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1

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH 02  

EPA Science Inventory

2002 PARTICULATE MATTER GPRA Goal 1: Clean Air; Objective 1.1: Ozone, PM, and SO2 NAAQS; Sub-Objective 1.1.5: Particulate Matter Research Description: In July 1997, EPA revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM), recogniz...

2

Health Effects of Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site gives a brief overview of how different sized particulate matter affects human health. It also discusses the environmental impacts of particulate matter, including haze and acid rain. The site also provides links to more in-depth resources about particle pollution and air quality criteria for particulate matter.

Environmental Protection Agency

3

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22

4

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01

5

Apparatus for particulate matter analysis  

DOEpatents

The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

2007-01-30

6

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

7

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

8

Source Testing for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

DeVorkin, Howard

9

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

10

Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

1987-01-01

11

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

12

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

13

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

14

Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers  

E-print Network

Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers -- A NARSTO Assessment -- Second Printing, April 2004, AUTHORS, and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SYNTHESIS PARTICULATE MATTER SCIENCE FOR POLICY MAKERS Assessment for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment. P. McMurry, M. Shepherd, and J. Vickery, eds. Cambridge

15

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

16

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2014-07-01

17

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2013-07-01

21

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0...

2013-07-01

22

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2011-07-01

23

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2012-07-01

24

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2012-07-01

25

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2010-07-01

26

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2010-07-01

27

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2012-07-01

28

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2012-07-01

30

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

32

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2010-07-01

34

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2014-07-01

35

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2011-07-01

36

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2011-07-01

37

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2010-07-01

38

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2010-07-01

39

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0...

2012-07-01

40

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2011-07-01

41

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2011-07-01

42

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2012-07-01

43

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2014-07-01

44

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2013-07-01

45

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2010-07-01

46

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2012-07-01

47

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2012-07-01

48

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2011-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2014-07-01

53

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2010-07-01

54

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2014-07-01

55

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2012-07-01

56

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2014-07-01

57

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60... § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as...

2012-07-01

58

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2011-07-01

59

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2014-07-01

60

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2014-07-01

61

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2012-07-01

62

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2012-07-01

63

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2014-07-01

64

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2012-07-01

67

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2013-07-01

68

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2012-07-01

69

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2011-07-01

70

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

71

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2010-07-01

73

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2014-07-01

74

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

75

Particulate matter in the central subtropical Pacific  

E-print Network

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the Central Subtropical Pacific and its relationships with water masses and currents were determined from optical and hydrographic data. Beam attenuation data were collected with a Sea Tech...

Colgan, Annette Renee

1995-01-01

76

OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

77

Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic ... work and how types of air pollution, including ozone, big particles, and small particles, can affect them. ...

78

Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

1985-01-01

79

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region....

2010-07-01

80

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOEpatents

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16

81

Associations between morbidity and alternative measures of particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the association between acute respiratory morbidity and different measures of exposure to airborne particulate matter, including sulfates, total suspended particulates, and fine and inhalable particulates. Regression analysis was used to test for the impacts of these alternative measures of particulate matter on respiratory morbidity using the 1979-1981 annual Health Interview Surveys and EPA's Inhalable Particle Monitoring Network.

Bart D. Ostro

1990-01-01

82

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2011-07-01

83

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2012-07-01

84

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2014-07-01

85

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2011-07-01

87

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2014-07-01

89

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2011-07-01

90

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2011-07-01

91

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.427 Section 52.427 Protection of...PLANS Delaware § 52.427 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2010-07-01

93

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2012-07-01

94

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2012-07-01

96

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2012-07-01

97

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2013-07-01

99

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2014-07-01

100

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of... Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has...

2011-07-01

101

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2014-07-01

102

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2013-07-01

103

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2012-07-01

104

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2011-07-01

105

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2013-07-01

106

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2010-07-01

107

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of... Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has...

2012-07-01

108

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2013-07-01

109

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2014-07-01

110

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2011-07-01

111

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2013-07-01

112

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2012-07-01

113

PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

114

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

115

Bacterial activity related to sedimenting particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of sedimentation of particulate matter were measured at a station in the Eckernförde Bight, Baltic Sea, using sediment traps. Different parameters (C, N, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), heterotrophic activity (glucose maximum uptake velocity, vmax), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and electron-transport-system (ETS) activity) were measured during a 1-year period to evalnate the composition, vertical distribution, and activity

R. Iturriaga

1979-01-01

116

Interaction between Aeroallergens and Airborne Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ interaction between pollen and airborne particulate matter (APM) as well as the effect of extracts of APM on grass pollen (Dactylis glomerata) was studied. The samples were processed for structural analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as for determination of protein content and release using immunoblot techniques. The results indicate a direct in situ

H. Behrendt; W. M. Becker; K. H. Friedrichs; U. Darsow; R. Tomingas

1992-01-01

117

REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

118

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

119

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

120

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 ?m (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the particulate matter is from long-range transport. A reduction in combustion generated particles would lead to a significant decrease in the smallest particle sizes and in the concentration of traffic generated toxics like benzo(a)pyrene.

Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

2005-12-01

121

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

122

Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

2007-03-01

123

Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term increase in fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) concentration increases the risk for myocardial infarctions, strokes, and heart failure exacerbations. An important mechanism likely contributing to these associations is an elevation in arterial blood pressure (BP). Exposure to ambient PM2.5 even at present-day concentrations can increase BP within a period of a few days while long-term exposure might

Robert D. Brook; Sanjay Rajagopalan

2009-01-01

124

Pulmonary Function Changes in Children Associated with Fine Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential

J. Q. Koenig; T. V. Larson; Q. S. Hanley; V. Rebolledo; K. Dumler; H. Checkoway; S. Z. Wang; D. Lin; W. E. Pierson

1993-01-01

125

Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

2012-06-01

126

Particulate Matter- What's In The Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science, chemistry or biology students connect a real-world problem to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts; it specifically focuses on particulate matter in the air we breathe. The activity should take about one week of class to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

127

Particulate Matter: What is it and Why does it Matter to Agriculture?  

E-print Network

Particulate matter is the dust and other small particles that are suspended in the air. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates particulate matter because it can cause health problems when inhaled. This publication explains the two types...

Mukhtar, Saqib; McGee, Russell

2009-04-16

128

75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rules. Particulate matter interferes with lung function when inhaled. Exposure to particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate is the main source of haze that causes a...

2010-04-08

129

Chemical coupling between atmospheric ozone and particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major function of ambient particulate matter arises from atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion. Attempts to reduce particulate matter levels require control of the same organic and nitrogen oxide (NOâ) emissions that are precursors to urban and regional ozone formation. Modeling of the gas-aerosol chemical interactions that govern levels of particulate components showed that control of gas-phase organic and NOâ precursors does

Z. Meng; J. H. Seinfeld; D. Dabdub

1997-01-01

130

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

131

FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

132

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

133

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2012-07-01

134

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

136

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. [46 FR 55693,...

2010-07-01

137

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

138

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2012-07-01

139

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR 60.282a - Standard for filterable particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standard for filterable particulate matter. 60.282a Section 60...282a Standard for filterable particulate matter. (a) On and after the... (i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.10...

2014-07-01

141

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2013-07-01

142

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2014-07-01

143

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2011-07-01

144

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2011-07-01

145

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

146

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

147

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

148

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2013-07-01

149

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

150

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2013-07-01

151

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2010-07-01

152

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2012-07-01

153

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2013-07-01

154

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

155

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2013-07-01

156

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

157

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2012-07-01

158

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2011-07-01

159

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

161

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

162

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2014-07-01

163

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2010-07-01

164

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2011-07-01

165

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2014-07-01

166

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2014-07-01

167

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2014-07-01

168

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source of fugitive particulate matter emissions, must take all reasonable...prevent fugitive particulate matter emissions and must maintain...minimize fugitive particulate matter emissions. (2) Reasonable...demolition of buildings or structures, construction...

2010-07-01

169

Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.  

PubMed

A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required. PMID:18281294

Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

2008-03-01

170

Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

1984-01-01

171

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-print Network

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01

172

Ozone removal by diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most significant removal mechanisms for tropospheric ozone (O 3) include dry deposition, photolysis, and photochemical reactions. This study examines another mechanism potentially important in urban areas: sorption and removal on diesel particulate matter (DPM). Tests were performed to determine O 3 breakthrough and the amount of O 3 removed by the DPM generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine. Teflon filters loaded with 0.7-1.8 mg of DPM were exposed to a test atmosphere of humidified and ozonated air designed to represent realistic ambient air conditions. In addition, soot samples with the organic fraction removed were tested to determine whether the organic or elemental fraction contributed to O 3 removal. For comparison, activated carbon (AC) samples were also tested. The DPM-loaded filters removed 5.6±1.8 wt% of O 3. Considerably more ozone, 31±4 wt %, was removed by the DPM after removal of its soluble organic fraction. Removal capacities of DPM were small relative to AC, which removed >38±3 wt% of O 3. Of the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and Ritchie chemisorption models tested, the Ritchie model provided the best fit to the breakthrough data. Preliminary estimates drawn from laboratory results suggest that diesel soot present at typical urban levels will remove only a small portion of O 3 from urban or tropospheric air. In air cleaning applications, DPM-loaded filters are also expected to remove only a small portion of indoor O 3.

Metts, T. A.; Batterman, S. A.; Fernandes, G. I.; Kalliokoski, P.

173

Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

1991-01-01

174

Lanthanoid geochemistry of urban atmospheric particulate matter.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the lanthanoid element (La to Lu) chemistry of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM). PM samples collected during an air sampling campaign in the Mexico City area contain lanthanoid concentrations of mostly 1-10 ng m(-3), increasing with mass where resuspension of crustal PM is important (low PM2.5/PM10), but not where fine emissions from traffic and industry dominate (high PM2.5/ PM10). Samples show anthropogenic enrichment of lighter over heavier lanthanoids, and Ce enrichment relative to La and Sm occurs in the city center (especially PM10) possibly due to PM from road vehicle catalytic converters. La is especially enriched, although many samples show low La/V values (< 0.11), suggesting the dominating influence of fuel oil combustion sources rather than refinery emissions. We use La/Sm v La/ Ce, LaCeSm, and LaCeV plots to compare Mexico City aerosols with PM from other cities. Lanthanoid aerosol geochemistry can be used not only to identify refinery pollution events, but also as a marker for different hydrocarbon combustion emissions (e.g., oil or coal power stations) on urban background atmospheric PM. PMID:18800521

Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Pérez, Noemi; Bernabé, Rosa M; Blanco, Salvador; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Gibbons, Wes

2008-09-01

175

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

176

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2014-07-01

177

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2011-07-01

178

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2010-07-01

179

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2013-07-01

180

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2012-07-01

181

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any sintering machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2010-07-01

182

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on...

2011-07-01

183

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on...

2013-07-01

184

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

185

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

186

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

187

40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

188

The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on particulate matter (PM) emissions. SAI was developed to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and has been shown to be effective ...

Pritchard, Joseph James

2014-01-01

189

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

190

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

191

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2014-07-01

192

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2011-07-01

193

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2013-07-01

194

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2012-07-01

195

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2010-07-01

196

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

2010-07-01

197

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

198

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

199

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2012-07-01

200

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2014-07-01

201

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2013-07-01

202

DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (...

203

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2010-07-01

205

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...needed to attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter. (1) NAQR Article...submitted on July 24, 1979. (2) Nevada Air Quality Regulations, Article 4, Rule 4.34, (Visible...

2010-07-01

206

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

207

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

208

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2011-07-01

209

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2010-07-01

212

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2014-07-01

213

Engineering analysis of fugitive particulate matter emissions from cattle feedyards  

E-print Network

An engineering analysis of the fugitive particulate matter emissions from a feedyard is not simple. The presence of an evening dust peak in concentration measurements downwind of a feedyard complicates the calculation of an average 24-h emission...

Hamm, Lee Bradford

2006-04-12

214

Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations  

E-print Network

MODELING OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS A Thesis by JNANA BAIRY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Jnana Bairy ii ABSTRACT State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins...

Bairy, Jnana 1988-

2013-01-02

215

Analysis of airborne fine particulate matter in Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of fine aerosol (diameter < 3\\/5 ..mu..m) was made in Athens, Greece during the summer of 1982 and the winter of 1982-83. Fine particulate matter was collected on Teflon filters and analyzed at Oregon Graduate Center for 21 chemical elements by X-ray fluorescence. Total particulate matter was simultaneously collected on glass or quartz fiber filters and analyzed at

Valaoras

1985-01-01

216

Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (?). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

2011-11-01

217

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

218

Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to describe…

Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

2003-01-01

219

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

220

Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 ?g/m(3) and 60 ?g/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 ?g/m(3), 38.1?g/m(3) and 52.5 ?g/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ? 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. PMID:24561289

Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

2014-05-01

221

Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.  

PubMed

The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

2000-08-10

222

Particulate matter as an amplifier for astronomical light pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we state that the main factor that influences seasonal changes in the brightness of the cloudless, moonless, light-polluted night sky is primarily particulate matter, emitted mainly from low-emission sources, especially in winter. This effect is particularly noticeable in Cracow and its surroundings, one of the places in Europe that is most polluted by particulate matter. Measurements taken over a period of one year have allowed us to show a linear relationship between the concentration of particulate matter and the brightness of the clear, cloudless night sky. We have also found similar correlations in other, industrialized areas of Poland, as well as at the Mount Suhora Astronomical Observatory. We believe that the factor described here should be taken into account when planning the construction of new astronomical observatories, especially those located near large urban areas.

?ci??or, T.; Kubala, M.

2014-11-01

223

Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by correlation with 1h data from a Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) beta-attenuation data, prototype instruments performed as well as commercially available equipment costing considerably more, and as well as another reference instrument under similar conditions at the same timescale (R2 = 0.6). Correlations were stronger when 24 h integrating times were used instead (R2 = 0.72). Chapter 4 replicates and extends the results of Chapter 3, showing that similar calibrations may be reasonably exchangeable between near-roadway and background monitoring sites. Chapter 4 also employs triplicate sensors to obtain data consistent with near-field (< 50 m) observations of plumes from a major highway (I-880). At 1 minute timescales, maximum PM2.5 concentrations on the order of 100 mug m-3 to 200 mug m-3 were observed, commensurate with the magnitude of plumes from wildfires on longer timescales, as well as the magnitude of plumes that might be expected near other major highways on the same timescale. Finally, Chapter 4 quantifies variance among calibration parameters for a large sample of the sensors, as well as the error associated with the remote transfer of calibrations between two sufficiently large sets (+/- 10 % for n = 12). These findings suggest that datasets generated with similar sensors could also improve upstream scientific understandings of fluxes resulting from indoor and outdoor emissions, atmospheric transformations, and transport, and may also facilitate timely and empirical verification of interventions to reduce emissions and exposures, in many important contexts (e.g., the provision of improved cookstoves; congestion pricing; mitigation policies attached to infill development; etc.). They also demonstrate that calibrations against continuous reference monitoring equipment could be remotely transferred, within practical tolerances, to reasonably sized and adequately resourced participatory monitoring campaigns, with minimal risk of disruption to existing monitoring infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of a

Holstius, David

224

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits...

2012-07-01

225

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits...

2011-07-01

226

Health-effects information relating to particulate matter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) met on December 16-17, 1985 to hold a preliminary discussion with EPA staff and members of the public on health-effects information relating to particulate matter that has become available since the Committee's last official review of such data. The new scientific information includes: respiratory tract regional deposition patterns; epidemiological studies of mortality and morbidity effects associated with both short-term and long-term particulate exposures; and health effects related to acid aerosols. The preliminary view is that it does not require a fundamental alteration of the structure of the proposed particulate standards at this time or fundamentally change the authors understanding of the mechanisms by which particulate exposures affect public health. There is concern as to whether the current proposed ranges of interest are as scientifically supportable as they were in November 1981 when they were last examined by CASAC.

Not Available

1986-01-02

227

40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section 52.933 Protection of...52.933 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated March 27,...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638... New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments....

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of...52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of §...

2010-07-01

230

40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of...52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January 30,...

2010-07-01

231

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638... New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments....

2011-07-01

232

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638... New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments....

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of...52.528 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10,...

2012-07-01

234

40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of...52.528 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10,...

2013-07-01

235

40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of...52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated January...

2013-07-01

236

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of...52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of §...

2011-07-01

237

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of...52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of §...

2013-07-01

238

40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of...52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January 30,...

2012-07-01

239

40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of...52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January 30,...

2011-07-01

240

40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment...52.62 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29,...

2010-07-01

241

40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of...52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated January...

2014-07-01

242

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638... New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments....

2014-07-01

243

40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section 52.933 Protection of...52.933 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 27, 1987,...

2010-07-01

244

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638... New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments....

2012-07-01

245

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of...52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of §...

2012-07-01

246

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of...52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of §...

2014-07-01

247

DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

248

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 ...52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a...2010, the Greensboro-Winston Salem-High Point, North Carolina nonattainment...

2010-07-01

249

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52... Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter...Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, North Carolina, nonattainment...emission reductions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from...

2012-07-01

250

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52... Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter...Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, North Carolina, nonattainment...emission reductions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from...

2014-07-01

251

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 ...52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a...2010, the Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, North Carolina,...

2011-07-01

252

77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental...particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the...plan, contingency measures, a 2002 base year emissions inventory and other...

2012-08-21

253

77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental...particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the...plan, contingency measures, a 2002 base year emissions inventory and other...

2012-08-02

254

CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

255

40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52...Florida § 52.528 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter...violation of the Class I increment for sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National...

2014-07-01

256

40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52...Florida § 52.528 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter...violation of the Class I increment for sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National...

2011-07-01

257

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

258

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2010-07-01

259

DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SAMPLE COLLECTOR OF RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sampler designed to collect particulate matter from air in sized fractions has been designed and tested. The sampler excludes particles above 20 micrometers in diameter and collects fractions centered at 3.5 micrometers and 1.7 micrometers on impaction plates and smal...

260

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

261

A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

262

LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

263

Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

264

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maintained on both sides of the leg and the grain receiving hopper. (2) The total rate of air ventilated shall be at least 32.1 actual cubic meters per cubic meter of grain handling capacity (ca. 40 ft3 /bu...particulate matter to the same level or...

2010-07-01

265

Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

266

Cotton gin particulate matter emissions-No. 1 lint cleaner  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and the limited availability of PM2.5 emissions data, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gi...

267

Concentrations of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Air quality in communities surrounding cattle feedlots is a growing public concern. Our objective was to quantify emission patterns and weather effects on particulate matter (PM) transport upwind and downwind from two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas. The concentrations of PM2.5 (particles...

268

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination...area continues to meet the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. (b) Determination of...PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) nonattainment area has...

2013-07-01

269

15N natural abundance in oceanic suspended particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate organic matter (POM) has a central role in the vertical transport of material in the sea1. In the open ocean, POM is produced in the euphotic layer by phytoplankton and degraded in the aphotic layer during sinking to the sea floor. Isotopic abundance of biophilic elements such as C and N in POM is altered by isotopic fractionations associated

Toshiro Saino; Akihiko Hattori

1980-01-01

270

Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

271

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

272

CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

273

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

274

AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thye paper discusses an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for particulate matter (PM). The standard for PM < 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) proposed by the U.S. EPA has produced considerable interest in indoor exposures to PM. IAQ models provide a useful tool for...

275

RECEPTOR MODELS RELATING AMBIENT SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER TO SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of receptor models to determine the source contributions to ambient particulate matter loadings at sampling sites, based on common properties between sources and receptors. (This is in contrast to using source models which start with emission rates an...

276

ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER.  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the acute mortality effects of high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM), documented in historic air pollution episodes, may also be occurring at the low to moderate concentrations of ambient PM found in mod...

277

Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift

Roger O McClellan

2002-01-01

278

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1  

E-print Network

.D. and Megan Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research obtained from engine laboratory visits and present results from a diesel aerosol sampling questionnaireREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1 DIESEL EXHAUST

Minnesota, University of

279

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research Minneapolis, MN January 14, 1999 #12;01/14/99 Page 2 TABLE ................................................................................................................5 DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSION REGULATIONS .............................7 PHYSICALREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS FINAL REPORT Prepared by David B. Kittelson

Minnesota, University of

280

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

281

Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs  

DOEpatents

A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

2012-02-21

282

The surface charge of particulate matter in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface charge of particulate matter in seawater from estuarine and coastal sources was investigated by microelectrophoresis. Seston consisting mostly of bacteria, small algae, and detritus exhibited a considerable range of mobilities but all were negatively charged; the mean mobility and the range of mobilities increased when the salinity of the media was reduced. The surface charge of model particles

REX A. NEIHOF; GEORGE I. LOEB

1972-01-01

283

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

Boz, Yezdan

2006-01-01

284

Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

285

Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

286

OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury. Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC. Epidemiol...

287

AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

288

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

289

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...heat boiler in which auxiliary or supplemental liquid or solid fossil fuel is burned, particulate matter in excess of that permitted...Btu)) of heat input attributable to such liquid or solid fossil fuel. [39 FR 9315, Mar. 8, 1974, as amended at 42...

2010-07-01

290

77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action corrects...Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule should be...Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' with the same RIN as...SAB-recommended 20-year segmented lag structure. Not all possible...

2012-06-29

291

Theoretical study of the impact of particulate matter gravitational settling on ambient coarse particulate matter monitoring for agricultural emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) in the downwind plume from simulated sources were analyzed to determine the impact of PM settling on PM monitoring. The PSD of PM in a plume varies as a function of gravitational settling.Gravitational settling has a greater impact on ...

292

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01

293

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

294

Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

Vaart, D.R. van der

1996-09-01

295

The spectrum of particulate organic matter of shallow-bottom boundary waters of Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of near-bottom shallow waters of Jamaica were analyzed for particulate matter by direct microscopy and for total particulate organic carbon (POC) by wet ashing. Aggre- gates comprise less than 5% of discrete particulate material and less than 0.5% of total POC. About 88% of POC is not accounted for by discrete particulate material. Parallel analyses of exhalant water samples

HENRY M. REISWIG

1972-01-01

296

Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (?1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average

E. D. Pellizzari; C. A. Clayton; C. E. Rodes; R. E. Mason; L. L. Piper; B. Fort; G. Pfeifer; D. Lynam

1999-01-01

297

Particulate Matter Associated with Vehicles on the Road. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments at the Allegheny and Tuscarora Mountain Tunnels of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1975–1979 have resulted in a comprehensive description of the airborne particulate matter associated with highway traffic. Because of strong variations of traffic composition with time, emission rates of most species were resolvable into emission rates for each of the two vehicle categories: gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesels.

William R. Pierson; Wanda W. Brachaczek

1982-01-01

298

Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of iron particulate matter in coal soot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recoilless resonant absorption of 14.4 keV gamma-rays from 57Co have been carried out on coal soot deposited on the chimneys of railway engines to identify and characterize the iron particulate matter constituting the air pollutants during coal combustion. The analysis shows the presence of hematite (?-Fe 2O 3), magnetite (Fe 3O 4) and Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ mullite/silicates/glasses.

Harchand, K. S.; Raj, D.

1993-04-01

299

Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

2013-12-01

300

Calcined, high surface area, particulate matter, process using this matter, and admixtures with other agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is concerned with production and use of high surface area particulate matter by calcining a charge of clay mineral, feldspar, zeolite, coal ash, fly ash, pozzolan or volcanic ash for a time to develop fractures which increase the surface area of the particles. Vacuum calcining decreases the calcining time. The calcined matter desirably has an analysis including: calcium

Sabherwal

1984-01-01

301

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

302

Particulate matter in ambient air and mortality: toxicologic perspectives.  

PubMed

U.S. regulations that set standards for acceptable concentrations of respirable particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air, particularly total fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), are based largely on the belief that current concentrations cause death and illness, and that reducing these concentrations will save lives. Because the mortality risk estimates from important observational epidemiologic studies are extremely weak, derived from studies unable to control for relevant confounding causes, and inconsistent by location, toxicologic and clinical information is necessary to judge the likelihood and degree to which such findings are causal. Toxicologic data on typical forms of pollution-derived PM strongly suggest that current ambient concentrations in the U.S. are too small to cause significant disease or death. We review here the results of inhalation studies using concentrated ambient particles, diesel engine exhaust particulate matter, and sulfate and nitrate salts, and find no evidence that moderate concentrations are lethal. The expectation that lives will be saved by reducing ambient PM(2.5) in the U.S. is not supported by the weight of scientific evidence, although other bases for regulating PM may be justifiable. PMID:14623483

Green, Laura C; Armstrong, Sarah R

2003-12-01

303

Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

2005-05-01

304

The Role of Particulate Matter in the Development of Hypoxia on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf  

E-print Network

Controlling Hypoxia program (hypoxia.tamu.edu). Discrete samples of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration were obtained for analysis and calibration of optical instruments interfaced with a profiling CTD, a towed undulating...

Cochran, Emma Mary

2013-07-31

305

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-commercial smoke houses, sweat houses or lodges, open burning, and mobile sources. (d) What are the particulate...motor vehicle, nonroad engine, nonroad vehicle, open burning, particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, process...

2010-07-01

306

STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

307

Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds--Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils  

E-print Network

to a variety of different compounds from phospholipids for cell membranes to adenosine triphosphate (ATPOxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds--Application for marine particulate matter, sediments 26 October 2005 Abstract The phosphate oxygen isotopic composition in naturally occurring particulate

Paytan, Adina

308

Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and measured dust storm concentration variability at Beijing in the course of time. The results show the importance of intertwine investigations of measurements and modeling, the analysis of local air pollution levels as well as the impact and analysis of advective processes in the greater region of Beijing. Comprehensive investigations on particulate matter are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the source strengths and source attribution to the overall air pollution level. Only this knowledge can help to formulate and to introduce specific reduction measures to reduce coarser as well as finer particulates.

Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

2013-05-01

309

Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

2014-10-01

310

Comparison of Strategies for the Measurement of Mass Emissions from Diesel Engines Emitting Ultra-Low Levels of Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory methods for the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass emissions have traditionally been gravimetric. Modern diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment systems, especially Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), however, emit much smaller amounts of particulate matter as compared to traditional diesel engines and emit particulate matter with variable compositions. These changes have led to difficulties in measuring PM emissions rates from

Z. Gerald Liu; Victoria N. Vasys; Melissa E. Dettmann; James J. Schauer; David B. Kittelson; Jacob Swanson

2009-01-01

311

Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter  

SciTech Connect

Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

Braun,A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

2008-01-01

312

Seasonal variability of bacteria in fine and coarse urban air particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current knowledge about the microbial communities associated with airborne particulate matter, particularly in urban areas,\\u000a is limited. This study aims to fill this gap by describing the microbial community associated with coarse (PM10) and fine\\u000a (PM2.5) particulate matter using pyrosequencing. Particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters over 3 months in summer\\u000a and 3 months in winter in Milan (Italy), and

Andrea Franzetti; Isabella Gandolfi; Eleonora Gaspari; Roberto Ambrosini; Giuseppina Bestetti

2011-01-01

313

Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources. The presence of known carcinogenic PAHs in the respirable particles has strong importance for human health. Recommendations for method improvements and further studies are included.

Tremblay, Raphael

314

Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Yapaulo, Renato A [ORNL; Orita, Tetsuo [ORNL; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai [University of Wisconsin; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Akard, Michael [Horiba Instruments Inc.

2009-01-01

315

Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

2011-10-04

316

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01

317

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14

318

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16

319

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

320

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01

321

Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

2012-12-01

322

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

323

Particulate organic matter sinks and sources in high Arctic fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this paper is to present results on concentrations, fluxes and isotopic composition (?13Corg) of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon (measures of particulate and sedimentary organic matter, respectively) in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. The terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the Kongsfjorden reached 760 · 106 ± 145 · 106 g Corg y- 1, forced mostly by the glaciers' activity. This constituted 5-10% of the bulk POC supplied to the system. Marine primary production was the main source of the remaining 90-95% of POC. Organic carbon burial rates amounted to 9 ± 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the central and 13 ± 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the outer part of the fjord. Two terrestrial POM ?13Corg end members were identified: the ancient organic matter (OM) supplied by glaciers and rivers fed by water discharged from the glaciers (from - 25.4‰ to - 25.1‰), and the fresh terrestrial POM (from - 26.7‰ to - 26.6‰). Marine OM was characterized by a wide range of ?13Corg signatures: from ? - 26.1‰ for the phytoplankton depleted in 13Corg to ca. - 15.8‰ for debris of marine phytobenthos. The lack of distinct marine ?13Corg end member and the resemblance of phytoplankton ?13Corg signatures to the terrestrial POM ?13Corg end member precluded the use of the two ?13Corg end member mixing model to trace the terrestrial OM in Kongsfjorden, which is also very likely to happen in other Arctic regions.

Kuli?ski, Karol; K?dra, Monika; Lege?y?ska, Joanna; Gluchowska, Marta; Zaborska, Agata

2014-11-01

324

Particulate Matter Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Area, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Particulate matter 2.5 micrometers diameter or less is small enough to pass from the lungs to the blood stream, and in the long run, may contribute to causing cancer and other life-threatening diseases. Although particles as large as 10 micrometers tend to get trapped by the nose and throat, and thus never enter the lungs, they can still cause trouble for those who have breathing-related problems. Our research was aimed at determining the levels of large and small particles in places with high densities of people, as well as locations with a high volume of vehicle traffic. Using the Fluke 893 Particle Counter, we measured particulate matter in a transect that spanned the San Francisco Bay Area. We collected data at diverse sites including: Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) stations in Oakland and San Francisco; all levels of a large parking garage in Emeryville; a number of local construction sites; and several heavily populated shopping areas in San Francisco. Though preliminary in nature, analysis of our data indicates that high concentrations of particles under 2.5 micrometers are found at the Coliseum BART station in Oakland, as well as in association with areas of high vehicle traffic flow. High concentrations of large particles are found near construction sites. Guided by these preliminary results, we plan to continue collecting data throughout the Fall to determine the causes of patterns that we have observed, as well as assess any changes that occur over time.

Souksavath, V.; Williams, J.; Powell, M.; Campell, M.; Almarez, A.; Almarez, M.

2008-12-01

325

Alteration of fibrin clot properties by ultrafine particulate matter.  

PubMed

Both long- and short-term (1-2 hours) exposure to particulate matter (PM) are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. One of the underlying mechanisms may be due to changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to PM. We investigated this possibility by measuring differences in blood clots formed in the presence of particulate matter in vitro. Total (T)PM increased the permeation of clots in a dose-dependant manner. Filtered (F)PM (17 microg/ml) also produced a significant increase in permeation. Turbidity measured as maximum optical density (ODmax) was increased in a dose-dependant manner with increasing concentration of TPM and FPM. Turbidity measurements also showed a significantly faster rate of polymerisation in the presence of 68 microg/ml FPM. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) showed a decrease in fibre density without a significant increase in fibre diameter. However, LSCM showed increased clot heterogeneity due to fibre clustering, creating areas of denser fibrin network surrounded by looser network. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger mannitol inhibited the effects on fibre clustering. Our data show that TPM and FPM cause alterations in fibrin clot structure, likely through the formation of ROS. These changes in fibrin clot structure may play a role in thromboembolic events upon PM exposure. PMID:20062921

Metassan, Sofian; Charlton, Alexander J; Routledge, Michael N; Scott, D Julian A; Ariëns, Robert A S

2010-01-01

326

Evaluation of a direct personal coarse particulate matter monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as a surrogate for an individual's true exposure to this size fraction in linked health effect studies. To assess personal exposures to various particulate matter (PM) size fractions, a personal PM monitor was evaluated. This monitor featured a multi-stage cascade impactor that allowed for the simultaneous collection of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 size fractions. The monitor was evaluated for collocated bias and comparability with a dichotomous (dichot) sampler (device for dividing aerosol PM population into two size fractions during sampling) at an outdoor monitoring site. Results of this evaluation indicated that the prototype was capable of agreement within ±20% of that provided by the reference methodology as well as 20% daily precision for PM 10-2.5 mass measurements.

Case, Martin W.; Williams, Ron; Yeatts, Karin; Chen, Fu-Lin; Scott, James; Svendsen, Erik; Devlin, Robert B.

327

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

328

Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway  

EPA Science Inventory

The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

329

78 FR 54279 - Proposed Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Particulate Matter Exposure (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...Particulate Matter Exposure (Underground Coal Mines) in 30 CFR 72.510 and 72.520...protection of life and prevention of injuries in coal or other mines. In addition,...

2013-09-03

330

Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to airborne particulate matter has adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate organic matter extracts in three time periods from total suspended particles (TSP) and particles less than 10?m (PM10) was evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry located in the town of Triunfo, Brazil. The extracts were investigated using

Mariana Vieira Coronas; Rubem Cesar Horn; Adriana Ducatti; Jocelita Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrăo Vargas

2008-01-01

331

77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9664-7] Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited...notifying the public of its finding that the Eagle River, Alaska, Particulate Matter (PM...PM 10 Limited Maintenance Plan for Eagle River, Alaska. EPA's finding was...

2012-04-27

332

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except...capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

2014-07-01

333

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except...capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

2011-07-01

334

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as...capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

2010-07-01

335

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except...capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

2013-07-01

336

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Naples (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on PAH in the atmospheric particulate matter of the city of Naples has been carried out. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was sampled in three sampling sites (West, East and central areas of the city), whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. In each site, 24h samplings for 7 consecutive days were performed during three sampling campaigns, in

Anna Maria Caricchia; Salvatore Chiavarini; Massimo Pezza

1999-01-01

337

Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6–dependent pathway  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particulate matter might accelerate thrombosis. We found that mice treated with a dose of well characterized particulate matter of less than 10 ?M in diameter exhibited a shortened bleeding time, decreased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times (decreased plasma clotting times), increased levels of fibrinogen, and increased activity of factor II, VIII, and X. This prothrombotic tendency was associated with increased generation of intravascular thrombin, an acceleration of arterial thrombosis, and an increase in bronchoalveolar fluid concentration of the prothrombotic cytokine IL-6. Knockout mice lacking IL-6 were protected against particulate matter–induced intravascular thrombin formation and the acceleration of arterial thrombosis. Depletion of macrophages by the intratracheal administration of liposomal clodronate attenuated particulate matter–induced IL-6 production and the resultant prothrombotic tendency. Our findings suggest that exposure to particulate matter triggers IL-6 production by alveolar macrophages, resulting in reduced clotting times, intravascular thrombin formation, and accelerated arterial thrombosis. These results provide a potential mechanism linking ambient particulate matter exposure and thrombotic events. PMID:17885684

Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Green, David; Bellmeyer, Amy; Baker, Christina M.; Burgess, Zach; Rajamannan, Nalini; Christman, John W.; Foiles, Nancy; Kamp, David W.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Dean, David A.; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G.R. Scott

2007-01-01

338

The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

1996-01-01

339

40 CFR 60.42Da - Standards for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...Steam Generating Units § 60.42Da Standards for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided in...

2014-07-01

340

40 CFR 60.42Da - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...September 18, 1978 § 60.42Da Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date...

2011-07-01

341

40 CFR 60.42Da - Standards for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...Steam Generating Units § 60.42Da Standards for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided in...

2013-07-01

342

40 CFR 60.42Da - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...September 18, 1978 § 60.42Da Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date...

2010-07-01

343

40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection...Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date...

2010-07-01

344

40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection...Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date...

2012-07-01

345

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from a  

E-print Network

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from, stationarity. Abstract Statistical methods are needed for evaluating many aspects of air pollution regu particulate matter (PM) is an important air pollutant for which regu- lations have been issued recently

Sahu, Sujit K

346

A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 µm) F...

347

Structure analysis and size distribution of particulate matter from candles and kerosene combustion in burning chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of candles generates particulate matter of fine dimensions that produces poor indoor air quality, so it may cause harmful impact on human health. In this study solid aerosol particles of burning of candles of different composition and kerosene combustion were collected in a closed laboratory system. Present work describes particulate matter collection for structure analysis and the relationship between

M Baitimirova; A Osite; J Katkevics; A Viksna

2012-01-01

348

Original article Relating particulate organic matter-nitrogen (POM-N)  

E-print Network

Original article Relating particulate organic matter-nitrogen (POM-N) and non-POM-N with pulse crop October 2001; accepted 2 July 2002) Abstract ­ Particulate organic matter nitrogen (POM-N) was evaluated as an indicator of crop residue source (pulse versus cereal) and residue management (no-tillage [NT], stubble

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

CEC-500-2011-FS-XXX Assessment of Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

(diesel, biodiesel, gasoline, E85 ethanol), as well as heavyduty vehicle emissions. The systems TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH Without after-treatment: Visible agglomerates of soot. Emissions collected from of ultrafine particulate matter is motor vehicle emissions. In addition to ultrafine particulate matter

350

Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school  

SciTech Connect

Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. Respirable particle concentrations ranged from 13 to 38 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. The most abundant fungi identified were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Yeasts. Gram +, gram {minus} and actinomyces were also quantified. A strong relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. Use of a one compartment mass balance model applied to each room is shown to be a useful method for evaluating and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy were the best estimate of occupancy based emissions.

Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

1999-07-01

351

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2011-07-01

353

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2012-07-01

354

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2010-07-01

355

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2013-07-01

356

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed...Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and...

2013-07-01

357

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed...Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and...

2011-07-01

358

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed...Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed...Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and...

2014-07-01

360

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

361

Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 ?m and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

362

Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was explored as a means to measure atmospheric optical extinction. Ambient air was sampled through a window on the campus of the University of Florida and transported to a ring-down cell fashioned from standard stainless steel vacuum components. When a copper vapor laser operating at 10 kHz is employed, this arrangement allowed for nearly continuous monitoring of atmospheric extinction at 510 and 578 nm. We have characterized the system performance in terms of detection limit and dynamic range and also monitored a change in atmospheric extinction during a nearby wildfire and fireworks exhibition. The sensitivity and compatibility with automation of the technique renders it useful as a laboratory-based measurement of airborne particulate matter. PMID:12033292

Thompson, Jonathan E; Smith, Benjamin W; Winefordner, James D

2002-05-01

363

Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking  

SciTech Connect

The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

1987-01-01

364

Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:22554531

Sćbř, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

2012-06-15

365

Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer. PMID:25011458

Li, Yin-Ge; Gao, Xiang

2014-01-01

366

On leaf magnetic homogeneity in particulate matter biomonitoring studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been postulated to be a good approach to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution levels. We studied the variation of magnetic hysteresis parameters on leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak previously used for magnetic biomonitoring of air pollution in Rome (Italy). The hysteresis parameters (MRS, MS, BCR and BC) measured on specimens collected at a close spacing on the surface of two single leaves show variances that are smaller than those observed on a collection of Q. ilex leaves sampled from several trees distributed along high-traffic roads. The variability is higher for magnetizations than for coercivities. This suggests a uniform source for the magnetic particles, such that variations are due mainly to changes in concentration. The normalized hysteresis cycles are remarkably similar for all the specimens. Normalization of magnetic moments by mass appears however more efficient than normalization by volume.

Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

2007-03-01

367

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. - Highlights: {yields} We studied concentration, composition and morphology of coarse particles in gyms. {yields} Indoor concentration of coarse particles was high during days with pupils activity. {yields} Effect of outdoor coarse dust on indoor levels was weak and inconsistent. {yields} Six main groups of minerals contributing to indoor resuspended dust were determined. {yields} The most abundant coarse particles were human skin scales.

Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-05-15

368

Particulate Matter Concentration Analysis over Europe and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PM2.5 is particulate matter (PM) with diameter less than 2.5 micrometers, which is a significant indicator for air quality. Both ground based measurement and satellite-derived PM concentration can provide valuable information to policy-maker, scientist and citizen. van Donkelaar et al. (2006) developed the first approach which provides a potential of obtaining global PM2.5 concentration. And the main idea of Van Donkelaar et al. (2006) follows a simple and efficient way for converting AOD to PM concentration by a converting-factor calculated from chemical transport model named GEOS-Chem. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics PM concentration over Europe and East China will be analyzed utilizing both ground-based measurements and satellite-derived results. Some extreme atmospheric cases like Beijing haze in 2013 will also be included and analyzed.

Mei, Linlu; Vountas, Marco; Xue, Yong; Burrows, John P.

2014-05-01

369

Characterization of particulate matter concentrations during controlled indoor activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor sources have been identified as a major contributor to the increase of particle concentration in indoor environments. The work presented here is a study of the characteristics of particulate matter number size distribution and mass concentration under controlled indoor activities in a laboratory room. The objective is to characterize particulate matter concentrations indoors resulted under the influence of specific sources. Measurements were performed in an empty laboratory (period September-October 2006) using a GRIMM SMPS+C system (particle size range between 11.1 and 1083.3 nm), a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (TSI) and a P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter (TSI). The studied indoor activities included candle burning, hot plate heating, water boiling, onion frying, vacuuming, hair drying, hair spraying, smoking and burning of incense stick. The AMANpsd computer algorithm was used to evaluate the modal structure of measured particle number size distribution data. Furthermore, the change of the particle number size distribution shape under the influence of different emission sources was studied versus time. Finally the particle emission rates were computed. High particle number concentrations were observed during smoking, onion frying, candle burning and incense stick burning. The highest particle mass concentrations were measured during smoking and hair spraying. The shift of the particle size distribution to larger diameters suggests the presence of strong coagulation effect during candle burning, incense stick burning, smoking and onion frying. The size distribution was mainly bimodal during onion frying and candle burning, whereas the size distribution remained unimodal during incense stick burning and smoking experiments.

Glytsos, T.; Ondrá?ek, J.; Džumbová, L.; Kopanakis, I.; Lazaridis, M.

2010-04-01

370

Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

2014-06-01

371

Trends and sources of particulate matter in the Superstition Wilderness using air trajectory and aerosol cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient aerosols adversely affect human health and visibility and impact climate. Identification of sources of particulate matter and its precursors is necessary for developing control strategies. The goal of this research is to utilize long-term speciated particulate matter data and back-trajectory cluster analyses to determine trends and sources of particulate matter in the Superstition Wilderness, a rural area east of

Charity Coury; Ann M. Dillner

2007-01-01

372

The movement of small particulate matter in the early solar system and the formation of satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motions of the abundant small particulate matter in the early solar system are discussed. The effects of gas drag and resonance effects of perturbing forces could have led to accretion and differentiation of the matter. The composition of the moon and the existence of the rings of Saturn can be explained on the basis of the assembly of small particulate matter in satellite orbits around the planets.

Gold, T.

1974-01-01

373

Evaluation of particulate matter abatement strategies for almond harvest.  

PubMed

Almond harvest accounts for substantial PM10 (particulate matter [PM] < or =10 microm in nominal aerodynamic diameter) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper evaluates the effects of using reduced-pass sweepers and lower harvester separation fan speeds (930 rpm) on lowering PM emissions from almond harvesting operations. In-canopy measurements of PM concentrations were collected along with PM concentration measurements at the orchard boundary; these were used in conjunction with on-site meteorological data and inverse dispersion modeling to back-calculate emission rates from the measured concentrations. The harvester discharge plume was measured as a function of visible plume opacity during conditioning operations. Reduced-pass sweeping showed the potential for reducing PM emissions, but results were confounded because of differences in orchard maturity and irrigation methods. Fuel consumption and sweeping time per unit area were reduced when comparing a reduced-pass sweeper to a conventional sweeper. Reducing the separation fan speed from 1080 to 930 rpm led to reductions in PM emissions. In general, foreign matter levels within harvested product were nominally affected by separation fan speed in the south (less mature) orchard; however, in samples conditioned using the lower fan speed from the north (more mature) orchard, these levels were unacceptable. PMID:21516936

Faulkner, William B; Downey, Daniel; Giles, D Ken; Capareda, Sergio C

2011-04-01

374

Particulate matter < 10 ?m (PM 10) and total suspended particulates (TSP) in urban, rural and alpine air in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter were measured in Switzerland for a 1 yr period in 1993 at a dozen urban, rural and alpine sites. PM10 concentrations ranged between 10 ?g m?3 (alpine) and 33 ?g m?3 (urban). Highest concentrations were found at Lugano, in the south of the Alps, and in urban sites

Ch. Monn; O. Braendli; G. Schaeppi; Ch. Schindler; U. Ackermann-Liebrich; Ph. Leuenberger

1995-01-01

375

SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING  

SciTech Connect

During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

376

A review of receptor modelling of industrially emitted particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review summarizes the different receptor models that have been adopted at industrial and urban sites to apportion the sources of particulate matter (PM) from industries. Industrial processes and those associated with industry (such as transportation) are an important source of airborne PM which includes trace elements, organic and elemental carbon, and PAHs. Industry also emits gaseous pollutants which form secondary aerosol in the atmosphere. Most published studies have employed chemical mass balance (CMB), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and/or principal component analysis (PCA) models as source apportionment tools. These receptor models were mostly applied to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM10 compositional data, particularly the inorganic constituents. Some studies have combined two or more of these receptor models, which provides useful information on the uncertainties associated with different models. Industry has been reported to contribute from 0 to 70% of PM mass at industrial sites. It appears that some studies are unsuccessful in apportioning PM from industry, e.g., unable to distinguish industrial emissions from other sources. A critical evaluation of the literature data also showed that the choice of appropriate tracers for industry, both generically and for specific industries, varies between different PM source apportionment studies. This is not surprising considering the significant difference in source profiles of PM from different types of industry, which may compromise source apportionment of industrial emissions using CMB with non-local source profiles. It may also affect the attribution of industrial emissions in multivariate statistical models (e.g. PMF and PCA). It is concluded that a general classification of the source “industry” is rarely appropriate for PM source apportionment. Indeed, such studies may even need to consider the different processes within a particular industry, such as a steelworks, which emit PM with significantly different chemical signatures. It is suggested that future source apportionment studies should make every effort to measure source profiles of PM from different industrial processes, and where possible, use multiple models in order to more accurately apportion the source emissions from industry.

Taiwo, Adewale M.; Harrison, Roy M.; Shi, Zongbo

2014-11-01

377

Discarded appendicularian houses as sources of food, surface habitats, and particulate organic matter in planktonic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations using SCUBA reveal that macroscopic organic aggregates produced by appendicularians reached densities of 44 to 1,130 m-' in the Gulf of California. Though these aggregates constituted less than 5% of total particulate carbon, their carbon : nitro- gen ratio was twice that of particles in the surrounding seawater. The C : N ratio of the total particulate matter increased

ALICE L. ALLDREDGE

1976-01-01

378

Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further  

E-print Network

Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic October 2008. [1] Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

Intraurban-scale dispersion modelling of particulate matter concentrations: Applications for exposure estimates in cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies relating air pollution to health effects often estimate personal exposure to particulate matter using values from a central ambient monitoring site as a proxy. However, when there is a significant amount of variation in particulate concentrations across an urban area, the use of central sites may result in exposure misclassification that induces error in long-term cohort epidemiological study

J. Gaines Wilson; Peyman Zawar-Reza

2006-01-01

380

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of particulates in 369 air samples over 175 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um cutpoint. Keywords: air; metals. The...

381

TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

382

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

383

Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.  

PubMed

A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring. PMID:15074686

Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

2004-03-15

384

Decomposition of N2O over particulate matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrous oxide is shown to undergo both a thermal and a photochemical decomposition at 296 K when it is adsorbed on various dry sands. The photochemical process occurs with light of wavelengths greater than 280 nm, where gaseous N2O does not absorb. At low pressures (less than 0.1 torr) the half-life for the thermal decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen when placed in contact with about 5 gm of heat-treated Tunisian sand in a one-liter vessel was 350 + or - 35 days. Under certain photolytic conditions this half-life was reduced. The efficiency of the photolytic process for a particular sand depends on the pressure and on the wavelength of light. For Tunisian sand at 1.1 torr and with the full mercury arc, the destruction efficiency is about 0.00002 molecule/incident photon. These results indicate that particulate matter in the troposphere may be responsible for the decomposition of nitrous oxide and hence act as an atmospheric sink for N2O. However, moisture causes a drastic reduction in the number of molecules dissociated per incident photon.

Rebbert, R. E.; Ausloos, P.

1978-01-01

385

Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.  

PubMed Central

In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8959406

Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

1996-01-01

386

Can fine particulate matter explain the paradoxical ozone associations?  

PubMed

Our previous paper entitled "Paradoxical ozone associations could be due to methyl nitrite from combustion of methyl ethers or esters in engine fuels" (Env. Int.. 2007;33;1090) reviewed 11 studies of the impact of ozone on human health that, paradoxically, found a negative coefficient for ozone-morbidity associations. We argued that the most likely explanation for this effect would be methyl nitrite (MN) as an unsuspected exhaust component of engines with methyl ether in the fuel. The basis of the argument was the fact that MN is rapidly destroyed by sunlight, so that MN would be negatively correlated with ozone. All (but one) of the reviewed studies concluded that criterion pollutants could not explain the negative slope. The argument was strengthened by the observation that such paradoxical ozone associations have not been found in regions without significant methyl ether in gasoline. Left unaddressed in the previous paper was the possibility that fine particulate matter (FPM) might explain the POA. If this were true, then it would be necessary that the FPM be negatively correlated with ozone in those regions that found a POA. The current paper reviews data on FPM-ozone correlations in those regions where a POA was identified. The results show that FPM was, in most cases, positively correlated with ozone and so could not explain the POA. PMID:18430471

Joseph, Peter M

2008-11-01

387

Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 ?m (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

2010-01-01

388

Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

2015-02-01

389

Dust storm contributions to airborne particulate matter in Reykjavík, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Episodes of high levels of particulate matter (PM) in Reykjavík occur several times a year. The main sources of daily variation in PM are traffic or highly localized (e.g. construction) sources, however several episodes have been identified where these are not the cause. Examining PM10 (diameter < 10 ?m) levels around the time when dust storms are seen on satellite images, and verifying that the weather conditions are favorable for the duration of the high levels of PM (>50-100 ?g m-3; 30-min average), demonstrates that dust storms are the source of these increased levels of PM10. Since satellite coverage is sparse, visual confirmation of many such peaks in PM10 cannot be achieved. The level of pollution measured in Reykjavík during dust storms indicates that at least 200 kg s-1 of PM10 sized material is being eroded and transported away from sand plains ?110 km away - this equates to an emission rate of 35 g m2 h-1. The source regions for dust storms in Iceland are the sandur areas on the southern coast of Iceland, and regions close to the glaciers. With climate warming, and fast retreating glaciers, the potential source regions in Iceland are rapidly increasing.

Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Gísladóttir, Gu?rún; Bullard, Joanna; McTainsh, Grant

2011-10-01

390

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

391

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...

392

On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

2011-09-30

393

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

394

Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

395

IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

396

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this chapter. Equivalent methods and procedures may be used if approved by the Administrator. (i) For each sampling repetition, the average concentration of particulate matter shall be determined by using method 5. Traversing during sampling...

2010-07-01

397

STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

398

Temporal and spatial variation of particulate matter and chlorophyll in the Arabian Sea  

E-print Network

of the 1995 U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter (PM) and chlorophyll were determined via transrnissometers and fluorometers during a monsoonal cycle. Seasonal variations of the standing stock of PM...

Gundersen, Jan Scott

1997-01-01

399

Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

400

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

401

IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

402

AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

403

SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

404

THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

405

REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

406

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: ...

407

Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

408

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter...the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The Nevada Division of Environmental...

2011-07-01

409

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter...the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The Nevada Division of Environmental...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter...the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The Nevada Division of Environmental...

2010-07-01

411

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter...the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The Nevada Division of Environmental...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1489 Particulate matter...the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group II SIPs. (b) The Nevada Division of Environmental...

2014-07-01

413

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

414

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

415

Soluble Components of Ultraflne Particulate Matter Stimulate Endothelial H202 Production  

EPA Science Inventory

A growing body of evidence shows a strong association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular health effects such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. The mechanisms by which PM causes cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown, but there is increasi...

416

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases?especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

417

EFFECTS OF METALS BOUND TO PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

While focusing on coal ash and its metal content, the investigators expect to find evidence that transition metals (metals that can participate in possibly toxic oxidative reactions) associated with particulate matter are released within lung epithelial cells and catalyze t...

418

ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PARTICULATE MATTER BY LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and heavy-metal activated room temperature phosphorescence spectra were obtained for ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) reference compounds individually and in mixtures on quartz plates and particulate matter. The results indicate that multic...

419

Adjustment of the flue gas path in small combustion appliances with regard to particulate matter reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration of solid particles in ambient atmosphere is increasing in many countries nowadays. Particulate matter pollution in higher concentration has harmful impact on human and animal health. Source of particulate matter are not only industry and traffic. Small heat sources with biomass combustion, especially during winter heating season, are also significant producer of particulate matter emission. There is a huge importance to decrease quantities of solid particles which are getting into the atmosphere in every region of their production in order to decrease environmental pollution and improve air quality. The ability of flue gas emission elimination can influence future using of biomass combustion. Therefore effective and affordable solutions are searching for. The paper deals with the reduction of particulate matter in small heat source with biomass combustion by modification of geometric parameters in flue gas path.

Sulovcová, Katarína; Janda?ka, Jozef; Nosek, Radovan

2014-08-01

420

Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

421

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Several hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem from PM transitio...

422

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanism(s) of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Some hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem fro...

423

THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

424

Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

425

Back-calculating emission rates for ammonia and particulate matter from area sources using dispersion modeling  

E-print Network

making must rely upon sound science and engineering as the core of appropriate policy making (objective analysis in lieu of subjective opinion). This research evaluated particulate matter and ammonia concentration data as well as two modeling methods, a...

Price, Jacqueline Elaine

2004-11-15

426

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

427

Quinoid redox cycling as a mechanism for sustained free radical generation by inhaled airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health effects of airborne fine particles are the subject of government regulation and scientific debate. The aerodynamics of airborne particulate matter, the deposition patterns in the human lung, and the available experimental and epidemiological data on health effects lead us to focus on airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic mean diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) as the fraction

Giuseppe L. Squadrito; Rafael Cueto; Barry Dellinger; William A. Pryor

2001-01-01

428

ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of

Dale R. Tree

1999-01-01

429

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-?- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

430

Particulate Matter–Induced Health Effects: Who Is Susceptible?  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological, controlled human exposure, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a variety of health effects in response to particulate matter (PM) exposure with some of these studies indicating that populations with certain characteristics may be disproportionately affected. Objective To identify populations potentially at greatest risk for PM-related health effects, we evaluated epidemiological studies that examined various characteristics that may influence susceptibility, while using results from controlled human exposure and toxicological studies as supporting evidence. Additionally, we formulated a definition of susceptibility, building from the varied and inconsistent definitions of susceptibility and vulnerability used throughout the literature. Data synthesis We evaluated recent epidemiological studies to identify characteristics of populations potentially susceptible to PM-related health effects. Additionally, we evaluated controlled human exposure and toxicological studies to provide supporting evidence. We conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies that presented stratified results (e.g., < 65 vs. ? 65 years of age), controlled human exposure studies that examined individuals with underlying disease, and toxicological studies that used animal models of disease. We evaluated results for consistency across studies, coherence across disciplines, and biological plausibility to assess the potential for increased susceptibility to PM-related health effects in a specific population or life stage. Conclusions We identified a diverse group of characteristics that can lead to increased risk of PM-related health effects, including life stage (i.e., children and older adults), preexisting cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, genetic polymorphisms, and low-socioeconomic status. In addition, we crafted a comprehensive definition of susceptibility that can be used to encompass all populations potentially at increased risk of adverse health effects as a consequence of exposure to an air pollutant. PMID:20961824

Sacks, Jason D.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Luben, Thomas J.; Johns, Douglas O.; Buckley, Barbara J.; Brown, James S.; Ross, Mary

2011-01-01

431

Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 ?g/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 ?g/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 ?g/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 ?g/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 ?g/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

2014-10-01

432

Air particulate matter exacerbates lung response on Sjögren's Syndrome animals.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice. BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1mg/kg body weight). After 24h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p<0.05) and generation of O2(-) (p<0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p<0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space. We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. PMID:25467751

Ferraro, S; Orona, N; Villalón, L; Saldiva, P H N; Tasat, D R; Berra, A

2015-02-01

433

Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P.; Spinazzč, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

2014-01-01

434

Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (<2.5?m) and PNCs (particles/cm(3)) in six size fractions (0.30-0.49, 0.50-0.99, 1.00-2.49, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10.0, 10.0+?m). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5)?g/m(3) during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1)?g/m(3) during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd)=0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

Semmens, Erin O; Noonan, Curtis W; Allen, Ryan W; Weiler, Emily C; Ward, Tony J

2015-04-01

435

PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

436

Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

437

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-02-17

438

Radioactive background in a cryogenic dark matter experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

New generation dark matter experiments aim at exploring the 10?9?10?10 pb cross-section region for WIMP-nucleon scalar interactions. Neutrons and gamma-rays, due to radioactive processes, are produced in the detector components and are one of the main factors that can limit detector sensitivity. Estimation of the background from this source then becomes a crucial task for designing future large-scale detectors. Radioactive

V. Tomasello; M. Robinson; V. A. Kudryavtsev

2010-01-01

439

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2011-07-01

440

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2010-07-01

441

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2014-07-01

443

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2013-07-01

444

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator that is subject to the...which the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180...from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate...

2014-07-01

445

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator that is subject to the...which the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180...from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate...

2011-07-01

446

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-print Network

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2001-01-01

447

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2014-07-01

448

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2010-07-01

450

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2012-07-01

451

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2011-07-01

452

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER: ELEMENTAL CARBON, ORGANIC CARBON, AND MASS RECONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon matter (OM), particulate matter less than 2.5 um (PM2.5), and reconstructed soil, trace element oxides, and sulfate are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) complex for airborne particulate matter (...

453

Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study…

Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

2007-01-01

454

A description of hydrolysis kinetics in anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of hydrolysis kinetics were tested for anaerobic degradation of complex organic matter using the generalized simulation model described earlier. The simulation dynamics from all types of hydrolysis kinetics of swine waste, sewage sludge and cattle manure for continuous-flow reactors at a defined SRT fitted the experimental data comparatively well. However, differences were found for particulate organic matter degradation

V. A. Vavilin; S. V. Rytov; L. Ya. Lokshina

1996-01-01

455

Biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter in Russian rivers entering the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemical signature of riverine matter in the Russian Arctic was investigated to establish a background for tracing terrestrial organic material in the Arctic Ocean. Elemental and lignin compositions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM), stable carbon isotope ratios of POM and nutrient concentrations are reported for 12 Russian rivers along 4000 km of coastline. The 12 rivers

Jörg M Lobbes; Hans Peter Fitznar; Gerhard Kattner

2000-01-01

456

Representations of Fundamental Chemistry Concepts in Relation to the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated high school students' understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course…

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

2013-01-01

457

Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be originated from the PRD and transported back resulting in significant increase of secondary PM concentration, and provides new insight into PM production and transport mechanism in the PRD.

Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

2014-10-01

458

Oxidative potential of particulate matter at a German motorway.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM10) was sampled alongside a motorway in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, during a one-year period. In sum, 120 PM10 samples on quartz fibre filters, 60 samples at each side of the motorway, were taken during clear cross-wind direction situations, i.e. upwind (local background situation) and downwind (traffic influenced). To quantify the traffic-related oxidative potential (OP), or more precisely the hydroxyl radical (OH?) generation potency, these samples were analysed to study their hydrogen peroxide dependent oxidant generation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. In addition the PM10 mass, the chemical composition and the NOx concentrations were determined. For PM10 mass and traffic tracers like Sb, Ba, elemental and organic carbon as well as for NOx, an additional contribution to the background concentration caused by the traffic was observed (factor: 1.3-6.0). The downwind measurements showed in 72% of cases higher OH? generation potencies with an average factor of 1.4. Significant correlations to OH? were detected for Fe (r > 0.58) and Cu (r > 0.57) for the upwind and overall (upwind + downwind, r > 0.44) dataset. At the downwind side these correlations were absent and are assumed to be covered by the interferences with additional soot particles leading to a quenching of OH?. Accordingly, no significant overall correlation of the OH? generation potency with the traffic intensity was detected. The suggested quenching effect was confirmed via standard diesel soot (SRM 2975) measurements using the EPR approach. In summary, the traffic related PM causes an intrinsic OH? generation via Fenton-like reaction but obviously also leads to interferences and scavenging by traffic related carbonaceous compounds. In consequence, for future studies that would link the intrinsic OP and adverse health effects we suggest to analyse the relationship to EC/OC and to use in parallel also a further OP detection method. PMID:25787944

Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Nickel, Carmen; Wick, Gabriele; Schins, Roel P F; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

2015-04-01

459

Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

2014-05-01

460

Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind gusts are high, areas of high concentrations were observed to shift slightly in the westerly direction (i.e., prevailing wind direction). Overall, preliminary results of our study suggest that while the air quality in the area immediately surrounding Richmond BUILD and the elementary school is not the poorest in the general region, because they are located close to a major thoroughfare and a railway line these sites are likely to experience poor air quality at some point throughout the year due to shifting wind patterns. As a result, we recommend that signs be posted to warn visitors of the potential for extremely poor air quality.

Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

2009-12-01

461

Transformation of suspended particulate matter into sediment in the Kara Sea in September of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical processes participating in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment along the Yenisei River-St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) meridional profile were studied using hydrochemical, geochemical, microbiological, radioisotope, and isotope methods. The water-sediment contact zone consists of three subzones: the suprabottom water, the fluffy layer, and the surface sediment. The total number, biomass, and integral activity of the microorganisms (dark 14CO2 assimilation) in the fluffy layer are usually higher than in the suprabottom water and sediment. The fluffy layer shows a decrease in the oxygen content and the growth of the dissolved biogenic elements. It was provided by the particulate organic matter supporting the vital activity of the heterotrophs from the overlying water column and by the flux of reduced compounds (NH4, H2S, CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, and others) from the underlying sediments. The Corg isotopic composition of the fluffy layer and the sediments is 2-4 ‰ heavier than that of the particulate matter and sediment due to the presence of the isotopically heavy biomass of microorganisms. A change in the isotopic composition of the Corg in the fluffy layer and surface sediment as compared to the Corg of the particulate matter is a widespread phenomenon in the Arctic shelf seas and proves the leading role of microorganisms in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment.

Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Savvichev, A. S.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Dara, O. M.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Zakharova, E. E.; Rozanov, A. G.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

2013-09-01

462

Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Almond Harvest as a Function of Harvester Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almond harvest accounts for substantial particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper addresses the reduction of harvester ground speed from a standard 8 km\\/hr (5 mph) to 4 km\\/hr (2.5 mph) as a possible mitigation measure for reducing PM10 emissions. Ambient total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 sampling was

William B. Faulkner; L. Barry Goodrich; Venkata S. V. Botlaguduru; Sergio C. Capareda; Calvin B. Parnell; Haibo Zhai; H. Frey; Nagui Rouphail; Tiago Farias; Veronica Figueroa; Kevin Mackie; Nick Guarriello; C. Cooper; Gary Bishop; Ryan Stadtmuller; Donald Stedman; John Ray; Feng Zhen; Nigel Clark; Clinton Bedick; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Richard Atkinson; David McKain; Joo-Youp Lee; Kyungmin Cho; Lei Cheng; Tim Keener; Gautham Jegadeesan; Souhail Al-Abed; Raymond Hoff; Hai Zhang; Nikisa Jordan; Ana Prados; Jill Engel-Cox; Amy Huff; Stephanie Weber; Erica Zell; Shobha Kondragunta; James Szykman; Brad Johns; Fred Dimmick; Anthony Wimmers; Jay Al-Saadi; Chieko Kittaka; Shih-Chieh Hsu; Chungsying Lu; Vicente Martínez-Soria; Carmen Gabaldo´n; Josep Penya-Roja; Jordi Palau; F. lvarez-Hornos; Feliu Sempere; Carlos Soriano; Brett Grover; Norman Eatough; Woods Woolwine; Delbert Eatough; Robert Cary

2009-01-01

463

An Overview of Particulate Matter and its Cost-efficient Evaluation  

E-print Network

.) Pollen Spore The shared sources Biological source Natural chemical sources plant fiber Par i c l NoMan-n-biol m a Tobacco Smoke ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity, and IAQ, Vol. I-3-1 Cooking Combustion of wood... in the industrial sector could greatly improve the economic efficiency of particulate management [53]. By using a model to quantify the impact of particulate matter on population exposure, Joshua T. Cohen [54] found that that emission controlled diesel (ECD...

Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01

464

Chemical composition and mass closure of particulate matter at six urban sites in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5?10) particulate matter was investigated in 7-week field campaigns of contrasting air pollution at six urban background sites in Europe. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. The sampling campaigns were carried out as follows:

Markus Sillanpää; Risto Hillamo; Sanna Saarikoski; Anna Frey; Arto Pennanen; Ulla Makkonen; Zoya Spolnik; René Van Grieken; Martin Braniš; Bert Brunekreef; Marie-Cecile Chalbot; Thomas Kuhlbusch; Jordi Sunyer; Veli-Matti Kerminen; Markku Kulmala; Raimo O. Salonen

2006-01-01

465

Design of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics-monte carlo radiation transport methodology for radioactive particulate resuspension studies.  

PubMed

There are numerous scenarios where radioactive particulates can be displaced by external forces. For example, the detonation of a radiological dispersal device in an urban environment will result in the release of radioactive particulates that in turn can be resuspended into the breathing space by external forces such as wind flow in the vicinity of the detonation. A need exists to quantify the internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses that are delivered to bystanders; however, current state-of-the-art codes are unable to calculate accurately radiation doses that arise from the resuspension of radioactive particulates in complex topographies. To address this gap, a coupled computational fluid dynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport approach has been developed. With the aid of particulate injections, the computational fluid dynamics simulation models characterize the resuspension of particulates in a complex urban geometry due to air-flow. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particulates are then used by the Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to calculate the radiation doses delivered to various points within the simulated domain. A particular resuspension scenario has been modeled using this coupled framework, and the calculated internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses have been deemed reasonable. GAMBIT and FLUENT comprise the software suite used to perform the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended is used to perform the Monte Carlo Radiation Transport simulations. PMID:25162421

Ali, Fawaz; Waller, Ed

2014-10-01

466

Estimating the global abundance of ground level presence of particulate matter (PM2.5).  

PubMed

With the increasing awareness of the health impacts of particulate matter, there is a growing need to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations of the global abundance of ground level airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5). Here we use a suite of remote sensing and meteorological data products together with ground-based observations of particulate matter from 8,329 measurement sites in 55 countries taken 1997-2014 to train a machine-learning algorithm to estimate the daily distributions of PM2.5 from 1997 to the present. In this first paper of a series, we present the methodology and global average results from this period and demonstrate that the new PM2.5 data product can reliably represent global observations of PM2.5 for epidemiological studies. PMID:25599634

Lary, David J; Faruque, Fazlay S; Malakar, Nabin; Moore, Alex; Roscoe, Bryan; Adams, Zachary L; Eggelston, York

2014-01-01

467

EPA'S Updated Air Quality Standards For Smog (Ozone) and Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 16, 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency released "final air quality standards for particulate matter and ozone (otherwise known as soot and smog)." The EPA Office of Air & Radiation has made the standards, which appear in the July 18, 1997 Federal Register, available (in Adobe Acrobate [.pdf] format). The FR final rules are: "Final Particulate Matter NAAQS," (National Ambient Air Quality Standards,102p.); "Final Ozone NAAQS" (37p.); "Particulate Matter Monitoring Requirements" (86p.); and "Supplemental Information and Request for Comments" (2p.). In addition, there is a 16 page memorandum from President Clinton to the EPA Administrator concerning implementation of the standards, and there are also several fact sheets about the standards. Note that the new standards contain two significant changes from the EPA's November 1996 proposal (discussed in the December 6, 1996 Scout Report). Users can see the Updated Clean Air Standards fact sheet for these changes.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation.

1997-01-01

468

Measurement of Particulate Matter During Dairy Operations in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A collaborative experiment with Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) was set up to measure particulate emissions from tillage processes and other operations at a dairy in California. The dairy was located in the San Joaquin Valley, a traditional agricultural area with increasing urbanization. The air was...

469

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

470

Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media  

DOEpatents

A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

2014-11-11

471

Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

472

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2011-07-01

473

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2014-07-01

474

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2013-07-01

475

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2010-07-01

477

The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

478

Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

479

BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the US EPA's 1998 Baltimore Epidemiology-Exposure Panel Study, a group of 21 residents of a single building retirement community wore personal monitors recording personal fine particulate air pollution concentrations (PM2.5) for 27 days, while other monitors recorde...

480

EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demogr

Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

2007-10-01

481

Nature of particulate organic matter in the River Indus, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended sediments from the Indus River collected during 1981 through 1983 were analyzed for POC and its constituent fractions including amino acids, amino sugars and sugars. Percentage of POC decreased with increasing suspended matter concentrations, which suggested dilution of organic matter by mineral matter. The concentrations of amino acids, amino sugars and sugars varied, respectively, between 180 and 2000 g\\/l,

Venugopalan Ittekkot; Rafee Arain

1986-01-01

482

The 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter Epidemiology–Exposure Study: Part 1. Comparison of ambient, residential outdoor, indoor and apartment particulate matter monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined epidemiological–exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants from numerous spatial boundaries associated with an elderly population, provide daily mass concentrations needed for the epidemiological assessment, and perform an

RON WILLIAMS; JACK SUGGS; R ZWEIDINGER; GARY EVANS; JOHN CREASON; RICHARD KWOK; CHARLES RODES; PHIL LAWLESS; LINDA SHELDON

2000-01-01

483

Foam fractionation efficiency in particulate matter and heterotrophic bacteria removal from a recirculating seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), particulate matter and bacterial communities management are required to maintain water quality. Foam fractionation is a water treatment technology that can be easily applied to water reuse systems to remove bacteria and suspended solids. This study investigated the efficiency of foam fractionation in removing particulate matter and heterotrophic bacteria in a closed recirculating seabass (Dicentrarchus.

Fabio Brambilla; Micaela Antonini; Pietro Ceccuzzi; Genciana Terova; Marco Saroglia

2008-01-01

484

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.46b Section 60.46b...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) The PM emission standards...which combusts residual oil having a nitrogen content greater than 0.30 weight...

2011-07-01

485

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.46b Section 60.46b...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) The PM emission standards...which combusts residual oil having a nitrogen content greater than 0.30 weight...

2013-07-01

486

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.46b Section 60.46b...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) The PM emission standards...which combusts residual oil having a nitrogen content greater than 0.30 weight...

2010-07-01

487

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.46b Section 60.46b...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) The PM emission standards...which combusts residual oil having a nitrogen content greater than 0.30 weight...

2014-07-01

488

40 CFR 60.46b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.46b Section 60.46b...procedures for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) The PM emission standards...which combusts residual oil having a nitrogen content greater than 0.30 weight...

2012-07-01

489

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so…

Othman, Jazilah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2008-01-01

490

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from a Pilot-Scale  

E-print Network

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from processes on particulate matter emissions from coal-fired power plants and other combustion systems. The sampler allows independent control of the dilution ratio and residence time. Experiments were performed

Stanier, Charlie

491

SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD  

E-print Network

SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD oxidation of diesel particulate matter in the presence of O3 and O3+NOx is being investigated. The goal, 1ppm, 1µL injection Alkanes Standard Solution, 0.1ppm, 1µL injection FUTURE EXPERIMENTS Verify PM

Holmén, Britt A.

492

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

493

Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter  

DOEpatents

An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01

494

Stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in marine particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract--Particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined in the Atlantic, Indian, and Antarctic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Although the regions differ in their hydrology, the slopes of the regression lines between,POC and PON (mean value = 5.6 by atoms) vary <20% in surface waters. The intercept on the POC axis of the POC-PON line is always,positive and represents between,0

Claire Copin-Montegut; Gérard Copin-Montegut

1983-01-01

495

Evaluation of the efficiency of extraction of PAHs from diesel particulate matter with pressurized solvents.  

PubMed

Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was evaluated for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-derivatives from diesel particulate matter. Extraction conditions were set up by performing several tests in which temperature, solvent strength, pressure, and static time were gradually increased. The results obtained on a laboratory test material made of a "lean" (low content of soluble fraction) Diesel particulate matter indicate that very severe conditions were needed in order to obtain better recoveries of the higher molecular weight molecules. Moreover, extraction efficiency seems to be influenced by the amount of soluble matter in the particulate, so that a "lean" particulate appears more difficult to extract. Recoveries of the deuterated standards of certain PAHs (i.e. indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) were incomplete even with the toughest conditions tested. Experiments carried out on a certified material (SRM 1650 from NIST) also indicate that PFE can perform a better extraction of some of the PAHs than the method used for certification, but still incomplete. Comparison of results obtained on the SRM with different extraction techniques suggests that the composition of the extract varies considerably with the extraction technique and conditions. It is relevant to notice that recent Diesel engines produce leaner particulate: for future materials more drastic extraction conditions will be required. PMID:12610716

Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Iamiceli, Anna Laura

2003-02-01

496

& Source apportionment of particulate matter in the United States and associations with lung inflammatory Markers  

EPA Science Inventory

Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured...

497

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF MODELS-3 CMAQ USING PARTICULATE MATTER DATA FROM THE IMPROVE NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and wel...

498

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2011-07-01

499

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2012-07-01

500

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2014-07-01