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Sample records for radioactive metals columbium

  1. SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE COLUMBIUM TRACER

    DOEpatents

    Glendenin, L.E.; Gest, H.

    1958-08-26

    A process is presented for the recovery of radioactive columbium from solutions containing such columbium together with radioactive tellurium. The columbium and tellurium values are separated from such solutions by means of an inorganic oxide carrier precipitate, such as MnO/sub 2/. This oxide carrier precipitate and its associated columbium and telluriuan values are then dissolved in an aqueous acidic solution and nonradioactive tellurium, in an ionic form, is then introduced into such solution, for example in the form of H/sub 2/TeO/sub 3/. The tellurium present in the solution is then reduced to the elemental state and precipitates, and is then separated from the supernataat solution. A basic acetate precipitate is formed in the supernatant and carries the remaining columblum values therefrom. After separation, this basic ferric acetate precipitate is dissolved, and the ferric ions are removed by means of an organic solvent extraction process utilizing ether. The remaining solution contains carrier-free columbium as its only metal ion.

  2. Columbium-, rare-earth-element-, and thorium-bearing veins near Salmon Bay, Southeastern Alaska. Open file report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985 the Bureau of Mines investigated radioactive carbonate veins near Salmon Bay, southeastern Alaska, for concentrations of columbium and associated metals. The veins cut units of graywacke, conglomerate, argillite, and limestone and range in width from less than an inch to greater than 10 ft and have a length ranging from less than a hundred to greater than 1,000 ft. Mineralogy of the veins is complex, and includes thorite, the rare-earth-element minerals monazite, parisite, and bastnaesite, and a columbium mineral that is speculated to be columbite. Gangue minerals include ankerite, dolomite, siderite, quartz and albite. More than seventy veins were sampled but only three contain elevated metal concentrations along a significant strike length. These resources are small compared to columbium, REE, and thorium resources elsewhere in the world.

  3. Some Properties of Beryllium Oxide and Beryllium Oxide - Columbium Ceramals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robards, C F; Gangler, J J

    1951-01-01

    High-temperature tensile and thermal-shock investigations were conducted on beryllium oxide and beryllium oxide plus columbium metal additions. X-ray diffraction and metallographic results are given. The tensile strength of 6150 pounds per square inch for beryllium oxide at 1800 degrees F compared favorably with the zirconia bodies previously tested. Additions of 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, and 15 percent by weight of columbium metal failed to improve the shock resistance over that of pure beryllium oxide.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  5. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the...

  6. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the...

  7. Performance of coated columbium and tantalum alloys in plasma arc reentry simulation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Merutka, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of coated refractory metals screened in stagnation model plasma arc tests is reported. Columbium alloys FS-85, C-129Y, and Cb-752 coated with Si-20Cr-20Fe (R512E) were tested at 1390 C. Three silicide coatings on Ta-10W were tested at 1470 C. Half-hour cycles and a 6500 N/sqm stagnation pressure were used. The best R512E coated columbium alloy was FS-85 with first local coating breakdowns occurring in 12 to 50 cycles. At coating defects, low metal recession rates (0.005 mm/min) were generally observed on coated columbium alloys while high rates (0.15 mm/min) were observed on coated Ta-10W. Coated columbium suffered large emittance losses (to below 0.7) due to surface refractory metal pentoxide formation.

  8. The columbium-hydrogen system and hydrogen embrittlement of columbium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Columbium specimens are charged uniformly with hydrogen allowing accurate measurement of the hydrogen content by a procedure involving the removal of hydrogen from flowing argon at 2000 degrees F. Hydrogen content effects on the ductile-to-transition temperature are determined for temperatures between 200 and 600 degrees F.

  9. Columbium (niobium) recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow of columbium in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which columbium (niobium) was recycled/reused. Columbium was mostly recycled from products of columbium-bearing steels and superalloys; little was recovered from products specifically for their columbium content. In 1998, about 1,800 metric tons of columbium was recycled/reused, with about 55% derived from old scrap. The columbium recycling rate was calculated to be 22%, and columbium scrap recycling efficiency, 50%.

  10. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations. PMID:7883556

  11. Explosive bonded TZM-wire-reinforced C129Y columbium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Technique consists of positioning layers of TZM metal filaments between thin C129Y columbium sheets and joining multiple sheet stacks by single explosive joining operation. Metallurgical bonds are excellent, external heat is not required, process is relatively inexpensive, and resulting composites are considerably stronger than base alloy.

  12. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  13. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  14. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  15. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  16. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  17. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  18. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  19. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  20. 40 CFR 421.110 - Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. 421.110 Section 421.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.110 Applicability: Description of the primary columbium-tantalum subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  1. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  2. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  3. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  4. Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ray

    2006-11-01

    With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences. PMID:17033460

  5. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  6. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  7. Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States [Chapters A-M : gold, platinum, chromium, zinc, magnesium, lead, iron, manganese, columbium (niobium), tantalum, tin, molybdenum, and cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    USGS Circular 1196, 'Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States,' presents the results of flow studies for recycling 26 metal commodities, from aluminum to zinc. These metals are a key component of the U.S. economy. Overall, recycling accounts for more than half of the U.S. metal supply by weight and roughly 40 percent by value.

  8. Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A three-phase program to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a metallic heat shield suitable for use on Space Shuttle Orbiter class vehicles at operating surface temperatures of up to 1590 K (2400 F) is summarized. An orderly progression of configuration studies, material screening tests, and subscale structural tests was performed. Scale-up feasibility was demonstrated in the final phase when a sizable nine-panel array was fabricated and successfully tested. The full-scale tests included cyclic testing at reduced air pressure to 1590 K (2400 F) and up to 158 dB overall sound pressure level. The selected structural configuration and design techniques succesfully eliminated thermal induced failures. The thermal/structural performance of the system was repeatedly demonstrated. Practical and effective field repair methods for coated columbium alloys were demonstrated. Major uncertainties of accessibility, refurbishability, and durability were eliminated.

  9. Analysis of radioactive metals by spark source mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A J; Kozy, A; Morris, R N

    1969-04-01

    A spark source mass spectrograph with photographic plate recording has been adapted for the analysis of plutonium and americium metals. Over seventy elements can be determined simultaneously in these metals. A comparison has been made between results obtained by mass spectrography and by conventional methods for impurity elements. The operations involved in handling radioactive materials in the mass spectrograph are also discussed. PMID:18960537

  10. Method for making radioactive metal articles having small dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Ohriner, Evan K.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a radioactive article such as wire, includes the steps of providing a metal article having a first shape, such a cylinder, that is either radioactive itself or can be converted to a second, radioactive isotope by irradiation; melting the metal article one or more times; optionally adding an alloying metal to the molten metal in order to enhance ductility or other properties; placing the metal article having the first shape (e.g., cylindrical) into a cavity in the interior of an extrusion body (e.g., a cylinder having a cylindrical cavity therein); extruding the extrusion body and the article having the first shape located in the cavity therein, resulting in an elongated extrusion body and an article having a second shape; removing the elongated extrusion body, for example by chemical means, leaving the elongated inner article substantially intact; optionally repeating the extrusion procedure one or more times; and then drawing the elongated article to still further elongate it, into wire, foil, or another desired shape. If the starting metal is enriched in a radioactive isotope or a precursor thereof, the end product can provide a more intense radiation source than conventionally manufactured radioactive wire, foil, or the like.

  11. Protective coatings for columbium applied in the field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J.; Culp, J.

    1971-01-01

    The various aspects of field repair of columbium alloy panels with protective coatings designed as part of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system are examined. The field repair of the coatings is accomplished by employing ceramic cement repairs, and reapplying the fused slurry silicide coating. Techniques are described which improve the practicality of these repairs by employing torch heating. The repair coating quality is demonstrated by testing which simulates flight temperature, pressure, stress and acoustic vibration conditions as a function of time. Conclusions on the present status of field repair coatings are presented and recommendations are given for appropriate future activities relative to the use on an operational Space Shuttle system.

  12. Coated columbium thermal protection systems: An assessment of technological readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Grisaffe, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry simulation. Production of the alloy, the coating, and full-sized TPS panels is well within current manufacturing technology. Small defects which arise from impact damage or from local coating breakdown do not appear to have serious immediate consequences in the use environment anticipated for the space shuttle orbiter TPS.

  13. ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

  14. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  15. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  16. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  17. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  18. The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088

    SciTech Connect

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

  19. Vanadium and columbium additions in pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, P.; Somers, B.R.; Pense, A.W.

    1994-09-01

    A statistically designed series of vanadium and columbium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in post weld heat treated (PWHT) multi-pass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the columbium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.% GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of 3kJ/mm and 5kJ/mm and post-weld heat treatments at 620 C for 2 10 hours were employed. A degradation of the HAZ toughness with additions of microalloy elements V and Cb in the as-welded and PWHT conditions was revealed. The 50 Joule (37 ft-lb) transition temperature (TT50J) for HAZs in all weld conditions correlated with maximum HAZ hardness. Increases in HAZ hardness and TT50J caused by PWHT were observed. Hence PWHT in some situations may not beneficial for V/Cb microalloyed HLSA steels. The randomly distributed precipitation of V and Cb carbides (V, Cb)C, including dislocation precipitation and matrix precipitation with particle sizes of 5--15 nm, is the predominant alloy carbide precipitate morphology in these steels. The crack initiation sites in Charpy specimens of HAZs tested at the approximate transition temperature are shifted from the highest stress triaxiality, mid-specimen location to an off center higher hardness location. This is found to be characteristic of fracture in the multipass HAZ of the microalloyed steel.

  20. Oxidation at through-hole defects in fused slurry silicide coated columbium alloys FS-85 and Cb-752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Metal recession and interstitial contamination at 0.08-centimeter-diameter through-hole intentional defects in fused slurry silicide coated FS-85 and Cb-752 columbium alloys were studied to determine the tolerance of these materials to coating defects. Five external pressure reentry simulation exposures to 1320 C and 4.7 x 1,000 N/sq m (maximum pressure) resulted in a consumed metal zone having about twice the initial defect diameter for both alloys with an interstitial contamination zone extending about three to four initial defect diameters. Self-healing occurred in the 1.33 x 10 N/sq m, 1320 C exposures and to a lesser extent in internal pressure reentry cycles to 1320 C and 1.33 x 100 N/sq m (maximum pressure).

  1. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  2. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

  3. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloys reentry heat shields. Volume 1: Evaluation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The R-512E (Si-20Cr-20Fe) fused slurry silicide coating process was optimized to coat full size (20in x 20in) single face rib and corrugation stiffened panels fabricated from FS-85 columbium alloy for 100 mission space shuttle heat shield applications. Structural life under simulated space shuttle lift-off stresses and reentry conditions demonstrated reuse capability well beyond 100 flights for R-512E coated FS-85 columbium heat shield panels. Demonstrated coating damage tolerance showed no immediate structural failure on exposure. The FS-85 columbium alloy was selected from five candidate alloys (Cb-752, C-129Y, WC-3015, B-66 and FS-85) based on the evaluation tests which have designed to determine: (1) change in material properties due to coating and reuse; (2) alloy tolerance to coating damage; (3) coating emittance characteristics under reuse conditions; and (4) new coating chemistries for improved coating life.

  4. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  5. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  6. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2010-08-04

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  7. Fate of heavy metals and radioactive metals in gasification of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Thomas W.; McAuley, Brendan P.; Sutterlin, William R.; Steven Morris, J.; Manahan, Stanley E

    2004-07-01

    The fates of radioactive cadmium, strontium, cesium, cobalt, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and copper spiked into sewage sludge were determined when the sludge was gasified by a process that maximizes production of char from the sludge (ChemChar process). For the most part the metals were retained in the char product in the gasifier. Small, but measurable quantities of arsenic were mobilized by gasification and slightly more than 1% of the arsenic was detected in the effluent gas. Mercury was largely mobilized from the solids in the gasifier, but most of the mercury was retained in a filter composed of char prepared from the sludge. The small amounts of mercury leaving the gasification system were found to be associated with an aerosol product generated during gasification. The metals retained in the char product of gasification were only partially leachable with 50% concentrated nitric acid.

  8. Determination of design allowable strength properties of elevated-temperature alloys. Part 1: Coated columbium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favor, R. J.; Maykuth, D. J.; Bartlett, E. S.; Mindlin, H.

    1972-01-01

    A program to determine the characteristics of two coated columbium alloy systems for spacecraft structures is discussed. The alloy was evaluated as coated base material, coated butt-welded material, and material thermal/pressure cycled prior to testing up to 30 cycles. Evaluation was by means of tensile tests covering the temperature range to 2400 F. Design allowables were computed and are presented as tables of data. The summary includes a room temperature property table, effect of temperature curves, and typical stress-strain curves.

  9. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  10. Radioactive tracer test to develop a recycling system for operating reactor scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Umemura, A.; Kimura, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sakurai, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, S.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration test using radio-isotope (RI) tracers during the manufacturing of inner drum shielding material from the recycling of operating reactor scrap metal was completed and the following results were obtained. The behavior of five radionuclides (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Sr-85 and Cs-137) was established. The time-dependent behaviors of the radionuclides in molten steel and in slag were investigated. The radioactivity distributions in metal products were homogeneous. Dose equivalent rates in the working area were below background levels and radioactive dust concentrations in the air were below detection limits.

  11. Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

  12. Determination of noble metals in Savannah River Site high-level radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.; Kinard, W.F.; Bibler, N.E.; Bickford, D.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1990-12-31

    High-level radioactive sludge at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) into durable borosilicate glass wasteforms. The sludges are analyzed for elemental content before processing to ensure compatibility with the glass-making processes. Noble metal fission products in sludge, can under certain conditions, cause problems in the glass melter. Therefore, reliable noble metal determinations are important. The scheme used to measure noble metals in SRS sludges consists of dissolving sludge with hot aqua regia followed by determinations with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ICP-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. ICP-MS is the preferred method for measuring trace levels of noble metals in SRS radioactive waste because of superior sensitivity. Analytical results are presented for the two major types of SRS sludge.

  13. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  14. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  15. High-emittance coatings on metal substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuelson, R. C.; Luoma, W. L.; Walek, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    High-emittance coatings of iron, calcium, and zirconium titanates thermally sprayed on stainless steel, columbium-1 percent zirconium, and beryllium substrates promote and control radiative heat transfer from the metal substrates. Adherence, compatibility and emittance stability at elevated temperature and high vacuum were evaluated.

  16. Development and fabrication of a diffusion welded Columbium alloy heat exchanger. [for space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Duderstadt, E. C.; Wein, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    A Mini Brayton space power generation system required the development of a Columbium alloy heat exchanger to transfer heat from a radioisotope heat source to a He/Xe working fluid. A light-weight design featured the simultaneous diffusion welding of 148 longitudinal fins in an annular heat exchanger about 9-1/2 in. in diameter, 13-1/2 in. in length and 1/4 in. in radial thickness. To complete the heat exchanger, additional gas ducting elements and attachment supports were added by GTA welding in a vacuum-purged inert atmosphere welding chamber. The development required the modification of an existing large size hot isostatic press to achieve HIP capabilities of 2800 F and 10,000 psi for at least 3 hr. Excellent diffusion welds were achieved in a high-quality component which met all system requirements.

  17. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  18. Study on the decontamination of surface of radioactive metal device using plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Keun; Yang, Ik-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyeon; Rai, Suresh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive waste contiguously produced during operation of NPP (nuclear power plant). Therefore, KHNP (korea hydro & nuclear power co., ltd) decided to disband the NPP unit 1 in the Kori area. Since most of the metallic radioactive wastes are not contaminated ones themselves but rather ones containing polluted nuclides on their surface, the amount of wastes can be sharply reduced through decontamination process. In this study DC plasmatron and isotope sheet of radioactive cobalt was used to study the decontamination process. Decontamination can be achieved by etching the contaminated layer from the surface. Due to the restricted usage of radioactive materials, we have studied etching of Cobalt (Co) sheet to imitate the radioactive contamination. Plasma was generated using mixture gas of CF4/O2 in the ratio of 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 maintaining the plasma sample distance of 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm and exposed time of 60 sec, 120 sec, 180 sec using fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate of 1000 sccm. As a result, we obtained maximum etching rate of 9.24 μm/min when the mixture ratio of CF4/O2 gas was 4:1, which was confirmed by SEM and mass-meter. It was confirmed that more close positioning the Co samples to the plasmatron nozzle yields maximum etching rate.

  19. Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2014-02-01

    Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

  20. Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

  1. Natural radioactivity contamination problems. Report no. 2. (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides associated with the bauxite, columbium-tantalum, phosphate, tin, pumice, and titanium mineral extraction industries are reported. Data is also presented on radioactivity measurements in ground water, in selected geothermal waters, and in oil production brines. Radiation protection guidance is provided for uranium recovery from wet-process phosphate plants, for soil contamination limits, and for radiological exposure in natural caves. Dose pathways from incidental uses of naturally occurring radioactive materials are presented. Model state regulations for protecting public health and safety from use and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material are outlined.

  2. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. The application of metal cutting technologies in tasks performed in radioactive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, R.F.; Younkins, R.M.

    1997-05-01

    The design and use of equipment to perform work in radioactive environments is uniquely challenging. Some tasks require that the equipment be operated by a person wearing a plastic suit or full face respirator and donning several pairs of rubber gloves. Other applications may require that the equipment be remotely controlled. Other important, design considerations include material compatibility, mixed waste issues, tolerance to ionizing radiation, size constraints and weight capacities. As always, there is the ``We need it ASAP`` design criteria. This paper describes four applications where different types of metal cutting technologies were used to successfully perform tasks in radioactive environments. The technologies include a plasma cutting torch, a grinder with an abrasive disk, a hydraulic shear, and a high pressure abrasive water jet cutter.

  4. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    SciTech Connect

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De

    2007-07-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  5. Pollution of the Begej Canal sediment--metals, radioactivity and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Dalmacija, B; Prica, M; Ivancev-Tumbas, I; van der Kooij, A; Roncevic, S; Krcmar, D; Bikit, I; Teodorovic, I

    2006-07-01

    The Begej Canal is one among a large number of canals in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia and Montenegro). The paper describes a study of metal and radioactivity contamination of the Begej Canal sediment. It is also concerned with the evaluation of sediment acute toxicity based on standard test species Daphnia magna and simultaneously extracted metals and acid volatile sulfides. The quality of sediment was assessed according to Dutch standards, but the results were also compared with some Canadian and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) guidelines for sediment quality. The results showed severe pollution with chromium, copper, cadmium and zinc, whereby the anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The tests of toxicity of sediment pore water to D. magna, gave no indication of the presence of substances in acutely toxic concentrations to this species. It can be speculated that, despite of high metal contents, the observed toxicity was low because of the high contents of clay and iron, as well as sulphide. Also, based on a comparison with the Danube sediment and Vojvodina soil in general, the data of the Begej sediment contamination with 238U and 137Cs. The 137Cs data were used for approximate dating of the sediment. No traces of contamination by nuclear power plants in the region were found, while the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) was proved. Conclusions based on different criteria for sediment quality assessment were in some cases contradictory. Study also showed that radioactivity aspects can be useful in sediment quality surveys. The obtained results will be invaluable for the future activities regarding integrated water management based on EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) in the Danube basin, and particularly in the region of crossborder water body of the Begej Canal. PMID:16527352

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium (columbium), titanium, tungsten, or vanadium; (ii) Metal... nickel and iron in excess of 10 percent; or (B) Cobalt alloys that contain a total of alloying metals other than cobalt and iron in excess of 10 percent; (iii) Titanium and titanium alloys; or...

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7008 - Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium (columbium), titanium, tungsten, or vanadium; (ii) Metal... nickel and iron in excess of 10 percent; or (B) Cobalt alloys that contain a total of alloying metals other than cobalt and iron in excess of 10 percent; (iii) Titanium and titanium alloys; or...

  8. Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerning the development of a system of mathematical solutions and computer programs for one- and two-dimensional analyses for thermal stresses. Reports presented include: the investigation of thermal stress and buckling of tantalum and columbium sheet; and analysis of two dimensional thermal strains and metal movement during welding.

  9. Rapid synthesis of radioactive transition-metal carbonyl complexes at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Even, Julia; Yakushev, Alexander; Düllmann, Christoph E; Dvorak, Jan; Eichler, Robert; Gothe, Oliver; Hild, Daniel; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Kratz, Jens V; Krier, Jörg; Niewisch, Lorenz; Nitsche, Heino; Pysmenetska, Inna; Schädel, Matthias; Schausten, Brigitta; Türler, Andreas; Wiehl, Norbert; Wittwer, David

    2012-06-18

    Carbonyl complexes of radioactive transition metals can be easily synthesized with high yields by stopping nuclear fission or fusion products in a gas volume containing CO. Here, we focus on Mo, W, and Os complexes. The reaction takes place at pressures of around 1 bar at room temperature, i.e., at conditions that are easy to accommodate. The formed complexes are highly volatile. They can thus be transported within a gas stream without major losses to setups for their further investigation or direct use. The rapid synthesis holds promise for radiochemical purposes and will be useful for studying, e.g., chemical properties of superheavy elements. PMID:22663355

  10. Radioactivity and heavy metal levels in hazelnut growing in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cevik, U; Celik, N; Celik, A; Damla, N; Coskuncelebi, K

    2009-09-01

    The Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey is one of the main hazelnut producers in Turkey and in the world. Since this region was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity level in hazelnut growing region. The dose due to consumption of hazelnut by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human health. In addition, heavy metal analysis was performed in the samples and the amount of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were also detected. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:19549551

  11. Prolong Restoration of the Water Quality of River Ganga Effect of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements.

    PubMed

    Tare, Vinod; Basu, Subhankar

    2014-04-01

    The genesis of the present research was the belief since ages and the observations made through some studies that the water of river Ganga has unique characteristics, which allows storage of water quality even on prolong storage. Very few systematic studies have been conducted to support the contention that the Ganga water indeed has some special composition that could be attributed to its unique storage capacity. It was postulated that prolong restoration of water quality depends on the ability to arrest microbial activity that is generally responsible for deterioration in water quality on prolong storage. Hence, attempt has been made to identify the parameters that are likely to influence the prolong storage of river water. Along with Ganga river water, other three major rivers, viz. Yamuna, Godavari and Narmada, were selected for comparison. Emphasis was made on estimation of heavy metals, radioactive elements, dissolved carbon and other physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic carbon. Based on the available information regarding the impact of heavy metals, radioactive elements vis-à-vis the chemical composition of water on microorganisms in the aquatic environment, an overall impact score for the waters of the four Indian rivers selected in the study has been assigned. PMID:26563059

  12. Luminescent monitoring of metal dititanium triphosphates as promising materials for radioactive waste confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedilko, S.; Hizhnyi, Yu.; Chukova, O.; Nagornyi, P.; Bojko, R.; Boyko, V.

    2009-03-01

    The potential use of luminescent probes for control over the structural state of MTi2(PO4)3 double metal phosphates as host materials for radioactive waste confinement is examined. Luminescence spectra of pure and metal (Al, In, V) and rare-earth (Pr, Sm, Dy) doped MTi2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na, K) phosphate compounds (in crystalline and related amorphous forms) under X-ray, VUV (synchrotron radiation), UV and visible light excitations are analyzed. Electronic structure and absorption spectra of NaTi2(PO4)3 crystals are calculated by the full-potential LAPW method. The origin of the self and impurity emission bands of MTi2(PO4)3 materials is defined. It was shown that nitrogen laser with 337.1 nm generation wavelength is the most effective excitation source for remote monitoring of incorporation of various types of waste elements into MTi2(PO4)3 hosts and for control over states of these hosts during storage of radioactive waste.

  13. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  14. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  15. Perovskite-Ni composite: a potential route for management of radioactive metallic waste.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, Pooja Sawant; Sengupta, Pranesh; Halder, Rumu; Abraham, G; Dey, G K

    2015-04-28

    Management of nickel - based radioactive metallic wastes is a difficult issue. To arrest the release of hazardous material to the environment it is proposed to develop perovskite coating for the metallic wastes. Polycrystalline BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ perovskite with orthorhombic structure has been synthesized by sol-gel route. Crystallographic analyses show, the perovskite belong to orthorhombic Pmcn space group at room temperature, and gets converted to orthorhombic Incn space group at 623K, cubic Pm3m space group (with a=4.434Å) at 1173K and again orthorhombic Pmcn space group at room temperature after cooling. Similar observations have been made from micro-Raman study as well. Microstructural studies of BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ-NiO/Ni composites showed absence of any reaction product at the interface. This suggests that both the components (i.e. perovskite and NiO/Ni) of the composite are compatible to each other. Interaction of BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ-NiO/Ni composites with simulated barium borosilicate waste glass melt also did not reveal any reaction product at the interfaces. Importantly, uranium from the waste glass melt was found to be partitioned within BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ perovskite structure. It is therefore concluded that BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ can be considered as a good coating material for management of radioactive Ni based metallic wastes. PMID:25666975

  16. Feasibility of producing cast-refractory metal-fiber superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of direct casting as a practical method for producing cast superalloy tungsten or columbium alloy fiber composites while retaining a high percentage of fiber strength. Fourteen nickel base, four cobalt, and three iron based matrices were surveyed for their degree of reaction with the metal fibers. Some stress-rupture results were obtained at temperatures of 760, 816, 871, and 1093 C for a few composite systems. The feasibility of producing acceptable composites of some cast nickel, cobalt, and iron matrix alloys with tungsten or columbium alloy fibers was demonstrated.

  17. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  18. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  19. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described. PMID:25061724

  20. Evaluation of coated columbium test panels having application to a secondary nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine system, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kenneth S.; Castro, Joaquin H.

    1988-01-01

    The activity performed on the screening and evaluation of various coatings for application on columbium alloy test panels representative of a radiation-cooled nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine is summarized. Vendors and processes of candidate coatings were evaluated. Post engine test evaluations of the two selected coatings are discussed.

  1. Conditions of accumulation of radioactive metals in the process of differentiation of ultrabasic alkaline-carbonatite rock associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, L. N.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of radioactive elements in alkaline rocks from Polar Siberia and Ukraine shows that U and Th are markedly concentrated in carbonatite complex and nepheline syenite as final products of magma fractionation. Peralkaline nepheline syenites from Polar Siberia are characterized by very high contents of radioactive elements, which are close to the economic level. Radioactive elements are also concentrated in rocks of the carbonatite complex. For example, some soevites contain up to 294 × 10-4%U and 916 × 10-4% Th. In late dolomite carbonatites, the contents of radioactive elements are appreciably lower. The Th/U ratio in alkaline rocks of Polar Siberia is close to the chondrite value in primary high-Mg rocks and increases in late derivatives: phoscorite, calcite and dolomite carbonatites. The main amount of radioactive elements is contained in rare-metal accessory minerals: perovskite, pyrochlore, calzirtite, and apatite. Rock-forming minerals are distinguished by very low concentrations of radioactive elements. In alkaline series of the Chernigovka massif (Ukraine), U and Th also accumulate in the course of crystal fractionation, especially in phoscorites from the carbonatite complex. Mantle xenoliths and alkaline rocks from Ukraine reveal uranium specialization. Most likely, the discrepancy in fractionation of radioactive elements between Polar Siberia and Ukraine is caused by different geodynamic regimes of these provinces. The Mesozoic alkaline magmatism of Polar Siberia is a part of the Siberian superplume, whereas the Proterozoic alkaline complex in Ukraine is related to subduction of the oceanic crust.

  2. Radioactivity levels and heavy metals in the urban soil of Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, B; Stajic, J M; Gulan, Lj; Zeremski, T; Nikezic, D

    2015-11-01

    Radioactivity concentrations and heavy metal content were measured in soil samples collected from the area of Kragujevac, one of the largest cities in Serbia. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in 30 samples were measured by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values ± standard deviations were 33.5 ± 8.2, 50.3 ± 10.6, 425.8 ± 75.7 and 40.2 ± 26.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs have shown normal distribution. The annual effective doses, radium equivalent activities, external hazard indexes and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. A RAD7 device was used for measuring radon exhalation rates from several samples with highest content of (226)Ra. The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured, as well as their EDTA extractable concentrations. Wide ranges of values were obtained, especially for Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The absence of normal distribution indicates anthropogenic origin of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Correlations between radionuclide activities, heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties of analysed soil were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found. PMID:26087932

  3. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  4. Factors Affecting Liquid-Metal Embrittlement in C-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, R.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study of weld cracks on Space Shuttle control thrustors point toward better understanding of cracking problem in columbium metal, which has also plagued nonaerospace users. Although liquid-metal embrittlement is known to be cause of problem, factors affecting growth and severity of cracks are not well understood. New results tie crack growth to type of contaminants present, grain size and level of stress present while welding is done.

  5. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management

    PubMed Central

    Tzika, F.; Hult, M.; Stroh, H.; Marissens, G.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; Kovář, P.; Suran, J.; Listkowska, A.; Tyminski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of 60Co (0.290±0.006 Bq g−1) and 110mAg (3.05±0.09 Bq g−1) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which 60Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. PMID:25977349

  6. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. PMID:25977349

  7. Design and analysis report for the flight weight 20-inch Columbium secondary nozzle for the RL10 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney (P and W) is currently under contract to NASA-LeRC for a multi-year program to evaluate the feasibility of the RL10-IIB/IIC engine models and the various improvements which broaden the engine capabilities and range of applications. The features being evaluated include the operation of the RL10 engine at low thrust levels and/or high mixture ratio levels and the addition of a high area ratio (250:1) translating nozzle to the engine to increase its specific impulse while shortening the installed engine length. The translating nozzle for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine is approximately 55 inches long with an exit plane diameter of 71 inches and an inlet plane diameter of 40 inches. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. The length of the subscale nozzle is 20 in.; its exit diameter is 46 in. With the nozzle in the stowed position, an RL10A-3-3A engine system is 70 inches long (Area Ratio = 61:1); with the nozzle deployed the engine length and area ratio are increased to 90 inches and 83:1 respectively. The increase in area ratio provides a calculated increase of 7 + or - 1 second of specific impulse.

  8. Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Shameem

    Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth

  9. Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

  10. Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

  11. Radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations of some commercial fish species consumed in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz Görür, F; Keser, R; Akçay, N; Dizman, S

    2012-04-01

    Marine fish is an important daily diet item for the people of Turkey. The Black Sea Region of Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs) and heavy metal concentrations (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) in four of the most common fish species: Engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy), Oncorhynchus mykiss (trout), Trachurus mediterranus (bluefin) and Merlangius merlangus (whiting) samples collected from eight stations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey during 2010. The dose due to consumption of fish by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human healthy. The concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:22225706

  12. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  13. Treatment of Radioactive Metallic Waste from Operation of Nuclear Power Plants by Melting - The German Way for a Consistent Recycling to Minimize the Quantity of Radioactive Waste from Operation and Dismantling for Disposal - 12016

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Dirk; Kluth, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    During maintenance of nuclear power plants, and during their decommissioning period, a large quantity of radioactive metallic waste will accrue. On the other hand the capacity for final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany is limited as well as that in the US. That is why all procedures related to this topic should be handled with a maximum of efficiency. The German model of consistent recycling of the radioactive metal scrap within the nuclear industry therefore also offers high capabilities for facilities in the US. The paper gives a compact overview of the impressive results of melting treatment, the current potential and further developments. Thousands of cubic metres of final disposal capacity have been saved. The highest level of efficiency and safety by combining general surface decontamination by blasting and nuclide specific decontamination by melting associated with the typical effects of homogenization. An established process - nationally and internationally recognized. Excellent connection between economy and ecology. (authors)

  14. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  15. Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

  16. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution. PMID:26999358

  17. A separate effect study of the influence of metallic fission products on CsI radioactive release from nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lemma, F. G.; Colle, J. Y.; Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2015-10-01

    The chemistry of cesium and iodine is of main importance to quantify the radioactive release in case of a nuclear reactor accident, or sabotage involving irradiated nuclear materials. We studied the interaction of CsI with different metallic fission products such as Mo and Ru. These elements can be released from nuclear fuel when exposed to oxidising conditions, as in the case of contact of overheated nuclear fuel with air (e.g. in a spent fuel cask sabotage, uncovering of a spent fuel pond, or air ingress accidents). Experiments were performed by vaporizing mixtures of the compounds in air, and analysing the produced aerosols in view of a possible gas-gas and gas-aerosol reactions between the compounds. These results were compared with the gaseous species predicted by thermochemical equilibrium calculations and experimental equilibrium vaporization tests using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry.

  18. Recycle of radioactive scrap metal from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25 Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, R.W.

    1997-02-01

    The scale of the metal available for reuse at the plant includes 22 million pounds of Ni, 17 million pounds of Al, 47 million pounds of copper, and 835 million pounds of steels. In addition there is a wide range of industrial equipment and other items of value. The author describes small bench scale and pilot plant scale efforts made at treating metal for decontamination and fabrication into cast stock or specialized containers for reuse within the DOE complex or release. These projects show that much of the material can be cleaned or chemically decontaminated to a level where it can be free released to various markets. Of the remaining metals, much of it can be cast into products which can be absorbed within the DOE complex.

  19. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B&T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B&T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B&T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use).

  20. Development and fabrication of high strength alloy fibers for use in metal-metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, G. W.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Metal fiber reinforced superalloys are being considered for construction of critical components in turbine engines that operate at high temperature. The problems involved in fabricating refractory metal alloys into wire form in such a manner as to maximize their strength properties without developing excessive structural defects are described. The fundamental principles underlying the development of such alloy fibers are also briefly discussed. The progress made to date in developing tungsten, tantalum and columbium base alloys for fiber reinforcement is reported and future prospects for alloy fiber development considered.

  1. [Use of metal salts for radioprotection of plants during radioactive pollution of the territory].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Kitsno, V E; Grisiuk, S N; Tkachenko, G M; Ivanova, E A; Saenko, K V; Gural'chuk, Zh Z

    1999-01-01

    The applying salts of some metals to radionuclide contaminated soddy-podzolic soil in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear power station or the spraying of plants by its solutions are showing the radioprotective effect (salts of iron, zinc, cobalt and manganese) and decreasing the uptake of 90Sr and 137Cs through roots (salts of zinc, manganese, boron, lithium, cobalt and copper). PMID:10366969

  2. Water mutagenic potential assessment on a semiarid aquatic ecosystem under influence of heavy metals and natural radioactivity using micronuclei test.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luiz Cláudio Cardozo; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia; Ferreira da Costa, Thomas; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Souza do Amaral, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    The contamination of water bodies by heavy metals and ionizing radiation is a critical environmental issue, which can affect water quality and, thus, human health. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Boqueirão de Parelhas Dam in the Brazilian semiarid region. A 1-year study (2013-2014) was performed through the assessment of physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content, and radioactivity along with the mutagenicity potential of water using micronuclei test in Orechromis niloticus (in vivo) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes (in vitro). A deterioration of water organoleptics characteristics by the presence of high levels of sulfate and total solids was observed. High concentrations of aluminum, nickel, silver, and lead along with the alpha particle content were higher than the limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation for drinking water. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities was observed in both experimental models. The results obtained confirmed the mutagenic potential present in water samples. This study highlights that geogenic agents affect water quality becoming a human health concern to be taken into account due to the relevance that this water reservoir has in the region. PMID:26732704

  3. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  4. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  5. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    PubMed

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. PMID:27107776

  6. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  8. Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

  9. Slag-based materials for toxic metal and radioactive waste stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The salt solution produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a low-level hazardous waste and has both corrosive and metal toxicity characteristics. A wasteform was designed to stabilize this solution. The objectives were: to eliminate the hazardous characteristics of the waste; and to minimize the release of potential contaminants, such as NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, so that drinking water standards would be maintained for groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site. The ability to produce the wasteform in high volumes and emplace it in an engineered landfill was also necessary for treating and disposing of the large amount of waste. EP toxicity and TCLP testing was conducted to determine whether various saltstone mixes qualified as nonhazardous according to EPA guidelines. Impact of the design landfill on the groundwater was modeled by numeric methods. Data from laboratory leaching studies, large-scale saltstone lysimeter experiments, and disposal site characterization studies were used in the performance assessment. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. BRAZE BONDING OF COLUMBIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heestand, R.L.; Picklesimer, M.L.

    1962-07-31

    A method of brazing niobium parts together is described. The surfaces of the parts to be brazed together are placed in abutting relationship with a brazing alloy disposed adjacent. The alloy consists essentially of, by weight, 12 to 25% niobium, 0.5 to 5% molybdenum, and the balance zirconium, The alloy is heated to at least its melting point to braze the parts together. The brazed joint is then cooled. The heating, melting and cooling take place in an inert atmosphere. (AEC)

  11. Distribution and environmental impacts of heavy metals and radioactivity in sediment and seawater samples of the Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    Otansev, Pelin; Taşkın, Halim; Başsarı, Asiye; Varinlioğlu, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in the sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Turkey were determined. The average activity concentrations (range) of (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be 23.8 (13.8-34.2) Bq kg(-1), 18.8 (6.4-25.9) Bq kg(-1), 23.02 (6.3-31.1) Bq kg(-1), 558.6 (378.8-693.6) Bq kg(-1) and 9.14 (4.8-16.3) Bq kg(-1), respectively. Our results showed that the average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (232)Th in the sediment samples were within the acceptable limits; whereas the average activity concentration of (40)K in the sediment samples was higher than the worldwide average concentration. The average radium equivalent activity, the average absorbed dose rate and the average external hazard index were calculated as 100.01 Bq kg(-1), 48.32 nGy h(-1) and 0.27, respectively. The average gross alpha and beta activity in the seawater samples were found to be 0.042 Bq L(-1) and 13.402 Bq L(-1), respectively. The gross alpha and beta activity concentrations increased with water depth in the same stations. The average heavy metal concentrations (range) in the sediment samples were 114.6 (21.6-201.7) μg g(-1) for Cr, 568.2 (190.8-1625.1) μg g(-1) for Mn, 39.3 (4.9-83.4) μg g(-1) for Cu, 85.5 (11.0-171.8) μg g(-1) for Zn, 32.9 (9.1-73.1) μg g(-1) for Pb and 49.1 (6.8-103.0) μg g(-1) for Ni. S5 station was heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The results showed that heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Marmara Sea was widespread. PMID:27060635

  12. Decontaimination of radioactive metals

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.S.; Gass, W.R.; Worcester, S.A.; Ayers, L.J.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a method of extracting technetium and actinide radiocontaminants from radiocontaminated nickel comprising the steps: fabricating a nickel electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides; and then anodically dissolving the electrode contaminated with technetium and actinides in a oxidizing acid electrolyte solution to produce a solution containing actinide ions and at least 30 grams/liter of nickel and to oxidize the technetium to produce pertechnetate anions; and then removing pertechnetate anions and actinides by counter-current solvent extraction with a barren solution containing TOPO, D[sub 2]EHPA or mixtures thereof dissolved in an organic solvent, to produce a decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate, and a contaminated, loaded solvent stream; and then stripping the technetium values from the contaminated, loaded solvent stream with hydrochloric acid; passing the decontaminated, nickel containing raffinate through an absorbent for organic solvent; and then electrowinning the raffinate in an electrolysis cell with acidic electrolyte to remove residual actinides present, and to recover cathodic nickel.

  13. Nondestructive decontamination of mortar and concrete by electro-kinetic methods: application to the extraction of radioactive heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Andrade, Carmen; Alonso, Cruz

    2002-05-15

    Because the service lives of nuclear power plants are limited to a certain number of years, the need for the management of quite a large volume of radioactive contaminated concrete arises, which, in most cases, was not taken into account when the capacities of the low and medium activity repositories were designed. Therefore, the decontamination of these structures would be of great interest in order to declassify the wastes as radioactive and manage them as conventional ones. This research studies the reliability of the application of electrical fields to decontaminate radioactive contaminated concrete. Three series of decontamination experiments have been carried out, using Cs+, Sr2-, Co2+, and Fe3+ ions added during casting and that have penetrated from the outside, testing carbonated and uncarbonated matrixes, and using laboratory devices as well as the homemade device for in situ application named "honeycomb device". As a result, the application of electrical fields to concrete-contaminated structures has been developed as a new technique to extract radioactive ionic species from concrete. This method of decontamination has been patented by ENRESA (Spanish Company for the Management of Radioactive Wastes) in association with the IETcc. PMID:12038838

  14. M551 metals melting experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, G.

    1977-01-01

    Electron beam welding studies were conducted in the Skylab M551 metals melting experiment, on three different materials; namely 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 304L stainless steel, and commercially pure tantalum (0.5 wt % columbium). Welds were made in both one gravity and zero gravity (Skylab) environments. Segments from each of the welds were investigated by microhardness, optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, and electron probe techniques. In the 2219-T87 aluminum alloy samples, macroscopic banding and the presence of an eutectic phase in the grain boundaries of the heat affected zone were observed. The stainless steel samples exhibited a sharp weld interface and macroscopic bands. The primary microstructural features found in the tantalum were the presence of either columnar grains (ground base) or equiaxed grains (Skylab). The factors contributing to these effects are discussed and the role of reduced gravity in welding is considered.

  15. "Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER62492 "Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for Metal Remediation in Radioactive Mixed Waste Sites"

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Daly, Ph.D.

    2005-03-17

    The groundwater and sediments of numerous U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) field sites are contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cr, Pd) and radionuclides (e.g., U, Tc), as well as the fuel hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX); chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene (TCE); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The remediation of such mixed wastes constitutes an immediate and complex waste management challenge for DOE, particularly in light of the costliness and limited efficacy of current physical and chemical strategies for treating mixed wastes. In situ bioremediation via natural microbial processes (e.g., metal reduction) remains a potent, potentially cost-effective approach to the reductive immobilization or detoxification of environmental contaminants. Seventy million cubic meters of soil and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Our recent isolation and characterization of D. radiodurans from a variety of DOE environments, including highly radioactive sediments beneath one of the leaking tanks (SX-108) at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington state, underscores the potential for this species to survive in such extreme environments. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive waste sites was started by this group in September 1997 with support from DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-97ER62492. Our grant was renewed for the period 2000-2003, which includes work on the thermophilic radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Work funded by the existing grant contributed to 18 papers in the period 1997-2004 on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of radioactive waste environments. Our progress since September

  16. Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum-columbium stabilized alloy (UNS N08700) bar and wire. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Feb. 15, 1995. Published April 1995. Originally published as B 672-74. Last previous edition was B 672-85.

  17. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically. PMID:25233912

  18. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. PMID:25920778

  19. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  20. Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

    2012-08-01

    Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

  1. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  2. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  3. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  4. Murder with Radioactive Polonium Metal.

    PubMed

    Kato, T A; Wozniak, D E

    2014-07-01

    The physical and biological aspects of polonium-210, one of the most hazardous radioisotopes, are summarized. Although this radioisotope is naturally occurring and rare, it received quite a bit of attention after it was used in the 2006 assassination of former Russian Intelligence member Alexander Litvinenko in London. Recent reports on the suspected murder of Yasser Arafat with polonium-210 are also discussed. PMID:26227029

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  7. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  8. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  9. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  10. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-02-28

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element

  11. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  12. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  14. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  15. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  17. Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2009-11-01

    Natural resources such as ores and rocks contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If these resources contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the radioactive activity in these resources. In this study, concentrations of radioactive nuclides in Th, Zr, Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan were investigated. The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while those of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrum. We found the concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series, and (40)K in Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide. The doses received by workers handling these materials were estimated by using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In transport, indoor storage, and outdoor storage scenarios, an effective dose due to the use of Th ore was above 4.3 x 10(-2)Sv y(-1), which was higher than that of the other ores. The maximum value of effective doses for other ores was estimated to be about 4.5 x 10(-4)Sv y(-1), which was lower than intervention exemption levels (1.0 x 10(-3)Sv y(-1)) given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:19703725

  18. Proposed construction and operation of a Low Level Radioactive Waste Metal Melting Facility affecting TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Watts Bar Reservoir for Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. , Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group, Incorporated (SEG), a wholly owned subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, has proposed to construct and operate a Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Metal Melting Facility (MMF) on TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Parcel 1, Roane County, Tennessee. The MMF would be located on the grounds of SEG's existing facility, on a recently filled area adjacent to SEG's existing process and incinerator buildings. The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to determine the environmental impacts associated with approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request by SEG for TVA's approval of the MMF. This EA will assess these impacts to determine if the proposed development, with identified mitigation, could reasonably proceed without significant adverse effects on the environment, based on the information provided by SEG.

  19. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  20. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  1. Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 3, phase 3: Full size TPS evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. W.; Black, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS), designed for incorporation with space shuttle orbiter systems, consists of one primary heat shield thermally and structurally isolated from the test fixture by eight peripheral guard panels, all encompassing an area of approximately 12 sq ft. TPS components include tee-stiffened Cb 752/R-512E heat shields, bi-metallic support posts, panel retainers, and high temperature insulation blankets. The vehicle primary structure was simulated by a titanium skin, frames, and stiffeners. Test procedures, manufacturing processes, and methods of analysis are fully documented. For Vol. 1, see N72-30948; for Vol. 2, see N74-15660.

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  3. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment.

  5. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ademola, Augustine Kolapo; Ayo, Isreal; Babalola; Folasade, Oluwakemi; Alabi; Onyinye, Dorcas; Onuh; Emmanuel, Enifome; Enyenihi

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg−1, respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l-1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites. PMID:24872608

  6. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  7. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  8. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  9. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  10. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  11. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... the testing center so that the amount of radioactivity in the thyroid gland can be measured. This ... The amount of radioactivity is very small, and there have been no documented side effects. The amount of iodine used is less than ...

  12. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  13. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  14. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  15. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  16. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

    2014-02-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

  17. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  19. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  20. Economic feasibility of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, B.C.; Rosholt, D.L.; Nichols, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive scrap metal has traditionally been disposed of by burial in low-level waste repositories, an option that will become increasingly unattractive if burial costs rise as projected. This paper will examine recycling opportunities that may arise from two divergent economic trends: (1) escalating burial costs, and (2) historically flat product costs from state-of-the-art metal recycle operations. Emphasis will be placed on recycling the radioactive scrap steel (RSS) that will arise from D&D of Government and commercial nuclear facilities in the western United States. An effort is underway to compare processes for recycling RSS at least cost to the generator, least impact to the environment, and minimum worker exposure to radionuclide hazards. An experienced industry team with expertise in radioactive metals recycling, commercial steel recycling, and state-of-the-art metal recycle facilities design has been assembled under subcontract for this purpose. Methods for evaluating process options to arrive at an optimized solution will be discussed in the paper. An analysis of burial versus recycle costs for RSS will also be presented.

  1. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  2. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  3. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  4. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  5. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-11-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances.

  6. Comparative alkali washing of simulated radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, G.A.; Ensor, D.D.; Egan, B.Z.

    1996-10-01

    The treatment of large volumes of radioactive sludge generated from uranium and plutonium recovery processes is a pressing problem in the environmental restoration currently planned at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. This sludge, commonly stored in underground tanks, is mainly in the form of metal oxides or precipitated metal hydroxides and the bulk of this material is nonradioactive. One method being developed to pretreat this waste takes advantage of the amphoteric character of aluminum and other nonradioactive elements. Previous studies have reported on the dissolution of eleven elements from simulated sludge using NaOH solutions up to 6M. This work provides a comparative study using KOH. The effectiveness of the alkali washing as a treatment method to reduce the bulk of radioactive sludge requiring long term isolation will be discussed.

  7. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or radioactively contaminated, except for silver. Only high grade nonradioactively contaminated silver should be reported to the precious metals pool. The Oak Ridge Operations Office is responsible...

  8. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  9. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  10. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-08-30

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact.

  11. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  12. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  13. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  14. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  15. Biodegradation of radioactive animals

    SciTech Connect

    Party, N.; Party, E.; Wilkerson, A.

    1995-06-01

    The two most common disposal alternatives for animals contaminated with radioactive materials are incineration and burial. For most of the country burial has entailed shipping the carcasses to a commercial disposal facility at Barnwell, South Carolina, where it was landfilled along with other solid radioactive waste. Unfortunately, since 30 June 1994, this facility accepts waste generated by the states of the Southeast Compact only. Therefore, burial is no longer an option for most of the country`s generators and incineration is an option only for those institutions which have, or have access to, an incinerator that is permitted to burn radioactive materials and that accepts animal carcasses with de minimis levels of radioactive contaminants. Many institutions, especially those in congested urban areas where the public does not support incineration, do not have viable outlets for radioactive animal carcasses. Interim, on-site storage poses problems of its own. Biodegradation of animal carcasses with dermestid beetles is an inexpensive approach to this waste management problem. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  17. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  18. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  19. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  20. Mapping Redistribution Of Metal In Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive-tracer technique applied to map redistribution of metal caused by welding process. Surfaces of parts welded irradiated by particle-beam generators to make them slightly radioactive. Used to verify predictions of computer codes for dynamics of fluids in weld pools.

  1. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  2. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  3. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  4. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  5. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  6. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  7. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  8. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  9. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  10. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  11. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

  13. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Kenneth E.; Weeks, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

  14. Radioactive ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

    1997-08-12

    Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

  15. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  16. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  17. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  18. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  20. Metals fact sheet - uranium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    About 147 million pounds of this radioactive element are consumed annually by the worldwide nuclear power and weapons industries, as well as in the manufacture of ceramics and metal products. The heaviest naturally occurring element, uranium is typically found in intrusive granites, igneous and metamorphic veins, tabular sedimentary deposits, and unconformity-related structures. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, market, and applications of uranium and uranium ores.

  1. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandolini, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  2. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  3. Radioactive and magnetic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heye, D.; Beiersdorf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Age and growth pattern determination of manganese nodules were explored. Two methods are discussed: (1) measurement of the presence of radioactive iodine isotopes; which is effective only up to 3.105 years, and (2) measurements of magnetism. The growth rates of three nodules were determined. The surface of the nodule was recent, and the overall age of the nodule could be determined with accuracy of better than 30%. Measurement of paleomagnetic effect was attempted to determine wider age ranges, however, the measured sign changes could not be interpreted as paleomagnetic reversals.

  4. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  5. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  6. Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

    2011-11-01

    José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

  7. Analytic and experimental evaluation of flowing air test conditions for selected metallics in a shuttle TPS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Tong, H.; Clark, K. J.; Suchsland, K. E.; Neuner, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed experimental and analytical evaluation was performed to define the response of TD nickel chromium alloy (20 percent chromium) and coated columbium (R512E on CB-752 and VH-109 on WC129Y) to shuttle orbiter reentry heating. Flight conditions important to the response of these thermal protection system (TPS) materials were calculated, and test conditions appropriate to simulation of these flight conditions in flowing air ground test facilities were defined. The response characteristics of these metallics were then evaluated for the flight and representative ground test conditions by analytical techniques employing appropriate thermochemical and thermal response computer codes and by experimental techniques employing an arc heater flowing air test facility and flat face stagnation point and wedge test models. These results were analyzed to define the ground test requirements to obtain valid TPS response characteristics for application to flight. For both material types in the range of conditions appropriate to the shuttle application, the surface thermochemical response resulted in a small rate of change of mass and a negligible energy contribution. The thermal response in terms of surface temperature was controlled by the net heat flux to the surface; this net flux was influenced significantly by the surface catalycity and surface emissivity. The surface catalycity must be accounted for in defining simulation test conditions so that proper heat flux levels to, and therefore surface temperatures of, the test samples are achieved.

  8. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, M.S.; Simonson, S.A.

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  9. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  10. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E.; Ziegler, Anton A.; Serino, David F.; Basnar, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  11. Radioactivity in Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Interest in the problems due to the radioactive contamination of the environment has been frequently stimulated by rumors of an occurrence of severe contamination of lakes and rivers in areas of the Ural Mountains. Occasional evidence appearing in publications and provided by Soviet emigrants has been pieced together and seems to suggest that there is an ideal opportunity for groundwater geochemists and others to evaluate such major radioactivity in the environment. The reasons that such a study probably will not take place is that the contamination may have been caused for the most part by a nuclear explosion in a Soviet weapons plant.F. Parker, an environmental scientist at Vanderbilt University, in a study for the Department of Energy, deduced that a large explosion occurred in 1958 at a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Kyshtym in the Ural Mountains, according to a recent report (Science, July 8, 1983). The report refers to the original interpretations of Z. Medvedev, a Soviet geneticist, who concluded that nuclear fallout has contaminated a very extensive area around Kyshtym.

  12. Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R H

    2003-09-01

    An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper. PMID:15242293

  13. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  14. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  15. Heavy fragment radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.

    1987-12-10

    This recently discovered mode of radioactive decay, like alpha decay and spontaneous fission, is believed to involve tunneling through the deformation-energy barrier between a very heavy nucleus and two separated fragments the sum of whose masses is less than the mass of the parent nucleus. In all known cases the heavier of the two fragments is close to doubly magic /sup 208/Pb, and the lighter fragment has even Z. Four isotopes of Ra are known to emit /sup 14/C nuclei; several isotopes of U as well as /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa emit Ne nuclei; and /sup 234/U exhibits four hadronic decay modes: alpha decay, spontaneous fission, Ne decay and Mg decay.

  16. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  17. TATRA: a versatile high-vacuum tape transportation system for decay studies at radioactive-ion beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoušek, V.; Sedlák, M.; Venhart, M.; Janičkovič, D.; Kliman, J.; Petrík, K.; Švec, P.; Švec, , P.; Veselský, M.

    2016-03-01

    A compact and versatile tape transport system for the collection and counting of radioactive samples from radioactive ion beam facilities has been developed. It uses an amorphous metallic tape for transportation of the activity. Because of this material, the system can hold very good vacuum, typically below 10-7 mbar.

  18. FINAL REPORT. REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE CATIONS AND ANIONS FROM POLLUTED WATER USING LIGAND-MODIFIED COLLOID-ENHANCED ULTRAFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to develop, optimize, and evaluate new separation methods for removal of hazardous (radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive contaminants) metal ions from either ground water or aqueous waste solutions produced during Decontamination and Decommissio...

  19. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  20. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  1. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  2. RADIOACTIVE CONCENTRATOR AND RADIATION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for forming a permeable ion exchange bed using Montmorillonite clay to absorb and adsorb radioactive ions from liquid radioactive wastes. A paste is formed of clay, water, and a material that fomns with clay a stable aggregate in the presence of water. The mixture is extruded into a volume of water to form clay rods. The rods may then be used to remove radioactive cations from liquid waste solutions. After use, the rods are removed from the solution and heated to a temperature of 750 to 1000 deg C to fix the ratioactive cations in the clay.

  3. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOEpatents

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  4. Star formation and extinct radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the evidence for the existence of now-extinct radioactivities in primitive solar system material, giving attention to implications for the early stages of sun and solar system formation. The characteristics of possible disturbances in dense molecular clouds which can initiate the formation of cloud cores is discussed, with emphasis on these disturbances able to generate fresh radioactivities. A one-solar mass red giant star on the asymptotic giant branch appears to have been the best candidate to account for the short-lived extinct radioactivities in the early solar system.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, P. A.; Atkins-Duffin, C. E.

    Issues related to the management of radioactive wastes are presented with specific emphasis on high-level wastes generated as a result of energy and materials production using nuclear reactors. The final disposition of these high-level wastes depends on which nuclear fuel cycle is pursued, and range from once-through burning of fuel in a light water reactor followed by direct disposal in a geologic repository to more advanced fuel cycles (AFCs) where the spent fuel is reprocessed or partitioned to recover the fissile material (primarily 235U and 239Pu) as well as the minor actinides (MAs) (neptunium, americium, and curium) and some long-lived fission products (e.g., 99Tc and 129I). In the latter fuel cycle, the fissile materials are recycled through a reactor to produce more energy, the short-lived fission products are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository, and the minor actinides and long-lived fission products are converted to less radiotoxic or otherwise stable nuclides by a process called transmutation. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fuel cycle options and the challenges to the management of nuclear wastes they represent are discussed.

  6. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  7. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

  8. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  9. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  10. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  11. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

  12. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  13. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  15. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  16. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.556 - RADIOACTIVE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE placard. 172.556 Section 172.556... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.556 RADIOACTIVE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE... on the RADIOACTIVE placard must be white in the lower portion with a yellow triangle in the...

  18. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very

  19. Development of long-term performance models for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2011-03-22

    The long-term performance of solid radioactive waste is measured by the release rate of radionuclides into the environment, which depends on corrosion or weathering rates of the solid waste form. The reactions involved depend on the characteristics of the solid matrix containing the radioactive waste, the radionuclides of interest, and their interaction with surrounding geologic materials. This chapter describes thermo-hydro-mechanical and reactive transport models related to the long-term performance of solid radioactive waste forms, including metal, ceramic, glass, steam reformer and cement. Future trends involving Monte-Carlo simulations and coupled/multi-scale process modeling are also discussed.

  20. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  1. Oxidation-resistant silicide coating applied to columbium alloy screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    Coated screens withstand temperature cycling in special transpiration-cooling systems and provide porous surface that is effective at temperatures well above those limiting superalloy screen efficiency. Thickness of coating depends on time, temperature and activator concentration. Coatings are uniform and resistant to thermal cycling.

  2. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; niobium (columbium) and tantalum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crockett, R.N.; Sutphin, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Major world resources of niobium and tantalum are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of niobium and tantalum based on inventory information; Part II contains tables of both geologic and mineral-resource information and includes production data collected by ISMI participants. Niobium is used principally as an alloying element in special steels and superalloys, and tantalum is used mainly in electronics. Minerals in the columbite-tantalite series are principal ore minerals of niobium and tantalum. Pyrochlore is a principal source of niobium. These minerals are found in carbonatite, certain rocks in alkaline igneous complexes, pegmatite, and placer deposits. ISMI estimates show that there are over 7 million metric tons of niobium and almost 0.5 million metric tons of tantalum in known deposits, outside of China and the former Soviet Union, for which reliable estimates have been made. Brazilian deposits, followed by Canadian deposits, contain by far the largest source of niobium. Tantalum production is spread widely among several countries, and Brazil and Canada are the most significant of these producers. Brazil's position is further strengthened by potential byproduct columbite from tin mining. Present economically exploitable resources of niobium appear to be sufficient for the near future, but Brazil will continue to be the predominant world supplier of ferrocolumbium. Tantalum, a byproduct of tin production, has been captive to the fluctuations of that market, but resources in pegmatite in Canada and Australia make it likely that future increases in the present modest demand will be met.

  3. Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

  4. Metal aminoboranes

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  5. Oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory metals used in inert atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Test conditions and results are reported for various coatings on a 1 percent zirconium columbium alloy at a temperature of 2000 deg F. Molybdenum silicide over molybdenum is most effective coating, tin-aluminum coating is adequately protective, chromium-molybdenum silicides are not protective.

  6. Radioactive decay as a forced nuclear chemical process: Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Concepts regarding the mechanism of radioactive decay of nuclei are developed on the basis of a hypothesis that there is a dynamic relationship between the electronic and nuclear subsystems of an atom, and that fluctuating initiating effects of the electronic subsystem on a nucleus are possible. Such relationship is reflected in experimental findings that show the radioactive decay of nuclei might be determined by a positive difference between the mass of an initial nucleus and the mass of an atom's electronic subsystem, i.e., the mass of the entire atom (rather than that of its nucleus) and the total mass of the decay products. It is established that an intermediate nucleus whose charge is lower by unity than the charge of the initial radioactive nucleus is formed as a result of the above fluctuating stimuli that initiate radioactive decay, and its nuclear matter is thus in an unbalanced metastable state of inner shakeup, affecting the quark subsystem of nucleons. The intermediate nucleus thus experiences radioactive decay with the emission of α or β particles. At the same time, the high energy (with respect to the chemical scale) of electrons in plasma served as a factor initiating the processes in different nuclear chemical transformations and radioactive decays in low-temperature plasma studied earlier, particularly during the laser ablation of metals in aqueous solutions of different compositions and in near-surface cathode layers upon glow discharge. It is shown that a wide variety of nucleosynthesis processes in the Universe can be understood on the same basis, and a great many questions regarding the formation of light elements in the solar atmosphere and some heavy elements (particularly p-nuclei) in the interiors of massive stars at late stages of their evolution can also be resolved.

  7. Radioactive-waste container with leak monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Janberg, K.G.; Methling, D.

    1985-01-22

    A container has a massive metallic vessel whose interior is adapted to receive radioactive waste and whose mouth is formed with inner and outer spaced generally planar and annular vessel shoulders and formed there-between with a nonplanar intermediate annular vessel surface. A massive metallic cover formed with a plug fits in the mouth and has respective inner and outer plug shoulders closely juxtaposed with the vessel shoulders and a nonplanar intermediate annular plug surface complementary to the intermediate vessel surface. An inner ring seal engages snugly between the inner shoulders. A pair of generally concentric and spaced outer ring seals engage snugly between the outer shoulders and forming an annular outer chamber therebetween. An intermediate ring seal engages snugly between the intermediate surfaces and forms therebetween and with the inner ring seal an annular inner chamber and therebetween and with the outer ring seals an intermediate chamber. The cover is formed with respective inner, intermediate, and outer passages each having one end opening into the respective chamber and another end. Valves are provided on the cover at the other ends of the passages for sampling gases therein and in the respective chambers.

  8. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  9. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. PMID:26717170

  10. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.