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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH 02  

EPA Science Inventory

2002 PARTICULATE MATTER GPRA Goal 1: Clean Air; Objective 1.1: Ozone, PM, and SO2 NAAQS; Sub-Objective 1.1.5: Particulate Matter Research Description: In July 1997, EPA revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM), recogniz...

2

Particulate matter fugitive dusts  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

Not Available

1988-01-01

3

PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In promulgating the new PM2.5 NAAQS (July 1997), Congress recognized scientific uncertainties associated with fine particulate matter to include composition, source-receptor relationships, and health and exposure effects. As a result, Congress provided EPA with dire...

4

Health Effects of Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site gives a brief overview of how different sized particulate matter affects human health. It also discusses the environmental impacts of particulate matter, including haze and acid rain. The site also provides links to more in-depth resources about particle pollution and air quality criteria for particulate matter.

Agency, Environmental P.

5

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX) [Austin, TX

2011-02-22

6

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

7

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

8

Ecological effects of particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a

D. A Grantz; J. H. B Garner; D. W Johnson

2003-01-01

9

Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

1987-01-01

10

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

11

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there...the national standards for particulate matter: (1) Lake County...they relax the control on particulate matter emissions without...retained and shall remain in effect for Federal enforcement...

2010-07-01

12

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there...the national standards for particulate matter: (1) Lake County...they relax the control on particulate matter emissions without...retained and shall remain in effect for Federal enforcement...

2009-07-01

13

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

14

Ecological effects of particulate matter.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic tissues. Acidic and alkaline materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more likely route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. PM deposited directly to the soil can influence nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen, through its effects on the rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. Alkaline cation and aluminum availability are dependent upon the pH of the soil that may be altered dramatically by deposition of various classes of PM. A regional effect of PM on ecosystems is linked to climate change. Increased PM may reduce radiation interception by plant canopies and may reduce precipitation through a variety of physical effects. At the present time, evidence does not support large regional threats due to un-speciated PM, though site-specific and constituent-specific effects can be readily identified. Interactions of PM with other pollutants and with components of climate change remain important areas of research in assessment of challenges to ecosystem stability. PMID:12676209

Grantz, D A; Garner, J H B; Johnson, D W

2003-06-01

15

Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

1985-01-01

16

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16

17

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

18

Permanent disposal of radioactive particulate waste  

SciTech Connect

A system for storage and encapsulation of radioactive particulate waste, is described comprising: a cartridge having a liquid impervious casing enclosing a waster storage region, a ferromagnetic waste storage matrix housed in the cartridge and occupying at least a major portion of the waste storage region, and an inlet conduit and at least one outlet conduit projecting from the cartridge and communicating with the waste storage region; means for establishing a magnetic field in the matrix; fluid handling means including a source of liquid containing the radioactive waste to be stored in the cartridge, a source of encapsulating material, and a receptacle for receiving flushing water; cartridge filling means including conduits releasably couplable to the conduits associated with the cartridge; and fluid flow control means including remotely controllable valves connected between the fluid handling means and the cartridge filling means.

Troy, M.

1988-04-19

19

Indoor Air Quality Model for Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for particulate matter (PM). The standard for PM<2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) proposed by the U.S. EPA has produced considerable interest in indoor exposures to PM. IAQ models provi...

L. E. Sparks

2000-01-01

20

PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

21

REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

22

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

23

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 ?m (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the particulate matter is from long-range transport. A reduction in combustion generated particles would lead to a significant decrease in the smallest particle sizes and in the concentration of traffic generated toxics like benzo(a)pyrene.

Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

2005-12-01

24

Strategic Workplan for Particulate Matter Research: 2000 to 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Strategic Workplan for Particulate Matter: 2000-2004 summarizes the state of knowledge of highway related research into Particulate Matter (PM) pollution as determined from previous research efforts and identifies initiatives to fill gaps in knowledge...

E. Carr J. Crossett M. Grant

2002-01-01

25

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section 60.672 Protection...672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities must...bin is exempt from the applicable stack PM concentration limit (and associated...

2013-07-01

26

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023 g/dscm (ca....

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

28

Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodrguez-Fernndez, J.

2007-03-01

29

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

30

75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection...The updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards...standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by...

2010-04-08

31

Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

2009-02-01

32

Characterizing the origins of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing policy targeted at decreasing air pollution, it is essential that we have a strong understanding of when and where the pollution originated. Towards this goal, we have implemented and evaluated two different source attribution schemes in PMCAMx, a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model. The two schemes, an online (OPSA) and offline version (PSAT), are both designed for computational efficiency and the ability to track source contributions to primary and secondary particulate matter. The two versions showed good agreement with each other and with more accurate, computationally demanding methods. The off-line algorithm (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology, PSAT) is simpler to implement, has a lower computational cost and is suitable for a range of source apportionment studies. We have utilized this algorithm to study the age distribution of atmospheric particulate matter mass in space and time. The average calculated ages are on the order of a few days for particulate matter near the ground, but are highly variable in space and time. Primary aerosol species had average ages of approximately 24 hours over this polluted continental region while the average ages for secondary species were 48-72 hours near the surface. As expected, the average age of all aerosol components increases vertically in the atmosphere. Age increases rapidly away from the sources of aerosol and its precursors and for non-volatile species it increases with particle size. PSAT is an excellent tool for the study of source-receptor relationships. We have studied the extent of pollutant transport in the Eastern United States using two approaches. The first PSAT-based approach is focused on source regions and the second is focused on receptor regions. For the source region focused approach, transport of pollutants is quantified by tracking the emissions from these regions. For the receptor region focused approach, PSAT tracks the pollutants emitted from a series of rings around the area of interest We discuss the results from these approaches looking at the impacts to primary elemental carbon, SO2, particulate sulfate and secondary organic aerosol. The source region-focused approach was applied to study the contributions to PM levels of 11 different area in the Eastern United States, ranging in size (both in terms of land area and emissions) from the Ohio River Valley to Little Rock, AR. These impacts were quantified using a variety of measures to account for both the distance that the pollutants are transported and the overall impact the emissions have on pollutant concentrations in the region. Large source regions were found to have a large impact on secondary particulate matter levels areas several hundred kilometers from the source region. The receptor region focused approach was used to evaluate the contributions from long range, mid range and long range transport to particulate matter concentrations in three receptor regions: Pittsburgh, PA, Atlanta, GA and Great Smoky Mountains. The local impacts to elemental carbon in urban areas were found to be substantial (approximately 50%) with most the additional contributions being from short range transport. The contributions to sulfate and SOA were found to be more regional with much of the contributions in all three sites resulting from mid range transport.

Wagstrom, Kristina Michelle

33

Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

1984-01-01

34

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

35

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

2010-07-01

36

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

2013-07-01

37

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

2009-07-01

38

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...condition; (2) The target particulate matter emission level for each test...

2013-07-01

39

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2009-07-01

40

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

41

[Health risks of airborne particulate matter in children].  

PubMed

The chemical composition of particulate matter can be very diverse, comprising a range of toxic compounds. Exposure to airborne particulate matter has been considered a substantial health risk for two decades now. There is no scientific evidence for a safe exposure limit. Therefore, current exposure levels across Europe are reason for concern. Exposure to particulate matter in adults may cause severe respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is abundant epidemiological evidence that children, and younger children in particular, are more susceptible to the adverse effects of particular matter on health than adults. Short term exposure of children may already cause respiratory symptoms and allergic reactions. Environmental health policies reducing risks of exposure to particulate matter in children are recommended. PMID:24128602

Kleinjans, Jos C S

2013-01-01

42

Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

1991-01-01

43

Relationship between Personal Exposures and Ambient Concentrations of Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is established that personally monitored particulate matter (PM) is poorly correlated with ambient concentrations of PM. This observation is inconsistent with epidemiology studies relating ambient PM to mortality. This paper reviews in depth the relati...

D. T. Mage T. J. Buckley

1995-01-01

44

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

45

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

46

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

47

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

48

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a) On...

2010-07-01

49

DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (...

50

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

51

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

52

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator that is subject to the requirements...fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after...fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in...

2013-07-01

53

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

54

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

55

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

56

Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

57

78 FR 78315 - Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate Matter Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ...24-Hour Fine Particulate (PM 2.5 ...Despite the limited nature of this proposed...the cross-state nature of the Logan...Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting...

2013-12-26

58

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

59

FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

60

Filter Media for Collecting Diesel Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE mem...

F. Black L. Doberstein

1981-01-01

61

Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles. PMID:22393811

Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

2012-01-01

62

Partitioning of copper onto suspended particulate matter in river waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particles and river water from the Susquehanna River, White Clay Creek and the Delaware River were collected to experimentally study the partitioning of copper. The effects of many factors that may influence the partitioning coefficient (Kd) including pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total copper concentration ([Cu]T), dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), hardness, and ionic strength were

Yuefeng Lu; Herbert E Allen

2001-01-01

63

Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to describe

Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

2003-01-01

64

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

65

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What...matter that may be emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating...

2013-07-01

66

Is atmospheric particulate matter inhibiting marine primary productivity  

SciTech Connect

Present deposition rates of atmospheric particulate matter do not appear great enough to inhibit marine primary productivity except, perhaps, at the sea-surface microlayer. Milligram/liter quantities of air particulate matter added to seawater result in an exponential reduction in photosynthetic /sup 14/C assimilation of natural marine phytoplankton populations. Urban particles are 6 times more toxic than rural particles. The ratios of soluble trace elements from equal amounts of urban (Seattle) to rural (Quillayute) atmospheric particles are as follows: As, 112; Br, 6.4; Cr, 3.4; Cu, 3.7; Ni, 3.0; Pb, 36; V, 2.7; and Zn, 2.2.

Hardy, J.T.; Crecelius, E.A.

1981-09-01

67

75 FR 30710 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards and revoking the state's course particulate standards. The State of Wisconsin...would be withdrawn and not take effect. On May 7, 2010, EPA...

2010-06-02

68

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

69

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

70

Costs of Particulate Matter Controls for Nonfossil Fuel Fired Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a resource document for the development of Federal standards of performance for control of particulate matter from new nonfossil fuel-fired boilers ranging in size from 30 to 400 million Btu/hour heat input. Capital and annualized costs for...

K. W. Barnett W. D. Kwapil S. C. Margerum

1983-01-01

71

Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven

A. Braun; F. E. Huggins; A. Kubatova; S. Wirick; M. M. Maricq; B. S. Mun; J. D. McDonald; K. E. Kelly; N. Shah; G. P. Huffman

2008-01-01

72

Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

73

LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

74

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

75

A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

76

Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

77

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

78

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

79

Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has more recently been associated with neurotoxicity. This study examines if the size-dependent toxicity reported in cardiopulmonary systems also

Patricia Gillespie; Julianne Tajuba; Morton Lippmann; Lung-Chi Chen; Bellina Veronesi

80

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)

Boz, Yezdan

2006-01-01

81

The Role of Particulate Matter in Exacerbation of Atopic Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence shows that elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) can exacerbate existing asthma, while evidence that PM can promote the induction of asthma is limited. PM in ambient air has been associated with increased emergency room visits and medication use by asthmatics. Controlled human exposure studies of acid aerosols suggest increased responses among adolescent asthmatics. Increased ambient and indoor

Stephen H. Gavett; Hillel S. Koren

2001-01-01

82

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60...

2013-07-01

83

Modeling of suspended particulate matter transport in coastal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport model, developed for North Sea scales (6 nm horizontal resolution), was improved and applied for a part of the North Frisian Wadden Sea with 100 m horizontal and 0.5 m vertical resolution. Satellite data were used to separate different SPM exchange processes and to derive appropriate model parameters. The model calculates distributions of

Andrey Pleskachevsky; Heinz Gnther

2008-01-01

84

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

85

Magnetic quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for fast quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The remanent magnetization of PM samples collected in Switzerland at sites with different exposures to pollution sources is analysed. The coercivity distribution of each sample is calculated from detailed demagnetization curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and is modelled using a linear combination

S. Spassov; R. Egli; F. Heller; D. K. Nourgaliev; J. Hannam

2004-01-01

86

Systemic Microvascular Dysfunction and Inflammation after Pulmonary Particulate Matter Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic association between pulmonary exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular dysfunction is well known, but the systemic mechanisms that drive this effect remain unclear. We have previously shown that acute pulmonary exposure to PM impairs or abolishes endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the rat spinotrapezius muscle. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the effect of

Timothy R. Nurkiewicz; Dale W. Porter; Mark Barger; Lyndell Millecchia; K. Murali; K. Rao; Paul J. Marvar; Ann F. Hubbs; Vincent Castranova; Matthew A. Boegehold

2007-01-01

87

AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thye paper discusses an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for particulate matter (PM). The standard for PM < 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) proposed by the U.S. EPA has produced considerable interest in indoor exposures to PM. IAQ models provide a useful tool for...

88

ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER.  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the acute mortality effects of high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM), documented in historic air pollution episodes, may also be occurring at the low to moderate concentrations of ambient PM found in mod...

89

Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in

Eugene V. Gonze; Paratore Jr. Michael J; Kevin W. Kirby; Amanda Phelps; Daniel J. Gregoire

2011-01-01

90

Fatty Acids in Surface Particulate Matter from the North Atlantic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fatty acid composition of particulate matter from surface waters in the North Atlantic has been investigated. A high proportion is long-chain polyunsaturated acids, typical of a marine origin. The low relative abundance of iso and anteiso 15-carbon ac...

D. M. Schultz J. G. Quinn

1972-01-01

91

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...total suspended particulate matter in the ambient air is computed...high elevations. The actual particulate matter concentration can be calculated...undefined because of the complex nature of atmospheric particulate matter and the difficulty in...

2010-07-01

92

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...total suspended particulate matter in the ambient air is computed...high elevations. The actual particulate matter concentration can be calculated...undefined because of the complex nature of atmospheric particulate matter and the difficulty in...

2009-07-01

93

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b...particulate matter and nitrogen oxides...combusting coal, wood or municipal-type solid waste, the span value for...residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.] 40 ...particulate matter and nitrogen oxides...combusting coal, wood or municipal-type solid waste, the span value for...residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30...

2009-07-01

95

78 FR 73698 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Deterioration for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers...Significant Impact Levels (SILs) for particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers...because it is ministerial in nature. The EPA will initiate a...

2013-12-09

96

77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection...proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

2012-03-02

97

77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection...proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

2012-03-01

98

CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

99

40 CFR 60.45c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and procedures for particulate matter. 60.45c Section...FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...and procedures for particulate matter. (a) The...whichever is later, for condensable PM emissions,...

2010-07-01

100

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

101

Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K. [John Hopkins University (US). Bloomberg School of Public Health

2005-07-15

102

A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck applications the soot filters are cleaned by burning the

G. L. M. A. Van Rens

2008-01-01

103

Pilot indoor-outdoor study of organic particulate matter and particulate mutagenicity  

SciTech Connect

Elevated indoor concentrations of a number of gaseous and particulate pollutants have been demonstrated by numerous workers. The case of indoor to outdoor (I/O) relationships for particulate organic matter, however, is especially complex in view of the range of organic compounds in this fraction and the need for relatively sensitive analytical techniques and large sampled air volumes. Thus, it is not surprising that relatively little attention has been given to the characterization of particulate organic matter indoors. Indoor sources of organic pollutants, such as tobacco smoke, fireplaces and woodburning stoves, kerosene heaters, gas stoves, cooking, and attached garages may constitute the foremost air pollution hazard in some homes, depending upon season. Infiltration of outdoor organics would depend upon season and the lifestyle of the inhabitants. The pilot study reported here addresses: certain quantitative and qualitative summertime I/O relationships among selected airborne particulate organic pollutants, the I/O relationships for the bacterial mutagenicity of the extractable organic matter,and the nature of the EOM found in a home without central air conditioning during the summertime, which is a situation that can occur in many northern cities.

Lioy, P.J.; Avdenko, M.; Harkov, R.; Atherholt, T.; Daisey, J.M.

1985-06-01

104

Field tests using radioactive matter.  

PubMed

During recent years, the assessment of possible radiological consequences of a terrorist attack associated with a release of radioactive substances (RaS) has been in the focus of interest of emergency preparedness and radiation protection specialists, as well as experts dealing with the dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Suitable tools for these analyses are applications of mathematical and physical models and simulation of this attack under 'realistic' conditions. The work presented here summarises the results of four tests, in which a RaS (a Tc-99 m solution) was dispersed over a free area with the use of an industrial explosive. Detection methods and techniques employed in these tests are described and values characterising the RaS dispersion--dose rates, surface activities in horizontal and vertical directions, volume activities, their space and time distributions and mass concentrations of aerosols produced after the explosion are presented and compared. These data will be applied to a comparison of outcomes of models used for the assessment of radiation accidents as well as in future field tests carried out under conditions of more complex geometry (indoor environment, terrain obstacles, etc.). PMID:20089512

Prouza, Z; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Michalek, V; Rulik, P; Skrkal, J; Hovorka, J

2010-06-01

105

High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 ?m). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

Frohlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Despres, Viviane R.; Poschl, Ulrich

2009-01-01

106

Determination of Levoglucosan in Particulate Matter Reference Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source identification is critical for the effective management of air pollution. The ratio of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-? -D-glucose) to organic carbon has been used to identify and quantify the contribution of biomass combustion to the organic carbon content in aerosols. Therefore, accurate levoglucosan measurements in particulate matter are important. This study determined levoglucosan concentrations in urban dust Standard Reference Materials (SRMs)

Randolph K. Larsen III; Michele M. Schantz; Stephen A. Wise

2006-01-01

107

The procoagulant effects of fine particulate matter in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation of fine particulate matter (<2.5 ?m; fine PM) has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events. In\\u000a this letter, we reappraise the role of tissue factor (TF) antigen and we also summarize changes in measured coagulation proteins\\u000a in humans and rodents by other studies with fine PM. By considering all studies including ours, we conclude that monitoring

Evren Kilin; Holger Schulz; Gerhardus JAJM Kuiper; Henri MH Spronk; Hugo ten Cate; Swapna Upadhyay; Koustav Ganguly; Tobias Stoeger; Manuela Semmler-Bhenke; Shinji Takenaka; Wolfgang G Kreyling; Mike Pitz; Peter Reitmeir; Annette Peters; Oliver Eickelberg; H Erich Wichmann

2011-01-01

108

Measurement of fine particulate matter using electron microscopy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient fine particulate matter, defined as material with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), comprises a broad range of primary and secondary particles that are dispersed through the atmosphere from a variety of sources. Attention has recently shifted to investigating ambient PM2.5 because fine particles are thought to have a greater influence on health effects.

Gary S Casuccio; Steven F Schlaegle; Traci L Lersch; Gerald P Huffman; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah

2004-01-01

109

Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

2013-12-01

110

Fractionator for size classification of aerosolized solid particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is developed for collecting kilogram quantities of size-fractionated particulate matter which can be subsequently used for biologic testing purposes. The apparatus consists of a series of two cyclones and a centripeter and yields four size fractions. When used over a 12-day period to classify fly ash from stack gas passed through the electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power

Andrew R. McFarland; Russell W. Bertch; Gerald L. Fisher; Bruce A. Prentice

1977-01-01

111

Determination of Levoglucosan in Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microanalytical method suitable for the quantitative determination of the sugar anhydride levoglucosan in low-volume samples of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM) has been developed and validated. The method incorporates two sugar anhydrides as quality control standards. The recovery standard sedoheptulosan (2,7-anhydro-?-D-altro-heptulopyranose) in 20 ?L solvent is added onto samples of the atmospheric fine PM and aged for 1 hr

Christopher D. Simpson; Russell L. Dills; Bethany S. Katz; David A. Kalman

2004-01-01

112

Chemical Characterization of Particulate Matter Emitted from Animal Feeding Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a field study of concentration and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emitted from a large egg production facility. PM2.5 samples were taken at five sampling locations covering emission source (in a layer barn) and four ambient stations at four wind directions surrounding the facility. Eight particulate matter (PM) sampling events were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009,

Qianfeng Li; Lingjuan Wang; Zifei Liu; David B. Beasley

113

Model uncertainty and health effect studies for particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

this articlehas been funded in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency throughagreement CR825173-01-0 to the University of Washington, it has as not been subjected tothe Agency's required peer and policy review and therefore does not necessarily reflect theviews of the Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred.Model Uncertainty andHealth Effect Studies for Particulate MatterSummary

Merlise Clyde

2000-01-01

114

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 m). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Desprs, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Frhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Frhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pschl, U.

2009-04-01

115

Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average personal exposures to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and Mn. A stratified, three-stage, two-phase probability, longitudinal sample design of the metropolitan population was employed. Residential indoor and outdoor, and ambient levels (at a fixed site and on a roof) of PM 2.5, PM 10, and Mn were also measured. Supplementary data on traffic counts, meteorology, MMT levels in gasoline, personal occupations, and activities (e.g. amount of vehicular usage) were collected. Overall precision (%RSD) for analysis of duplicate co-located samples ranged from 2.5 to 5.0% for particulate matter and 3.1 to 5.5% for Mn. The detection limits were 1.47 and 3.45 ?g m -3 for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions, respectively, and 5.50 and 1.83 ng m -3 for Mn in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. These low detection limits permitted the reporting of concentrations for >98% of the samples. For PM 10, the personal particulate matter levels (median 48.5 ?g m -3) were much higher than either indoor (23.1 ?g m -3) or outdoor levels (23.6 ?g m -3). The median levels for PM 2.5 for personal, indoor, and outdoor were 28.4, 15.4 and 13.2 ?g m -3, respectively. The correlation between PM 2.5 personal exposures and indoor concentrations was high (0.79), while correlations between personal and the outdoor, fixed site and roof site were low (0.16-0.27). Indoor Mn concentration distributions (in PM 2.5 and PM 10), unlike particulate matter, exhibited much lower and less variable levels that the corresponding outdoor data. The median personal exposure was 8.0 ng m -3, compared with 4.7 and 8.6 ng m -3, respectively, for the indoor and outdoor distributions. The highest correlations occurred for personal vs indoor data (0.56) and for outdoor vs roof site data (0.66), and vs fixed site data (0.56). The concentration of Mn in particulate matter, expressed in ppm (w/w), revealed that the fixed site was the highest, followed by the roof site, outdoor, indoor, and personal. The personal and indoor data showed a statistically significant correlation (0.68) while all other correlations between personal or indoor data and outdoor or fixed-site data were quite small. The low correlations of personal and indoor levels with outdoor levels suggest that different sources in the indoor and outdoor microenvironments produce particle matter with dissimilar composition. The correlation results indicate that neither the roof- nor fixed-site concentrations can adequately predict personal particulate matter or Mn exposures.

Pellizzari, E. D.; Clayton, C. A.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.; Fort, B.; Pfeifer, G.; Lynam, D.

116

Applicability of the Mass Concentration Standards for Particulate Matter in Alaskan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High particulate matter concentrations were measured in several communities in Alaska using high volume air samplers. Because of these measurements, Anchorage and Fairbanks have been classified Priority 1 for particulate matter. To define and better understand the meaning of particulate measurements in Alaska, the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, in conjunction with local agencies, collected and evaluated air quality data

Timothy M. Gilmore; Thomas R. Hanna

1975-01-01

117

Performance comparison of three samplers of suspended airborne particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

The University of Arizona and the Pima County Air Pollution Control District conducted a comparison study of the following aerosol samplers: a standard high-volume sampler, a high-volume sampler fitted with a size selective inlet, and a dichotomous virtual impactor. Over sixty samples were collected with the colocated samplers during the first six months of 1981. The concentration (..mu..g/m/sup 3/) of suspended particulate matter and of sulfate was determined for all samples, while the concentration of four lithophilic elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, and K) was determined on one third of the samples. Well-defined linear relationships for suspended particulate matter and sulfate were found to exist between each of the three sample collection methods over the concentration range encountered in this study. For these samples, there were significant differences in the particulate mass and large particle lithophilic element concentrations collected by each device. However, sulfate values obtained from the three samplers were in excellent agreement with each other. This suggests that the inlet collection efficiency for large particles differs significantly for these three sampling devices. Since the size selective inlet and the dichotomous virtual impactor samplers are each designed for collection of inhalable particles (particles of 15 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter and smaller), they would have been expected to measure approximately equivalent particle mass concentrations. Thus, these differences are important to those interested in selecting a method for measuring airborne particle mass concentrations.

Solomon, P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson); Derrick, M.; Moyers, J.; Hyde, P.

1982-04-01

118

Characterization of aza heterocyclic hydrocarbons in urban atmospheric particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Aza heterocyclic hydrocarbons (AHHs) present in urban atmospheric particulate matter have been analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPPLC) coupled with on-line fluorescence detection after a preseparation of the AHH fraction by one-dimensional dual-band thin-layer chromatography. Efficient preseparation and a significant increase in sensitivity over other methods were achieved. The HPLC fraction was identified by comparison of retention times and fluorescence emission spectra of individual components with data for authentic samples and also by the method of standard addition. These techniques were applied to the organic material present in the atmospheric particulate matter collected in the Tokyo metropolis. The concentrations (..mu..g/g of particulates (ng/m/sup 3/)) of identified AHHs (4-azafluorene, acridine, benz(a)acridine, dibenz(a,h)acridine, dibenz(a,j)acridine, dibenz(a,c)acridine, and 10-azabenzo(a)pyrene) were at the levels of 3 x 10/sup -2/ to 3.5 (3 x 10/sup -3/ to 3 x 10/sup -1/), and these were about 10-1000 times lower than those of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, the concentrations generally decreased with increasing ring number.

Yamauchi, T.; Handa, T.

1987-12-01

119

Particulate organic matter sinks and sources in high Arctic fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this paper is to present results on concentrations, fluxes and isotopic composition (?13Corg) of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon (measures of particulate and sedimentary organic matter, respectively) in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. The terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the Kongsfjorden reached 760 106 145 106 g Corg y- 1, forced mostly by the glaciers' activity. This constituted 5-10% of the bulk POC supplied to the system. Marine primary production was the main source of the remaining 90-95% of POC. Organic carbon burial rates amounted to 9 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the central and 13 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the outer part of the fjord. Two terrestrial POM ?13Corg end members were identified: the ancient organic matter (OM) supplied by glaciers and rivers fed by water discharged from the glaciers (from - 25.4 to - 25.1), and the fresh terrestrial POM (from - 26.7 to - 26.6). Marine OM was characterized by a wide range of ?13Corg signatures: from ? - 26.1 for the phytoplankton depleted in 13Corg to ca. - 15.8 for debris of marine phytobenthos. The lack of distinct marine ?13Corg end member and the resemblance of phytoplankton ?13Corg signatures to the terrestrial POM ?13Corg end member precluded the use of the two ?13Corg end member mixing model to trace the terrestrial OM in Kongsfjorden, which is also very likely to happen in other Arctic regions.

Kuli?ski, Karol; K?dra, Monika; Lege?y?ska, Joanna; Gluchowska, Marta; Zaborska, Agata

2014-11-01

120

Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and measured dust storm concentration variability at Beijing in the course of time. The results show the importance of intertwine investigations of measurements and modeling, the analysis of local air pollution levels as well as the impact and analysis of advective processes in the greater region of Beijing. Comprehensive investigations on particulate matter are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the source strengths and source attribution to the overall air pollution level. Only this knowledge can help to formulate and to introduce specific reduction measures to reduce coarser as well as finer particulates.

Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

2013-05-01

121

STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

122

Toward distinguishing woodsmoke and diesel exhaust in ambient particulate matter.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC. PMID:18284133

Braun, A; Huggins, F E; Kubtov, A; Wirick, S; Maricq, M M; Mun, B S; McDonald, J D; Kelly, K E; Shah, N; Huffman, G P

2008-01-15

123

Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter  

SciTech Connect

Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

Braun,A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

2008-01-01

124

Characteristics of Particulate Matter Generated while Handling Municipal Household Waste.  

PubMed

Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the size characteristics of particulate matter (PM) generated during waste collection and sorting, and to assess the effect of the type of waste-handling activity on levels of coarse and fine PM. Methods: A portable aerosol spectrometer calibrated to 1.2 //min was used to monitor PM generated during four types of waste-handling activities. The types of PM measured included inhalable particulate matter (IPM), PM10, respirable particulate matter (RPM), PM2.5 and PM1. Twenty-eight data sets with 3,071 subsets recorded every 6 sec were categorized according to occupational and environmental classifications, including type of waste-handling activity. An ANOVA was used to compare PM levels characterized by size. Significant variables with p-values <0.25 were included in a multiple regression model for predicting levels of each PM. Results: The average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 greatly exceeded the air-quality levels enforced by the Korean Ministry of the Environment. The highest PM2.5 fine-particle levels monitored were during waste-transfer work, while the highest IPM and PM10 coarse-particle levels monitored were during waste-sorting work. The type of waste-collection activity was the only factor that significantly affected both PM25 and IPM, accounting for 36% (p=0.0034) and 40% (p=0.0049), respectively, of the observed variations. None of the factors affected PM10 or RPM levels. Conclusions: Waste-collection and Waste-transfer work may be associated with the generation of high levels of fine PM, which can be influenced by environ Workmental conditions such as traffic levels and the type of waste transport vehicle.(J Occup Health 2013; 55: 503-510). PMID:24162149

Park, Donguk; Lee, Kyeongmin; Ryu, Seunghun; Kim, Shinbum; Yoon, Chungsik; Ha, Kwonchul

2014-03-19

125

The procoagulant effects of fine particulate matter in vivo  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of fine particulate matter (<2.5 ?m; fine PM) has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events. In this letter, we reappraise the role of tissue factor (TF) antigen and we also summarize changes in measured coagulation proteins in humans and rodents by other studies with fine PM. By considering all studies including ours, we conclude that monitoring the overall coagulation state by measuring capacity assays such as thrombin generation, and quantification of TF activity would be more suitable than determining single coagulation proteins (such as TF antigen) in order to better assess the systemic prothrombotic effects of fine PM.

2011-01-01

126

The procoagulant effects of fine particulate matter in vivo.  

PubMed

Inhalation of fine particulate matter (<2.5 ?m; fine PM) has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events. In this letter, we reappraise the role of tissue factor (TF) antigen and we also summarize changes in measured coagulation proteins in humans and rodents by other studies with fine PM. By considering all studies including ours, we conclude that monitoring the overall coagulation state by measuring capacity assays such as thrombin generation, and quantification of TF activity would be more suitable than determining single coagulation proteins (such as TF antigen) in order to better assess the systemic prothrombotic effects of fine PM. PMID:21406084

Kilin, Evren; Schulz, Holger; Kuiper, Gerhardus Jajm; Spronk, Henri Mh; Ten Cate, Hugo; Upadhyay, Swapna; Ganguly, Koustav; Stoeger, Tobias; Semmler-Bhenke, Manuela; Takenaka, Shinji; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Pitz, Mike; Reitmeir, Peter; Peters, Annette; Eickelberg, Oliver; Wichmann, H Erich

2011-01-01

127

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16

128

Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

2011-10-04

129

Indoor particulate matter in urban residences of Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Indoor particulate matter samples were collected in 17 homes in an urban area in Alexandria during the summer season. During air measurement in all selected homes, parallel outdoor air samples were taken in the balconies of the domestic residences. It was found that the mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 and < or = 10 microm, respectively) concentrations were 53.5 +/- 15.2 and 77.2 +/- 15.1 microg/m3, respectively. The corresponding mean outdoor levels were 66.2 +/- 16.5 and 123.8 +/- 32.1 microg/m3, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations accounted, on average, for 68.8 +/- 12.8% of the total PM10 concentrations indoors, whereas PM2.5 contributed to 53.7 +/- 4.9% of the total outdoor PM10 concentrations. The median indoor/outdoor mass concentration (I/O) ratios were 0.81 (range: 0.43-1.45) and 0.65 (range: 0.4-1.07) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Only four homes were found with I/O ratios above 1, indicating significant contribution from indoor sources. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 levels and the corresponding outdoor concentrations. PM10 levels were significantly correlated with PM2.5 loadings indoors and outdoors and this might be related to PM10 and PM2.5 originating from similar particulate matter emission sources. Smoking, cooking using gas stoves, and cleaning were the major indoor sources contributed to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. Implications: The current study presents results of the first PM2.5 and PM10 study in homes located in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. Scarce data are available on indoor air quality in Egypt. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentrations. Indoor sources such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning were found to be the major contributors to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. PMID:24010376

Abdel-Salam, Mahmoud M M

2013-08-01

130

Correlation study between suspended particulate matter and DOAS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6 13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Xie, Pinghua; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kuze, Hiroaki; Lagrosas, Nofel; Takeuchi, Nobuo

2006-05-01

131

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14

132

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01

133

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

SciTech Connect

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

134

Characterisation of particulate matter on the receptor level in a city environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particulate matter (PM) has become one of the dominant pollutants with the increasing material and energy demand\\u000a due to global economic growth. The main objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive receptor level characterisation\\u000a of the particulate matter collected in a city environment. Particulate matter samples were collected on Tapered Element Oscillating\\u000a Microbalance (TEOM) filters from five

Winson Chung; Qun Chen; Ogo Osammor; Andy Nolan; Xiaohui Zhang; Vida N. Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank

135

Estimation of the Monthly Average Ratios of Organic Mass to Organic Carbon for Fine Particulate Matter at an Urban Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent methods are used to estimate the seasonality of the ratio of fine particulate organic matter (OM) to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) for atmospheric particulate matter collected at the St. LouisMidwest Supersite. The first method assumes that all of the fine particulate matter mass that cannot be attributed to sulfate ion, nitrate ion, ammonium ion, elemental carbon and

Min-Suk Bae; James J. Schauer; Jay R. Turner

2006-01-01

136

Comparison of Strategies for the Measurement of Mass Emissions from Diesel Engines Emitting Ultra-Low Levels of Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory methods for the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass emissions have traditionally been gravimetric. Modern diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment systems, especially Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), however, emit much smaller amounts of particulate matter as compared to traditional diesel engines and emit particulate matter with variable compositions. These changes have led to difficulties in measuring PM emissions rates from

Z. Gerald Liu; Victoria N. Vasys; Melissa E. Dettmann; James J. Schauer; David B. Kittelson; Jacob Swanson

2009-01-01

137

Differential Individual Particle Analysis (DIPA): applications in particulate matter characterization.  

PubMed

Operator-controlled and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) are used extensively to characterize particulate matter in environmental media. Analysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with chemical extraction is a potentially powerful tool that is capable of determining how various sample components are associated at the individual particle level. This involves initial characterization in a SEM, after which the material is exposed to a liquid or gas phase reaction for a specified time, and once exposure is concluded, the particles are reanalyzed in the SEM. This particle analysis by difference, or differential individual particle analysis (DIPA), possesses considerable potential for describing the behavior of environmental particles under changing chemical conditions. Here we describe DIPA applications with illustrative examples drawn from the analysis of particulate matter modified by reactions in a fluid environment. In situ DIPA permits the same particles to be analyzed in the SEM before and after modification. Repeated exposure to the same, or different modifying conditions, provides information on the time dependence of specific reactions. Significant numbers of particles can be analyzed using CCSEM, and the same particles can be analyzed after the reaction by accurate sample relocation in the SEM. Ex situ DIPA, which involves a bulk sample modification, uses CCSEM to characterize significant numbers of particles pre- and postreaction. The CCSEM approach is extremely efficient; recent developments in silicon drift detectors have increased the speed of characteristic X-rays detection, and very large numbers of particles can be analyzed in a short period of time. PMID:21546660

Hunt, Andrew; Johnson, David L

2011-01-01

138

Particulate Matter Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Area, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Particulate matter 2.5 micrometers diameter or less is small enough to pass from the lungs to the blood stream, and in the long run, may contribute to causing cancer and other life-threatening diseases. Although particles as large as 10 micrometers tend to get trapped by the nose and throat, and thus never enter the lungs, they can still cause trouble for those who have breathing-related problems. Our research was aimed at determining the levels of large and small particles in places with high densities of people, as well as locations with a high volume of vehicle traffic. Using the Fluke 893 Particle Counter, we measured particulate matter in a transect that spanned the San Francisco Bay Area. We collected data at diverse sites including: Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) stations in Oakland and San Francisco; all levels of a large parking garage in Emeryville; a number of local construction sites; and several heavily populated shopping areas in San Francisco. Though preliminary in nature, analysis of our data indicates that high concentrations of particles under 2.5 micrometers are found at the Coliseum BART station in Oakland, as well as in association with areas of high vehicle traffic flow. High concentrations of large particles are found near construction sites. Guided by these preliminary results, we plan to continue collecting data throughout the Fall to determine the causes of patterns that we have observed, as well as assess any changes that occur over time.

Souksavath, V.; Williams, J.; Powell, M.; Campell, M.; Almarez, A.; Almarez, M.

2008-12-01

139

Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

2012-12-01

140

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM102.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM102.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM102.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season.

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

141

Partitioning of copper onto suspended particulate matter in river waters.  

PubMed

Suspended particles and river water from the Susquehanna River, White Clay Creek and the Delaware River were collected to experimentally study the partitioning of copper. The effects of many factors that may influence the partitioning coefficient (Kd) including pH, total suspended solids (TSS), total copper concentration ([Cu]T), dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), hardness, and ionic strength were investigated by performing batch adsorption experiments. The results implied that organic matter binding sites in both the aqueous and solid phases play the most important role in controlling copper partitioning. Other major factors governing the partitioning are pH and TSS. Kd increases with pH in the pH range 3-8. TSS increases caused decreases in Kd values, which may be attributed to the decrease in the quantity of available binding sites caused by interparticle interactions, rather than by the redistribution of organic matter between solid and solution phases with the variation of TSS. Kd decreases slightly when total Cu concentration increases; however, Kd can be considered to be independent of Cu concentration when TSS is high. The effects of calcium competition and ionic strength on partitioning are small. PMID:11589392

Lu, Y; Allen, H E

2001-09-28

142

Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 C, 120-180 C, 180-250 C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 ?g. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

2013-02-01

143

Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 C, 120-180 C, 180-250 C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 ?g. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

2012-10-01

144

Generation of hydroxyl radicals by urban suspended particulate air matter. The role of iron ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies showed statistical associations between particulate air pollution in urban areas and increased morbidity and mortality, even at levels well within current national air quality standards. Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) can penetrate into the lower airways where they can cause acute and chronic lung injury by generating toxic oxygen free radicals. We tested inhalable total suspended particulates (TSP)

Athanasios Valavanidis; Anastasia Salika; Anna Theodoropoulou

2000-01-01

145

Turbulent Exchange of Particulate Matter During BEWA2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During BEWA2000, two field campaigns were conducted in the "Fichtelgebirge" mountains, NE-Bavaria, Germany, to study biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from a "Norway Spruce" forest. BVOC oxidation products may contribute to particulate mass through condensation on existing particles or new particle formation. Measurements of particulate mass, particle size distributions and vertical particle fluxes were jointly analyzed and interpreted. The particle number flux system included a sonic anemometer and two condensation particle counters. Particle size distributions were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer at the same height as the flux system at 22 m agl. Also, particle number concentrations were measured within the forest stand. Particle mass was obtained from impactor and high-volume sampler measurements. Particle numbers differed considerably within and above the forest. The in-canopy concentration ranged from 60 % to 100 % of the concentration above the canopy. A diurnal pattern with effective particle production in the canopy through turbulent mixing and/or particle formation in the morning and effective particle removal in the canopy through deposition and/or coagulation processes in the afternoon was found. An important conclusion from these findings is that not only particle concentrations but also particle size distributions may differ within and above the forest. Turbulent particle number fluxes exhibited a diurnal pattern with small fluxes in the night and large fluxes during daytime. In general, particle deposition dominated over emission. A characteristic "banana-shaped" development of the particle size distribution indicating formation of particulate matter and subsequent growth was found on several days. Strong deposition fluxes occurred during these events. Particle mass fluxes may be determined from a combination of size distribution measurements and size-resolved deposition models. The mass determined from size distributions agrees well with directly measured particle mass. However, the uncertainty of calculated mass fluxes remains large. Funding by the German federal research ministry through grants PT BEO 51-0339476C and PT UKF 07ATF25 is gratefully acknowledged.

Held, A.; Braggemann, E.; Wiedensohler, A.; Klemm, O.

2003-12-01

146

Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 ?m and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

147

Physicochemical characterization of ambient air particulate matter in tabriz, iran.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured concurrently from September, 2012, to June, 2013, at two sites, urban and industrial suburban, in Tabriz, Iran. The annual average concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 at the urban site were 142.276.3, 85.343.9, 3919.1, and 28.414.9g/m(3) (meanSD), respectively. A total of 11 inorganic water-soluble ions in the TSP and PM10 were identified by ion chromatography. In the urban site, concentrations of total water-soluble ions in TSP and PM10 were 20.320.8 and 16.014.1g/m(3), respectively. In this sampling site, secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., ? [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] concentrations) were the main measured water-soluble ions, which collectively accounted for 13.9% of TSP mass and 17.7% of PM10 mass. Correlations between [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] indicated that the main source of these ions in PM was the combustion processes. Results of elemental analysis in the industrial suburban site showed that natural sources were the dominant source of PM in this area. PMID:24756332

Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yunesian, Masud; Naseri, Simin; Taghipour, Hasan; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

2014-06-01

148

Atmospheric Input of Particulate Matter In The Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have shown that aerosols in the Arctic are of importance for atmo- spheric chemistry and climate. But up to now atmospheric input of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean is studied insufficiently. We began aerosol research in the Arctic marine boundary layer in 1991. In this presentation we summarized data on parti- cle size and composition of aerosols and on particulate material in snow cover col- lected during 10 years (1991-2000) onboard of Russian research vessels and German icebreaker "Polarstern". Concentrations of most chemical elements are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. A catastrophic increase of ele- ment content due to anthropogenic factor in the summer-autumn has not been found. The balance calculations based on our and literature data show that the contribution of aerosols to formation of the sedimentary material in the Arctic is close to the con- tribution of the river sediments beyond the marginal filters of rivers. For some chem- ical elements (Pb, Sb, Se, V) the aeolian source is very important. Our studies were financially supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (grants RFBR 96- 05-00043 and 98-05-64279), DFG (grant STE-412/10-2) and by German and Russian Ministries for Science and Technology in the frame of Otto Schmidt Laboratory fel- lowship and "Laptev Sea 2000" project.

Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Kriews, M.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Nothig, E.-M.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stein, R.; Vinogradova, A. A.

149

Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.  

PubMed Central

In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

1996-01-01

150

An Optical Backscatter Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engines are prone to emit particulate matter (PM) emissions under certain operation conditions. In-cylinder production of PM from diesel combustion control can occur under a wide variety of operating conditions, and in some cases, operation of a multi-cylinder engine can further complicate PM emissions due to variations in air or fuel charge due to manifold mixing effects. In this study, a probe for detecting PM in diesel exhaust was evaluated on a light-duty diesel engine. The probe is based on an optical backscattering effect. Due to the optical nature of the probe, PM sensing can occur at high rates. The feasibility of the probe for examining PM emissions in the exhaust manifold will be discussed.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

2009-01-01

151

Characteristics, deposition, and fate of inhaled particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory tract are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models for making estimates range from single models based on assumed particle size distribution to more-complex models based on a variety of parameters. Most work in the area of estimating particle fate following inhalation has been done on aerosols of known composition. Additional work is needed to categorize properties of inhalable particles with respect to composition in addition to morphology. Additional research is needed to define the effects of pulmonary disease on particle clearance from the lung. Additional research also is needed to better explain the mechanics of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung.

Armentrout, D.; Locke, B.

1986-12-01

152

Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:22554531

Sb, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

2012-06-15

153

Particulate Matter Concentration Analysis over Europe and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 is particulate matter (PM) with diameter less than 2.5 micrometers, which is a significant indicator for air quality. Both ground based measurement and satellite-derived PM concentration can provide valuable information to policy-maker, scientist and citizen. van Donkelaar et al. (2006) developed the first approach which provides a potential of obtaining global PM2.5 concentration. And the main idea of Van Donkelaar et al. (2006) follows a simple and efficient way for converting AOD to PM concentration by a converting-factor calculated from chemical transport model named GEOS-Chem. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics PM concentration over Europe and East China will be analyzed utilizing both ground-based measurements and satellite-derived results. Some extreme atmospheric cases like Beijing haze in 2013 will also be included and analyzed.

Mei, Linlu; Vountas, Marco; Xue, Yong; Burrows, John P.

2014-05-01

154

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. - Highlights: {yields} We studied concentration, composition and morphology of coarse particles in gyms. {yields} Indoor concentration of coarse particles was high during days with pupils activity. {yields} Effect of outdoor coarse dust on indoor levels was weak and inconsistent. {yields} Six main groups of minerals contributing to indoor resuspended dust were determined. {yields} The most abundant coarse particles were human skin scales.

Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-05-15

155

Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particulate matter might accelerate thrombosis. We found that mice treated with a dose of well characterized particulate matter of less than 10 ?M in diameter exhibited a shortened bleeding time, decreased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times (decreased plasma clotting times), increased levels of fibrinogen, and increased activity of factor II, VIII, and X. This prothrombotic tendency was associated with increased generation of intravascular thrombin, an acceleration of arterial thrombosis, and an increase in bronchoalveolar fluid concentration of the prothrombotic cytokine IL-6. Knockout mice lacking IL-6 were protected against particulate matterinduced intravascular thrombin formation and the acceleration of arterial thrombosis. Depletion of macrophages by the intratracheal administration of liposomal clodronate attenuated particulate matterinduced IL-6 production and the resultant prothrombotic tendency. Our findings suggest that exposure to particulate matter triggers IL-6 production by alveolar macrophages, resulting in reduced clotting times, intravascular thrombin formation, and accelerated arterial thrombosis. These results provide a potential mechanism linking ambient particulate matter exposure and thrombotic events.

Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Green, David; Bellmeyer, Amy; Baker, Christina M.; Burgess, Zach; Rajamannan, Nalini; Christman, John W.; Foiles, Nancy; Kamp, David W.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Dean, David A.; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G.R. Scott

2007-01-01

156

Individual particle analysis of indoor, outdoor, and community samples from the 1998 Baltimore particulate matter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual human PM exposures within a susceptible (elderly) sub-population. Personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center

Teri L. Conner; Gary A. Norris; Matthew S. Landis; Ronald W Williams

2001-01-01

157

The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic

Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

1996-01-01

158

SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

159

40 CFR 60.42Da - Standards for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...42Da Standards for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided in...March 1, 2005, any gases that contain PM in excess of 13 ng/J (0.03...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. 52...Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments...necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The...

2013-07-01

161

40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. 52...Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments...necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The...

2013-07-01

162

40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection...43c Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date...affected facility any gases that contain PM in excess of the following emission...

2013-07-01

163

40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP. 52.634 Section...Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP. (a) On September...necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group III SIP. (b) The...

2013-07-01

164

Vis-NIR characterization of particulate matter in urban and industrial sites in the Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of particulate matter are key parameters for the definition of the radiative balance of the atmosphere and require a deeper comprehension for improving modelling. Considering the cognitive gap evidenced by IPCC guidelines, additional tools are necessary for understanding how size distribution and mineralogy contribute to the complexity of a matrix such as particulate matter. Knowing that concentration

R. Salzano; M. Montagnoli; R. Salvatori; C. Perrino

2010-01-01

165

Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne particulate matter has adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic matter extracts in three time periods from total suspended particles (TSP) and particles less than 10?m (PM10) was evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry located in the town of Triunfo, Brazil. The extracts were investigated using

Mariana Vieira Coronas; Rubem Cesar Horn; Adriana Ducatti; Jocelita Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferro Vargas

2008-01-01

166

Temperature modifies the health effects of particulate matter in Brisbane, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few epidemiological studies have examined whether there was an interactive effect between temperature and ambient particulate matter on cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality, but the results were inconsistent. The present study used three time-series approaches to explore whether maximum temperature modified the impact of ambient particulate matter less than 10?m in diameter (PM10) on daily respiratory hospital admissions, cardiovascular hospital

Cizao Ren; Shilu Tong

2006-01-01

167

Characterization and Nonparametric Regression of Rural and Urban Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations in Northeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado Coarse Rural Urban Sources and Health study (CCRUSH) is an ongoing study of the relationship between coarse particulate mass concentrations (PM10-2.5, particulate matter with diameter between 2.5 and 10?m) and selected health effects. For two urban monitoring sites in Denver, CO and two comparatively rural sites in Greeley, CO, hourly mass concentrations of PM10-2.5 and fine particulate matter

Nicholas Clements; Ricardo Piedrahita; John Ortega; Jennifer L. Peel; Michael Hannigan; Shelly L. Miller; Jana B. Milford

2011-01-01

168

Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

2011-09-01

169

40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...defined as particulate matter having an aerodynamic...where the suspended particulate matter in the PM10 or PM2...from the differential nature of the measurement...particles making up ambient particulate matter vary over wide...

2009-07-01

170

40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...defined as particulate matter having an aerodynamic...where the suspended particulate matter in the PM10 or PM2...from the differential nature of the measurement...particles making up ambient particulate matter vary over wide...

2010-07-01

171

SCAVENGING OF RADIOACTIVE PARTICULATE MATTER AND AEROSOLS IN CONNECTION WITH NUCLEAR REACTOR OPERATION. Final Summary Report, September 1, 1960February 28, 1961, and time extension to January 31, 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of research on scavenging and removal of radioactive ; aerosols and iodine from the atmosphere of the containment vessel, prevention of ; aerosol formation from fuel elements, and miscellaneous problems connected with ; safety of operation of nuclear reactors. A chemical-physical scavenging system ; composed of a fine water spray and hydrolysis products of silicon tetrafluoride

Rosinski

1962-01-01

172

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

173

75 FR 4063 - Adequacy Status of the Cleveland/Akron, Ohio Submitted Annual Fine Particulate Matter Attainment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) as a precursor to fine particulate matter in the Cleveland/Akron, Ohio area are adequate for use in transportation conformity...

2010-01-26

174

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides...whichever is later, for condensable PM emissions,...

2010-07-01

175

Evaluation of particulate matter abatement strategies for almond harvest.  

PubMed

Almond harvest accounts for substantial PM10 (particulate matter [PM] < or =10 microm in nominal aerodynamic diameter) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper evaluates the effects of using reduced-pass sweepers and lower harvester separation fan speeds (930 rpm) on lowering PM emissions from almond harvesting operations. In-canopy measurements of PM concentrations were collected along with PM concentration measurements at the orchard boundary; these were used in conjunction with on-site meteorological data and inverse dispersion modeling to back-calculate emission rates from the measured concentrations. The harvester discharge plume was measured as a function of visible plume opacity during conditioning operations. Reduced-pass sweeping showed the potential for reducing PM emissions, but results were confounded because of differences in orchard maturity and irrigation methods. Fuel consumption and sweeping time per unit area were reduced when comparing a reduced-pass sweeper to a conventional sweeper. Reducing the separation fan speed from 1080 to 930 rpm led to reductions in PM emissions. In general, foreign matter levels within harvested product were nominally affected by separation fan speed in the south (less mature) orchard; however, in samples conditioned using the lower fan speed from the north (more mature) orchard, these levels were unacceptable. PMID:21516936

Faulkner, William B; Downey, Daniel; Giles, D Ken; Capareda, Sergio C

2011-04-01

176

Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent.  

PubMed

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has more recently been associated with neurotoxicity. This study examines if the size-dependent toxicity reported in cardiopulmonary systems also occurs in neural targets. For this study, PM ambient air was collected over a 2 week period from Sterling Forest State Park (Tuxedo, New York) and its particulates sized as Accumulation Mode, Fine (AMF) (>0.18-1?m) or Ultrafine (UF) (<0.18?m) samples. Rat dopaminergic neurons (N27) were exposed to suspensions of each PM fraction (0, 12.5, 25, 50?m/ml) and cell loss (as measured by Hoechst nuclear stain) measured after 24h exposure. Neuronal loss occurred in response to all tested concentrations of UF (>12.5?g/ml) but was only significant at the highest concentration of AMF (50?g/ml). To examine if PM size-dependent neurotoxicity was retained in the presence of other cell types, dissociated brain cultures of embryonic rat striatum were exposed to AMF (80?g/ml) or UF (8.0?g/ml). After 24h exposure, a significant increase of reactive nitrogen species (nitrite) and morphology suggestive of apoptosis occurred in both treatment groups. However, morphometric analysis of neuron specific enolase staining indicated that only the UF exposure produced significant neuronal loss, relative to controls. Together, these data suggest that the inverse relationship between size and toxicity reported in cardiopulmonary systems occurs in cultures of isolated dopaminergic neurons and in primary cultures of the rat striatum. PMID:22057156

Gillespie, Patricia; Tajuba, Julianne; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi; Veronesi, Bellina

2013-05-01

177

Advanced Analytical Microscopy Techniques for the Characterization of Ambient Particulate Matter Collected From Military Bases in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program was initiated to help environmental health professionals evaluate sources of particulate matter and to assess potential health effects of troop exposure to air pollutants within the US Central Command Area of Responsibility (AOR). The study examined the concentrations and physical properties of ambient particulate matter collected at 15 deployment locations within the AOR. Ambient

G. S. Casuccio; T. L. Lersch; K. L. Bunker; B. S. Strohmeier

2008-01-01

178

Airborne Particulate Matter Inhibits Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption in Mice via Oxidant Generation  

PubMed Central

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Dsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 ?g) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or abscence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 ?M). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase.

Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

2006-01-01

179

Airborne particulate matter inhibits alveolar fluid reabsorption in mice via oxidant generation.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Dsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 microg) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or absence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 microM). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase. PMID:16439801

Mutlu, Gkhan M; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C; Ghio, Andrew J; Chandel, Navdeep S; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I; Budinger, G R Scott

2006-06-01

180

Fiber optic sample cells for polychromatic detection of dissolved and particulate matter in natural waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of global ocean color models for remote sensing imagery with high accuracy is an important goal for Earth Science Research. Estimates of the concentration of dissolved and particulate materials in water can be derived by inversion of remote sensing imagery, that is, remote sensing reflectance based on empirical or semi-analytical models of reflectance water constituents. The efficacy of these models depends on accurate measurements of the spectral absorption of dissolved and particulate materials in natural waters. However, traditional methods using expensive laboratory spectrophotometers to measure the absorption of dissolved and particulate materials require special handling and storage prior to measurement. Further, their detection limit is often insufficient to detect the typically low dissolved and particulate matter seawater concentrations. Liquid core waveguides designed for portable instrumentation to measure the absorption of dissolved organic matter and particulate matter will be described. Traditionally, particulate matter is determined via the "quantitative filtering technique" (QFT), where particulate matter is concentrated on a Glass Fiber Filter (GFF) pad and its forward absorption measured with a laboratory based spectrophotometer and an integrating sphere. Performance and design of an inexpensive and portable fiber-optic-based GFF filter holder are discussed. Effective pathlength and numerical aperture of the sample cells are determined. Further, dissolved and particulate absorption is measured.

Belz, Mathias; Larsen, Kai; Klein, Karl-Friedrich

2006-11-01

181

In-stack condensible particulate matter measurements and issues.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 202 (for in-stack condensible PM10) and EPA Method 201/201A (for in-stack filterable PM10) results were conducted. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises approximately three-fourths (76%) of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil- and natural gas-fired boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 50% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil-, natural gas-, and kerosene-fired combustion turbines showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 69% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Based on these limited measurements, condensible PM can make a significant contribution to total PM10 emissions for fossil fuel-fired units. A positive bias (indicating more condensible PM than is actually emitted) may exist in the measured data due to the conversion of dissolved sulfur dioxide to sulfate compounds in the sampling procedure. In addition, these Method 202 results confirm that condensible PM, on average, is composed mostly of inorganic matter, regardless of the type of fuel burned. PMID:10680350

Corio, L A; Sherwell, J

2000-02-01

182

Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing.  

PubMed

Invitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-? from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. PMID:24811947

Lu, Yan; Su, Shu; Jin, Wenjie; Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

2014-08-01

183

Toxic trace elements associated with airborne particulate matter: a review  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a concise review of published literature pertaining to sampling and analytical methodologies, aerometric studies, source identification techniques and modeling activities for the elements arsenic, cadmium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, manganese, selenium and antimony, and their compounds, associated with airborne particulate matter. Sampling techniques discussed include filtration and inertial separation. Analytical methodologies such as atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are summarized. Data on atmospheric levels of 14 trace elements are presented in summary form from numerous studies in remote, rural and urban areas, and generally indicate that concentrations measured at rural locations are several orders of magnitude lower than those measured for urban areas. Source identification methodologies are discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages, and various applications are cited for the following categories: size differentiation, enrichment factors, chemical mass balance, and multivariate models. Wed and dry deposition processes are reviewed and environmental measurement data are provided for each element for remote, rural and urban locations. Global cycles and trace element budgets are introduced in the context of the types of models currently in use. Limitations include inadequate global scale surveys of heavy metal concentrations and the lack of knowledge of sources and/or sinks.

Schroeder, W.H.; Dobson, M.; Kane, D.M.; Johnson, N.D.

1987-11-01

184

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

185

Dust storm contributions to airborne particulate matter in Reykjavk, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodes of high levels of particulate matter (PM) in Reykjavk occur several times a year. The main sources of daily variation in PM are traffic or highly localized (e.g. construction) sources, however several episodes have been identified where these are not the cause. Examining PM 10 (diameter < 10 ?m) levels around the time when dust storms are seen on satellite images, and verifying that the weather conditions are favorable for the duration of the high levels of PM (>50-100 ?g m -3; 30-min average), demonstrates that dust storms are the source of these increased levels of PM 10. Since satellite coverage is sparse, visual confirmation of many such peaks in PM 10 cannot be achieved. The level of pollution measured in Reykjavk during dust storms indicates that at least 200 kg s -1 of PM 10 sized material is being eroded and transported away from sand plains 110 km away - this equates to an emission rate of 35 g m 2 h -1. The source regions for dust storms in Iceland are the sandur areas on the southern coast of Iceland, and regions close to the glaciers. With climate warming, and fast retreating glaciers, the potential source regions in Iceland are rapidly increasing.

Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Gsladttir, Gu?rn; Bullard, Joanna; McTainsh, Grant

2011-10-01

186

Decomposition of N2O over particulate matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrous oxide is shown to undergo both a thermal and a photochemical decomposition at 296 K when it is adsorbed on various dry sands. The photochemical process occurs with light of wavelengths greater than 280 nm, where gaseous N2O does not absorb. At low pressures (less than 0.1 torr) the half-life for the thermal decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen when placed in contact with about 5 gm of heat-treated Tunisian sand in a one-liter vessel was 350 + or - 35 days. Under certain photolytic conditions this half-life was reduced. The efficiency of the photolytic process for a particular sand depends on the pressure and on the wavelength of light. For Tunisian sand at 1.1 torr and with the full mercury arc, the destruction efficiency is about 0.00002 molecule/incident photon. These results indicate that particulate matter in the troposphere may be responsible for the decomposition of nitrous oxide and hence act as an atmospheric sink for N2O. However, moisture causes a drastic reduction in the number of molecules dissociated per incident photon.

Rebbert, R. E.; Ausloos, P.

1978-01-01

187

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration ( s.d.) of 12.9 ( 8.6) ?g/m, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 ( 32.6) ?g/m. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 ( 12.4) EU/m and 1010 ( 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

188

Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 ?m (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (MondaySaturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community.

Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

2010-01-01

189

Behavior of particulate matter during high concentration episodes in Seoul.  

PubMed

The behavior of particulate matter (PM) during high-concentration episodes was investigated using monitoring data from Guui station, a comprehensive air monitoring station in Seoul, Korea, from January 2008 to March 2010. Five non-Asian dust (ND) episodes and two Asian dust (AD) episodes of high PM concentrations were selected for the study. During the ND episode, primary air pollutants accumulated due to low wind speeds, and PM2.5 increased along with most other air pollutants. Particles larger than PM2.5 were also high since these particles were generated by vehicular traffic rather than wind erosion. During strong AD episodes, PM10-2.5 primarily increased and gaseous primary air pollutants decreased under high wind speeds. However, even during the AD episode, PM2.5 and gaseous primary air pollutants increased when the effects of AD were weak and wind speeds were low. This study corroborates that accumulation of air pollutants due to a drop in surface wind speed plays an important role in short-term high-concentration occurrences. However, low wind speeds could not be directly linked to local emissions because a significant portion of accumulated air pollutants resulted from long-range transport. PMID:24464082

Choi, Soon-Ho; Ghim, Young Sung; Chang, Young-Soo; Jung, Kweon

2014-05-01

190

Particulate matter < 10 ?m (PM 10) and total suspended particulates (TSP) in urban, rural and alpine air in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter were measured in Switzerland for a 1 yr period in 1993 at a dozen urban, rural and alpine sites. PM10 concentrations ranged between 10 ?g m?3 (alpine) and 33 ?g m?3 (urban). Highest concentrations were found at Lugano, in the south of the Alps, and in urban sites

Ch. Monn; O. Braendli; G. Schaeppi; Ch. Schindler; U. Ackermann-Liebrich; Ph. Leuenberger

1995-01-01

191

Characterization and Nonparametric Regression of Rural and Urban Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations in Northeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado Coarse Rural Urban Sources and Health study (CCRUSH) is an ongoing study of the relationship between coarse particulate mass concentrations (PM102.5, particulate matter with diameter between 2.5 and 10 ?m) and selected health effects. For two urban monitoring sites in Denver, CO, and two comparatively rural sites in Greeley, CO, hourly mass concentrations of PM102.5 and fine particulate

Nicholas Clements; Ricardo Piedrahita; John Ortega; Jennifer L. Peel; Michael Hannigan; Shelly L. Miller; Jana B. Milford

2012-01-01

192

SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING  

SciTech Connect

During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

193

Spectral absorption properties of dissolved and particulate matter in Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral absorption properties of particulate and dissolved matter were determined for Lake Erie waters in order to investigate the natural variability of the absorption coefficients required as inputs to optical models for converting satellite observations of water colour into water quality information. Particulate absorption measured using the quantitative filter technique yielded absorption spectra containing a fraction that could not be

Caren E. Binding; John H. Jerome; Robert P. Bukata; William G. Booty

2008-01-01

194

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of particulates in 369 air samples over 175 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um cutpoint. Keywords: air; metals. The...

195

Source profiles of particulate organic matters emitted from cereal straw burnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal straw is one of the most abundant biomass burned in China but its contribution to fine particulates is not adequately understood. In this study, three main kinds of cereal straws were collected from five grain producing areas in China. Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) from the cereal straws subjected to control burnings, both under smoldering and flaming status, were sampled

Yuan-xun ZHANG; Min SHAO; Yuan-hang ZHANG; Li-min ZENG; Ling-yan HE; Bin ZHU; Yong-jie WEI; Xian-lei ZHU

2007-01-01

196

TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

197

Gas phase nitric acid, ammonia and related particulate matter at a Mediterranean coastal site, Patras, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of nitric acid, ammonia and related particulate matter were made at a coastal site in Greece to elucidate the local factors that affect the concentrations of each of these species, as well as the atmospheric transport of particulate sulfate. Seasonal variation with higher concentrations in the summer was observed for all measured species. This variation was more pronounced for

Demetrios Danalatos; Sotirios Glavas

1999-01-01

198

40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Texas shall install fabric filters on the primary crusher and on the secondary crusher and screens, meeting the requirements of Appendix...exhaust stack of the fabric filter on its primary crusher and shall not emit particulate matter in...

2010-07-01

199

Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

200

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases?especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

201

Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

202

Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

203

ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PARTICULATE MATTER BY LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and heavy-metal activated room temperature phosphorescence spectra were obtained for ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) reference compounds individually and in mixtures on quartz plates and particulate matter. The results indicate that multic...

204

Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

205

Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants bedrooms in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundParticulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air.

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Mette Srensen; Ole Hertel; Bo L. K. Chawes; Nadja Vissing; Klaus Bnnelykke; Hans Bisgaard

2011-01-01

206

77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that the Eagle River, Alaska, Particulate Matter...Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20, 2011...submitted during the State hearing process regarding...sent a letter to the Alaska Department of...

2012-04-27

207

77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental...on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM 2.5 attainment demonstration that was...

2012-01-12

208

THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

209

77 FR 12724 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State Implementation...Georgia on August 17, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Macon, Georgia...

2012-03-02

210

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

211

75 FR 24943 - Adequacy Status of the Indianapolis, Indiana Submitted Annual Fine Particulate Matter Attainment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) as a precursor to PM 2.5 in the Indianapolis, Indiana area are adequate for use in transportation conformity determinations....

2010-05-06

212

Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

213

IN VIVO MECHANISMS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED LUNG AND VASCULAR INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Insight into the mechanisms by which ambient particulate matter (PM) mediates its adverse cardiopulmonary effects can provide biological plausibility to epidemiological associations between PM exposure and health effects. Current information on mechanisms of pulmonary injury have...

214

Effectiveness of Selected Diesel Particulate Matter Control Technologies for Underground Mining Applications: Isolated Zone Study, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to determine the effects of selected, state-of-the-art emission control technologies on the ambient concentrations of particulate matter and gases emitted by underground diesel-po...

A. D. Bugarski G. H. Schnakenberg S. E. Mischler J. D. Noll L. D. Patts J. A. Hummer

2006-01-01

215

Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

216

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

217

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: ...

218

Effect of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation Parameters in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between short-term increases in ambient particulate matter and short-term increases in morbidity and mortality, especially in people with cardiovascular disease. The biological mechanisms by which pa...

C. Nadziejko K. Fang L. C. Chen B. Cohen M. Karpatkin

2002-01-01

219

Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Health Effects of Particulate Matter Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the proposed rule on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) committed to conduct a review and assessment of the numerous studies relevant to assessing the health effects of PM that ...

2006-01-01

220

EFFECTS OF METALS BOUND TO PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

While focusing on coal ash and its metal content, the investigators expect to find evidence that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze t...

221

Impact of meteorology, traffic characteristics, and distance from roadway on roadside concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Traffic-laden roadways are major contributors to poor air quality in developed areas, elevating pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and ozone. Among the numerous air pollutants emitted by vehicles, ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter ...

222

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

223

Distribution of heavy metals in water, particulate matter and sediments of Gediz River (Eastern Aegean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first document of heavy metal levels in surficial sediment, water and particulate matter of the Gediz\\u000a River collected from five different sites in August, October 1998, February, June 1999. The present work attempts to establish\\u000a the status of distribution and environmental implications of metals in the sediment, water and particulate matter and their\\u000a possible sources

F. Kucuksezgin; E. Uluturhan; H. Batki

2008-01-01

224

Quinoid redox cycling as a mechanism for sustained free radical generation by inhaled airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health effects of airborne fine particles are the subject of government regulation and scientific debate. The aerodynamics of airborne particulate matter, the deposition patterns in the human lung, and the available experimental and epidemiological data on health effects lead us to focus on airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic mean diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) as the fraction

Giuseppe L. Squadrito; Rafael Cueto; Barry Dellinger; William A. Pryor

2001-01-01

225

Size-resolved comprehensive characterization of airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An update of a methodology to extract both the size-segregated source apportionment of atmospheric aerosol and the size distribution of each detected element or compound, is presented. The approach is based on the parallel use of standard low-volume samplers to collect particulate matter (PM) and of an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The methodology was introduced and validated in previous works for the average size distribution of elemental components of PM: it has now been extended to PM compounds such as ions and carbonaceous aerosol (namely, organic end elemental carbon, OC and EC). Furthermore, the methodology has been now adopted in the frame of a field campaign, proving that it is able to provide not only an average size distribution but also information on the time evolution of the size distribution of specific PM species. Samples were collected in the urban area of Genoa (Italy) and their composition was measured by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Thermo-optical analysis. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to time series of daily concentration values in PM10 and PM2.5 (i.e. fraction of PM mass with aerodynamic diameter lower that 10 ?m and 2.5 ?m, respectively) to identify major PM sources, and both PM mass concentration and size-segregated particle number concentration were apportioned. Seven and six sources were respectively resolved in PM10 and PM2.5, with processes related to secondary aerosol formation accounting for about 53% and 57% of PM levels in the two fractions. The new methodology is complementary to size-segregated PM sampling, and it was actually tested against a 13-stage nanoMOUDI cascade impactor. Size distributions obtained with the new methodology and directly measured by the nanoMOUDI turned out to be in good agreement (R2 > 0.60) with discrepancies observed for SO42- only.

Cuccia, E.; Massab, D.; Ariola, V.; Bove, M. C.; Fermo, P.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.

2013-03-01

226

Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.  

PubMed

Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1-2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazz, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

2014-02-01

227

Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification. PMID:18716606

Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

2009-09-01

228

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Alters Cerebral Hemodynamics in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Short-term elevations in fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) are associated with increased risk of acute cerebrovascular events. Evidence from the peripheral circulation suggests that vascular dysfunction may be a central mechanism. However, the effects of PM2.5 on cerebrovascular function and hemodynamics are unknown. Methods We used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to measure beat-to-beat blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery at rest and in response to changes in end-tidal CO2 (cerebral vasoreactivity) and arterial blood pressure (cerebral autoregulation) in 482 participants from the MOBILIZE Boston Study. We used linear mixed effects models with random subject intercepts to evaluate the association between cerebrovascular hemodynamic parameters and mean PM2.5 levels 1 to 28 days earlier adjusting for age, race, medical history, meteorologic covariates, day of week, temporal trends, and season. Results An interquartile range increase (3.0 ?g/m3) in mean PM2.5 levels over the previous 28 days was associated with a 8.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7%, 13.8%; p<0.001) higher cerebral vascular resistance and a 7.5% (95% CI: 4.2%, 10.6%; p<0.001) lower blood flow velocity at rest. Measures of cerebral vasoreactivity and autoregulation were not associated with PM2.5 levels. Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling seniors, exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher resting cerebrovascular resistance and lower cerebral blood flow velocity. If replicated, these findings suggest that alterations in cerebrovascular hemodynamics may underlie the increased risk of particle-related acute cerebrovascular events.

Wellenius, Gregory A.; Boyle, Luke D.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Coull, Brent A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

2013-01-01

229

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-?- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

230

Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

231

Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

2014-06-01

232

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as of August 25, 2008, the Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, Pennsylvania...ambient air quality data, the Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle-York...Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE nonattainment area...Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

2013-07-01

234

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2013-07-01

235

Intravascular Delivery of Particulate Systems: Does Geometry Really Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cancer therapy and imaging, the systemic passive delivery of particulate systems has relied on the enhanced permeability\\u000a and retention (EPR) effect: sufficiently small particles can cross the endothelial fenestrations and accumulate in the tumor\\u000a parenchyma. The vast majority of man-made particulates exhibit a spherical shape as a result of surface energy minimization\\u000a during their synthesis. The advent of phage

Paolo Decuzzi; Renata Pasqualini; Wadih Arap; Mauro Ferrari

2009-01-01

236

Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For each event type, the source of each measured element is determined to be soil or anthropogenic and profiles are created that characterize the particulate matter composition. Dust storms are associated with winds traveling from desert regions and high total suspended particle (TSP) and PM2.5 concentrations. Sixty-two percent of TSP is due to elements with oxides and 98% of that is from soil. Urban pollution events have smaller particulate concentrations but 49% of the TSP is from soil, indicating that dust is a major component of the particulate matter even when there is not an active dust storm. The industrial pollution event is characterized by winds from the southwest, the location of the Capitol Steel Company, and high particulate concentrations. PM2.5 mass and acidic ion concentrations are highest during the industrial pollution event as are Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Cd, Cs and Pb concentrations. These elements can be used as tracers for industrial pollution from the steel mill complex. The industrial pollution is potentially more detrimental to human health than dust storms due to higher PM2.5 concentrations and higher acidic ion and toxic particulate matter concentrations.

Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

2006-03-01

237

Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nations most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general areas substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind gusts are high, areas of high concentrations were observed to shift slightly in the westerly direction (i.e., prevailing wind direction). Overall, preliminary results of our study suggest that while the air quality in the area immediately surrounding Richmond BUILD and the elementary school is not the poorest in the general region, because they are located close to a major thoroughfare and a railway line these sites are likely to experience poor air quality at some point throughout the year due to shifting wind patterns. As a result, we recommend that signs be posted to warn visitors of the potential for extremely poor air quality.

Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

2009-12-01

238

Effects of Inhalable Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. Objectives To identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well-characterized exposure. Methods We measured prothrombin time [PT], activated-partial-thromboplastin time [aPTT], Endogenous Thrombin Potentials [ETP] with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-plasminogen activator antigen [t-PA], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP] in 37 workers in a steel-production plant with well-characterized exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter <1?m (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10-PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (post-exposure) day of a four-day workweek. We analysed differences between baseline and post-exposure levels using paired Students t-test. We fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of inter-quartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. Results None of the parameters showed any significant changes in post-exposure samples, compared to baseline. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (?[PM1]=?0.33 sec, p=0.08; ?[PMcoarse]=?0.33 sec, p=0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (?[PM1]=+99 nM*min, p=0.02; ?[PMcoarse]=+66 nM*min, p=0.05), t-PA (?[PM1]=+0.72 ng/mL, p=0.01; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.88 ng/mL, p=0.04), and CRP (?[PM1]=+0.59 mg/L, p=0.03; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.48 mg/L, p=0.01). Conclusions PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP, CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation.

Bonzini, Matteo; Tripodi, Armando; Artoni, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea

2011-01-01

239

Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hcart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stphane; Ballouche, Aziz

2014-05-01

240

Traffic Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism  

PubMed Central

Context Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in autism etiology, yet little research has examined local level air pollution associations using residence-specific exposure assignments. Objective To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRP), air quality, and autism. Design, Setting and Population This study includes data on 279 autism cases and 245 typically developing controls enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study in California. The mothers address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. TRP was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agencys Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for autism cases and typically developing controls. Main Outcome Measures Crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for autism. Results Cases were more likely to live at residences in the highest quartile TRP exposure during pregnancy (OR=1.98, 95%CI 1.203.31) and the first year of life (OR=3.10, 1.765.57) compared to controls. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (NO2 OR=1.81/2SD, 95%CI 1.373.09; PM2.5 OR=2.08/2SD, 95%CI 1.932.25; PM10 OR=2.17/2SD, 95%CI 1.493.16) and the first year of life (NO2 OR=2.06, 95%CI 1.373.09; PM2.5 OR=2.12, 95%CI 1.453.10; PM10 OR=2.14, 95%CI 1.463.12). Conclusions Exposure to TRP, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 during pregnancy and the first year of life was associated with autism. Further epidemiological and toxicological examination of likely biological pathways will help determine whether these associations are causal.

Volk, Heather E.; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

2014-01-01

241

Particulate matter exposure impairs systemic microvascular endothelium-dependent dilation.  

PubMed

Acute exposure to airborne pollutants, such as solid particulate matter (PM), increases the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, but the mechanisms by which PM evokes systemic effects remain to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary exposure to a PM surrogate, such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), affects endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic microcirculation. Rats were intratracheally instilled with ROFA at 0.1, 0.25, 1 or 2 mg/rat 24 hr before experimental measurements. Rats intratracheally instilled with saline or titanium dioxide (0.25 mg/rat) served as vehicle or particle control groups, respectively. In vivo microscopy of the spinotrapezius muscle was used to study systemic arteriolar dilator responses to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, administered by ejection via pressurized micropipette into the arteriolar lumen. We used analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples to monitor identified pulmonary inflammation and damage. To determine if ROFA exposure affected arteriolar nitric oxide sensitivity, sodium nitroprusside was iontophoretically applied to arterioles of rats exposed to ROFA. In saline-treated rats, A23187 dilated arterioles up to 72 +/- 7% of maximum. In ROFA- and TiO2-exposed rats, A23187-induced dilation was significantly attenuated. BAL fluid analysis revealed measurable pulmonary inflammation and damage after exposure to 1 and 2 mg ROFA (but not TiO2 or < 1 mg ROFA), as evidenced by significantly higher polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell counts, enhanced BAL albumin levels, and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in BAL fluid. The sensitivity of arteriolar smooth muscle to NO was similar in saline-treated and ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting that pulmonary exposure to ROFA affected endothelial rather than smooth muscle function. A significant increase in venular leukocyte adhesion and rolling was observed in ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting local inflammation at the systemic microvascular level. These results indicate that pulmonary PM exposure impairs systemic endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. Moreover, because rats exposed to < 1 mg ROFA or TiO2 did not exhibit BAL signs of pulmonary damage or inflammation, it appears that PM exposure can impair systemic microvascular function independently of detectable pulmonary inflammation. PMID:15345343

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Porter, Dale W; Barger, Mark; Castranova, Vincent; Boegehold, Matthew A

2004-09-01

242

Systemic microvascular dysfunction and inflammation after pulmonary particulate matter exposure.  

PubMed

The epidemiologic association between pulmonary exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular dysfunction is well known, but the systemic mechanisms that drive this effect remain unclear. We have previously shown that acute pulmonary exposure to PM impairs or abolishes endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the rat spinotrapezius muscle. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the effect of pulmonary PM exposure on systemic microvascular function and to identify local inflammatory events that may contribute to these effects. Rats were intratracheally instilled with residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or titanium dioxide at 0.1 or 0.25 mg/rat 24 hr before measurement of pulmonary and systemic microvascular responses. In vivo microscopy of the spinotrapezius muscle was used to study systemic arteriolar responses to intraluminal infusion of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or iontophoretic abluminal application of the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE). Leukocyte rolling and adhesion were quantified in venules paired with the studied arterioles. Histologic techniques were used to assess pulmonary inflammation, characterize the adherence of leukocytes to systemic venules, verify the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the systemic microvascular wall, and quantify systemic microvascular oxidative stress. In the lungs of rats exposed to ROFA or TiO2, changes in some bronchoalveolar lavage markers of inflammation were noted, but an indication of cellular damage was not found. In rats exposed to 0.1 mg ROFA, focal alveolitis was evident, particularly at sites of particle deposition. Exposure to either ROFA or TiO2 caused a dose-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. However, exposure to these particles did not affect microvascular constriction in response to PHE. ROFA and TiO2 exposure significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in paired venules, and these cells were positively identified as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). In ROFA- and TiO2-exposed rats, MPO was found in PMNLs adhering to the systemic microvascular wall. Evidence suggests that some of this MPO had been deposited in the microvascular wall. There was also evidence for oxidative stress in the microvascular wall. These results indicate that after PM exposure, the impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic microcirculation coincides with PMNL adhesion, MPO deposition, and local oxidative stress. Collectively, these microvascular observations are consistent with events that contribute to the disruption of the control of peripheral resistance and/or cardiac dysfunction associated with PM exposure. PMID:16507465

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Porter, Dale W; Barger, Mark; Millecchia, Lyndell; Rao, K Murali K; Marvar, Paul J; Hubbs, Ann F; Castranova, Vincent; Boegehold, Matthew A

2006-03-01

243

Attributing health effects to individual particulate matter constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a general consensus in the scientific community that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) composition plays a significant role in the health effects attributed to PM; indeed, components may be more important than PM concentration alone in explaining health responses. As evidence linking composition to health impacts continues to accumulate in the epidemiological, toxicological, and controlled human exposure arenas, it is becoming more urgent from a policy perspective to determine which components or combination of components are most harmful to human health. While several reviews on this topic have focused on specific types of studies, such as source apportionment studies or those using concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), no review has been published that holistically examines the evidence from all component-based studies. In particular, while source apportionment is a useful tool for developing an understanding of potential contributing sources to PM2.5 in certain areas, it is also subject to significant limitations, and therefore results from those studies need to be interpreted with care. We reviewed published studies that (1) included at least two PM components; (2) did not only group them statistically into factors; and (3) quantitatively determined the relationship between the components and health effects. The majority of the studies examined yielded significant findings for specific components of PM, but not for PM concentration, demonstrating that PM alone does not drive health responses. Overall, the epidemiological studies did not fully exonerate any major component class of PM2.5 mass, but did demonstrate that more scrutiny needs to be given to carbon-containing PM components (elemental and organic carbon), as growing evidence suggests these are most strongly associated with adverse health outcomes. The results of controlled human exposure studies are consistent with this premise, although only two such studies were available for consideration. Toxicological studies suggest that several elements, including aluminum, silicon, vanadium, and nickel, are most closely associated with health impacts, although many other elements, as well as carbon-containing components, have been implicated as well. There are no PM components for which there is unequivocal evidence of zero health impact. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results as it is unclear whether a component per se is responsible for health impacts or is an index or surrogate for some other pollutant.

Rohr, Annette C.; Wyzga, Ronald E.

2012-12-01

244

Particulate Matter Exposure Impairs Systemic Microvascular Endothelium-Dependent Dilation  

PubMed Central

Acute exposure to airborne pollutants, such as solid particulate matter (PM), increases the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, but the mechanisms by which PM evokes systemic effects remain to be identified. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary exposure to a PM surrogate, such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), affects endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic microcirculation. Rats were intratracheally instilled with ROFA at 0.1, 0.25, 1 or 2 mg/rat 24 hr before experimental measurements. Rats intratracheally instilled with saline or titanium dioxide (0.25 mg/rat) served as vehicle or particle control groups, respectively. In vivo microscopy of the spinotrapezius muscle was used to study systemic arteriolar dilator responses to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, administered by ejection via pressurized micropipette into the arteriolar lumen. We used analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples to monitor identified pulmonary inflammation and damage. To determine if ROFA exposure affected arteriolar nitric oxide sensitivity, sodium nitroprusside was iontophoretically applied to arterioles of rats exposed to ROFA. In saline-treated rats, A23187 dilated arterioles up to 72 7% of maximum. In ROFA- and TiO2-exposed rats, A23187-induced dilation was significantly attenuated. BAL fluid analysis revealed measurable pulmonary inflammation and damage after exposure to 1 and 2 mg ROFA (but not TiO2 or < 1 mg ROFA), as evidenced by significantly higher polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell counts, enhanced BAL albumin levels, and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in BAL fluid. The sensitivity of arteriolar smooth muscle to NO was similar in saline-treated and ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting that pulmonary exposure to ROFA affected endothelial rather than smooth muscle function. A significant increase in venular leukocyte adhesion and rolling was observed in ROFA-exposed rats, suggesting local inflammation at the systemic microvascular level. These results indicate that pulmonary PM exposure impairs systemic endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. Moreover, because rats exposed to < 1 mg ROFA or TiO2 did not exhibit BAL signs of pulmonary damage or inflammation, it appears that PM exposure can impair systemic microvascular function independently of detectable pulmonary inflammation.

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Barger, Mark; Castranova, Vincent; Boegehold, Matthew A.

2004-01-01

245

Application of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter to Calculate VehicleGenerated Contributions to Fine Particulate Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evaluation and application of a new generation of particulate matter (PM) emission factor model (MicroFacPM). MicroFacPM that was evaluated in Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel, Pennsylvania Turnpike, PA shows good agreement between measured and modeled emissions. MicroFacPM application is presented to the vehicle traffic on the main approach road to the Ambassador Bridge, which is one of the

Rakesh B. Singh; Catherine Desloges; James J. Sloan

2006-01-01

246

Biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter in Russian rivers entering the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemical signature of riverine matter in the Russian Arctic was investigated to establish a background for tracing terrestrial organic material in the Arctic Ocean. Elemental and lignin compositions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM), stable carbon isotope ratios of POM and nutrient concentrations are reported for 12 Russian rivers along 4000 km of coastline. The 12 rivers

Jrg M Lobbes; Hans Peter Fitznar; Gerhard Kattner

2000-01-01

247

Representations of Fundamental Chemistry Concepts in Relation to the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated high school students' understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

2013-01-01

248

Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study

Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

2007-01-01

249

Transformation of suspended particulate matter into sediment in the Kara Sea in September of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical processes participating in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment along the Yenisei River-St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) meridional profile were studied using hydrochemical, geochemical, microbiological, radioisotope, and isotope methods. The water-sediment contact zone consists of three subzones: the suprabottom water, the fluffy layer, and the surface sediment. The total number, biomass, and integral activity of the microorganisms (dark 14CO2 assimilation) in the fluffy layer are usually higher than in the suprabottom water and sediment. The fluffy layer shows a decrease in the oxygen content and the growth of the dissolved biogenic elements. It was provided by the particulate organic matter supporting the vital activity of the heterotrophs from the overlying water column and by the flux of reduced compounds (NH4, H2S, CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, and others) from the underlying sediments. The Corg isotopic composition of the fluffy layer and the sediments is 2-4 heavier than that of the particulate matter and sediment due to the presence of the isotopically heavy biomass of microorganisms. A change in the isotopic composition of the Corg in the fluffy layer and surface sediment as compared to the Corg of the particulate matter is a widespread phenomenon in the Arctic shelf seas and proves the leading role of microorganisms in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment.

Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Savvichev, A. S.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Dara, O. M.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Zakharova, E. E.; Rozanov, A. G.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

2013-09-01

250

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2013-07-01

251

Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

252

Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulates and Associated Organic Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this phase of the CAPE-24 program was to develop and validate an analytical method for the analysis of PNA in diesel exhaust particulate. The first year of work included construction of a test engine facility, development of an analytical...

B. A. Petersen C. C. Chuang G. W. Kinzer P. W. Meehan R. M. Riggin

1980-01-01

253

Pathogen recognition and development of particulate vaccines: Does size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of particulate carriers holds great promise for the development of effective and affordable recombinant vaccines. Rational development requires a detailed understanding of particle up-take and processing mechanisms to target cellular pathways capable of stimulating the required immune responses safely. These mechanisms are in turn based on how the host has evolved to recognize and process pathogens. Pathogens, as

Sue D. Xiang; Anja Scholzen; Gabriela Minigo; Cassandra David; Vasso Apostolopoulos; Patricia L. Mottram; Magdalena Plebanski

2006-01-01

254

Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

255

Particulate matter inflammation and receptor sensitivity are target cell specific.  

PubMed

The complexity of primary source particulate matter (PM) and the various cell types encountered by its inhalation raise the possibility that target cells are differentially activated. Since epithelial cells, which line the nasal-tracheal-bronchial airways, and sensory C fibers, which terminate throughout this epithelial layer, are initially targeted by inhaled PM, we compared their relative biological response in vitro to PM originating from volcanic (MSH), anthropogenic (diesel), residential (woodstove), urban ambient (St. Louis, Ottawa), and industrial emission (coal fly ash, CFA; residual oil fly ash, ROFA; oil fly ash, OFA) sources. Increases in intracellular calcium (i.e., [Ca(2+)](i)) are a second-messenger event that indicates cellular activation and signal transduction, in both nerve and epithelial cells. Single-cell calcium imaging recordings were taken of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to selected PM (50 microg/ml or 30 microg/cm(2)). These cells responded with variable increases in [Ca(2+)](i) ranging from abrupt increases, which returned to baseline upon washing of the cells, to oscillations of the [Ca(2+)](i) that did not wash out. Increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and inflammatory cytokine (i.e., interleukin 6, IL-6) release were measured in populations of BEAS-2B cells exposed to PM (50 microg/ml) and were shown to significantly correlate (r(2) =.80). BEAS-2B cells, stained histochemically with cobalt, displayed a concentration-dependent precipitation in response to acid pH and capsaicin, indicating the presence of acid-sensitive pathways (e.g., VR1 and acid-sensitive receptors). To demonstrate the relevance of these pathways to inflammatory cytokine (i.e., IL-6) release, BEAS-2B cells were pretreated (15 min) with antagonists to the vanilloid (VR1) receptor (i.e., capsazepine, CPZ) or acid-sensitive pathways (i.e., amiloride) before their exposure to the selected PM. A significant reduction of IL-6 release occurred in response to all PM, except for MSH and diesel exhaust. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which innervate the tracheal airways, were dissociated from fetal mice and pretreated with CPZ or amiloride before exposure (4 h) to the selected PM (50 microg/ml). Overall, significantly higher release occurred in PM-exposed sensory neurons relative to that of BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Although both CPZ and amiloride significantly reduced IL-6 release for all PM, the degree of inhibition was less for the PM-exposed DRG relative to BEAS-2B cells. These data show that differential increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and IL-6 release occur in BEAS-2B epithelial cells and DRG sensory neurons, when exposed to PM derived from different sources. The degree of this activation, however, depends not only on the source of the PM, but also on its cellular target. This differential sensitivity of target cells may contribute to the organism's overall inflammatory response to PM exposure. PMID:12122578

Veronesi, Bellina; de Haar, Colin; Roy, Josee; Oortgiesen, Marga

2002-02-01

256

Characteristics of particulate matter from emissions of four typical coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distribution, microstructure, and chemical composition of particulate matter samples from coal-fired power plants in China were measured using a laser particle analyzer, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The size distribution showed differences between the electrostatic precipitator capture efficiencies for coarse and fine particles. The microstructure measurements showed three typical particulate

Chengfeng Zhang; Qiang Yao; Junming Sun

2005-01-01

257

Particulate matter and hospital admission due to arterial hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess the effects air pollution on hospitalization due to hypertension. An ecological study was conducted using data regarding hospitalizations due to hypertension in So Jos dos Campos, State of So Paulo, Brazil between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010. The pollutants analyzed by this study were particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A significant association between exposure to particulate matter and hospitalization due to hypertension was identified using Poisson regression with lags of up to four days. Relative risk of hospital admission ranged between 1,009 and 1,019. A 10?g/m increase in concentration of particulate matter was associated with a 13% increase in risk of hospitalization. PMID:24005922

Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Francisco, Juliana Batrov

2013-08-01

258

EPA'S Updated Air Quality Standards For Smog (Ozone) and Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 16, 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency released "final air quality standards for particulate matter and ozone (otherwise known as soot and smog)." The EPA Office of Air & Radiation has made the standards, which appear in the July 18, 1997 Federal Register, available (in Adobe Acrobate [.pdf] format). The FR final rules are: "Final Particulate Matter NAAQS," (National Ambient Air Quality Standards,102p.); "Final Ozone NAAQS" (37p.); "Particulate Matter Monitoring Requirements" (86p.); and "Supplemental Information and Request for Comments" (2p.). In addition, there is a 16 page memorandum from President Clinton to the EPA Administrator concerning implementation of the standards, and there are also several fact sheets about the standards. Note that the new standards contain two significant changes from the EPA's November 1996 proposal (discussed in the December 6, 1996 Scout Report). Users can see the Updated Clean Air Standards fact sheet for these changes.

Radiation., United S.

1997-01-01

259

Field tests using radioactive matter 2.  

PubMed

Results of field tests with explosive dispersal of a radioactive substance (RaS) are presented. The paper deals with tests exploiting artificial obstacles as a continuation and expansion of the tests used in this study performed in free area described previously. The essential goal of the tests was to estimate the distribution of the released RaS in the case of intentional abuse of radioactive sources and to get a set of data applicable to testing physical or mathematical models of propagation. Effects of different geometrical and meteorological conditions on the distribution of dispersed RaS were studied via the assessment of dose rate, surface and volume activities, aerosol mass and activity aerodynamic diameters. The principal results can be summarised as follows: the prevalent proportion of the activity of the radionuclide dispersed by an explosion (born by the blast wave and by air convection) is transferred to the detection system/collecting pads essentially within the first minute. Enhanced aerosol mass concentrations were also detected within the same period. The RaS carried by the blast wave passed through the polygon (50 m) within <1 s. An expected crucial impact of meteorological conditions at the moment of the explosion and shortly after was proved by the tests. PMID:22923250

Rulik, P; Prouza, Z; Hovorka, J; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Fronka, A; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Skrkal, J

2013-04-01

260

Human exposure to particulate matter potentially contaminated with sin nombre virus.  

PubMed

The most common mechanism for human exposure to hantaviruses throughout North America is inhalation of virally contaminated particulates. However, risk factors associated with exposure to particulates potentially contaminated with hantaviruses are generally not well understood. In North America, Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the most common hantavirus that infects humans, causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which has a significant mortality rate (approximately 35%). We investigated human exposure to particulate matter and evaluated the effects of season, location (sylvan and peridomestic environment), and activity (walking and sweeping) on generation of particulates at the breathing zone (1.5m above the ground). We found greater volumes of small inhalable particulates during the spring and summer compared to the fall and winter seasons and greater volumes of small inhalable particulates produced in peridomestic, compared to sylvan, environments. Also, greater volumes of particulates were generated at the breathing zone while walking compared to sweeping. Results suggest that more aerosolized particles were generated during the spring and summer months. Our findings suggest that simply moving around in buildings is a significant source of human exposure to particulates, potentially contaminated with SNV, during spring and summer seasons. These findings could be advanced by investigation of what particle sizes SNV is most likely to attach to, and where in the respiratory tract humans become infected. PMID:23532351

Richardson, Kyle S; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard J; Hart, Julie; Carver, Scott

2013-06-01

261

A bounding assessment method for correlating measured gas leaks to the possible loss of particulate contents from radioactive materials packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for correlating a tracer gas leakage rate to the potential particulate radioactive material (RAM) release from packages for the shipment of RAM, for those cases where a gas leak measurement is used and there is no measurable particulate release. The correlation method involves a calculational technique relating the measured gas leakage to capillary flow, then to

1986-01-01

262

The 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter EpidemiologyExposure Study: Part 1. Comparison of ambient, residential outdoor, indoor and apartment particulate matter monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined epidemiologicalexposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants from numerous spatial boundaries associated with an elderly population, provide daily mass concentrations needed for the epidemiological assessment, and perform an

RON WILLIAMS; JACK SUGGS; R ZWEIDINGER; GARY EVANS; JOHN CREASON; RICHARD KWOK; CHARLES RODES; PHIL LAWLESS; LINDA SHELDON

2000-01-01

263

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions: epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter,we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured,ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of

Manfred Neubergera; Michael G. Schimek; Friedrich Horak Jr; Michael Kundi; Thomas Frischer; Bostjan Gomiscek; Hans Puxbauma; Helger Hauck

264

Bayesian hierarchical modeling of cardiac response to particulate matter exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in susceptible populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudinal panel study of elderly adults in a Baltimore retirement home to examine the relationship between HRV and PM2.5 personal

Sandra J Mcbride; Gary A Norris; Ron W Williams; Lucas M Neas

2011-01-01

265

Stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in marine particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract--Particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined in the Atlantic, Indian, and Antarctic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Although the regions differ in their hydrology, the slopes of the regression lines between,POC and PON (mean value = 5.6 by atoms) vary <20% in surface waters. The intercept on the POC axis of the POC-PON line is always,positive and represents between,0

Claire Copin-Montegut; Grard Copin-Montegut

1983-01-01

266

Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter  

DOEpatents

An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01

267

Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new passive particle collector (inert surrogate surface) that collects particles from all directions has been developed.\\u000a It was used to measure particle deposition at 35 test sites as part of a project that examined corrosion of materials in order\\u000a that variation in particulate material could be used in development of doseresponse functions in a modern multi-pollutant\\u000a environment. The project,

Martin Ferm; John Watt; Samantha OHanlon; Franco De Santis; Costas Varotsos

2006-01-01

268

Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module

Richard M. White; Michael G. Apte; Lara A. Gundel; Justin Black

2008-01-01

269

The Particulate Theory of Matter for Preservice Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of participation in six extra credit activities for teaching the concept of matter on female preservice elementary school teachers (n=9) to a control group (n=8). Pre- and posttests to assess changes in the students' understanding of phenomena associated with matter indicated significant changes in experimental students'

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1992-01-01

270

Atmospheric mercury in the vapor phase, and in fine and coarse particulate matter at Perch River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily samples of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter (da < 2.5 ?m, and 2.5 ?m < da < 10 ?m), and vapor-phase mercury have been collected at five locations in upstate New York over a period of two years. Atmospheric concentrations were determined for mercury and, in the particulate matter, for up to 38 other elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation

Michael Ames; Gulen Gullu; Ilhan Olmez

1998-01-01

271

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so

Othman, Jazilah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2008-01-01

272

Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emitted from wind tunnel simulations of biomass burning for five herbaceous crop residues (rice, wheat and barley straws, corn stover, and sugar cane trash) and four wood fuels (walnut and almond prunings and ponderosa pine and Douglas fir slash) was collected and analyzed for mojor elements and water soluble species. Primary constituents of the particulate matter were C,

S. Q. Turn; B. M. Jenkins; J. C. Chow; L. C. Pritchett; D. Campbell; T. Cahill; S. A. Whalen

1997-01-01

273

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two?tier multiple?choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so as to identify possible associations between students understandings of the

Jazilah Othman; David F. Treagust; A. L. Chandrasegaran

2008-01-01

274

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

275

Composition and sources of particulate matter in an industrialised Alpine valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-week long field campaign was carried out under autumnal meteorological conditions at four valley floor sites in the industrialised Swiss Rhone Valley. For one week of stable meteorological conditions, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 mum (PM10) was analysed from daily filters using ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence, anhydrosugars and radiocarbon analysis of the organic and elemental matter

N. Perron; J. Sandradewi; M. R. Alfarra; P. Lienemann; R. Gehrig; A. Kasper-Giebl; V. A. Lanz; S. Szidat; M. Ruff; S. Fahrni; L. Wacker; U. Baltensperger; A. S. H. Prvt

2010-01-01

276

Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter (PM10) by sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of 36 airborne particulate matter (PM10) samples were colleted over a 1 year period at an urban areaTirupati, India. The samples were collected on paliflex-filters using Mini-Partisol air sampler equipped with PM10 inlet. A three stage sequential extraction procedure viz. environmentally mobile, bound to carbonates and oxides and bound to silicates and organic matter, was

M. Praveen Kumar; S. Venkata Mohan; S. Jayarama Reddy

2008-01-01

277

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON STUDIES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A working group of investigators, who are characterizing and quantifying the organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) as part of the US EPA's PM 2.5 research program and related studies, was established three years ago to advance the quality and comparability of data on the...

278

The Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Human Alveolar Macrophage Oxidative and Inflammatory Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic and occupational studies demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) exert deleterious effects on human cardiopulmonary health, including exacerbation of pre-existing lung disease and development of respiratory infections. The effects of ambient PM on lung cell responsiveness are poorly defined. Human alveolar macrophages (AM) were exposed to SRM 1649 (Washington, DC, urban dust; UD), SRM

K. Sawyer; S. Mundandhara; A. J. Ghio; M. C. Madden

2009-01-01

279

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

280

Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Health Effects of Particulate Matter Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the proposed rule on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), EPA committed to conduct a review and assessment of the numerous studies relevant to assessing the health effects of PM that were published too recently to be ...

2012-01-01

281

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFTS, Oct 1999 to Aug 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has updated and revised, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and revision, where appro...

282

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) [REVISED CHAPTER 9, AUGUST 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is in the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and re...

283

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

284

Comparative In Vivo and Ex Vivo Toxicity Studies of Wildfire Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) generated from biomass burning is of concern particularly as the frequency and severity of wildfires have been increasing. Size-fractionated PM samples (ultrafine, <0.2 m; fine, 0.2-2.5 m; coarse, 2.5-10 m) were colle...

285

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

286

THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO. LA Dailey1, C Sioutas2, JM Soukup1, S Becker1, RB Devlin1. 1National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, RTP, NC,USA; 2USC, Civil & Environmental Engineering, LA, ...

287

WORKSHOP ON GAM-RELATED STATISTICAL ISSUES IN PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), within the Agency's Office of Research and Development, is announcing a Workshop on GAM-Related Statistical Issues in Particulate Matter (PM)Epidemiology. The workshop is open to...

288

The Surface Charge of Visible Particulate Matter Predicts Biological Activation in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical complexity of airborne particulate matter (PM) has hampered identifying a specific mechanism(s) for its toxicity. In this study, selected physicochemical characteristics (i.e., size, particle number, acidity, and surface charge) were measured on various field PM, derived from urban ambient (St. Louis, Ottawa, Canada), residential (Woodstove), volcanic dust from Mt. St. Helen (MSH), and industrial [oil fly ash (OFA)

Bellina Veronesi; Colin de Haar; Lseng Lee; Marga Oortgiesen

2002-01-01

289

Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

2001-01-01

290

THE ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We have tested the hypothesis that organic and ozonized organic components of particulate matter (PM) may play a role in the induction of lung toxicity reported in some epidemiological studies. Our lab has utilized diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and extracts of diesel exhaust (i....

291

Radiocarbon determination of woodsmoke contribution to air particulate matter in Launceston, Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiocarbon (14C) content of ambient air particulate matter (PM) collected in Launceston (Australia) through routine state government PM10 sampling has been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the contribution of woodsmoke to wintertime air pollution. For AMS sample preparation a modified combustion method was required for determination of the non-carbonate carbon fraction of PM collected on borosilicate

Timothy B. Jordan; Andrew J. Seen; Geraldine E. Jacobsen; John L. Gras

2006-01-01

292

Charge-to-mass ratio and dendrite structure of diesel particulate matter charged by corona discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric charge of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from a corona discharge device is measured for understanding the electrical characteristics of the DPM; an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is employed for trapping DPM. Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is sampled by isokinetic sampling, and DPM contained in the gas is charged by negative corona discharge. The charged DPM is collected

Tomoyuki Kuroki; Motoki Ishidate; Masaaki Okubo; Toshiaki Yamamoto

2010-01-01

293

Speciation of elements in NIST particulate matter SRMs 1648 and 1650  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra for S, Cl, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Cd and Pb and Mssbauer spectra for Fe have been obtained for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) particulate matter (PM) standard reference materials (SRMs): urban PM (SRM 1648) and diesel PM (SRM 1650). The spectral data, complemented by information on elemental

Frank E Huggins; Gerald P Huffman; J. David Robertson

2000-01-01

294

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

295

Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the metropolitan area of So Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can

Odn R. Snchez-Ccoyllo; Rita Y. Ynoue; Leila D. Martins; Rosana Astolfo; Regina M. Miranda; Edmilson D. Freitas; Alessandro S. Borges; Adalgiza Fornaro; Helber Freitas; Andra Moreira; Maria F. Andrade

2008-01-01

296

PARTICULATE MATTER AND RESPIRATORY ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS IN DENVER  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies have found that ambient particulate matter levels were associated with respiratory admissions as a principal diagnosis. We examined this association among 17,933 admissions to the Denver VA Medical Center over a six-year period (1994-1999) after restricting to m...

297

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

298

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND COMMUNITY SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

299

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of 2 particle sizes in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um outpoint or with a 2.5-um outpoint. ...

300

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONATION OF THE ORGANIC EXTRACT OF SRM 1649 URBAN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Separation of 2 grams of the methylene chloride extract of NIST SRM 1649 (Washington, D.C. urban air particulate matter) into six compound class fractions by acid-base partitioning and silica gel column chromatography is demonstrated here. ecoveries of organic mass and Salmonella...

301

Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter at Secondary and Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study is to elicit students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can

Ayas, Alipasa; Ozmen, Haluk; Calik, Muammer

2010-01-01

302

Evaluation of the Degree of Coherence Found in Students' Conceptions Concerning the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' conceptions are characterized by some authors as having a high degree of coherence while, in the minds of others, they show little coherence and great heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to throw light on this problem by reference to "the particulate nature of matter," a topic where great discrepancies have been observed in

Gomez, Enrique Jimenez; Benarroch, Alicia; Marin, Nicolas

2006-01-01

303

Students' Conceptual Representations of Gas Volume in Relation to Particulate Model of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most high school chemistry curricula contain a unit on gas volume and a unit on the particulate nature of matter. The existence and persistence of adolescent preconceptions about the material nature of gases is an important factor to be considered in the teaching of principles or theories related to gases. The purpose of the study reported in this

Hwang, Bao-tyan

304

A Comparison of Applied and Theoretical Knowledge of Concepts Based on the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school chemistry students' (n=183) applied and theoretical knowledge of dissolution, diffusion, effusion, and states of matter were compared. Study found that students' formal reasoning ability and their preexisting knowledge are associated with their conceptions and use of particulate theory. A significant difference between applied and

Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Abraham, Michael R.

1991-01-01

305

AIR QUALITY Criteria FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (2001) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This second external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1999, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

306

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Jun 2003)  

EPA Science Inventory

This fourth external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

307

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (First EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Oct 1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

This external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1996, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Quality St...

308

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (THIRD EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, May 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This third external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qual...

309

PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

310

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

311

MASS CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS FROM THE NERL RTP PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Exposure Research Laboratory's (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study has completed a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM-related mass concentrations in two potentially susceptible subpopulations. PM2.5, P...

312

STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THE ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING FREQUENCY. (R828678C010)  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) concentrations has an impact on human health effects and the setting of PM regulations. Since PM is commonly sampled on less than daily schedules, the magnitude of sampling errors needs to be determined. Daily PM data from Spokane, W...

313

In Vitro Assessment of the Inflammatory Response of Respiratory Endothelial Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity in urban communities. An increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation induced by PM may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, airway epithelial cell lines, instead of vascular endothelial cells, are commonly used to investigate

Song Qu; Eric N. Liberda; Qingshan Qu; Lung-Chi Chen

2010-01-01

314

Particulate matter properties and health effects: consistency of epidemiological and toxicological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the ambient particulate matter (PM) fractions or constituents, critically involved in eliciting adverse health effects, is crucial to the implementation of more cost-efficient abatement strategies to improve air quality. This review focuses on the importance of different particle properties for PM-induced effects, and whether there is consistency in the results from epidemiological and experimental studies. An evident problem for

P E Schwarze; J vrevik; M Lg; M Refsnes; P Nafstad; R B Hetland; E Dybing

2006-01-01

315

Intracerebral haemorrhage associated with hourly concentration of ambient particulate matter: case-crossover analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the association of hourly time lagged concentration of ambient particulate matter and death due to stroke.Methods: Mortality data for five years (January 1990 to December 1994) were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if

S Yamazaki; H Nitta; M Ono; J Green; S Fukuhara

2007-01-01

316

Chemical Characterization of Coarse Particulate Matter in the Desert Southwest - Pinal County Arizona, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken of ambient concentrations and the composition of fine and coarse particles in rural, arid environments. Sampling was conducted in Pinal County, Arizona between February 2009 and February 2010. The goals of this ...

317

Source apportionment of fine particulate matter measured in an industrialized coastal urban area of South Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corpus Christi is a growing industrialized urban airshed in South Texas impacted by local emissions and regional transport of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) technique was used to evaluate particulate matter pollution in the urban airshed by estimating the types of sources and its corresponding mass contributions affecting the measured ambient PM 2.5 levels. Fine particulate matter concentrations by species measured during July 2003 through December 2008 at a PM 2.5 speciation site were used in this study. PMF2 identified eight source categories, of which secondary sulfates were the dominant source category accounting for 30.4% of the apportioned mass. The other sources identified included aged sea salt (18.5%), biomass burns (12.7%), crustal dust (10.1%), traffic (9.7%), fresh sea salt (8.1%), industrial sources (6%), and a co-mingled source of oil combustion & diesel emissions (4.6%). The apportioned PM mass showed distinct seasonal variability between source categories. The PM levels in Corpus Christi were affected by biomass burns in Mexico and Central America during April and May, sub-Saharan dust storms from Africa during the summer months, and a continental haze episode during August and September with significant transport from the highly industrialized areas of Texas and the neighboring states. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was performed and it identified source regions and the influence of long-range transport of fine particulate matter affecting this urban area.

Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

2011-07-01

318

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCE ATTRIBUTION FOR SOUTHEAST TEXAS USING 14C/13C RATIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Radiocarbon analyses of fine particulate matter samples collected during the summer of 2000 in southeast Texas indicate that a substantial fraction of the aerosol carbon at an urban/suburban site (27% to 73%) and at a rural, forested site (44% to 77%) was modern carbon. Data fr...

319

DIRECT PERSONAL COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA ADULT ASTHMA AND ENVIRONMENT STUDY.  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype coarse particulate matter PM(10-2.5) monitor was field evaluated as part of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES). The NCAAES was designed to evaluate if airway and blood inflammatory markers in moderate asthmatic adults vary with changes in ...

320

HIERARCHIAL BAYESIAN CALIBRATION: AN APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

In studies of the relationship between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health, researchers frequently use monitoring data with the most extensive temporal coverage. Such data may come from a monitor that is not a federal reference monitor (FRM), a monitor that is d...

321

Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

322

Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

323

Case study: Inorganic pollutants associated with particulate matter from an area near a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of Gela (Sicily, Italy) contains one of the largest petroleum refineries in Europe and also has several oil fields both on land and offshore. This paper discusses how the oil refinery and traffic-related air pollution affect the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter over the town of Gela, using pine needles and urban road dust as the means

M. L. Bosco; D. Varrica; G. Dongarra

2005-01-01

324

Systemic Translocation of Particulate Matter-Associated Metals Following a Single Intratracheal Instillation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM-associated metals from the lungs into sys- temic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured ele- mental content of lungs, plasma, heart, and liver of healthy male WKY rats (12-15 weeks old) 4 or 24 h following a single intra- tracheal

J. Grace Wallenborn; John K. McGee; Mette C. Schladweiler; Allen D. Ledbetter; Urmila P. Kodavanti

2007-01-01

325

Growth and Deposition of Hygroscopic Particulate Matter in the Human Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport and fate of inhaled particulate matter in the human lungs is calculated for realistic physicochemical conditions by a new dosimetry model. The model solves a variant of the general dynamic equation for the size evolution of respirable particles within the human tracheobronchial airways, starting at the tracheal entrance. We focus on ambient anthropogenic aerosols, which are of concern in

David M. Broday; Panos G. Georgopoulos

2001-01-01

326

Field Evaluation of Particulate Matter Measurements Using Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance in a Layer House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) is one type of continuous ambient particulate matter (PM) monitor. Adsorption and desorption of moisture and semi-volatile species may cause positive or negative artifacts in TEOM PM mass measurement. The objective of this field study was to investigate possible uncertainties associated with TEOM measurements in the poultry operation environment. For comparisons of TEOM with

Qianfeng Li; Lingjuan Wang-Li; Zifei Liu; Albert J. Heber

2012-01-01

327

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF MODELS-3 CMAQ USING PARTICULATE MATTER DATA FROM THE IMPROVE NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and wel...

328

Compositional, morphological, and hysteresis characterization of magnetic airborne particulate matter in Rome, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of tree leaves may be used to delineate the abundance and dispersal of anthropogenic airborne particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. In the city of Rome, Italy, circulating vehicles are the main source of magnetic PM, already characterized as prevalently low-coercivity, magnetite-like particles. To further constrain the nature and origin of such magnetic particles, we carried out

Leonardo Sagnotti; Jacopo Taddeucci; Aldo Winkler; Andrea Cavallo

2009-01-01

329

Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng ?l-1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m-3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than 0.5 for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m-3. In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m-3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m-3 in some samples from a suburban location.

Moukhtar, S.; Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Irei, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

2011-11-01

330

AGGREGATION OF SELECTED RADM SIMULATIONS TO ESTIMATE ANNUAL AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter is an issue of increasing concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ecent epidemiological studies link an increase in mortality and other detrimental health effects, especially to the young, elderly and others with...

331

75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The EPA is announcing three public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal Register. The hearings will be held on Thursday, August 19, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois, on Thursday, August 26, 2010, in Philadelphia,......

2010-08-02

332

On-Road measurement of particulate matter emissions from vehicles: particle concentration, size distribution and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer 2010, we conducted a field experiment in Southern Michigan to measure on-road vehicle emissions. During the campaign, particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored with a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) and transmissometer system. The Lidar and transmissometer system measures PM mass concentration of vehicle exhaust using backscatter and extinction of an ultraviolet laser beam directed across the road.

N. Salvadori; S. China; J. Cook; H. D. Kuhns; H. Moosmuller; C. Mazzoleni

2010-01-01

333

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

334

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND SULFUR OXIDES (Final, 1982)  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter and sulfur oxides are two of six major air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scienti...

335

Characterisation of particulate matter and gaseous emissions from a large ship diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of exhaust from a ship diesel engine using heavy fuel oil (HFO) was investigated onboard a large cargo vessel. The emitted particulate matter (PM) properties related to environmental and health impacts were investigated along with composition of the gas-phase emissions. Mass, size distribution, chemical composition and microphysical structure of the PM were investigated. The emission factor for PM was

Jana Moldanov; Erik Fridell; Olga Popovicheva; Benjamin Demirdjian; Victoria Tishkova; Alessandro Faccinetto; Cristian Focsa

2009-01-01

336

The magnetic way of quantifying road traffic pollution in atmospheric particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steadily increasing number of motor vehicles requires continuous air quality monitoring in large urban and sub-urban areas. We present a fast and simple method for analysing samples of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic measurements, which is suitable for systematic pollution monitoring of extensive areas at low costs. Representative samples have been collected in Switzerland at sites with

S. Spassov; R. Egli; F. Heller

2003-01-01

337

75 FR 45209 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

EPA is proposing to limit the interstate transport of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In this action, EPA is proposing to both identify and limit emissions within 32 states in the eastern United States that affect the ability of downwind states to attain and maintain compliance with the 1997 and 2006 fine particulate matter (PM2.5)......

2010-08-02

338

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--QA ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR PARTICULATE MATTER IN BLANK SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Blank Samples data set contains the analytical results of measurements of 12 blank samples from 12 households. Measurements were made in blank samples of indoor air, outdoor air, and personal air. Blank samples were used to assess the potential for sam...

339

Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

340

TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3 1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

341

WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1....

342

TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised ratsUrmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

343

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simo; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

344

TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among individuals with cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that systemic alterations occur concurrent to pulmonary injury\\/inflammation, and contribute to cardiac events in compromised hosts. We explored this hypothesis using a rat model for human hypertension and cardiovascular disease (spontaneously hypertensive, SH), and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats.

Urmila P. Kodavanti; Mette C. Schladweiler; Allen D. Ledbetter; Russ Hauser; David C. Christiani; John McGee; Judy R. Richards; Daniel L. Costa

2002-01-01

345

Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of exhaust particulate matter of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) from a modern passenger car using rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME, biodiesel) as fuel were directly compared to DEE of diesel fuel (DF) derived from petroleum. Combustion particulate matter was collected on glass fiber filters coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from an exhaust dilution tunnel using three different engine test cycles

Jrgen Bnger; Jrgen Krahl; Hans-Ulrich Franke; Axel Munack; Ernst Hallier

1998-01-01

346

IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

347

Sedimentation of particulate matter during a phytoplankton spring bloom in relation to the hydrographical regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data presented and discussed here were collected continuously during April\\/May 1975 in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. Sedimentation rates of particulate matter were recorded with 5 multisample sediment traps from different depths in the water column at 2 positions 170 km apart. Current meter data collected during the same period and depths indicated that the positions remained hydrographically

V. Smetacek; K. Brckel; B. Zeitzschel; W. Zenk

1978-01-01

348

Assessment of the natural sources of particulate matter on the opencast mines air quality.  

PubMed

Particulate matter is the main air pollutant in open pit mining areas. Preferred models that simulate the dispersion of the particles have been used to assess the environmental impact of the mining activities. Results obtained through simulation have been compared with the particle concentration measured in several sites and a coefficient of determination R(2)<0.78 has been reported. This result indicates that in the open pit mining areas there may be additional sources of particulate matter that have not been considered in the modeling process. This work proposes that the unconsidered sources of emissions are of regional scope such as the re-suspension particulate matter due to the wind action over uncovered surfaces. Furthermore, this work proposes to estimate the impact of such emissions on air quality as a function of the present and past meteorological conditions. A statistical multiple regression model was implemented in one of the world's largest open pit coal mining regions which is located in northern Colombia. Data from 9 particle-concentration monitoring stations and 3 meteorological stations obtained from 2009 to 2012 were statistically compared. Results confirmed the existence of a high linear relation (R(2)>0.95) between meteorological variables and particulate matter concentration being humidity, humidity of the previous day and temperature, the meteorological variables that contributed most significantly in the variance of the particulate matter concentration measured in the mining area while the contribution of the AERMOD estimations to the short term TSP (Total Suspended Particles) measured concentrations was negligible (<5%). The multiple regression model was used to identify the meteorological condition that leads to pollution episodes. It was found that conditions drier than 54% lead to pollution episodes while humidities greater than 70% maintain safe air quality conditions in the mining region in northern Colombia. PMID:25016110

Huertas, J I; Huertas, M E; Cervantes, G; Daz, J

2014-09-15

349

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...impactor) where the suspended particulate matter in the PM2.5 size range...particles making up ambient particulate matter vary over a wide range and...19 of this appendix. 7.2 Nature of specifications. The...

2010-07-01

350

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...impactor) where the suspended particulate matter in the PM2.5 size range...particles making up ambient particulate matter vary over a wide range and...19 of this appendix. 7.2 Nature of specifications. The...

2009-07-01

351

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-02-17

352

Spatial Distribution of The Particulate Matter In The Northern Atlantic During The Pomme 3 Cruises.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of the multidisciplinary program POMME (Progamme Ocan Multidisci- plinaire Mso Echelle) carried out in 2000 and 2001 in the northern Atlantic were to understand processes leading to the subduction of surface winter waters towards in- termediate oceanic depths and the role of these subducted waters in the sequestration of carbon. The particulate matter, one of the ultimate outcomes of the superficial bi- ological production, mediates the carbon to deep layers by sedimentation, especially below the mixed layer. Here we present results obtained using the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP). This instrument gives an exhaustive description of the particulate mat- ter (>100 m) and dominant macrozooplankton vertical distribution from the surface to 1000 m depth. Data on particulate matter are coupled with physical and biological data obtained simultaneously from different sensors of the UVP. Results show that the distribution of the particulate matter below the mixed layer is heterogeneous and that in the studied zone it is related to the mesoscale hydrological structures and to frontal systems.

Ben Hamadou, R.; Picheral, M.; Prieur, L.; Gorsky, G.

353

Particulate organic matter dynamics in coastal systems of the northern Beibu Gulf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine particle fluxes are an integral part of land-ocean-connectivity and influence coastal environmental conditions. In areas with strong anthropogenic impact they may contribute to coastal eutrophication. To investigate the particulate biogeochemistry of a human affected estuary, we sampled suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter along the land-ocean continuum from Nanliu River to Lianzhou Bay in southern China. Riverine particle fluxes exceed inputs from land based pond aquaculture. Elemental (C/N) and isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon (?13C) and total nitrogen (?15N) showed that suspended and sedimentary organic matter (OM) mainly derive from freshwater and marine phytoplankton, with minor contributions from terrestrial and aquaculture derived particles. Amino acid composition indicates subseasonal variability of production and freshness of phytoplankton OM. Strongest compositional changes of suspended particles are associated with storm-related extreme precipitation events, which introduce soil derived OM. High concentrations of chlorophyll a reflect eutrophic conditions in riverine and coastal waters. Human impact results in high ?15N signals in suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter. Using these in a comparison with two little affected sites shows that anthropogenic influence disperses from the Nanliu River to remote estuaries and mangrove areas. Our results suggest that autochthonous production binds anthropogenic nutrients in particles that are transported along the coast.

Kaiser, David; Unger, Daniela; Qiu, Guanglong

2014-07-01

354

Gas phase nitric acid, ammonia and related particulate matter at a Mediterranean coastal site, Patras, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of nitric acid, ammonia and related particulate matter were made at a coastal site in Greece to elucidate the local factors that affect the concentrations of each of these species, as well as the atmospheric transport of particulate sulfate. Seasonal variation with higher concentrations in the summer was observed for all measured species. This variation was more pronounced for nitric acid, ammonia and particulate ammonium, in agreement with greater nitric acid production in the summer because of larger hydroxyl radical concentrations and larger ammonia emissions at higher temperatures. The high summer temperatures and low relative humidity of our region favor gaseous nitric acid and ammonia over particulate ammonium nitrate. In fact our data indicate that ammonium nitrate was not predicted to be formed in the summer, whereas it was predicted to be formed in the spring. Mean nitric acid/particulate nitrate ratios ranged from 1.3 to 4.0. Air mass back trajectories showed that the higher concentrations of the long-lived particulate sulfate were long-range transported from northern directions. High sulfate concentrations 7-11 ?g m -3 were observed in the summer. On an equivalent basis particulate sulfate were 5-15 times larger than particulate nitrate reflecting higher sulfur over nitrogen emissions, as is observed in most studies. Nitric acid exhibited the more pronounced diurnal variation from all measured species; this was more apparent in the summer in agreement with a short lifetime, estimated here at about half a day. Peak nitric acid concentrations of 4-6 ?g m -3 were measured in the afternoon hours in the summer. Local meteorology and photochemistry appear to control the variation of nitric acid and ammonia concentrations.

Danalatos, Demetrios; Glavas, Sotirios

355

Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies.  

PubMed

A new passive particle collector (inert surrogate surface) that collects particles from all directions has been developed. It was used to measure particle deposition at 35 test sites as part of a project that examined corrosion of materials in order that variation in particulate material could be used in development of dose-response functions in a modern multi-pollutant environment. The project, MULTI-ASSESS, was funded by the EU to examine the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage. Passive samplers were mounted rain-protected, and both in wind-protected and wind-exposed positions, to match the exposure of the samples for corrosion studies. The particle mass and its chemical content (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium) were analysed. The loss of light reflectance on the surrogate surface was also measured. Very little ammonium and potassium was found, and one or more anions are missing in the ion balance. There were many strong correlations between the analysed species. The mass of analysed water-soluble ions was fairly constant at 24% of the total mass. The particle mass deposited to the samplers in the wind-protected position was about 25% of the particles deposited to an openly exposed sampler. The Cl-/Na+ ratios indicate a reaction between HNO(3) and NaCl. The deposited nitrate flux corresponds to the missing chloride. The Ca2+ deposition equals the SO4(2-) deposition and the anion deficiency. The SO4(2-) deposition most likely originates from SO2 that has reacted with basic calcium-containing particles either before or after they were deposited. The particle depositions at the urban sites were much higher than in nearby rural sites. The deposited mass correlated surprisingly well with the PM(10) concentration, except at sites very close to traffic. PMID:16518649

Ferm, Martin; Watt, John; O'Hanlon, Samantha; De Santis, Franco; Varotsos, Costas

2006-03-01

356

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 ?g/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

357

Microscopic and submicron components of atmospheric particulate matter during high asthma periods in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study identifies the various components contributing to atmospheric particulate matter in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, during the period from the end of April and the months of July-August in 1992, covering the autumn period which is typically the period of high asthma incidence in Brisbane. Most particulate matter is < 2 ?m and submicronic. Electron microscopy revealed that the submicron material is composed mainly of combusted ("soot") and incompletely burned hydrocarbons arising from motor vehicle exhaust emissions, crustal matter in the form of quartz microconcretions and other silicates, quiescent spores of Mucorales, and soil bacteria. The contribution from pollen and fungal spores has been evaluated and quantified. Fungal spores counts dominate the bioaerosol counts in the 2-10 ?m range and are very high in Brisbane from the end of April through May to mid-June. However even at peak periods the total bioaerosol count only contributes of the order of 5-10% of the total particulate mass. The results show that Pm 10 (particulate matter less than 10 ?m in diameter) and nephelometer readings do not indicate peak periods of allergenic bioaerosol readings (in fact there is a negative correlation) due to the low contribution of the bioaerosol count to the total and the different influences of wind speed. However the electron microscopy results show that this does not mean there are no synergies between aerosols from anthropogenic sources and bioaerosols. The cytoplasmic content of spores and pollen was often found to be adhered to motor vehicle emission material and crustal matter. The latter may therefore act as carriers for dispersed cytoplasmic allergenic material released from pollen and fungal spores.

Glikson, M.; Rutherford, S.; Simpson, R. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Yago, A.

358

Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 {micro}m (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 {micro}m) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene.

Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

2000-05-01

359

Sources and Chemical Evolution of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds make up a significant fraction of the total composition of atmospheric particles with a diameter of 2.5 mum or less (PM2.5 ) at location throughout the world and seasons throughout the entire year. An understanding of the entire atmospheric PM2.5 system is thus dependent on an adequate understanding of the sources, properties and fate of organic compounds. These species exist in equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase. The fraction of the total mass present in each phase is governed by the volatility of individual species. A variety of emission activities are responsible for injecting this organic mass into the atmosphere including vehicle use, biomass burning, energy generation, industrial processing and plat emissions among other sources. After this initial emission atmospheric oxidants may modify the properties of these compounds, especially their volatility, thereby shifting the equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase and causing condensation or evaporation. This thesis focuses on modeling these complex phenomena in a chemical transport model (CTM) of the atmosphere. We employ the volatility basis set (VBS) in the CTM, PMCAMx-2008, and evaluate it against ambient measurements. While taking into account recent findings about the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosol (POA) and the multigenerational OH oxidation of the vapors in equilibrium with primary as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), we find the model to perform reasonably well for a summertime simulation of the Eastern US (fractional error ? 52% and |fractional bias| ? 30%) for all sites compared. With this acceptably performing model, we explore the source-receptor relationships of organic aerosol (OA). A three US sites (Pittsburgh, PA; Duke Forest, NC; and New York, NY), and one European site (Paris, FR) the bulk OA behaves very much as a regional pollutant with average transport distances of about 100-500 km before arriving at the receptors. The model is also used to calculate the average age of OA species, which is found to be close to 10 hours for POA throughout the entire simulation period and 20-50 hours for SOA with high variability. An analysis of the average transport distance and age of OA as a function of volatility shows that trends are variable and dependent on proximity to sources, even for the relatively simple aging mechanism employed. A budget analysis was performed for the Eastern US simulation in order to constrain the total OA formation predicted by PMCAMx-2008 given its good agreement with observations. This value, 21.6 ktons d-1, is probed with a suite of sensitivity tests exploring the robustness of this result. The most influential process is found to be the OA aging mechanism, as different configurations change the production rate within a range of a factor of 4. Interestingly, there are several aging configurations that make different fundamental assumptions but yield similar model performance. The VBS is then extended to track the elemental ratio of oxygen to carbon atoms in order to better constrain the chemical mechanism and evaluate with ambient data. The module is first implemented into a reduced-scale Lagrangian transport model and evaluated for one site in Europe with high photochemical activity. A simple aging scheme is employed and the model is found to reproduce both the OA mass concentration and O:C at the surface. Comparison of the volatility distribution predicted to thermodenuder measurements showed that the model is within reason, given the high degree of uncertainty in the thermodenuder model itself. This analysis is extended to treat multiple sites and seasons to evaluate the ability of the module to correctly reproduce the variability in O:C seen in the atmosphere. The base-case module (with simple aging chemistry) performed well, but when detailed chemistry was implemented, the model overpredicted OA loadings and underpredicted O:C. This is because the detailed chemical mechanism includes a greater shift in volatility that is more representative of the ad

Murphy, Benjamin Neel

360

Elemental composition of particulate matter and nutrient dynamics in the Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Izmir Bay (3841'-3821' N, 2630'-2708' E) is one of the great natural bays of the Aegean Sea. Temporal variations and regional distribution of particulate organic matter, dissolved nutrients and chlorophyll-a were investigated seasonally in the bay. The data were collected during four cruises of R/V K. Piri Reis between March 2000 and January 2001 at selected sampling points within the framework of the "Izmir Bay Marine Research Project". The composition of particulate matter was determined and evaluated together with physical parameters in Izmir Bay. Due to the atmospheric and land-based nutrient inputs, the levels of nutrients are lower in the outer part than the middle and inner parts of the bay. The particulate concentrations varied between 3.2 and 23 for POC, 0.32 and 2.1 for PON, 0.02 and 0.21 ?M for PP in the outer and 12 and 197 for POC, 1.7 and 30 for PON, 0.11 and 1.9 ?M for PP in the middle-inner bays. The elemental mean ratios of particulates (POC:PON:PP) from the individual measurements were 166:16:1 and 127:17:1 for the outer and middle-inner bays, respectively. The ratios, derived from the slopes of linear regressions, are quite comparable with the ratio from the preformed nutrient data. Atomic ratios of particulate matter from the regression equations were similar to off-shore Mediterranean Sea and lower than near-shore Black Sea in the outer bay. POC:PON:PP ratios were mostly greater than the Black Sea in the middle and inner bays. Mean DIN:DIP ratios in the water column were 14 and 3.5 in the outer and middle-inner bays, respectively, which are lower than the Redfield ratio.

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Kontas, Aynur; Altay, Oya; Uluturhan, Esin

2005-05-01

361

Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars and bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid (Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter (POM) of the Mandovi estuary. SPM was collected from 9 sampling stations in the Mandovi estuary during the pre-monsoon (March) and monsoon (August). Total particulate amino sugar (TPAS) concentrations and yields varied spatially and were 2 to 5 times higher during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon. Negative correlation between salinity and TPAS-C yields [TPAS-C/particulate organic carbon (POC)100] indicates the influence of terrestrial organic matter on the transport of TPAS-carbon. Glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), and mannosamine (ManN) were abundant during the monsoon. Low GlcN/GalN ratios (<3) indicate bacteria as the major source of amino sugars. Higher amino sugar yields and lower GlcN/GalN ratios during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon indicate enhanced transformation and greater bacterial contribution to POM during the former season. Degradation trends observed with TPAS were well supported by those obtained with carbohydrates and amino acids. Based on Mur concentrations, bacteria accounted for 24% to 35% of the POC and 24% to 62% of the total particulate nitrogen (TPN). Intact bacterial cells, however accounted for a small proportion of POC (2.5% to 4%) and TPN (9% to 11%). Our study suggests that POM was subjected to extensive diagenetic transformation, and its composition was influenced by bacteria, especially during the monsoon.

Khodse, Vishwas B.; Bhosle, Narayan B.

2013-10-01

362

Copyright 2005 Air & Waste Management Association Size and Composition Distribution of Airborne Particulate Matter in Northern California: IParticulate Mass, Carbon, and Water-Soluble Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California has one of the most severe particulate air quality problems in the United States during the winter season. In the current study, measurements of particulate matter (PM) smaller than 10 [H9262]m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), fine particles (PM1.8), and ultrafine particles (PM0.1) made during the period December 16, 2000February 3, 2001, at six

Jorn D. Herner; Jeremy Aw; Oliver Gao; Daniel P. Chang; Michael J. Kleeman

2005-01-01

363

Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

Sengupta, Ishita

364

Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter (POM) in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Western Arctic Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) project, the production and fate of organic carbon and nitrogen from the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea shelves were investigated during spring (5 May-15 June) and summer (15 July-25 August) cruises in 2002. Seasonal observations of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) and large-particle (>53 ?m) size class suggest that there was a large accumulation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) between spring and summer in the surface mixed layer due to high phytoplankton productivity. Considerable organic matter appeared to be transported from the shelf into the Arctic Ocean basin in an elevated POC and PON layer at the top of the upper halocline. Seasonal changes in the molar carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the suspended particulate organic matter (POM) pool reflect a change in the quality of the organic material that was present and presumably being exported to the sediment and to Arctic Ocean waters adjacent to the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea shelves. In spring, low particulate C:N ratios (<6; i.e., N rich) were observed in nitrate-replete surface waters. By the summer, localized high particulate C:N ratios (>9; i.e., N-poor) were observed in nitrate-depleted surface waters. Low POC and inorganic nutrient concentrations observed in the surface layer suggest that rates of primary, new and export production are low in the Canada Basin region of the Arctic Ocean.

Bates, Nicholas R.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Bradley Moran, S.; Codispoti, Louis A.

2005-12-01

365

A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.061.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

366

Effect of copper binding by suspended particulate matter on toxicity.  

PubMed

The kinetics of Cu(II) interactions with Susquehanna River (mid-Atlantic, USA) particle suspensions using the copper ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE) method indicated that the concentration of Cu2+ in both the suspension and filtrate was kinetically controlled; the reaction of Cu(II) in the suspension was faster than that in the filtrate. Bioassay tests were performed in continuous flow-through bioassay systems to examine the effect of kinetics of Cu(II) interactions with suspended solids on the toxicity of Cu to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity curves were displaced to higher total Cu concentration as the reaction time increased, indicating that such interaction of Cu with solids was time dependent. Further, the toxicity curves overlapped for reaction times of 6 and 24 h, indicating that the reaction was relatively rapid and that equilibrium was achieved within 6 h. The survival of organisms was related to the free Cu2+ concentration but deviated from the result for bioassays in which dissolved organic matter (DOM) rather than particles reacted with the added Cu(II) to affect the free Cu2+ concentration. It may be interpreted that, besides the toxic effect of Cu2+, particles exert adverse influences on the organisms. PMID:11951942

Ma, Huizhong; Kim, Sang Don; Allen, Herbert E; Cha, Daniel K

2002-04-01

367

Retrieving of particulate matter from optical measurements: A semiparametric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fine particle abundance, i.e., particle matter (PM) concentration, is one of the indicators of air quality and is therefore subject to ground-based measurements. Complementary satellite aerosol remote sensing techniques provide one with maps of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), which is sensitive to particle abundance. This paper investigates the problem of retrieving the PM concentration from the AOT, both on daily average values, on the basis of a large data set where data from the air quality networks are combined with ground-based measurements of the AOTs. It is found that a linear model fails at explaining the data well but that the performance may be significantly improved when such a linear relationship is conditioned on auxiliary parameters, mainly meteorological variables. The proposed model is expressed as an additive varying coefficient model (AVCM), which is defined as a linear model where the coefficients are additive functions of the auxiliary parameters. The model is represented using penalized smoothing splines, allowing for a proper control of the overall number of degrees of freedom via multiple smoothness parameters selection. The methodology is applied to data collected around Lille (France). The PM10 concentrations are retrieved with an average uncertainty of less than 20%, leading to a correlation coefficient of 0.87 between fitted and expected PM10.

Pelletier, B.; Santer, R.; Vidot, J.

2007-03-01

368

Dynamics of coarse particulate matter in the turbidity maximum zone of the Gironde Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of studies devoted to coarse particulate matter (CPM) in estuaries, although this fraction can disturb activities that filter large volumes of water, such as industrial or fishery activities. In the macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde Estuary, a monthly sampling of CPM was performed in 2011 and 2013 at two stations in the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ) to understand its seasonal, tidal and hydrological dynamics. Regardless of the season and station, low quantities of CPM (few g m-3) were observed in comparison with suspended particulate matter (several 103 g m-3). The highest concentrations were consistently recorded in bottom waters and at the upstream station. Whereas there is no clear link between the CPM present in the column water and spring or neap tides, an increase in the CPM size has been identified at the two stations after a flood event, fact potentially critical regarding filtering functioning of estuarine activities.

Fuentes-Cid, Ana; Etcheber, Henri; Schmidt, Sabine; Abril, Gwenal; De-Oliveira, Eric; Lepage, Mario; Sottolichio, Aldo

2014-01-01

369

Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-02-01

370

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

371

Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at labs in New Zealand and Mexico and will be incorporated in a near future.

Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

2001-12-01

372

Fine Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Following a Large Woodstove Changeout Program in Libby, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before a community-wide woodstove changeout program, a chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment study was conducted in Libby, MT, during the winter of 20032004 to identify the sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) within the valley. Results from this study showed that residential woodstoves were the major source, contributing approximately 80% of the ambient PM2.5 throughout the winter months. In

Tony J. Ward; Christopher P. Palmer; Curtis W. Noonan; Despina Karatza; Marina Prisciandaro; Amedeo Lancia; Dino Musmarra; Paul Funk; Sally Donovan; Thomas Bateson; Jan Gronow; Nikolaos Voulvoulis; Li-Long Chai; Ji-Qin Ni; Yan Chen; Claude Diehl; Albert Heber; Teng Lim; Yimei Zhang; Guohe Huang; Shuxiao Wang; Lei Zhang; Ye Wu; Maria Ancora; Yu Zhao; Jiming Hao; Yan-Min Chen; Yuan-Chung Lin; Tzi-Yi Wu; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Wen-Feng Ma; Joao Gomes; Helena Mota; Joao Bordado; Manuela Cadete; Georgina Sarmento; Antonieta Ribeiro; Miguel Baiao; Joao Fernandes; Vasco Pampulim; Maria Custodio; Isabel Veloso; David Brenner

2010-01-01

373

Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the metropolitan area of So Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest\\u000a threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main\\u000a source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements\\u000a can

Odn R. Snchez-Ccoyllo; Rita Y. Ynoue; Leila D. Martins; Rosana Astolfo; Regina M. Miranda; Edmilson D. Freitas; Alessandro S. Borges; Adalgiza Fornaro; Helber Freitas; Andra Moreira; Maria F. Andrade

2009-01-01

374

Measurements of OC and EC in Coarse Particulate Matter in the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content of filter-based, 24-hr integrated particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 ?m (PM102.5) was measured at two urban and two rural locations in the southeastern United States. On average, total carbon (OC + EC) comprised approximately 30% of PM102.5 mass at these four sites. Carbonate carbon was measured on

Eric S Edgerton; Gary S Casuccio; Rick D Saylor; Traci L Lersch; Benjamin E Hartsell; John J Jansen; D. Alan Hansen; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Mridul Gautam; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Roger Wayson; Gregg Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

375

Light-Duty Motor Vehicle Exhaust Particulate Matter Measurement in the Denver, Colorado, Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of particulate matter (PM) emissions from in-use, light-duty vehicles was conducted during the summer of 1996 and the winter of 1997 in the Denver, CO, region. Vehicles were tested as received on chassis dynamometers on the Federal Test Procedure Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the IM240 driving schedule. Both PM10 and regulated emissions were measured for each

Steven H. Cadle; Patricia Mulawa; Eric C. Hunsanger; Ken Nelson; Ronald A. Ragazzi; Richard Barrett; Gerald L. Gallagher; Douglas R. Lawson; Kenneth T. Knapp; Richard Snow

1999-01-01

376

Nature and dynamics of phosphorus-containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular sources, dynamics and analytical characterizations of the phosphorus (P) containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) are reviewed. Using a combination of 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on samples collected from a depth profile (204000m) at Station Aloha in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the biomolecular associations of P functional groups in marine

Poulomi Sannigrahi; Ellery D. Ingall; Ronald Benner

2006-01-01

377

Particulate matter exposure along designated bicycle routes in Vancouver, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumented bicycle was used to elucidate particulate matter exposures along bicycle routes passing through a variety of land uses over 14days during summer and fall in a mid-latitude traffic dominated urban setting. Overall, exposures were low or comparable to those found in studies elsewhere (mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations over each daily bicycle traverse varied between 734?g m?3 and

Amy Thai; Ian McKendry; Michael Brauer

2008-01-01

378

Bus Commuters' exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal air pollution exposures were conducted along traffic routes in Bangkok in comparison to the ambient monitoring data. This study aimed to get a better understanding of the health risks posed by fine particulate matter, PM2.5, PM10 and ozone in the urban transport micro- environment. The exposure pollutants were measured on the non-air condition buses during evening rush hours from

Wanida Jinsart; Sarocha Tongwuttisuk; Thunyaluck Phongsasithorn; Chanin Kaewmanee

379

Analytical pyrolysis of suspended particulate organic matter from the Black Sea water column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) in the Black Sea water column has been characterized by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). The results are discussed in terms of the hydro-chemical properties of the water column. Phytoplankton cultures grown in the lab also were analyzed to provide reference information for the euphotic zone SPOM. The composition of SPOM in

Ye?im oban-Y?ld?z; Daniele Fabbri; Valentina Baravelli; Ivano Vassura; Ay?en Y?lmaz; Sleyman Tugrul; Elif Eker-Develi

2006-01-01

380

Time-Series Analysis of Above-Road Particulate Matter at the Caldecott Tunnel Exit  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 18, 1997, above-road particulate matter (PM) lidar (light detection and ranging) signals and heavy-duty (HD) and light-duty (LD) vehicle counts were simultaneously collected for 894 10-sec sampling periods at the Caldecott Tunnel in Orinda, CA, for the purpose of measuring the relative contributions of LD and HD vehicles to the PM lidar signal under real-world driving conditions. The

Britt A. Holmn; Debbie A. Niemeier; Yu Meng

2001-01-01

381

Satellite remote sensing of particulate matter and air quality assessment over global cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 1 year of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite along with ground measurements of PM2.5 mass concentration, we assess particulate matter air quality over different locations across the global urban areas spread over 26 locations in Sydney, Delhi, Hong Kong, New York City and Switzerland. An

Pawan Gupta; Sundar A. Christopher; Jun Wang; Robert Gehrig; Yc Lee; Naresh Kumar

2006-01-01

382

Inhalation of Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Disrupts Systemic Vascular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter 0.02- 1 ?m (noted as PM1) inhalation during exercise on conduit artery and microvascular function. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Direct action of PM on the vascular endothelium is likely, as a substantial fraction of ultrafine PM translocates from the alveoli

Kenneth W. Rundell; Jay R. Hoffman; Renee Caviston; Ronald Bulbulian; Amanda M. Hollenbach

2007-01-01

383

Particulate matter air quality assessment using integrated surface, satellite, and meteorological products: Multiple regression approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring particulate matter air quality from spaceborne measurements is largely confined to relating columnar satellite retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) with ground measurements of PM2.5 mass concentration. However, vertical distribution of aerosols and meteorological effects such as wind speed, temperature, and humidity also play a major role in this AOT-PM2.5 relationship. In this study, using 3 years of coincident

Pawan Gupta; Sundar A. Christopher

2009-01-01

384

Particulate Matter Exposure in Cars Is Associated with Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Young Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac pa- tients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and am- bient PM2.5 were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Carolina Highway Patrol troopers. Nine troopers (age 23 to 30) were monitored on 4 successive days while working a 3 P.M. to

Michael Riediker; Wayne E. Cascio; Thomas R. Griggs; Margaret C. Herbst; Philip A. Bromberg; Lucas Neas; Ronald W. Williams; Robert B. Devlin

2004-01-01

385

Assessing the Health Benefits of Reducing Particulate Matter Air Pollution in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Americans are exposed daily to airborne particulate matter (PM), a pollutant regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Current national standards are set for PM10 (particles less than 10 ?m in diameter) and new standards have been promulgated for PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in diameter). Both particle sizes have been associated with mortality and morbidity in studies

Bart Ostro; Lauraine Chestnut

1998-01-01

386

Characterization of Sub1?m Particulate Matter Distribution inside Public Transport Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous monitoring of particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5 and PM1.0) was conducted for the Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority (TARTA) buses in Toledo, Ohio since March 2006. The data used for this study is limited to PM1.0 data collected between October 2006 and Jan 2007. The collected data are used for various analyses to better understand the harmful pollutants and exposure

Martin A. Abraham

387

The effects of Asian Dust on particulate matter fractionation in Seoul, Korea during spring 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of three different fractions of particulate matter (PM) including PM2.5, PM10, and TSP were determined concurrently during MarchMay 2001. Measurements of three PM fractions were made at hourly intervals from four different observatory sites located within the city boundary of Seoul. On the basis of this study, we attempted to describe relationships between the occurrences of the Asian

Ki-Hyun Kim; Min-Young Kim

2003-01-01

388

Exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse\\u000a birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation).\\u000a We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between\\u000a maternal exposure to particulate matter with

Amir Sapkota; Adam P. Chelikowsky; Keeve E. Nachman; Aaron J. Cohen; Beate Ritz

389

Characteristics of particulate matter and heterogeneous traffic in the urban area of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) emitted from heterogeneous traffic in Chennai city during monsoon, winter and summer seasons of the year 20072009. The heterogeneous traffic characteristics at the study region indicated dominance of 2-wheelers (58%) followed by the 4-wheelers (29%), 3-wheelers (7%), light commercial vehicle (LCV=2%) and heavy commercial vehicle

B. Srimuruganandam; S. M. Shiva Nagendra

2011-01-01

390

Proapoptotic Noxa is required for particulate matter-induced cell death and lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Elevated ambient levels of particulate matter air pollution are associated with excess daily mortality, largely attributable to increased rates of cardiovascular events. We have previously reported that particulate matter induces p53-dependent apoptosis in primary human alveolar epithelial cells. Activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by p53 often requires the transcription of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins Noxa, Puma, or both. In this study, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells in culture and mice to fine particulate matter <2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5) collected from the ambient air in Washington, D. C. Exposure to PM2.5 induced apoptosis in primary alveolar epithelial cells from wild-type but not Noxa?/? mice. Twenty-four hours after the intratracheal instillation of PM2.5, wild-type mice showed increased apoptosis in the lung and increased levels of mRNA encoding Noxa but not Puma. These changes were associated with increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane and inflammation. All of these findings were absent or attenuated in Noxa?/? animals. We conclude that PM2.5-induced cell death requires Noxa both in vitro and in vivo and that Noxa-dependent cell death might contribute to PM-induced alveolar epithelial dysfunction and the resulting inflammatory response.Urich, D., Soberanes, S., Burgess, Z., Chiarella, S. E., Ghio, A. J., Ridge, K. M., Kamp, D. W., Chandel, N. S., Mutlu, G. M., Budinger, G. R. S. Proapoptotic Noxa is required for particulate matter-induced cell death and lung inflammation.

Urich, Daniela; Soberanes, Saul; Burgess, Zach; Chiarella, Sergio E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Ridge, Karen M.; Kamp, David W.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

2009-01-01

391

Estimating the effectiveness of a vehicle miles travelled tax in reducing particulate matter emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the effectiveness of a vehicle miles travelled (VMT) tax in controlling mobile-source emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5) in a non-attainment area located in northern Utah. Using a recently updated household-level dataset, the study finds no evidence of an endogenous relationship between choice of vehicle type and VMT. VMT elasticities are also estimated with respect to cost per

Jordan Carroll-Larson; Arthur J. Caplan

2009-01-01

392

Analysis of Roadside Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) in Major Korean Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data analysis of three major Korean cities was conducted to assess roadside inhalable particulate matter 10?m or smaller\\u000a in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), including temporal and meteorological variations, over a recent period of 4 to 6 years. The yearly roadside PM10 concentrations presented a well-defined increasing trend or no trend depending on the roadside monitoring station. Most mean\\u000a values exceeded

Wan-Kuen Jo; Jin-Ho Park

2005-01-01

393

Enhancing Effect of Suspended Particulate Matter on the IgE Antibody Production in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particulate matter (SPM), suspended in the polluted environmental atmosphere, are perpetually inhaled into the human body and are considered to have profound effects on human health. This study investigated the enhancing effect of SPM on the IgE antibody production in mice. The IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intranasal administration of ovalbumin (OA) plus SPM at 3-week intervals

Shigeru Takafuji; Shuji Suzuki; Kazuhiro Koizumi; Kenji Tadokoro; Haruo Ohashi; Masaharu Muranaka; Terumasa Miyamoto

1989-01-01

394

Occurrence of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediments of Daliao River System, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August of 2005 a study was carried out to evaluate contamination of aliphatic hydrocarbons(AHc) in water, suspended particulate\\u000a matter (SPM) and sediments from Daliao River system composed of the Hun River, Taizi River, and Daliao River in a heavy industrial\\u000a area of northeast of China. The content of AHc ranged from 13.39 to 283.62?g L?1 in surface water, from

W. Guo; M. C. He; Z. F. Yang; C. Y. Lin; X. C. Quan

2010-01-01

395

Base camp personnel exposure to particulate matter during wildland fire suppression activities.  

PubMed

Wildland fire base camps commonly house thousands of support personnel for weeks at a time. The selection of the location of these base camps is largely a strategic decision that incorporates many factors, one of which is the potential impact of biomass smoke from the nearby fire event. Biomass smoke has many documented adverse health effects due, primarily, to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Minimizing particulate matter exposure to potentially susceptible individuals working as support personnel in the base camp is vital. In addition to smoke from nearby wildland fires, base camp operations have the potential to generate particulate matter via vehicle emissions, dust, and generator use. We monitored particulate matter at three base camps during the fire season of 2009 in Washington, Oregon, and California. During the sampling events, 1-min time-weighted averages of PM(2.5) and particle counts from three size fractions (0.3-0.5 microns, 0.5-1.0 microns, and 1.0-2.5 microns) were measured. Results showed that all PM size fractions (as well as overall PM(2.5) concentrations) were higher during the overnight hours, a trend that was consistent at all camps. Our results provide evidence of camp-based, site-specific sources of PM(2.5) that could potentially exceed the contributions from the nearby wildfire. These exposures could adversely impact wildland firefighters who sleep in the camp, as well as the camp support personnel, who could include susceptible individuals. A better understanding of the sources and patterns of poor air quality within base camps would help to inform prevention strategies to reduce personnel exposures. PMID:22364357

McNamara, Marcy L; Semmens, Erin O; Gaskill, Steven; Palmer, Charles; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

2012-01-01

396

Identification, Abundance and Origin of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Fine Atmospheric Particulate Matter of Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic chemical composition of the fine fraction of atmospheric particulate matter in Athens has been studied, in order\\u000a to establish emission sources. The results of the analyses of the aliphatic fraction indicate that all samples contain n-alkanes ranging from C14 to C32, with C25, C26, C27 and C29 being the more abundant congeners. Fossil fuels biomarkers such as extended

G. Andreou; S. D. Alexiou; G. Loupa; S. Rapsomanikis

2008-01-01

397

Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarr, G.; Tamburo, E.

2013-01-01

398

Study of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Dongguan.  

PubMed

Total suspended and size-segregated atmospheric particles were collected in four seasons at three representative points in different functional areas of Dongguan City. The detailed size distributions of six nitro-PAHs [2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 9-nitroanthracene, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL), 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP)] were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using a binary elution gradient (methanol and water). We used a toxicity assessment based on potency equivalency factors (PEFs) to estimate the inhalation risk of the particulate matter. The results showed that, aside from 2-NF and 2-NFL, the content of the other four nitro-PAHs in the microparticles (<0.4?m) were more than 20%, a percentage significantly higher than other fractions of particulate matter. The seasonal distribution of nitro-PAHs shows that their concentrations were higher in the winter, while the PAH concentrations were higher in the summer. The study found that secondary formation (2-NFL and 2-NP) had a positive correlation with NO x and NO2, but a negative correlation with O3. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity of particulate matter in Dongguan City ranged from 0.04 to 2.63ngm(-3), and the carcinogenic index ranged from 0.04??10(-6) to 2.39??10(-6). These values do not represent a serious threat to human health. PMID:24578256

Lan, Shan-Hong; Lan, Hui-Xia; Yang, Dan; Wu, Xiu-Wen

2014-06-01

399

Estimating the mortality impacts of particulate matter: what can be learned from between-study variability?  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of the link between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and mortality rates have yielded a range of estimates, leading to disagreement about the magnitude of the relationship and the strength of the causal connection. Previous meta-analyses of this literature have provided pooled effect estimates, but have not addressed between-study variability that may be associated with analytical models, pollution patterns, and exposed populations. To determine whether study-specific factors can explain some of the variability in the time-series studies on mortality from particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), we applied an empirical Bayes meta-analysis. We estimate that mortality rates increase on average by 0.7% per 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) concentrations, with greater effects at sites with higher ratios of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5))/PM(10). This finding did not change with the inclusion of a number of potential confounders and effect modifiers, although there is some evidence that PM effects are influenced by climate, housing characteristics, demographics, and the presence of sulfur dioxide and ozone. Although further analysis would be needed to determine which factors causally influence the relationship between PM(10) and mortality, these findings can help guide future epidemiologic investigations and policy decisions. Images Figure 1

Levy, J I; Hammitt, J K; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

400

Audio-Tutorial Elementary School Science Instruction as a Method for Study of Children's Concept Learning: Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment group of first-graders received audio-tutorial instruction in the particulate nature of matter; the control group received audio-tutorial instruction in a nonscience subject. The treatment group used a particulate model to explain the nature of smells much more effectively than the control group. (MLH)

Hibbard, K. Michael; Novak, Joseph D.

1975-01-01

401

A comparison of air particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some tropical and temperate urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12 month study of urban concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP) and 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was carried out in Seoul (South Korea), Hong Kong, Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia) and Melbourne (Australia). Concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere varied widely between the cities over the course of the study, ranging from a low of 24.1?gm?3 in Melbourne

B. C. Panther; M. A. Hooper; N. J. Tapper

1999-01-01

402

Sedimentation of particulate matter in the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia: Spatial and temporal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended and sedimented particulate materials were assessed monthly at five sites on the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia, from May 1986 to April 1987. Sedimentation of particulate matter was measured using sediment traps for 24 h. Resuspension, which accounted for more than 80% of the total sedimentation, was distinguished to calculate net sedimentation values. The mean net sedimentation rate for

J. Clavier; P. Chardy; C. Chevillon

1995-01-01

403

Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

Palanques, A.; Drake, D. E.

1990-01-01

404

PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON FINDINGS FROM THE FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This collection of papers, which is the first coordinated publication of results from the Phase II Supersites Program, reflects the objectives of the program - to characterize particulate matter, to provide information, such as source-receptor relationships, that support health...

405

THE ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS WITH SPECIFIC HEALTH EFFECTS IN HEALTHY HIGHWAY PATROL OFFICERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimated exposures to ambient respirable particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants have been statistically associated with mortality and morbidity in epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world. Although some subpopulations (e.g., asthmatics; elderly, pulmonar...

406

Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

407

PREFACE OF SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This article is the preface or editors note to a dedicated issue of Aerosol Science and Technology, journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research. It includes a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites ...

408

ACTIVATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO UTAH VALLEY PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in the Utah Valley (UV) has previously been associated with a variety of adverse health effects. To investigate intracellular signaling mechanisms for pulmonary responses to UV PM inhalation, human primary airway epithelial cells (NHBE)...

409

Evaluation of Particulate Matter (PM) Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS). Final Report. Volume 4: Appendices for RCA No. 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report describes an extended field demonstration of three particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) at a coal-fired boiler equipped with a lime slurry scrubber and baghouse for air pollution control. The primary obje...

D. Bivins

2000-01-01

410

76 FR 28646 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administered by EPA in states that lack a PSD...their approved state implementation...controlling particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM 10 ) and analyzing impacts...EPA-approved state PSD programs...32551. Natural gas...

2011-05-18

411

75 FR 6827 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public, industry, and other persons that...40 CFR part 124 and similar State regulations, an...from becoming final and effective until...Fine Particulate Matter and the NAAQS for...into the air as a solid or liquid particle...

2010-02-11

412

EFFECT OF SIZE AND CHEMISTRY OF AMBIENT, COMBUSTION AND SURROGATE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON PULMONARY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is much evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) can create adverse health effects including increased morbidity and mortality, the actual physico-chemical characteristics of particles which cause these effects remains elusive. One central hypothesis is that PM ...

413

DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

414

Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

415

Case-Crossover Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Arrest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous recent epidemiologic studies report increases in the daily incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity related to increases in daily levels of fine particulate matter (PM)(sup star) air pollution. This study sought to evaluate the...

H. Checkoway D. Levy L. Sheppard J. Kaufman J. Koenig D. Siscovick

2000-01-01

416

Source apportionment of particulate matter at urban mixed site in Indonesia using PMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A receptor model of positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify the emission sources of fine and coarse particulates in Bandung, a city located at about 150 km south-east of Jakarta. Total of 367 samples were collected at urban mixed site, Tegalega area, in Bandung City during wet and dry season in the period of 2001-2007. The samples of fine and coarse particulate matter were collected simultaneously using dichotomous samplers and mini-volume samplers. The Samples from dichotomous Samplers were analyzed for black carbon and elements while samples from mini-volume samplers were analyzed for ions. The species analyzed in this study were Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+. The data were then analyzed using PMF to determine the source factors. Different numbers of source factors were found during dry and wet season. During dry season, the main source factors for fine particles were secondary aerosol (NH 4) 2SO 4, electroplating industry, vehicle emission, and biomass burning, while for coarse particles, the dominant source factors were electroplating industry, followed by aged sea salt, volcanic dust, soil dust, and lime dust. During the wet season, the main source factors for fine particulate matter were vehicle emission and secondary aerosol. Other sources detected were biomass burning, lime dust, soil and volcanic dust. While for coarse particulate matter, the main source factors were sulphate-rich industry, followed by lime dust, soil dust, industrial emission and construction dust.

Lestari, Puji; Mauliadi, Yandhinur Dwi

417

Ecological Transport and Radiation Doses from Ground Water Borne Radioactive Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turnover of radioactive matter entering the biosphere with ground water has been studied with regard to exposure and dose to critical groups and populations. The main alternatives considered for outflow of radioactive effluents to the biosphere are: outfl...

R. Bergman U. Bergstroem S. Evans

1978-01-01

418

Atmospheric mercury in the vapor phase, and in fine and coarse particulate matter at Perch River, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily samples of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter ( da < 2.5 ?m, and 2.5 ?m < da < 10 ?m), and vapor-phase mercury have been collected at five locations in upstate New York over a period of two years. Atmospheric concentrations were determined for mercury and, in the particulate matter, for up to 38 other elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). At the Perch River sampling site, the average vapor-phase mercury concentration was 2.4 ng m -3 with a seasonal pattern of higher winter and lower summer concentrations observed over both years of sampling. The average fine and coarse particulate concentrations were 0.058 and 0.025 ng m -3, respectively. Concentrations for the particulate concentrations followed a log-normal frequency distribution with the most frequently occurring value for fine particulates being 0.012 ng m -3 and for coarse particulates 0.009 ng m -3. Episodic high concentrations of both fine and coarse particulate mercury indicate the impact of specific s ources. No correlation was found among the three different types of samples on either an overall or daily basis. By applying factor analysis (FA) to the data and using known marker species for specific types of emissions, the sources of the particulate mercury were identified and their contributions estimated. Fine particulate mercury concentrations were primarily associated with regional sources in the midwestern U.S.A., with copper smelting, and with the combined influence of aluminum and precious metals processing. Coarse particulate mercury concentrations were principally related to local aluminum processing facilities. The source identification results of the FA were confirmed by examining back-projected, mixed-layer wind trajectories. From February 1993 through the end of the particulate sampling in September 1993 fine particulate mercury concentrations declined significantly possibly due to the installation of particulate controls at one or more of the copper smelters.

Ames, Michael; Gullu, Gulen; Olmez, Ilhan

419

Radioactive background in a cryogenic dark matter experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New generation dark matter experiments aim at exploring the 10 -9 - 10 -10 pb cross-section region for WIMP-nucleon scalar interactions. Neutrons and gamma-rays, due to radioactive processes, are produced in the detector components and are one of the main factors that can limit detector sensitivity. Estimation of the background from this source then becomes a crucial task for designing future large-scale detectors. Radioactive background event rates from some detector components (such as copper and stainless steel), as well as from rock and concrete (lab walls), were estimated in this work for a hypothetical cryogenic dark matter detector (for instance EURECA) with a target mass of 100-1000 kg. Different shielding configurations (water, lead, polyethylene, plexiglass) were considered. Neutrons and photons were propagated to the detector using GEANT4. Some requirements for the radio-purity of the materials were deduced from the results of these simulations. Thickness of shielding in different configurations and the required gamma discrimination factor were investigated.

Tomasello, V.; Robinson, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.

2010-09-01

420

Biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter in Russian rivers entering the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical signature of riverine matter in the Russian Arctic was investigated to establish a background for tracing terrestrial organic material in the Arctic Ocean. Elemental and lignin compositions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM), stable carbon isotope ratios of POM and nutrient concentrations are reported for 12 Russian rivers along 4000 km of coastline. The 12 rivers account for about 43% of the freshwater supply to the Arctic Ocean. Nine rivers drain both tundra and taiga areas and three rivers only tundra. Concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients and phosphate were low, whereas silicate values were generally high with only few exceptions. The concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) varied between 25.5 and 291 ?mol/L C, contributing 0.4-2.1% to the total suspended sediment (TSS). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranging from 230 to 1006 ?mol/L C was on average eight times higher than POC. The concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen were similar (ca. 11 ?mol/L N) resulting in four times higher C/N ratios in the dissolved fraction (48) compared to the particulate fraction (11). The ? 13C ratios were uniform (-25.6 to -27.4) and similar in taiga and tundra draining rivers. The exclusively terrestrial component lignin, determined as lignin phenols after cupric oxide oxidation, ranged from 5.6 to 37.6 nmol/L in the particulate fraction and from 34 to 319 nmol/L in the dissolved fraction. The syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) ratios of the particulate and dissolved lignin phenols were significantly correlated with the proportion of tundra and taiga in the drainage areas. This is true despite different formation processes and diagenetic degree of POM and DOM, as evident from acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl phenols [(Ad/Al)v]. Export rates were calculated from the carbon and lignin data. The 12 rivers studied transport about 10 10 12 g of total organic carbon per year into the Arctic Ocean. The largest proportion is discharged by the Yenisey River with about 5 10 12 g/yr. Total lignin discharge was about 42 10 9 g/yr. The contribution of lignin to the overall carbon flux (0.26% of carbon export) was almost negligible, which does not limit its quality as a quantitative tracer for organic matter fluxes from tundra and taiga regions.

Lobbes, Jrg M.; Fitznar, Hans Peter; Kattner, Gerhard

2000-09-01

421

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

422

Ambient levels of particulate organic matter in New York City in winter and summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of suspended particulate matter were collected during two summer and two winter sampling campaigns. Non-polar, moderately polar and polar fractions of particulate organic matter (POM) were separated by 8h sequential Soxhlet extractions with cyclobexane, dichloromethane and acetone, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of total POM averaged 13.0 ?gm -3 for the two summer periods and 16.0 ?gm -3 for the two winter periods. Extractable organic matter in respirable (D 50?3.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) suspended particulate matter was 81% of the TSP organics during January-February 1978, but only 54% of TSP organics in August 1978. Evaluation of dispersion normalized aerosol concentrations of POM indicated that space heating contributed approximately 75% of the total POM in New York City in February 1977 and 51% in January-February 1978. The strong association of POM with the "oil-burning" factor obtained by factor analysis performed on the data was also indicative of a substantial contribution from this source. Use of high-sulfur (1.5-15 %) fuel oil in New York City during the 1976-1977 fuel crisis appears to have had a striking and significant impact on both total emissions and ambient concentrations of POM during February 1977. The cumulative evidence indicates oil-burning for space heating is currently the most significant source of POM although it contributes only 10-20% of the TSP. The atmospheric concentrations of POM and TSP determined in this study were compared to those measured at the same site in 1968 and 1969. Although wintertime TSP levels have declined to almost one-half of the levels of 1968 and 1969, wintertime concentrations of airborne POM do not appear to have declined. The summertime concentrations of POM in 1977 and 1978 were about 40% higher than those determined for similar periods in 1968 and 1969.

Daisey, J. M.; Hershman, R. J.; Kneip, T. J.

423

Particulate Matter  

MedlinePLUS

... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution. Video PSAs EPA's Burn Wise program released two ... announcements (PSAs) to help the public reduce PM pollution from wood smoke. Your Air Quality Good Moderate ...

424

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

425

Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units. PMID:24462881

Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stphane; Bussires, Denis; Lagac, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frdric

2014-03-01

426

Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma.

Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

2013-01-01

427

SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

428

Atmospheric secondary inorganic particulate matter: the toxicological perspective as a basis for health effects risk assessment.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have provided evidence for an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter and increased mortality and morbidity. However, the exact physicochemical nature of the responsible components is not as yet clear. One major constituent of the ambient aerosol is secondary inorganic particles, which are produced within the atmosphere via chemical reactions and are dominated by sulfates and nitrates. This article reviews the biological effects resulting from exposure to these ambient aerosol constituents. It was developed based upon available data from peer reviewed published papers as well as publicly available reports on controlled animal and human clinical exposure studies. The aim was to provide a toxicological basis for addressing the issue of whether ambient concentrations of these secondary aerosols in two venues, namely the United States and the Netherlands, could be causally related to reported human health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter. Evaluation of the toxicological database suggests that these particles have little biological potency in normal humans or animals, or in the limited compromised animal models studied at environmentally relevant levels. There are, however, some critical caveats in this analysis that must be considered. First, it is important to understand the relationship between animal exposure studies and actual human exposures, in terms of both particle size and inhaled dose. Second, it is necessary to consider the physicochemical characteristics of the chemical species within ambient air compared to the characteristics of those used in controlled studies. Third, there is the issue of relevance of the exposure models used in these studies to those populations that may be affected by exposure to ambient particulates. Finally, the potential for interactions between particulates and ambient gases in the total atmospheric mix must be considered in developing conclusions as to exposure concentrations for the former constituents of polluted air that may be hazardous to public health. PMID:12579454

Schlesinger, Richard B; Cassee, Flemming

2003-03-01

429

Nature and dynamics of phosphorus-containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular sources, dynamics and analytical characterizations of the phosphorus (P) containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) are reviewed. Using a combination of 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on samples collected from a depth profile (20-4000 m) at Station Aloha in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the biomolecular associations of P functional groups in marine OM are identified. Compositional differences between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM; 1-100 nm size fraction) and ultrafiltered particulate organic matter (UPOM; 0.1-60 ?m size fraction) as reflected by NMR and elemental analyses indicate that UDOM does not originate from simple solubilization of UPOM, and the aggregation of UDOM is not the primary source of UPOM. Regression analyses indicated a large fraction of the P in UDOM is associated with carbohydrates and amino acids, but not with lipids. Similar analyses for UPOM indicated that P is associated with carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. The P functional groups also appear to be balanced in their distribution among molecular classes, because they remain in relatively constant proportion throughout the ocean.

Sannigrahi, Poulomi; Ingall, Ellery D.; Benner, Ronald

2006-12-01

430

Lipid biomarkers for heterotrophic alteration of suspended particulate organic matter in oxygenated and anoxic water columns of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid, sterol and hydrocarbon composition of suspended particles from the central North Pacific VERTEX IV site and from the Black Sea were used to investigate the abundance of biomarkers produced by heterotrophic alteration of particulate organic matter (POM). At the oceanic VERTEX site, bacterial alteration of organic matter did not contribute significant amounts of diagnostic lipids to particles,

Stuart G. Wakeham

1995-01-01

431

Detrital bedrock elements as tracers of settling resuspended particulate matter in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter settling out of the trophogenic layer was collected in sediment traps at five stations during 5 yr in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. Al, Fe, and Ti in the intercepted matter were inferred to bc due mainly to the presence of fine-grained bedrock detritus and were used as markers to calculate the proportion of primary settling

SVEN BLOMQVIST; ULF LARSSON

1994-01-01

432

Novel algal polyphenolic biomacromolecules as significant contributors to resistant fractions of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether novel polyphenolic constituents, that have been reported to contribute considerably to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM), are of algal origin, a number of algae, i.e. the brown macroalgae Nereocystis luetkeana, Fucus gardneri, Costaria costata, Sargassum muticum, a green macroalga Ulva fenestrata, a red macroalga Opuntiella californica and a microalga Rhodomonas sp., were subjected

Jasper D. H. Van Heemst; Sophie Peulve; Jan W. De Leeuw

1996-01-01

433

Spatial and seasonal variability of particulate matter optical and size properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter plays a paramount role in the biogeochemical processes taking place in the marine environment. We report seasonal (spring and summer 2008) distribution of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean, along a transect extending from the open Ionian Sea to the North Aegean Sea, including measurements in the Levantine Sea. A suite of optical instruments measuring beam attenuation (beam cp), fluorescence and particle size, the latter obtained with the innovative in-situ laser particle sizer LISST-Deep are used in concert with traditional measurements of particulate matter concentration (PMC), and total chlorophyll ? from bottle samples. PMCs were generally low during both seasons (range: 0.02-0.85 mg L- 1), with values substantially higher in the euphotic zone during spring. The deep waters (> 200 m) in the Eastern Mediterranean exhibit extremely low PMCs, well-below 0.1 mg L- 1. Total chlorophyll ? concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.28 ?g L- 1 in spring and from 0.08 to 0.19 ?g L- 1 in summer, verifying the ultra-oligotrophic character of the area. A significant correlation of beam cp and fluorescence in spring suggests that sources of particles are primarily biogenic in the surface waters. Deep water formation triggered the development of a ~ 900-m thick benthic nepheloid layer in the N. Aegean Sea. LISST-Deep revealed valuable information on the particle volume concentrations and the median particle size. It is striking that large particles (range: 31-230 ?m; median ~ 85 ?m) predominate in the entire region, from the surface up to the deep waters. In addition, accumulation of particles in the pycnocline is observed during summer; however, it is possible that schlieren (increase in beam attenuation due to scattering off of density gradients) could be responsible for the high particle volume concentrations and large median particle diameters recorded. These measurements, conducted for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean constitute valuable baseline information for future research.

Karageorgis, A. P.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Pagou, K.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Pavlidou, A.; Anagnostou, Ch.

2012-12-01

434

Measurement of suspended particulate matter under near-inertial drifiting sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has attempted to investigate the dynamic behavior of suspended particulate matters (SPM) under the sea ice. Main objectives are (1) to report the role of rapidly-melting summer sea ice as a new source of SPM, and (2) to estimate the vertical and temporal variation in size and settling flux of SPM under sea ice using novel holographic and acoustic techniques. Mooring observation of hydrography, hydrodynamics and suspended particles distribution under a drifting sea ice revealed the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper mixed layer of the marginal ice zone. The ice floe where the mooring system was installed drifted as near-inertial motion with approximately 12-h cycle. Due to the high melt rates of the sea ice during the summertime, a large amount of particulate matters embedded in the sea ice were released into the underlying water column. Using the mooring package, an on-ice experiment was performed to estimate the vertical and temporal variation in SPM. SPM concentration under the sea ice fluctuated in the range of 60-100 mg/l during the rapidly-melting summertime. Results suggest that combined effects of the increase in insolation, ice algal production, and the decrease in ice and snow cover and multi-year sea ice extent could create favorable conditions for enhancing the concentration and flux of SPM during the rapidly-melting summer season. With the thinning and retreat trend of Arctic sea ice, it is expected that under-ice water column will in future receive a much higher rate of discharge of particulate matters from melting sea ice.

Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Yong Hoon; Lee, Hyunjung; Hwang, Byongjun

2014-05-01

435

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

SciTech Connect

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2010-09-15

436

The Effect of Rainfall on Biogeochemistry Characterization of Particulate Organic Matter in the Intertidal Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall kinetic energy and surface runoff have the ability to do a substantial amount of work on intertidal landscapes, resulting in a 2-3 order of magnitude increase in suspended sediment concentration in subtidal channels. Low tide rainfall can also alter the bulk composition of carbon and other nutrients in surface sediments and in the water column. We sampled rainfall-mobilized suspended sediment in two intertidal creeks in North Inlet (South Carolina) salt marsh and examined their elemental (carbon and nitrogen), isotopic (?13C and ?15N) and CuO oxidation product (COP) compositions. The concentrations and compositions of rainfall- entrained particulate matter varied widely but were significantly different from no-rain samples and surface marsh sediments. Lignin, amino acid and fatty acid products varied most during rainfall and their concentrations were controlled by rain intensity and surface marsh sediment composition. It appears that rainfall intensity also regulates the variations in COP concentration in the water column, but different sediment sources influence their total amounts. COP parameters such as acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols, cynnamyl/vanillyl ratios and syringyl/vanillyl ratios indicate that rainfall driven organic matter is more degraded and from distinct terrigenous sources. This finding indicates that intertidal rainfall-runoff processes likely entrain deeper sediment, and then suspend and transport organic matter which is distinct from tidally-resuspended particulate matter. Overall, the rainfall-driven supply of organic matter with distinct composition suggests that this process can selectively and efficiently mobilize materials across the intertidal-subtidal interface, affecting the biogeochemistry of both marsh and tidal creeks.

Chen, S.; Torres, R.; Goni, M. A.

2010-12-01

437

Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the materials in simulated body fluids (SBFs), physiologically based extraction tests (PBETs) are an inexpensive, acellular in vitro test. Bioaccessibility, defined as the fraction of a potential toxicant that becomes soluble in the SBF (e.g. gastric, intestinal, lung or lysosomal fluid), is an indication of the amounts of a potential toxicant that may be available for absorption through ingestion or inhalation. PBETs were conducted on artificially generated dust samples from playas in the Mojave Desert and soil and ash samples from recent California wildfires. Speciation, an important factor in assessing toxicity, was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with ICP-MS detection for arsenic and chromium.

Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

2008-12-01

438

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity.  

PubMed

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter?2.5 and ?10 ?m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. PMID:21864838

Haynes, Erin N; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N

2011-11-01

439

Bim mediates mitochondria-regulated particulate matter-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We studied the role of Bim, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member in Airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 ?m)-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). PM induced AEC apoptosis by causing significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation. PM upregulated pro-apoptotic protein Bim and enhanced translocation of Bim to the mitochondria. ShRNABim blocked PM-induced apoptosis by preventing activation of the mitochondrial death pathway suggesting a role of Bim in the regulation of mitochondrial pathway in AEC. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that Bim mediates PM-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

Zhang, J.; Ghio, A.J.; Chang, W.; Kamdar, O.; Rosen, G.D.; Upadhyay, D.

2007-01-01

440

Dimethyl and monomethyl sulfate: presence in coal fly ash and airborne particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Because of the proved mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of dimethyl sulfate, total suspended airborne particulate matter and flyash from the flue line of a modern chain-grate stoker type, coal-fired heating plant that burns about 20,000 tpy coal were analyzed. Dimethyl sulfate and its hydrolysis product, monomethyl sulfate, were found at concentrations as high as 830 ppM. These compounds can have residence times of hours to days in the ambient atmosphere. (3 graphs, 15 references, 1 table)

Lee, M.L.; Later, D.W.; Rollins, D.K.; Eatough, D.J.; Hansen, L.D.

1980-01-11

441

Characteristics and composition of particulate matter from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) were performed at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic\\u000a precipitators (ESP) of four boilers in two full-scale pulverized coal power plants. PM was collected with a 13-stages low-pressure-impactor\\u000a (LPI) having aerodynamic cut-off diameter ranging from 10.0 to 0.03 ?m for a size-segregated collection. The properties of\\u000a PM including its concentration, mass

XiaoWei Liu; MingHou Xu; Hong Yao; DunXi Yu; ZhongHua Zhang; DangZhen L

2009-01-01

442

Method for measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in ambient air.  

PubMed

A method for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is described. The particulate matter is collected on fibre-glass filters. The loaded filters are placed in tetrahydrofuran and the PAHs dissolved with the aid of ultrasonics and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a reversed-phase column with a methanol-water mixture as mobile phase. The PAHs are detected by use of a UV-detector and the 254-nm mercury emission line. The method is rapid and adequate for measuring about 15 PAH-components in ambient air. PMID:18962756

Mller, J; Rohbock, E

1980-08-01

443

Weekly cycle in particulate matter versus weekly cycle in precipitation over Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years the question has been raised if there is a weekly cycle in climatological variables due to anthropogenic activity. In this study, particulate matter (PM) data and precipitation data from 17 Swiss weather stations are analyzed for weekly cycles with three different methods: a nonparametric statistical test, a Fourier analysis on the time series, and a comparison of the regular 7-day week with either a 6- or 8-day week. Results show a well-pronounced and statistical significant weekly cycle for PM but do not show any statistically significant weekly cycle for meteorological quantities such as precipitation.

Barmet, Peter; Kuster, Thomas; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Lohmann, Ulrike

2009-03-01

444

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity  

PubMed Central

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (?2.5 ?m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urbanrural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (20032005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 34% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ?2.5 and ?10 ?m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored.

Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

2011-01-01

445

The geochemistry of deepwater particulate matter over the hydrothermal field at 9d50' N (the East Pacific Rise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of geochemical studies of particulate matter in the water mass over the hydrothermal field at 950' N on the East Pacific Rise are presented. The particulate matter was tested in background waters, in the buoyant plume, and in the near-bottom waters. The contents of Si, Al, P, Corg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ag, and Hg were determined. No definite correlations were found between the ele-ments in the background waters. Many of the chemical elements correlated with Fe and associated with its oxyhydroxides in the buoyant plume. In the near-bottom waters, microelements are associated with Fe, Zn, and Cu (probably, to their sulfides formed under fluid mixing with seawater). The matter precipitated in a sed-imentation trap was similar to the near-bottom particulate matter in the elemental composition.

Lukashin, V. N.; Demina, L. L.; Gordeev, V. V.; Gordeev, V. Yu.

2012-04-01

446

Control of diesel particulate matter in underground coal mines. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has conducted research on methods to reduce and to measure diesel particulate matter (DPM) aerosols in underground coal mines. One objective of the report is to present findings from an investigation of the DPM reductions obtained by an engine-mounted integrated control system consisting of a dry system (DS) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Another objective is to present results from the use of a size-selective personal sampler to measure DPM concentrations in an underground coal mine. Bureau laboratory tests of the integrated dry system and diesel particulate filter (DS-DPF) have shown that DPM emissions can be reduced up to 97% with little change in gaseous emission concentrations. The DS-DPF is undergoing certification tests conducted by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Subsequent to passing all safety requirements, it will be tested in an underground coal mine. A baseline survey of DPM concentrations and aerosol size distributions in a cooperating mine was completed in August 1988. A prototype DPM personal sampler was tested during the survey. Based on results from the test, an improved unit has been developed. The unit is scheduled for extensive field testing by MSHA in 1989.

Watts, W.F.; Baumgard, K.J.; Cantrell, B.K.; Rubow, K.L.

1989-01-01

447

Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing  

PubMed Central

The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation.

Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

2014-01-01

448

Time course of bronchial cell inflammation following exposure to diesel particulate matter using a modified EAVES.  

PubMed

Electrostatic deposition of particles onto the surface of well-differentiated airway cells is a rapid and efficient means to screen for toxicity associated with exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution. This work describes the development and application of an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES) with increased throughput and ease-of-use. The modified EAVES accommodates standard tissue culture plates and uses an alternating electric field to deposit a net neutral charge of aerosol onto air-interface cell cultures. Using this higher-throughput design, we were able to examine the time-course (1, 3, 6, 9, and 24h post-exposure) of transcript production and cytotoxicity in well-differentiated human bronchial cells exposed to diesel particulate matter at levels of 'real-world' significance. Statistically significant responses were observed at exposure levels (?0.4?g/cm(2)) much lower than typically reported in vitro using traditional submerged/resuspended techniques. Levels of HO-1, IL-8, CYP1A1, COX-2, and HSP-70 transcripts increased immediately following diesel particulate exposure and persisted for several hours; cytotoxicity was increased at 24h. The modified EAVES provides a platform for higher throughput, more efficient and representative testing of aerosol toxicity in vitro. PMID:24681185

Hawley, Brie; McKenna, Dave; Marchese, Anthony; Volckens, John

2014-08-01

449

Suspended particulate matter concentrations along the East-West Corridor, Trinidad, West Indies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality sampling program was designed and implemented to collect baseline concentrations of respirable suspended particulates (PM 10) over a six-week period from a network of 18 stations along a populated urban corridor. Air was sampled using portable mini-volume samplers operating in the particulate-sampling mode. Daily samples were gravimetrically determined and comparisons made between the results obtained. Daily PM 10 values at some locations met and approached the US 24-h ambient PM 10 standard value of 150 ?g m -3. Mean levels of PM 10 ranged between 46-88 ?g m -3, the higher mean levels reflected the closeness of these stations to heavy road traffic; a source of airborne particulate matter. While spatial distribution of PM 10 was related to the distance from road traffic, temporal variation in PM 10 appeared to be principally associated with presence of Sahara dust, delivered to the region by the North Atlantic Trade Winds. Correlations of PM 10 data with road traffic counts and meteorological parameters were generally low.

Rajkumar, Wayne Simon; Siung Chang, Avril

450

Characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in Neversink Reservoir, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural organic matter (NOM) was isolated from the water of the Neversink Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply, located in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The NOM was fractionated into the following nine different fractions by the isolation procedure: (1) coarse particulates, (2) fine-particulate organics, (3) solvent-extractable organics, (4) hydrophobic neutrals (HPON fraction), (5) dissolved colloids, (6) bases, (7) hydrophobic acids (HPOA), (8) transphilic acids + neutrals (TPI-A+N), and (9) hydrophilic acids + neutrals (HPI-A+N). Each of these fractions, with exception of the first and the third which were too small for the complete series of analyses, was characterized by elemental, carbohydrate, and amino acid analyses, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectrometry. The data obtained from these analyses indicate (1) that the fine-particulate organics and colloids are mainly composed of peptidoglycans, and lipopolysaccharides derived from algal, bacterial, and fungal cell walls, (2) that the HPO-N fraction most likely consists of a mixture of alicyclic terpenes and carbohydrates, (3) that the HPOA fraction consists mainly of lignin components conjugated to carbohydrates, (4) that the TPI-A+N and the HPI-A+N fractions most likely represent complex mixtures of relatively low molecular weight carboxylic acids derived from terpenes, carbohydrates, and peptides, and (5) that the base fraction is composed of free amino acids, browning reaction products, and peptide fragments.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Cox, Larry G.

2005-01-01

451

Particulate matter pollution and population exposure assessment over mainland China in 2010 with remote sensing.  

PubMed

The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation. PMID:24830453

Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

2014-05-01

452

Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in ?g m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 ?g m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 ?g m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

453

Measurements and characteristics of nitrogen-containing compounds in atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China  

SciTech Connect

The total nitrogen (TN) and water-soluble nitrogenous ions were determined by using CHN Elemental Analyzer and ion chromatography method, respectively, from November 24, 1998 to February 12, 1999 in Beijing. The average concentrations of TN, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} were 10.62 {mu} g N m{sup -3}, 6.67 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 10.01 {mu} g m{sup -3}, respectively. The total inorganic nitrogen (IN) calculated from NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} was 7.45 {mu} g N m{sup -3}, accounting for 70% of TN, i.e., 30% of TN existed as organic nitrogen form (ON). The correlation between ON and other pollution tracers showed that, coal combustion, biomass burning, soil humic matter and secondary formation were the important sources of ON in particulate matter in Beijing.

Duan, F.K.; Liu, X.D.; He, K.B.; Dong, S.P. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. for Environmental Science and Engineering

2009-03-15

454

Real-world particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked atmospheric particulate matter with human health problems. In many urban areas, mobile sources are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and the dominant source of fine particles or PM2.5 (PM smaller than 2.5 pm in aerodynamic diameter). Dynamometer studies have implicated diesel engines as being a significant source of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 microm), which may also exhibit deleterious health impacts. In addition to direct tailpipe emissions, mobile sources contribute to ambient particulate levels by brake and tire wear and by resuspension of particles from pavement. Information about particle emission rates, size distributions, and chemical composition from in-use light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles is scarce, especially under real-world operating conditions. To characterize particulate emissions from a limited set of in-use vehicles, we studied on-road emissions from vehicles operating under hot-stabilized conditions, at relatively constant speed, in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel along the Pennsylvania Turnpike from May 18 through 23, 1999. There were five specific aims of the study. (1) obtain chemically speciated diesel profiles for the source apportionment of diesel versus other ambient constituents in the air and to determine the chemical species present in real-world diesel emissions; (2) measure particle number and size distribution of chemically speciated particles in the atmosphere; (3) identify, by reference to data in years past, how much change has occurred in diesel exhaust particulate mass; (4) measure particulate emissions from LD gasoline vehicles to determine their contribution to the observed particle levels compared to diesels; and (5) determine changes over time in gas phase emissions by comparing our results with those of previous studies. Comparing the results of this study with our 1992 results, we found that emissions of C8 to C20 hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from HD diesel emissions substantially decreased over the seven-year period. Particulate mass emissions showed a similar trend. Considering a 25-year period, we observed a continued downward trend in HD particulate emissions from approximately 1,100 mg/km in 1974 to 132 mg/km (reported as PM2.5) in this study. The LD particle emission factor was considerably less than the HD value, but given the large fraction of LD vehicles, emissions from this source cannot be ignored. Results of the current study also indicate that both HD and LD vehicles emit ultrafine particles and that these particles are preserved under real-world dilution conditions. Particle number distributions were dominated by ultrafine particles with count mean diameters of 17 to 13 nm depending on fleet composition. These particles appear to be primarily composed of sulfur, indicative of sulfuric acid emission and nucleation. Comparing the 1992 and 1999 HD emission rates, we observed a 48% increase in the NOx/CO2 emissions ratio. This finding supports the assumption that many new-technology diesel engines conserve fuel but increase NOx emissions. PMID:11954677

Gertler, Alan W; Gillies, John A; Pierson, William R; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John C; Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Coulombe, William; Tarnay, Leland; Cahill, Thomas A

2002-01-01

455

Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castelln (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gmez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordn M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordn M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain" Water, Air and Soil Pollution 162:127-142. Pallars S., Vicente A.B.; Jordn M.M.; Sanfeliu T. (2007) "Study of the levels of concentration of As, Cd and Ni in a ceramic cluster" Water, Air and Soil Pollution 180:51-54.

Sanfeliu, Tefilo

2010-05-01

456

Physicochemical Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter at a Mainline Underground Railway Station  

PubMed Central

Underground railway stations are known to have elevated particulate matter (PM) loads compared to ambient air. As these particles are derived from metal-rich sources and transition metals may pose a risk to health by virtue of their ability to catalyze generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their potential enrichment in underground environments is a source of concern. Compared to coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate fractions of underground railway airborne PM, little is known about the chemistry of the ultrafine (PM0.1) fraction that may contribute significantly to particulate number and surface area concentrations. This study uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography to compare the elemental composition of size-fractionated underground PM with woodstove, roadwear generator, and road tunnel PM. Underground PM is notably rich in Fe, accounting for greater than 40% by mass of each fraction, and several other transition metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn) compared to PM from other sources. Importantly, ultrafine underground PM shows similar metal-rich concentrations as the coarse and fine fractions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a component of the coarse fraction of underground PM has a morphology indicative of generation by abrasion, absent for fine and ultrafine particulates, which may be derived from high-temperature processes. Furthermore, underground PM generated ROS in a concentration- and size-dependent manner. This study suggests that the potential health effects of exposure to the ultrafine fraction of underground PM warrant further investigation as a consequence of its greater surface area/volume ratio and high metal content.

2013-01-01

457

Application of satellite remote-sensing data for source analysis of fine particulate matter transport events.  

PubMed

Satellite sensors have provided new datasets for monitoring regional and urban air quality. Satellite sensors provide comprehensive geospatial information on air quality with both qualitative imagery and quantitative data, such as aerosol optical depth. Yet there has been limited application of these new datasets in the study of air pollutant sources relevant to public policy. One promising approach to more directly link satellite sensor data to air quality policy is to integrate satellite sensor data with air quality parameters and models. This paper presents a visualization technique to integrate satellite sensor data, ground-based data, and back trajectory analysis relevant to a new rule concerning the transport of particulate matter across state boundaries. Overlaying satellite aerosol optical depth data and back trajectories in the days leading up to a known fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm (PM2.5) event may indicate whether transport or local sources appear to be most responsible for high PM2.5 levels in a certain location at a certain time. Events in five cities in the United States are presented as case studies. This type of analysis can be used to help understand the source locations of pollutants during specific events and to support regulatory compliance decisions in cases of long distance transport. PMID:16259433

Engel-Cox, Jill A; Young, Gregory S; Hoff, Raymond M

2005-09-01

458

Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

2007-12-01

459

Health risk assessment of inhabitants exposed to PAHs particulate matter in air.  

PubMed

The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) was investigated in the particulate matter of samples taken at six sampling sites in the city of Curitiba (southern Brazil). The concentrations of suspended particulate matter ranged from 11.02 to 177.27 ng/m(3). The analysis showed that 14 of the 16 PAHs are considered a priority compound by the USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). The mixture of PAHs was predominantly composed of PAHs with 3 and 4 aromatic rings. Isomer pair ratios show that the main source of PAHs was from burning fossil fuels (gasoline and diesel oil), although other sources may have contributed also. Benzo(a)pyrene, (BaP), regarded one of the most toxic PAHs, was present in all samples, but with concentrations lower than the maximum concentrations defined by some EU Countries. The risk assessment was conducted using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF) considering the toxicity of the individual PAHs compared to BaP. The BaP(eq) for all samples was between 0.42-1.12 ng/m(3). The equivalent BaP(eq) indicated low health risk associated with exposure to the total PAHs content in air. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model was used to find the risk level for workers close to the emitting pollution sources. Outdoor exposure showed no risk for the amount of PAHs emitted. The acceptable risk is 10(-6); however, all results were lower than this value. PMID:21644163

Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell; Machado, Karina Scurupa; Grube, Marianne

2011-01-01

460

Individual particle analysis of indoor, outdoor, and community samples from the 1998 Baltimore particulate matter study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual human PM exposures within a susceptible (elderly) sub-population. Personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. The main objective of this work was to use computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) with individual-particle X-ray analysis to measure the chemical and physical characteristics of geological and trace element particles collected at the various sampling locations in and around the retirement facility. The CCSEM results show that the relative abundances of some geological and trace element particle classes identified at the outdoor and community locations differ from each other and from the indoor location. Particle images acquired during the computer-controlled analyses played a key role in the identification of certain particle types. Review of these images was particularly useful in distinguishing spherical particles (usually indicative of combustion) from non-spherical particles of similar chemical composition. Pollens and spores were also identified through a manual review of the particle images.

Conner, Teri L.; Norris, Gary A.; Landis, Matthew S.; Williams, Ronald W.

461

Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.  

PubMed

Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197

Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

2014-01-01

462

Monitoring lead in suspended air particulate matter in Ho Chi Minh City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne lead has been measured in Ho Chi Minh City in the framework of an environmental monitoring programme since late 1992. Air particulate matter was collected atop an eight-storey building in working hours in a near-downtown residential area. The average concentrations of lead and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) for the 1993-1994 period were (179 12) and (90 6) ?g m -3, respectively. Autoexhaust is believed to be a major source of lead; however, refuse burning and firecracker discharges may also contribute to some extent. Lead, while decreasing in rainy season, exhibited a rather irregular seasonal pattern resulting in a poor anticorrelation with rainfall in contrast with TSP. Lead values from 60 to 240 ng m -3 covering over 60% of measured data fit very well with a lognormal distribution mode which reflects the lognormality of wind speed with almost the same atmospheric stability condition. The deviations from this main distribution mode of lead concentrations outside this range are interpreted as due to the changes in atmospheric stability conditions that occurred during seasonal transition periods as well as under prolonged cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions.

Hien, P. D.; Binh, N. T.; Ngo, N. T.; Ha, V. T.; Truong, Y.; An, N. H.

463

Characterization of particulate matter emissions from a current technology natural gas engine.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source. PMID:24960475

Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Kappanna, Hemanth; Carder, Daniel K; Ayala, Alberto; Herner, Jorn; Gautam, Mridul

2014-07-15

464

Estimation of inorganic particulate matter in atmospheres of villages in Bahrain, by dry fall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic particulate matter was sampled weekly during the period Feb-May 1992 in Bellad Al-Qadim [BQ], North Sehla [NS], Tubli [T], and Marq overlineub overlinean [MQ], during the period March-May 1992 in Ad Diraz [DZ], and Karzakk overlinean [KZ] and from April-July 1992 in Al-Ma'amir [M] villages, Bahrain. The average mean conductivity of water soluble inorganic particulate matter was 140.55 ?S cm -1; total suspended solid 0.0684 (g dm -3 total dissolved solid 172.68 (ppm), total hardness as MgCO 3 48.88 (ppm); as CaCO 3 51.51(ppm); Cl - 11.82 (ppm); Na + 6.13 (ppm); K + 1.7 (ppm); alkalinity 5.35 m M; and NO 3- 2.69 (ppm). Each shows weekly variation in concentration. The aerosol data were influenced differently by some atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, prevailing wind speed and direction.

Ali-Mohamed, Ahmed Y.; Maki, Khalil E.; Saeed, A. Amir A.; Abdulla, Asma M.; Abdulla, Mahdia I.

465

Improved analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulate matter by HPLC-fluorescence.  

PubMed

An improved method is reported for determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particulate matter by HPLC-FLD. The sampling step (air volume collected during each sampling period varies in the range 10/13 m3) is carried out by means of a medium-flow pumping system (15 L min(-1)) on a glass fiber filter (47 mm diameter) placed as collecting substrate in the sampling-cassette. After sampling, the filter is extracted with 3 ml of acetonitrile in an ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes. As for extraction of PAHs from loaded filters a new criterion here is proposed to evaluate the recovery efficiency of PAHs from the sample, instead of the usual spiking method of standard solution. The extract was then reduced to 100 microL and analysed by HPLC-FLD on line spectra system. The method is rapid (about one hour for extraction and analysis), reproducible and enables to measure with good accuracy the atmospheric concentration of benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(ghi)perylene (BghiP), carcinogenic compounds always present in the urban airborne particulate matter. So it is useful for routine pollution studies and suitable to substitute the official method used now. Monthly average air concentrations, for the four PAHs above mentioned, measured in Rome from July 2001 to June 2002, are reported. PMID:15506626

Bacaloni, Alessandro; Cafaro, Claudia; De Giorgi, Loretta; Ruocco, Roberta; Zoccolillo, Lelio

2004-01-01

466

Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).  

PubMed

This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution. PMID:23828727

Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

2014-01-01

467

Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976  

SciTech Connect

In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

1984-01-01

468

Inorganic salts in atmospheric particulate matter: Raman spectroscopy as an analytical tool.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter is composed of inorganic and organic components of natural and anthropogenic origin. Wind-transport is probably the most important process responsible for the emission of solid particulate matter into the troposphere, but there are also important contributions from chemical reactions due to the interaction of different atmospheric components in presence of water and solar radiation. Sulfate, nitrate and carbonate salts can be both reactants and products in this complex dynamic system, and there is no doubt about their important i