RIFE - 11 2006 #12;Food Standards Agency Emergency Service Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate Calvert House 23 Castle Place Belfast BT1 1FY ISSN 1365-6414 #12; ENVIRONMENT AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AND HERITAGE SERVICE FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY SCOTTISH

388

RADIOACTIVE METALLOFULLERENES: HOT ATOM CHEMISTRY ASPECTS.  

E-print Network

with radioactive isotopes can be useful for medical diagnostics, therapy of cancer and immunotherapy. Itinerary in reactor on metallofullerenes and what is survivability of original chemical form at thermal neutron is retention, percent of capture events which retain the original molecule. The thermal neutron capture results

Titov, Anatoly

389

Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is an online exhibit about Marie Curie, the discoverer of the radioactive elements polonium and radium and the first person to win two Nobel prizes. The exhibit provides an interactive account of Marie Curie's life, complete with photographs, maps, and links to more information. This is part of the Center for the History of Physics of the American Institute for Physics.

2006-12-07

390

Preparation and characterization of radioactive castanospermine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the preparation of tritiated castanospermine is described. The tritiated alkaloid was shown to be chromatographically identical to the native material and exhibited the same inhibitory properties. Radiolabeled castanospermine tightly bound to purified intestinal sucrase. Following gel chromatography, each mole of enzyme was shown to have bound 1 mol of the radioactive alkaloid. Cultured MDCK cells were also

R. W. Keenan; Y. T. Pan; A. D. Elbein

1987-01-01

391

Radioactive Ion Beams for Stewardship Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of particular reaction sequences that influence the cumulative fission yield of specific fission products of interest for stewardship science as well as for nuclear reactions on radiochemical detectors used in testing nuclear devices are often not accessible with radioactive targets because of short half-lives, high specific activities or availability of sufficient target material. Therefore, a possible surrogate reaction for (n,?) is the neutron transfer in (d,p) or (d,p?) reactions, which can be measured with ion beams of short-lived radioactive species in inverse kinematics. The Center of Excellence for Radioactive Ion Beam Studies for Stewardship Science is developing experimental techniques for measuring (d,p) reactions. Therefore, a strong component of our center is the development of accelerated radioactive ion beams such as 48V, 73,74As, 92,94,95Sr, 82Ge, 132,134Sn, Zr, Mo, Tc, and others. Some of these beams had not been available before, because the elements are refractory, or some beams require higher beam intensity or purity. Beam development techniques include different actinide targets, e.g. ThO2, molecular sideband formation, e.g. for Sr and possibly charge-exchange processes. This talk will consider specific beams of interested for our center. This research was sponsored by the NNSA under Stewardship Science Academic Alliance program through DOE Cooperative Agreement # DE-FC03-3NA00143.

Kronenberg, Andreas; Carter, H. K.; Spejewski, E. H.

2006-10-01

392

Thyroid Cancer Following Exposure to Radioactive Iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although external radiation is a well-known cause of human thyroid cancer, the risk from exposure of the thyroid gland to internal radiation is not well defined. This is of practical importance because of the extensive use of radioactive iodine in medical practice and the potential for release of iodine radionuclides into the environment. The purpose of this review is to

Jacob Robbins; Arthur B. Schneider

2000-01-01

393

A literature Review on Radioactivity Transfer to  

E-print Network

year are considered even though dealing with the long-lived nuclei, 90 Sr and 1 3 7 Cs. Before� *ISE Rise-R-450 A literature Review on Radioactivity Transfer to Plants and Soil Ole John Nielsen Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark July 1981 #12;RIS�-R-450 A LITERATURE REVIEW

394

A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

2012-01-01

395

Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

Lapp, David R.

2010-01-01

396

10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source Control § 835.1202 Accountable...

2010-01-01

397

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2012-01-01

398

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2013-01-01

399

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2011-01-01

400

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2010-01-01

401

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

... Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2014-01-01

402

40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147.3005 Section 147...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Lands of...147.3005 Radioactive waste injection wells. Notwithstanding §§...

2010-07-01

403

Depleted uranium: a contemporary controversy for the teaching of radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depleted uranium has been used in recent military conflicts and the media have reported the danger from radioactivity. This context provides a good way to keep students' attention when introducing the subject of radioactivity at GCSE or advanced level.

Mark Whalley

2006-01-01

404

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

2012-01-01

405

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

2010-01-01

406

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

2011-01-01

407

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

2013-01-01

408

10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.  

...radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

2014-01-01

409

Recovering metals from wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal recycling has come a long way from the scrap heap. Today, metals recovery is not simply a matter of collecting and remelting automobile and process scrap and beverage cans for profit, but of wringing out and reusing hazardous metals from plant wastes and soil, to comply with environmental laws. Processes developed to extract metal from ore are being redesigned

G. Parkinson; S. Moore; K. Fouhy

1994-01-01

410

Development of sampling methodic of radioactive materials and measurements in performing radioactive inspection of APS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes sampling methods and methods of determination of radioactive contamination which are needed in reactor decommissioning. The decommissioning of the Armenian Power Plant is and inspection techniques is discussed.

Matusevich, E.S.; Cherkashin, V.A. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31

411

Fabrication of metal nanoshells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

412

Metalation of Indole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metalation reactions involving indoles (and indolines) is reviewed (through 2009). The most common mode of metalation is lithiation. Other metals that have been used, either through direct metalation of indole or through transmetalation, include magnesium, zinc, tin, and boron. This monograph is divided into three sections: metalation directed by a nitrogen functionality, directed ortho metalation by substituents not located at nitrogen, and halogen-metal exchange. All of the sections are organized by the location of the metalation event. The review will have a primary focus on the seminal papers that contributed to the development of metalation reactions and a secondary focus on applications of metalation reactions used in the synthesis of complex indoles including indole natural products.

Pelkey, Erin T.

413

Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste. By using the Radioactive Material Incident Report data base to evaluate transportation accidents involving commercial low-level radioactive waste, it was found that there have been only four transportation accidents involving the release of commercial low-level radioactive waste in the last 20 years. The accidents were

1992-01-01

414

Stable radioactive diagnostic agent and a non-radioactive carrier therefor  

SciTech Connect

A stable non-radioactive carrier for use in production of /sup 99/ /SUP m/ Tc-labeled radioactive diagnostic agent comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent for pertechnetate and a stabilizer chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid, and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters in an amount of more than about 100 moles per 1 mol of said water-soluble reducing agent.

Azuma, M.; Hazue, M.

1984-12-18

415

Concentration of radioactive components in liquid low-level radioactive waste by membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses some aspects of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) purification. Since the volume of liquid low-level wastes is usually large and the activity is rather low, the radioactive substances separated from the non-active portion have to be concentrated into the small volume for subsequent conditioning and disposal. The need for the improvement of decontamination and minimisation of the

G. Zakrzewska-Trznadel; M. Harasimowicz; A. G. Chmielewski

1999-01-01

416

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and thermochemical modeling of these high temperature systems. The second segment utilized Sandia expertise and ongoing work in fundamental separation science and liquid metal processing technology to investigate and optimize ESR decontamination using representative surrogate compounds to represent contaminate radionuclides. This work evaluated partitioning of the surrogates between the slag and metal ingot in ESR experiments. Furnace operating parameters were systematically varied to determine the optimum slag processing conditions. The third effort in Russia conducted ESR melting experiments using contaminated stainless steel pipe electrodes doped with plutonium. This work provided separation data for the radioactive compounds.

Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

1999-12-31

417

Amorphous metal composites  

DOEpatents

An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

Byrne, Martin A. (Troy, NY); Lupinski, John H. (Scotia, NY)

1984-01-01

418

Reactivity of Metal Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will be concerned with the parameters governing interactions between metallic nanoparticles and a reactive surrounding material, and hence with the catalytic properties of such nanoparticles. Indeed, most industrial metal catalysts contain very costly metals, such as the precious metals at the end of the transition series and the noble metals, and must therefore have as large a surface-to-volume ratio as possible in order to economise the number of atoms required. This is the solution provided by nanoparticles.

Bertolini, J.-C.; Rousset, J.-L.

419

Review of physics, instrumentation and dosimetry of radioactive isotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General radioactive isotope information, stressing radioactivity, methods of measurement, and dosimetry of radioactive nuclides have been reviewed to serve as a reference for the medical profession. Instability of radionuclides, principal types of emission, and measurement of ionizing radiation are among the topics discussed.

Sinclair, W. K.

1967-01-01

420

Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal

1988-01-01

421

Exploring solid state physics properties with radioactive isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics for many years. Established nuclear techniques such as Mbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, -NMR and emission channelling have now been joined by new and successful tracer techniques like radioactive deep level transient spectroscopy, capacitance voltage measurements, Hall-effect measurements or photoluminescence spectroscopy. Numerous radioactive species, ranging from to , are employed to

Doris Forkel-Wirth

1999-01-01

422

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2011-07-01

423

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2010-10-01

424

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2012-10-01

425

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2013-07-01

426

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2011-10-01

427

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2010-10-01

428

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2014-07-01

429

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2013-10-01

430

49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440...PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as...

2014-10-01

431

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2011-10-01

432

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2013-10-01

433

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2012-07-01

434

49 CFR 172.436 - RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. 172.436 Section...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.436 RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I label must be as...

2014-10-01

435

Status report on the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1992, a project was started to reconfigure the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) to form the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). This ORNL project to produce medium-intensity, proton-rich, radioactive ion beams (RIBS) for astrophysics, nuclear physics, and applied research was first described to the SNEAP community at Chalk River in 1992. To briefly review, radioactive ions

M. J. Meigs; G. D. Alton; R. L. Auble

1994-01-01

436

Radioactive waste management in developing and newly industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive wastes are mostly produced in countries with military nuclear programmes. However, non-nuclear weapon countries, with solely commercial nuclear industries, also produce radioactive wastes. Moreover, uranium and thorium mining and milling wastes, as well as other kinds of low-level radioactive wastes like those resulting from radiological accidents, can also be found in developing and newly industrialized countries. The paper discusses

A. S. Paschoa; A. Tranjan Filho

1995-01-01

437

Modification of Poisson Distribution in Radioactive Particle Counting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on radioactive practicle counting statistics in laboratory and field applications, intended to aid the Health Physics technician's understanding of the effect of indeterminant errors on radioactive particle counting. It indicates that although the statistical analysis of radioactive disintegration is best described by a Poisson…

Drotter, Michael T.

438

Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods  

DOEpatents

Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

Seidel, Bobby R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tracy, Donald B. (Firth, ID); Griffiths, Vernon (Butte, MT)

1991-01-01

439

49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...  

...requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying...requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying...passenger-carrying aircraft between Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE...

2014-10-01

440

Illuminating Metal Ion Sensors - Benzimidazolesulfonamide Metal Complexes  

PubMed Central

The synthesis, structure, and solution spectroscopy of several 2-sulfonamidophenylbenzimidazole metal complexes is reported. These ligands, which have been reported as selective molecular sensors for Zn2+, readily form complexes with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. Surprisingly, the ligand adopts different binding modes depending on the metal ion. The work here provides insight into the coordination chemistry of these ligands that may allow for the development of improved metal ion sensors and metalloprotein inhibitors. PMID:20942382

Martin, David; Rouffet, Matthieu

2010-01-01

441

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

442

Metal sorption on kaolinite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A key issue in performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste sites is predicting the transport and retardation of radionuclides through local soils under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Improved transport codes should include a...

H. R. Westrich, P. V. Brady, R. T. Cygan, K. L. Nagy, H. L. Anderson

1997-01-01

443

s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 1 Geological disposal of radioactive  

E-print Network

of sites · These are sites where water flow is favourable to disposal of radioactive waste. · Identified.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste Cumbria 6, 7 Sept 2012 10 MRWS asked BGS to map the excluded zones in 2010 mineral or water into the sea and fresh water ....... discharge at or near the coast.s.haszeldine@ed.ac.uk Radioactive waste

444

INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1994-09-01

445

Ion-Exchange Characteristics of a Layered Metal Sulfide for Removal of Sr From Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium-90 (Sr) is the most abundant radionuclide in radioactive wastes, and is typically isolated by treatment with an inorganic ion-exchange material. Most inorganic ion-exchange materials contain oxygen. The ion-exchange chemistry of layered metal sulfides is relatively poorly explored compared with that of oxide ion-exchange materials. Here, a layered metal sulfide (UCR-28), constructed from [ZnGe3S9(H2O)] supertetrahedral clusters, was prepared under hydrothermal

Xingliang Li; Bijun Liu; Yuan Jian; Wenbin Zhong; Wanjun Mu; Jiaheng He; Zongping Ma; Guoping Liu; Shunzhong Luo

2012-01-01

446

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500°C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy

1993-01-01

447

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the

Eddie C

1995-01-01

448

Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium  

PubMed Central

A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting the calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out in vivo by injection of Sr89 and Ca45 in the presence of inert carrier into ligated intestinal segments in rats, and the amount of absorption was measured by standard monitoring techniques. The pattern of absorption of both ions is very similar but the rate of absorption is different. It was found that the polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate, obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), injected simultaneously with radiostrontium effectively reduces the absortion of Sr89 from all segments of the intestine by as much as 50-80% of the control values. No significant reduction in absorption of Ca45 was observed in equivalent concentrations. The reduction in blood levels of Sr89 and in bone uptake corresponded to the absorption pattern. The difference in the effect on strontium and calcium absorption may be due to differences in the binding capacity of sodium alginate from the two metal ions under the conditions present in vivo. PMID:14180534

Skoryna, Stanley C.; Paul, T. M.; Edward, Deirdre Waldron

1964-01-01

449

Honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale environmental monitoring programs rely on sampling many media -- air, water, food, et cetera -- from a large network of sampling stations. For describing the total region possibly impacted by contaminants, the most efficient sampler would be one that covered a large region and simultaneously sampled many different media, such as water, air, soil, and vegetation. Honeybees have been shown to be useful monitors of the environment in this context for detecting both radionuclides and heavy metals. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity in the form of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. For the study, approximately 50 honeybee colonies were placed on the Hanford Site and along the Columbia River in areas downwind of the site. The mini-hive colonies were sampled after 1 month and tested for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides. From this and other studies, it is known that honeybees can be used to detect radionuclides present in the environment. Their mobility and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could expand and add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Simmons, M.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bromenshenk, J.J.; Gudatis, J.L. (Montana Univ., Missoula, MT (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

1990-07-01

450

Biosorption of radioactive thorium by Sargassum filipendula.  

PubMed

In the present work, the biosorption of radioactive thorium was investigated using a dry biomass of Sargassum filipendula as the biosorbent material. Radioactive solutions containing between 2.0 and 500.0 microg thorium were tested by biosorption with S. filipendula, yielding uptake capacities from 20 to 100%, depending on the concentration of the solution. Kinetic studies indicated that equilibrium between the thorium solution and the solid fraction was achieved after three hours of contact and that a second-order model could express the equilibrium kinetics. In order to investigate the maximum biosorption capacity of the biomass an isotherm was done, based on the experimental data, which revealed the maximum uptake capacity to be 2.59 micromol thorium/g biomass. The experimental data fitted well to a Langmuir model, which provided a good correlation between the experimental and predicted thorium uptake values. PMID:16960279

Picardo, Marta Cristina; de Melo Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Augusto da Costa, Antonio Carlos

2006-09-01

451

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

Moxham, Robert M.

1954-01-01

452

Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

Moxham, Robert M.

1953-01-01

453

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine  

DOEpatents

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

454

Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

2013-10-30

455

Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines  

SciTech Connect

Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-02

456

Energy distribution mapping of beta radioactive sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel procedure in extracting the energy distribution of radioactive beta emitters that has a direct application in detector energy calibration. The method employs a highly non-uniform magnetic field from a permanent dipole magnet and an array of 12 0.1×0.1×31 cm3 scintillating fibers. By scanning the radioactive source across the entire entrance face of the magnet and recording the exit position of the electrons on the dispersive plane, we generated a full 2D map of the energy-position correlation functions. By combining the ADC spectra and a Geant4 simulation of the experimental setup, we were able to reconstruct the entire energy spectrum of a 25 ?Ci90Sr/ 90Y point source used within a 1.4% accuracy.

Guèye, Paul

2007-08-01

457

Standard Model tests with trapped radioactive atoms  

E-print Network

We review the use of laser cooling and trapping for Standard Model tests, focusing on trapping of radioactive isotopes. Experiments with neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques are testing several basic predictions of electroweak unification. For nuclear $\\beta$ decay, demonstrated trap techniques include neutrino momentum measurements from beta-recoil coincidences, along with methods to produce highly polarized samples. These techniques have set the best general constraints on non-Standard Model scalar interactions in the first generation of particles. They also have the promise to test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, to search for tensor interactions, and to search for new sources of time reversal violation. There are also possibilites for exotic particle searches. Measurements of the strength of the weak neutral current can be assisted by precision atomic experiments using traps of small numbers of radioactive atoms, and sensitivity to possible time-reversal violating electric dipole moments can be improved.

J. A. Behr; G. Gwinner

2008-10-22

458

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01

459

Alkali metal nitrate purification  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

1986-02-04

460

Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

Sattler, L.R.

1992-10-01

461

Radioactive isotopes in solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of solid state physics techniques is using radioactive ion beams, both from on-line and off-line separators. The different techniques can be roughly subdivided into two classes: one, including the hyperfine techniques like Mößbauer spectroscopy (MS), Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy, ?-NMR and the ion-beam technique of Emission Channeling (EC). They all crucially depend on the availability of

Doris Forkel-Wirth

1997-01-01

462

Radioactive isotopes in solid state physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of solid state physics techniques is using radioactive ion beams, both from on-line and off-line separators. The different techniques can be roughly subdivided into two classes: one, including the hyperfine techniques like Mößbauer spectroscopy (MS), Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy, beta-NMR and the ion-beam technique of Emission Channeling (EC). They all crucially depend on the availability of

D. Forkel-Wirth

1996-01-01

463

Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes  

SciTech Connect

The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

1999-12-03

464

Procedures for radioactive I-125 seed implants  

SciTech Connect

Typical safety procedures and guidelines for the use of radioactive I-125 seed implant are presented. Topics covered include: Physical properties, management and planning of I-125, source logging, source transportation, source accounting during and after implant, room monitoring, recording, dosimetry films, nursing procedures, discharge of patient. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with the regulations, but are not necessarily the only procedures that could be utilized.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1988-12-01

465

Natural radioactivity levels in Andalusian spas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross-? and gross-? activity, 222Rn, 226Ra and 224Ra of waters from several spas of Andalusia (Spain) were performed in order to determine their radioactivity. Radon concentration ranged from 0.225 to 130Bq\\/l. 226Ra and 224Ra concentrations ranged from 2 to 1367mBq\\/l and from 2 to 122mBq\\/l respectively. Correlations between the 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations and gross-? activity were obtained. A correlation

C Dueñas; M. C Fernández; C Enr??quez; J Carretero; E Liger

1998-01-01

466

Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-10-01

467

A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30MeV and 100kW can produce nearly 5×1013 fissions\\/s from an optimized 235U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit

William T Diamond

1999-01-01

468

Gain stabilization for radioactivity well logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved gain stabilization system for radioactivity well logging apparatus is of the type having a scintillation crystal and optically coupled photomultiplier in a sonde to detect radiation in the borehole and formation elements in response to neutron bombardment. The gain stabilization system includes a light emitting diode driven by a pulser and furnishing scintillations to the photomultiplier, resulting in a stabilization pulse which is furnished to electronic circuitry at the surface for stabilization purposes.

Whatley, H.A.

1980-09-02

469

Cross-section measurements for radioactive samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of (n,p), (n,..cap alpha..) and (n,..gamma..) cross sections for radioactive nuclei is of interest to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. For example, using these reactions, properties of levels in nuclei at high excitation energies, which are difficult or impossible to study using other reactions, can be investigated. Also, reaction rates for both big-bang and stellar nucleosynthesis can be

P. E. Koehler; H. A. OBrien

1988-01-01

470

Mound Laboratory Cyclone Incinerator for radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyclone Incinerator at Mound Laboratory, funded by the Division of Waste Management, Production and Reprocessing of ERDA, is capable of handling various types of combustible radioactive wastes, either by batch or by continuous feed. In batch operation, the burn chamber is a 55-gallon drum which permits the in-situ burning of wastes directly in the storage drum. Off-the-shelf components have

S. S. Freeman; L. M. Klingler; D. F. Luthy; J. E. Todd

1977-01-01

471

Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observational data in the period 1971–1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24Na, 32P, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce and 239Np

E. G. Tertyshnik

1995-01-01

472

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Darío R. Gómez; Michael Tyacke

473

A Simple Example of Radioactive Dating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although nuclear half-life is vital to physics and physical science, and to sensitive societal issues from nuclear waste to the age of the Earth, a true lab on half-life is almost never done at the college or high school level. Seldom are students able to use radioactivity to actually date when an object came into being, as is done in this…

Brown, Todd

2014-01-01

474

Transient and secular radioactive equilibrium revisited  

E-print Network

The two definitions of radioactive equilibrium are revisited in this paper. The terms activity equilibrium and effective life equilibrium are proposed to take the place of currently used terms transient equilibrium and secular equilibrium. The proposed new definitions have the advantage of providing a clearer physics meaning. Besides the well known instant activity equilibrium, another class of exact effective life-time equilibrium is also discussed in this letter.

Zhang, Qinghui; Amols, Howard

2014-01-01

475

Future radioactive liquid waste streams study  

SciTech Connect

This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

Rey, A.S.

1993-11-01

476

BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron`s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p,{alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} ions/sec.

Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haustein, P.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

1998-07-01

477

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

1991-01-01

478

Radioactive waste management in the former USSR  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

Bradley, D.J.

1992-06-01

479

Predicting Dietborne Metal Toxicity from Metal Influxes  

E-print Network

stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1 . L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed

480

Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technologies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents, and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled. This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of background radioactivity is proposed. Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogeneity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown on Fig. 1. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation measurement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if human activity had led to contamination of soil only by artificial radionuclides. But we can view a totality of soil radioactivity factors in the following way. (author)

Gablin, Vassily [Scientific-Industrial Association 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky Lane, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

481

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01

482

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01

483

Metal-on-metal hip joint tribology.  

PubMed

The basic tribological features of metal-on-metal total hip replacements have been reviewed to facilitate an understanding of the engineering science underpinning the renaissance of these hard-on-hard joints. Metal-on-polymer hip replacements operate in the boundary lubrication regime, thus leading to the design guidance to reduce the femoral head diameter as much as is feasible to minimize frictional torque and volumetric wear. This explains why the gold-standard implant of this form from the past half-century had a diameter of only 22.225 mm (7/8 in). Metal-on-metal implants can operate in the mild mixed lubrication regime in which much of the applied load is supported by elastohydrodynamic films. Correct tribological design leads to remarkably low steady state wear rates. Promotion of the most effective elastohydrodynamic films calls for the largest possible head diameters and the smallest clearances that can reasonably be adopted, consistent with fine surface finishes, good sphericity and minimal structural elastic deformation of the cup on its foundations. This guidance, which is opposite in form to that developed for metal-on-polymer joints, is equally valid for solid (monolithic) metallic heads on metallic femoral stems and surface replacement femoral shells. Laboratory measurements of friction and wear in metal-on-metal joints have confirmed their potential to achieve a very mild form of mixed lubrication. The key lies in the generation of effective elastohydrodynamic lubricating films of adequate thickness compared with the composite roughness of the head and cup. The calculation of the film thickness is by no means easy, but the full procedure is outlined and the use of an empirical formula that displays good agreement with calculations based upon the full numerical solutions is explained. The representation of the lambda ratio, lambda, embracing both film thickness and composite roughness, is described. PMID:16669380

Dowson, D; Jin, Z M

2006-02-01

484

Management of ocean disposal of radioactive wastes: a basis for the control of other pollutants  

SciTech Connect

To manage, on a scientific basis, the quantities of all kinds of waste disposal to coastal waters and open oceans it is necessary to assess the environmental or assimilative capacity for these materials which will not result in an unacceptable biological impact upon the components of the ecosystem nor on man who uses its resources. One approach available is that which has been demonstrated for the management of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the oceans. Methodologies have been developed, both generic and site-specific, which allow the relationship between discharge or release rate and the radiation dose to be established. Guidelines and recommendations which govern acceptable radiation exposed to man have been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These methodologies developed for the control of radioactive wastes can be applied directly for public health protection for non-radioactive wastes such as metals and organochlorine pesticides. ICRP recommendations on justification and optimization can be integrated into an overall management philosophy in order to quantify alternative waste disposal options.

Templeton, W.L.

1981-09-01

485

Dealing with the aftermath of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: decontamination of radioactive cesium enriched ash.  

PubMed

Environmental radioactivity, mainly in the Tohoku and Kanto areas, due to the long living radioisotopes of cesium is an obstacle to speedy recovery from the impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Although incineration of the contaminated wastes is encouraged, safe disposal of the Cs enriched ash is the big challenge. To address this issue, safe incineration of contaminated wastes while restricting the release of volatile Cs to the atmosphere was studied. Detailed study on effective removal of Cs from ash samples generated from wood bark, household garbage, and municipal sewage sludge was performed. For wood ash and garbage ash, washing only with water at ambient conditions removed radioactivity due to (134)Cs and (137)Cs, retaining most of the components other than the alkali metals with the residue. However, removing Cs from sludge ash needed acid treatment at high temperature. This difference in Cs solubility is due to the presence of soil particle originated clay minerals in the sludge ash. Because only removing the contaminated vegetation is found to sharply decrease the environmental radioactivity, volume reduction of contaminated biomass by incineration makes great sense. In addition, need for a long-term leachate monitoring system in the landfill can be avoided by washing the ash with water. Once the Cs in solids is extracted to the solution, it can be loaded to Cs selective adsorbents such as Prussian blue and safely stored in a small volume. PMID:23484742

Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Minami, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Umeoka, Kuniyoshi; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Hayashi, Yukie; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Tohru

2013-04-16

486

Glass matrices for vitrification of radioactive waste - an Update on R & D Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste gets generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle like mining/milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing of spent fuel and the production & application of radioisotopes for various industrial, medical and research purposes. High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and it contains most of the radioactivity present in entire fuel cycle. Vitrification of HLW in borosilicate matrix is being practiced using induction heated metallic melters at industrial scale plants at Tarapur and Trombay [1]. The nature of HLW largely depends on off - reactor cooling of spent nuclear fuel, its type and burn - up, and reprocessing flow sheet. In view of varying characteristics, processing of HLW at Tarapur and Trombay has offered a wide spectrum of challenges in terms of development of matrices and characterization to accommodate compositional changes in waste. The present paper summarizes details of extensive R and D efforts made in the Department of Atomic Energy towards development and characterization of glass formulations for immobilization of HLW.

Raj, Kanwar; Kaushik, C. P.

2009-07-01

487

Economic Geology (Metals)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews metalliferous ore-deposit research reported in 1971. Research was dominated by isotopic studies, and worldwide metals exploration was marked by announcements of important new discoveries of base metals, iron ore, nickel, titanium, and uranium. (Author/PR)

Gair, Jacob E.

1972-01-01

488

Metal phthalocyanine catalysts  

DOEpatents

As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01

489

Metal phthalocyanine catalysts  

DOEpatents

A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-10-11

490

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-print Network

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

491

Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides  

SciTech Connect

We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13?Å and ?7?Å for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo, E-mail: jbli@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superlattice and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yue, Qu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2013-11-07

492

MECHANISMS OF RADIONUCLIDE-HYDROXYCARBOXYLIC ACID INTERACTIONS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF METALLIC SURFACES  

EPA Science Inventory

This project addresses key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contaminants from slightly contaminated steel and other surfaces at the DOE sites so that the metals can be reused. The objectives of this research are to ...

493

Observation of a Preferred Orientation in Indium Metal by the TDPAC Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-differential perturbed angular correlation(TDPAC) technique has been applied to study the microcrystalline structure of indium metal near the melting point with 111In radioactive probes. The TDPAC function observed at 155°C just below the melting point (156.4°C) indicates the formation of a partially oriented matrix in a polycrystalline lattice.

Kawase, Yoichi; Uehara, Sin-ichi; Nasu, Saburo

1992-10-01

494

Bacterial Transition Metal Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since details on metal cation transport proteins and on the allocation mechanisms for transition metals\\u000a are provided elsewhere in this book, I will present aspects of transition metal homeostasis in a hopefully\\u000a novel overview. We will start with a microbial look at the transition metal Periodic Table, cation speciation,\\u000a and availability in the environment. This information provides rules that might

Dietrich H. Nies

495

Metal etching composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a chemical etching composition for etching metals or metallic alloys. The composition includes a solution of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ethylene glycol, and an oxidizing agent. The etching composition is particularly useful for etching metal surfaces in preparation for subsequent fluorescent penetrant inspection.

Otousa, Joseph E. (inventor); Thomas, Clark S. (inventor); Foster, Robert E. (inventor)

1991-01-01

496

Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC)  

E-print Network

Fractogel® Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges Tools for His·Tag® Fusion-MACTM Cartridges #12;2 Novagen · Fractogel Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins Ni-MACTM , Co-MACTM and u-MACTM Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges HI Ni2+ Ni2+ Ni2+ HISHISHI SHISHISHIS Ni2

Lebendiker, Mario

497