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1

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH 02  

EPA Science Inventory

2002 PARTICULATE MATTER GPRA Goal 1: Clean Air; Objective 1.1: Ozone, PM, and SO2 NAAQS; Sub-Objective 1.1.5: Particulate Matter Research Description: In July 1997, EPA revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM), recogniz...

2

Health Effects of Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site gives a brief overview of how different sized particulate matter affects human health. It also discusses the environmental impacts of particulate matter, including haze and acid rain. The site also provides links to more in-depth resources about particle pollution and air quality criteria for particulate matter.

Environmental Protection Agency

3

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22

4

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L weather on the final deposition of these particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01

5

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

6

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

7

40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1880 Section 52.1880 Protection...1880 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Greater Metropolitan...

2012-07-01

8

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2012-07-01

9

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2010-07-01

10

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2011-07-01

11

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2011-07-01

12

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Control strategy; Particulate matter. 52.2584 Section 52.2584 Protection...2584 Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval...maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain an...

2014-07-01

13

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Link to an amendment published at...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2013-07-01

14

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2010-07-01

15

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2013-07-01

16

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2012-07-01

17

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2010-07-01

18

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2014-07-01

19

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2013-07-01

20

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2012-07-01

21

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2011-07-01

22

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2012-07-01

23

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2011-07-01

24

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2014-07-01

25

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

26

OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

27

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOEpatents

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16

28

PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

29

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

30

8, 327365, 2008 Particulate matter air  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 327­365, 2008 Particulate matter air quality P. Gupta and S. A. Christopher Title Page-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 327­365, 2008 www ­ Published: 9 January 2008 Correspondence to: S. Christopher (sundar@nsstc.uah.edu) 327 #12;ACPD 8, 327­365

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

32

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

33

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

34

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2013-07-01

35

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2011-07-01

36

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2014-07-01

37

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2011-07-01

38

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2011-07-01

39

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2014-07-01

40

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2012-07-01

42

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2012-07-01

43

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2011-07-01

44

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2010-07-01

45

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2011-07-01

46

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2011-07-01

47

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2013-07-01

48

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2012-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2014-07-01

51

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2010-07-01

53

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2013-07-01

54

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2014-07-01

55

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2012-07-01

56

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2014-07-01

58

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2013-07-01

59

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2012-07-01

60

Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

2007-03-01

61

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

62

Characterizing the origins of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing policy targeted at decreasing air pollution, it is essential that we have a strong understanding of when and where the pollution originated. Towards this goal, we have implemented and evaluated two different source attribution schemes in PMCAMx, a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model. The two schemes, an online (OPSA) and offline version (PSAT), are both designed for computational efficiency and the ability to track source contributions to primary and secondary particulate matter. The two versions showed good agreement with each other and with more accurate, computationally demanding methods. The off-line algorithm (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology, PSAT) is simpler to implement, has a lower computational cost and is suitable for a range of source apportionment studies. We have utilized this algorithm to study the age distribution of atmospheric particulate matter mass in space and time. The average calculated ages are on the order of a few days for particulate matter near the ground, but are highly variable in space and time. Primary aerosol species had average ages of approximately 24 hours over this polluted continental region while the average ages for secondary species were 48-72 hours near the surface. As expected, the average age of all aerosol components increases vertically in the atmosphere. Age increases rapidly away from the sources of aerosol and its precursors and for non-volatile species it increases with particle size. PSAT is an excellent tool for the study of source-receptor relationships. We have studied the extent of pollutant transport in the Eastern United States using two approaches. The first PSAT-based approach is focused on source regions and the second is focused on receptor regions. For the source region focused approach, transport of pollutants is quantified by tracking the emissions from these regions. For the receptor region focused approach, PSAT tracks the pollutants emitted from a series of rings around the area of interest We discuss the results from these approaches looking at the impacts to primary elemental carbon, SO2, particulate sulfate and secondary organic aerosol. The source region-focused approach was applied to study the contributions to PM levels of 11 different area in the Eastern United States, ranging in size (both in terms of land area and emissions) from the Ohio River Valley to Little Rock, AR. These impacts were quantified using a variety of measures to account for both the distance that the pollutants are transported and the overall impact the emissions have on pollutant concentrations in the region. Large source regions were found to have a large impact on secondary particulate matter levels areas several hundred kilometers from the source region. The receptor region focused approach was used to evaluate the contributions from long range, mid range and long range transport to particulate matter concentrations in three receptor regions: Pittsburgh, PA, Atlanta, GA and Great Smoky Mountains. The local impacts to elemental carbon in urban areas were found to be substantial (approximately 50%) with most the additional contributions being from short range transport. The contributions to sulfate and SOA were found to be more regional with much of the contributions in all three sites resulting from mid range transport.

Wagstrom, Kristina Michelle

63

Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

2012-06-01

64

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2012-07-01

65

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2011-07-01

66

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2013-07-01

67

Particulate Matter: What is it and Why does it Matter to Agriculture?  

E-print Network

Particulate matter is the dust and other small particles that are suspended in the air. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates particulate matter because it can cause health problems when inhaled. This publication explains the two types...

Mukhtar, Saqib; McGee, Russell

2009-04-16

68

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

69

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

70

FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

71

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2011-07-01

72

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2014-07-01

73

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2010-07-01

74

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2012-07-01

75

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

76

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

77

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2012-07-01

78

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

79

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

80

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2011-07-01

81

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

82

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2010-07-01

83

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

84

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

85

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2013-07-01

86

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2014-07-01

87

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

89

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2012-07-01

90

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

91

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

93

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2011-07-01

94

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

95

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2013-07-01

97

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2014-07-01

98

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2011-07-01

99

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

100

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2014-07-01

101

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2014-07-01

102

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2012-07-01

103

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2010-07-01

104

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-print Network

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01

105

Organic Content of Particulate Matter In Turbine Engine Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid particulate matter, mainly carbon, emitted into the air from the combustion of fossil fuels contains a variety of organic species adsorbed on it. In our examination of these particulates from the combustion of kerosene type fuels in a gas turbine engine, attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines, and total organics. Polynuclears were determined by HPLC, GC\\/MS,

D. J. Robertson; R. H. Groth; T. J. Blasko

1980-01-01

106

Lanthanoid geochemistry of urban atmospheric particulate matter.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the lanthanoid element (La to Lu) chemistry of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM). PM samples collected during an air sampling campaign in the Mexico City area contain lanthanoid concentrations of mostly 1-10 ng m(-3), increasing with mass where resuspension of crustal PM is important (low PM2.5/PM10), but not where fine emissions from traffic and industry dominate (high PM2.5/ PM10). Samples show anthropogenic enrichment of lighter over heavier lanthanoids, and Ce enrichment relative to La and Sm occurs in the city center (especially PM10) possibly due to PM from road vehicle catalytic converters. La is especially enriched, although many samples show low La/V values (< 0.11), suggesting the dominating influence of fuel oil combustion sources rather than refinery emissions. We use La/Sm v La/ Ce, LaCeSm, and LaCeV plots to compare Mexico City aerosols with PM from other cities. Lanthanoid aerosol geochemistry can be used not only to identify refinery pollution events, but also as a marker for different hydrocarbon combustion emissions (e.g., oil or coal power stations) on urban background atmospheric PM. PMID:18800521

Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Pérez, Noemi; Bernabé, Rosa M; Blanco, Salvador; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Gibbons, Wes

2008-09-01

107

Roadside measurements of particulate matter size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roadside measurements were performed in order to document the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) under dilution conditions similar to those found in real world. These activities covered measurements at engine test beds, at different locations in a road tunnel as well as in an urban environment. In order to get a clear picture of the evolution of the PM in different size classes, the in-tunnel locations ranged from curb-side to different locations inside the exhaust air system. Additional measurements were performed in the ambient air at curb-side at a street crossing as well as in urban background. At those times when heavy traffic occurs, tunnel measurements show size distributions similar to those derived from engine/vehicle measurements. During times with little traffic the size distributions are closer to those recorded in ambient air. As soon as the traffic load increases the size distribution changes, due to rapid coagulation of the smallest particles with the accumulation mode. As the travel time of the particles through the tunnel and up the stacks is very long "aging" effects could be observed. Thus, these spectra are quite different from ambient measurements in urban air, especially in the region above 30-40 nm.

Sturm, Peter J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Bacher, Michael; Lechner, Bernhard; Hausberger, Stefan; Heiden, Bernhard; Imhof, David; Weingartner, Ernest; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter

108

Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate ...

109

40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

110

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 Standards...completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...discharged into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate matter...

2010-07-01

111

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

2011-07-01

113

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

114

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2011-07-01

115

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2013-07-01

116

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2014-07-01

117

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2010-07-01

118

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2012-07-01

119

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

120

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

121

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2011-07-01

123

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2010-07-01

124

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2012-07-01

125

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2014-07-01

126

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

127

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2010-07-01

128

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

129

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2012-07-01

130

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2011-07-01

131

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2014-07-01

132

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

133

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2014-07-01

134

DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (...

135

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

136

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

137

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

138

Photochemical reactions of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon contained in suspended, coastal marine sediments photochemically dissolves under high doses of artificial sunlight in the laboratory, suggesting that sunlight might induce large changes in the form and fate of organic matter present in suspended particles along turbid, low-latitude coastlines. The primary goal of the work presented here was to develop a quantitative method of predicting the particulate organic carbon (POC) "photodissolution" rate in the coastal waters of Louisiana near the deltas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Pursuit of this objective required measurements of the reaction rate and apparent quantum yield, determination of sediment light absorption properties, and development of a novel method to retrieve the optical properties of coastal water from remotely-sensed reflectance measurements. This dissertation first describes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production and oxygen consumption accompanying photodissolution. The ratio of DIC production to O2 consumption was lower for POC than in previously-described reactions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting greater photochemical incorporation of oxygen into organic matter. Particle light absorption properties control, in part, the rate of photodissolution. Absorption coefficients of suspended sediment samples from the study region are a weak function of organic carbon content but a strong function of reducible iron content. Photodissolution rate measurements and radiative transfer modeling were used to determine the wavelength-dependent apparent quantum yield for the reaction and to constrain the temperature dependence and sample composition-induced variability in the rate. Initial photodissolution rates scaled linearly with the reducible iron content of sediments but the rate was independent of composition over longer periods. High spatial-resolution optical properties of study region waters were obtained from a novel satellite reflectance inversion calibrated using the local mass-normalized optical properties of suspended sediments. Lab-based photodissolution rate measurements were scaled to match field optical conditions determined from available satellite observations. Empirical relationships between local weather and the satellite-based photodissolution predictions allowed estimates of rates on days without satellite imagery. Annually-integrated rates were small relative to river POC inputs, but results suggested photodissolution rates similar in magnitude to CDOM photoreactions.

Estapa, Margaret L.

2011-12-01

139

Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

140

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

141

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What...matter that may be emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating...

2010-07-01

142

Pulmonary particulate matter and systemic microvascular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Pulmonary particulate matter (PM) exposure has been epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic foundations for this association are unclear. Exposure to certain types of PM causes changes in the vascular reactivity of several macrovascular segments. However, no studies have focused upon the systemic microcirculation, which is the primary site for the development of peripheral resistance and, typically, the site of origin for numerous pathologies. Ultrafine PM--also referred to as nanoparticles, which are defined as ambient and engineered particles with at least one physical dimension less than 100 nm (Oberdorster et al. 2005)--has been suggested to be more toxic than its larger counterparts by virtue of a larger surface area per unit mass. The purpose of this study was fourfold: (1) determine whether particle size affects the severity of postexposure microvascular dysfunction; (2) characterize alterations in microvascular nitric oxide (NO) production after PM exposure; (3) determine whether alterations in microvascular oxidative stress are associated with NO production, arteriolar dysfunction, or both; and (4) determine whether circulating inflammatory mediators, leukocytes, neurologic mechanisms, or a combination of these play a fundamental role in mediating pulmonary PM exposure and peripheral microvascular dysfunction. To achieve these goals, we created an inhalation chamber that generates stable titanium dioxide (TiO2) aerosols at concentrations up to 20 mg/m3. TiO2 is a well-characterized particle devoid of soluble metals. Sprague Dawley and Fischer 344 (F-344) rats were exposed to fine or nano-TiO2 PM (primary count modes of approximately 710 nm and approximately 100 nm in diameter, respectively) at concentrations of 1.5 to 16 mg/m3 for 4 to 12 hours to produce pulmonary loads of 7 to 150 microg in each rat. Twenty-four hours after pulmonary exposure, the following procedures were performed: the spinotrapezius muscle was prepared for in vivo microscopy, blood samples were taken from an arterial line, and various tissues were harvested for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Some rats received a bolus dose of cyclophosphamide 3 days prior to PM exposure to deplete circulating neutrophils and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in separate groups of rats exposed to identical TiO2 loads. No significant differences in BAL fluid composition based on PM size or load were found in these rats. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-18, IL-13, and growth-related oncogene (GRO) (also known as keratinocyte-derived-chemokine [KC]) were altered after PM exposure. In rats exposed to fine TiO2, endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly decreased, and this dysfunction was robustly augmented in rats exposed to nano-TiO2. This effect was not related to an altered smooth-muscle responsiveness to NO because arterioles in both groups dilated comparably in response to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Endogenous microvascular NO production was similarly decreased after inhalation of either fine or nano-TiO2 in a dose-dependent manner. Microvascular oxidative stress was significantly increased among both exposure groups. Furthermore, treatment with antioxidants (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine-N-oxyl [TEMPOL] plus catalase), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic hydrazide (ABAH), or the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) inhibitor apocynin partially restored NO production and normalized arteriolar function in both groups. Neutrophil depletion restored dilation in PM-exposed rats by as much as 42%. Coincubation of the spinotrapezius muscle with the fast sodium (Na+) channel antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX) restored arteriolar dilation by as much as 54%, suggesting that sympathetic neural input may be affected by PM exposure. The results of these experiments indicate that (1) the size of inhaled PM dictates the intensity of systemic microvascular dysfunction; (2) this arteriolar dysfuncti

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Porter, Dale W; Hubbs, Ann F; Stone, Samuel; Moseley, Amy M; Cumpston, Jared L; Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Perrotta, Peter L; Brock, Robert W; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Boegehold, Matthew A; Frazer, David G; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent

2011-12-01

143

Reduction of particulate matter and gaseous emission from marine diesel engines using a catalyzed particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines are used widely as the power sources of coastal ships and international vessels primarily due to their high thermal efficiency, high fuel economy and durable performance. However, the gaseous and solid substances exhausted from diesel engines during the combustion process cause air pollution, in particular around harbor regions. In order to effectively reduce particulate matter and gaseous pollution

Cherng-Yuan Lin

2002-01-01

144

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits using . . . You...

2012-07-01

145

DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

146

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

147

ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER.  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the acute mortality effects of high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM), documented in historic air pollution episodes, may also be occurring at the low to moderate concentrations of ambient PM found in mod...

148

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2012-07-01

149

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2013-07-01

150

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2010-07-01

151

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2014-07-01

152

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2011-07-01

153

Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs  

DOEpatents

A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

2012-02-21

154

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

155

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

156

Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport

A. Monteiro; A. I. Miranda; C. Borrego; R. Vautard; J. Ferreira; A. T. Perez

2007-01-01

157

AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

158

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

159

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

160

DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SAMPLE COLLECTOR OF RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sampler designed to collect particulate matter from air in sized fractions has been designed and tested. The sampler excludes particles above 20 micrometers in diameter and collects fractions centered at 3.5 micrometers and 1.7 micrometers on impaction plates and smal...

161

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 ¿m or less (PM-2.5) has been implicated in adverse health effects, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 has been promulgated (July 1997) by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. A national network of ambie...

162

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

163

Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily

Amy E. Gildemeister; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim

2007-01-01

164

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

165

A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

166

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

167

The Role of Particulate Matter in Exacerbation of Atopic Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence shows that elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) can exacerbate existing asthma, while evidence that PM can promote the induction of asthma is limited. PM in ambient air has been associated with increased emergency room visits and medication use by asthmatics. Controlled human exposure studies of acid aerosols suggest increased responses among adolescent asthmatics. Increased ambient and indoor

Stephen H. Gavett; Hillel S. Koren

2001-01-01

168

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research Minneapolis, MN January 14, 1999 #12;01/14/99 Page 2 TABLE ................................................................................................................5 DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSION REGULATIONS .............................7 PHYSICALREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS FINAL REPORT Prepared by David B. Kittelson

Minnesota, University of

169

OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury. Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC. Epidemiol...

170

Atmospheric ammonia measurements and implications for particulate matter formation in Houston, TX  

E-print Network

Atmospheric ammonia measurements and implications for particulate matter formation in Houston, TX;1 Atmospheric ammonia measurements and1 implications for particulate matter formation in2 Houston, TX3 Longwen importance of NH3 with respect to particle20 number concentration.21 Key words: ammonia, particulate matter

171

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

172

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

173

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

174

40 CFR 60.282a - Standard for filterable particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standard for filterable particulate matter. 60.282a Section 60.282a Protection... Standard for filterable particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... (i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.10 gram per dry...

2014-07-01

175

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

177

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION relevant to the study of air pollution involving particulate matter and to setting particulate matter air

Washington at Seattle, University of

178

Theoretical study of the impact of particulate matter gravitational settling on ambient coarse particulate matter monitoring for agricultural emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) in the downwind plume from simulated sources were analyzed to determine the impact of PM settling on PM monitoring. The PSD of PM in a plume varies as a function of gravitational settling.Gravitational settling has a greater impact on ...

179

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

180

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01

181

Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and measured dust storm concentration variability at Beijing in the course of time. The results show the importance of intertwine investigations of measurements and modeling, the analysis of local air pollution levels as well as the impact and analysis of advective processes in the greater region of Beijing. Comprehensive investigations on particulate matter are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the source strengths and source attribution to the overall air pollution level. Only this knowledge can help to formulate and to introduce specific reduction measures to reduce coarser as well as finer particulates.

Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

2013-05-01

182

Stoichiometry of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen in the particulate matter of the western North Pacific marginal seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suspended particulate matter (SPM) in surface seawater was collected from 19 stations in the Sea of Japan, 42 stations in the East China Sea, 7 stations North of Taiwan and 6 stations in the Philippine Sea and the Bashi Channel. The particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic hydrogen (POH), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), particulate organic sulfur (POS), particulate organic

Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Chi-Ming Lin; Being-Ta Huang; Lei-Fong Chang

1996-01-01

183

Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

2014-10-01

184

Chemical composition of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pollution caused by airborne particulate matter in the winter season in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is a very serious problem. However, there is a complete lack of scientific observation data to define the situation prior to any remediation. PM10 and PM2.5 average monthly values obtained by continuous monitoring showed the concentrations of particles of both size categories exceeded 100 ?g m-3 during November to February (winter). PM10 particles were sampled with filters in January (i.e. during the heating period) and June (i.e.non-heating period) of 2008 in central Ulaanbaatar. To determine the composition of urban airborne particulate matter we analyzed a range of ionic components, multiple elements including heavy metals, and organic and inorganic carbon (soot). We also measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of the soot. Total carbon (sum of organic carbon and inorganic carbon) accounted for 47% of the mass of the PM10 during the heating period and 33% during the non-heating period, and was the largest component of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar. Stable isotope ratios (?13C) of soot generated during the heating period (-23.4 ± 0.2‰) approximated the ratios for coal used in Ulaanbaatar (-21.3 to -24.4‰), while the ratios during the non-heating period (-27.1 ± 0.4‰) were clearly different from the coal values. In the heating period, a very high correlation was observed between soot and organic carbon, SO42-, NO3-, F-, Zn, As, and Pb, and we concluded that they were derived from coal combustion along with soot. In addition, the concentrations and their ratios relative to each other of Al, Fe, Ca, K, Na, Mg, and Mn hardly differed between the heating period and the non-heating period, and it was concluded that they were derived from soil dust.

Nishikawa, Masataka; Matsui, Ichiro; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Jugder, Dulam; Mori, Ikuko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuyuki

2011-10-01

185

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

186

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01

187

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.  

PubMed

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 ?g m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 ?g m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. PMID:21458792

Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Ji?í

2011-05-01

188

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01

189

Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

2012-12-01

190

Particulate Matter Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Area, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Particulate matter 2.5 micrometers diameter or less is small enough to pass from the lungs to the blood stream, and in the long run, may contribute to causing cancer and other life-threatening diseases. Although particles as large as 10 micrometers tend to get trapped by the nose and throat, and thus never enter the lungs, they can still cause trouble for those who have breathing-related problems. Our research was aimed at determining the levels of large and small particles in places with high densities of people, as well as locations with a high volume of vehicle traffic. Using the Fluke 893 Particle Counter, we measured particulate matter in a transect that spanned the San Francisco Bay Area. We collected data at diverse sites including: Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) stations in Oakland and San Francisco; all levels of a large parking garage in Emeryville; a number of local construction sites; and several heavily populated shopping areas in San Francisco. Though preliminary in nature, analysis of our data indicates that high concentrations of particles under 2.5 micrometers are found at the Coliseum BART station in Oakland, as well as in association with areas of high vehicle traffic flow. High concentrations of large particles are found near construction sites. Guided by these preliminary results, we plan to continue collecting data throughout the Fall to determine the causes of patterns that we have observed, as well as assess any changes that occur over time.

Souksavath, V.; Williams, J.; Powell, M.; Campell, M.; Almarez, A.; Almarez, M.

2008-12-01

191

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

192

Personal coarse particulate matter exposures in an adult cohort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5). Data from these personal measurements were then compared to community-based measures that might typically represent surrogate measurements of exposure often used in epidemiological assessments. To determine personal exposures to various particulate matter (PM) size fractions, a recently evaluated personal PM monitor capable of direct PM 10-2.5 size fraction collection was used. Participants living in the central region of North Carolina and enrolled in the NCAAES were asked to wear the monitor attached to a supporting backpack for 24-h collection periods. These volunteers were monitored for 2 to 4 days with subsequent gravimetric analysis of their PM samples. Personal PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations were observed to be highly variable and ranged from 7.6 to 40.2 ?g/m 3 over an 8-month period. The median for this measurement from all participants (50th percentile) was 13.7 ?g/m 3. A coefficient of determination ( r2) of 0.02 was established for community-based PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations versus personal exposures. Similar coefficients established for PM 2.5 mass revealed only a modest improvement in agreement ( r2 = 0.12). Data from the exposure findings are reported here.

Williams, Ron; Case, Martin; Yeatts, Karin; Chen, Fu-Lin; Scott, James; Svendsen, Erik; Devlin, Robert

193

Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime  

E-print Network

Role of atmospheric ammonia in particulate matter formation in Houston during summertime Longwen 2013 Keywords: Ammonia Particulate matter Gas-particle partitioning Aerosol nucleation a b s t r a c reserved. 1. Introduction Ammonia (NH3) is widely present in the atmosphere due to many anthropogenic

194

SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

195

Distributions and variability of particulate organic matter in a coastal upwelling system  

E-print Network

Distributions and variability of particulate organic matter in a coastal upwelling system L. Karp (2004), Distributions and variability of particulate organic matter in a coastal upwelling system, J the role of coastal upwelling systems in the cycling and export of organic carbon. [3] Our current

Pierce, Stephen

196

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency performed a particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment based on data from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study was a one-year investigation of PM ...

197

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from a  

E-print Network

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from, stationarity. Abstract Statistical methods are needed for evaluating many aspects of air pollution regu particulate matter (PM) is an important air pollutant for which regu- lations have been issued recently

Sahu, Sujit K

198

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

199

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements

E. Chalvatzaki; I. Kopanakis; M. Kontaksakis; T. Glytsos; N. Kalogerakis; M. Lazaridis

2010-01-01

200

Impairment of NO-Dependent Relaxation in Intralobar Pulmonary Arteries: Comparison Between Urban Particulate Matter and  

E-print Network

1 Impairment of NO-Dependent Relaxation in Intralobar Pulmonary Arteries: Comparison Between Urban, particulate matter, pulmonary artery Abbreviations cGMP cyclic GMP fTiO2 fine TiO2 particles NO nitric oxide MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemicals Particulate Matter Animals, Exposition to Particles and Tissue Preparation

Boyer, Edmond

201

A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 µm) F...

202

Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.  

PubMed

Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

1999-07-15

203

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter

J. M. Barnett; Valerie I. Cullinan; Debra S. Barnett; Truc LT Trang-Le; Mary Bliss; Lawrence R. Greenwood; Marcel Y. Ballinger

2009-01-01

204

Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

205

Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:22554531

Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

2012-06-15

206

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

207

Characterization of particulate matter concentrations during controlled indoor activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indoor sources have been identified as a major contributor to the increase of particle concentration in indoor environments. The work presented here is a study of the characteristics of particulate matter number size distribution and mass concentration under controlled indoor activities in a laboratory room. The objective is to characterize particulate matter concentrations indoors resulted under the influence of specific sources. Measurements were performed in an empty laboratory (period September-October 2006) using a GRIMM SMPS+C system (particle size range between 11.1 and 1083.3 nm), a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (TSI) and a P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter (TSI). The studied indoor activities included candle burning, hot plate heating, water boiling, onion frying, vacuuming, hair drying, hair spraying, smoking and burning of incense stick. The AMANpsd computer algorithm was used to evaluate the modal structure of measured particle number size distribution data. Furthermore, the change of the particle number size distribution shape under the influence of different emission sources was studied versus time. Finally the particle emission rates were computed. High particle number concentrations were observed during smoking, onion frying, candle burning and incense stick burning. The highest particle mass concentrations were measured during smoking and hair spraying. The shift of the particle size distribution to larger diameters suggests the presence of strong coagulation effect during candle burning, incense stick burning, smoking and onion frying. The size distribution was mainly bimodal during onion frying and candle burning, whereas the size distribution remained unimodal during incense stick burning and smoking experiments.

Glytsos, T.; Ondrá?ek, J.; Džumbová, L.; Kopanakis, I.; Lazaridis, M.

2010-04-01

208

Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration

S. N. Rudnick; D. Leith; M. W. First

1976-01-01

209

Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

2014-06-01

210

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter 1.0General (a) This appendix...computations necessary for analyzing particulate matter data to determine attainment of...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...affected facility: (1) Particulate matter at emission rates exceeding 0.5...

2011-07-01

212

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter 1.0General (a) This appendix...computations necessary for analyzing particulate matter data to determine attainment of...

2012-07-01

213

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...affected facility: (1) Particulate matter at emission rates exceeding 0.5...

2012-07-01

214

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...affected facility: (1) Particulate matter at emission rates exceeding 0.5...

2013-07-01

215

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter 1.0General (a) This appendix...computations necessary for analyzing particulate matter data to determine attainment of...

2014-07-01

216

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...affected facility: (1) Particulate matter at emission rates exceeding 0.5...

2014-07-01

217

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...affected facility: (1) Particulate matter at emission rates exceeding 0.5...

2010-07-01

218

Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the noise levels in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the level of noise at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured noise levels and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high noise level accompanied high particulate matter while low noise level accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that noise levels are not indicative of particulate matter levels and that noise levels around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.

Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.

2007-12-01

219

Particulate matter < 10 ?m (PM 10) and total suspended particulates (TSP) in urban, rural and alpine air in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter were measured in Switzerland for a 1 yr period in 1993 at a dozen urban, rural and alpine sites. PM10 concentrations ranged between 10 ?g m?3 (alpine) and 33 ?g m?3 (urban). Highest concentrations were found at Lugano, in the south of the Alps, and in urban sites

Ch. Monn; O. Braendli; G. Schaeppi; Ch. Schindler; U. Ackermann-Liebrich; Ph. Leuenberger

1995-01-01

220

Distribution, composition, and transport of suspended particulate matter in the vicinity of Willapa submarine canyon, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the waters over Willapa submarine canyon and the adjacent continental slope off the coast of Wasington describe an apparently continuous botton nepheloid layer ranging in thickness from 160 to 530 m and composed of particles supplied primarily by the nearby Columbia River. Near-bottom particulate concentrations, estimated by continuous vertical profiles of

EDWARD T. BAKER

1976-01-01

221

Protection from being indoors against inhalation of suspended particulate matter of outdoor origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical report:A method of determining the protection factor from being indoors against inhalation of suspended particulate matter of outdoor origin is described. The method consists of simultaneously collecting particulate samples with air filters at indoor and outdoor sites. The samples are analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for elements known to be of outdoor origin. The procedure is applied to various building

A. F. Cohen; B. L. Cohen

1980-01-01

222

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of particulates in 369 air samples over 175 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um cutpoint. Keywords: air; metals. The...

223

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on

II Parks; James E; Vitaly Y Prikhodko

2009-01-01

224

Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.  

PubMed Central

In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8959406

Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

1996-01-01

225

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

226

The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health. PMID:20564993

Funk, Paul A

2010-06-01

227

Epigenetic alterations induced by ambient particulate matter in mouse macrophages.  

PubMed

Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10-200 µg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

Miousse, Isabelle R; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G; Koturbash, Igor

2014-06-01

228

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

229

Statistical comparison of diesel particulate matter measurement methods.  

PubMed

Four methods are used to quantify diesel particulate matter (DPM) in the mine environment: respirable combustible dust sampling (RCD), size selective sampling with gravimetric analysis (SSG), respirable dust sampling with elemental carbon (EC) analysis, and respirable dust sampling with total carbon (TC) analysis. The authors assembled data from three underground mine studies to statistically compare these methods. The sampling protocol used in each study was similar. For all the four methods, samples were collected in triplicate at three locations-upwind and downwind of the diesel scoop and on the scoop. The methods were compared with respect to their precision, selectivity, sensitivity, and LOD, as well as their limitations in measuring DPM concentrations. This constitutes a meta-analysis of the available data and provides information over a broader range of mining conditions and DPM concentrations than any of the individual studies. The weighing imprecision for the SSG method is almost twice that for the RCD technique. The imprecision of the EC and TC methods are a function of the mass loading, and EC has a lower imprecision than TC. The EC method was used as the reference "gold standard" against which the other methods were evaluated. The RCD, SSG, and TC methods exhibited substantial levels of interference, leading to much higher minimum concentrations that can be measured by these methods. Of the three, the SSG method has the highest level of interference, primarily from nondiesel material that is collected in the <0.8 microm size range. PMID:12809538

Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Watts, Winthrop F

2003-01-01

230

Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

Hagler, Gayle S. W.

231

THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

232

IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

233

REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

234

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE. PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Environmental particles (PM...

235

40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1637 Particulate Matter...August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation...commitments, from the Director of New Mexico Environmental Improvement...

2011-07-01

236

40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1637 Particulate Matter...August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation...commitments, from the Director of New Mexico Environmental Improvement...

2010-07-01

237

THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

238

IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

239

Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

240

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Several hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem from PM transitio...

241

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanism(s) of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Some hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem fro...

242

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1987, is disapproved insofar as it provides annual opacity limits for the seven plants of Duke Power Company and for Plants Roxboro and Cape Fear of Carolina Power and Light Company. (c) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as...

2010-07-01

243

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

244

Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

245

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...

246

Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

247

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

248

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

249

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: ...

250

77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental...on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM 2.5 attainment demonstration that was...

2012-01-12

251

77 FR 1873 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions...2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia (hereafter referred to as ``the Rome Area'' or ``Area''), PM 2.5...

2012-01-12

252

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

253

SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

254

AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

255

THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

256

Soluble Components of Ultraflne Particulate Matter Stimulate Endothelial H202 Production  

EPA Science Inventory

A growing body of evidence shows a strong association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular health effects such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. The mechanisms by which PM causes cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown, but there is increasi...

257

77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...revision submitted by the State of Tennessee on April 4, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of Tennessee's April 4, 2008, attainment...

2012-08-21

258

77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...revision submitted by the State of Tennessee on April 4, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of Tennessee's April 4, 2008, attainment...

2012-08-21

259

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

260

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases?especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

261

An Overview of Particulate Matter and its Cost-efficient Evaluation  

E-print Network

studies on health effects of particulate matter are introduced. Control strategies and cost-effectiveness evaluation of PM are also introduced. Developing optimum control strategies, which likely include a variety of control options and cost...

Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01

262

On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

2011-09-30

263

Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

264

ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PARTICULATE MATTER BY LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and heavy-metal activated room temperature phosphorescence spectra were obtained for ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) reference compounds individually and in mixtures on quartz plates and particulate matter. The results indicate that multic...

265

SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

266

77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base...Commonwealth's portion of the bi-state Louisville, KY-IN nonattainment area for the...standards (NAAQS). The bi-state Louisville, KY-IN nonattainment area is...

2012-05-25

267

77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base...Commonwealth's portion of the bi-state Louisville, Kentucky-Indiana nonattainment area...hereafter referred to as ``the bi-state Louisville Area'' or ``Area.'' The...

2012-08-02

268

Particulate matter, PM 10 & PM 2.5 levels, and airborne mutagenicity in Chiang Mai, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air (PM 2.5 and PM 10) were measured in a northern city of Thailand (Chiang Mai) from March 1998 to October 1999. Twenty-four-hour air particulate matter samples were collected each day with Airmetric Minivol portable air samplers. Monthly averages of PM 2.5 from four stations in Chiang Mai varied from 15.39

Usanee Vinitketkumnuen; Kittiwan Kalayanamitra; Teera Chewonarin; Richard Kamens

2002-01-01

269

MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

270

Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P.; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

2014-01-01

271

Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.  

PubMed

The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91?gm(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

2015-04-01

272

Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 ?g/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 ?g/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 ?g/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 ?g/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 ?g/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

2014-10-01

273

In-vehicle exposures to particulate matter and black carbon.  

PubMed

In-vehicle exposures to particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) can be a significant part of personal total exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of the in-vehicle pollutant level. This study measured in-vehicle exposure to PM number concentrations using an aerosol spectrometer and BC concentration by an aethalometer. The measurement was repeated 3 times a day for 13 consecutive days in May 2007 while a vehicle was driven on a 1-hr predetermined route in Lexington, KY. The vehicle's windows were closed, its fan was operated at the lowest setting, and air conditioning and heating were off. The average speed of all runs was 37 +/- 5.8 km/hr. Arithmetic mean PM1 (particle sizes < or = 1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) number and BC concentrations were 286 #/cm3 (morning, 302 #/cm3; afternoon, 270 #/cm3; evening, 287 #/cm3) and 1.9 microg/m3 (morning, 2.5 microg/m3; afternoon, 1.6 microg/m3; evening, 1.5 microg/m3), respectively. Average PM and BC concentrations increased during weekdays and decreased during weekends, and PM1 number and BC concentrations were highest in the morning. Particle size distribution for PM1 did not differ with time of day, but the concentration of PM1-10 (particle sizes between 1 and 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) was higher in the evening and lower in the morning. Peak PM1 number concentrations were observed when the test vehicle approached busy crossroads. In-vehicle PM and BC concentrations were associated with time of the day and location, whereas the in-vehicle 1-hr PM number concentrations were closely associated with distant ambient PM2.5 (particle sizes < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations measured at a stationary monitoring site. The findings suggested that in-vehicle exposure is associated with surrounding traffic. PMID:20222524

Lee, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hongji; Putti, Kiran

2010-02-01

274

Exposure assessment of particulate matter for susceptible populations in Seattle.  

PubMed

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and asthma. The average personal exposures to PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) were similar to the average outdoor PM2.5 concentrations but significantly higher than the average indoor concentrations. Personal PM2.5 exposures in our study groups were lower than those reported in other panel studies of susceptible populations. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5, PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 10 microm), and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 were significantly higher during the heating season. The increase in outdoor PM10 in winter was primarily due to an increase in the PM2.5 fraction. A similar seasonal variation was found for personal PM2.5. The high-risk subjects in our study engaged in an equal amount of dust-generating activities compared with the healthy elderly subjects. The children in the study experienced the highest indoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. Personal PM2.5 exposures varied by study group, with elderly healthy and CHD subjects having the lowest exposures and asthmatic children having the highest exposures. Within study groups, the PM2.5 exposure varied depending on residence because of different particle infiltration efficiencies. Although we found a wide range of longitudinal correlations between central-site and personal PM2.5 measurements, the longitudinal r is closely related to the particle infiltration efficiency. PM2.5 exposures among the COPD and CHD subjects can be predicted with relatively good power with a microenvironmental model composed of three microenvironments. The prediction power is the lowest for the asthmatic children. PMID:12782491

Liu, L-J Sally; Box, Michael; Kalman, David; Kaufman, Joel; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Tim; Lumley, Thomas; Sheppard, Lianne; Wallace, Lance

2003-06-01

275

Air particulate matter exacerbates lung response on Sjögren's Syndrome animals.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice. BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1mg/kg body weight). After 24h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p<0.05) and generation of O2(-) (p<0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p<0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space. We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. PMID:25467751

Ferraro, S; Orona, N; Villalón, L; Saldiva, P H N; Tasat, D R; Berra, A

2015-02-01

276

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-?- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

277

Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.  

PubMed

Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1-2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

2014-02-01

278

Exposure assessment of particulate matter for susceptible populations in Seattle.  

PubMed Central

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and asthma. The average personal exposures to PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) were similar to the average outdoor PM2.5 concentrations but significantly higher than the average indoor concentrations. Personal PM2.5 exposures in our study groups were lower than those reported in other panel studies of susceptible populations. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5, PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 10 microm), and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 were significantly higher during the heating season. The increase in outdoor PM10 in winter was primarily due to an increase in the PM2.5 fraction. A similar seasonal variation was found for personal PM2.5. The high-risk subjects in our study engaged in an equal amount of dust-generating activities compared with the healthy elderly subjects. The children in the study experienced the highest indoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. Personal PM2.5 exposures varied by study group, with elderly healthy and CHD subjects having the lowest exposures and asthmatic children having the highest exposures. Within study groups, the PM2.5 exposure varied depending on residence because of different particle infiltration efficiencies. Although we found a wide range of longitudinal correlations between central-site and personal PM2.5 measurements, the longitudinal r is closely related to the particle infiltration efficiency. PM2.5 exposures among the COPD and CHD subjects can be predicted with relatively good power with a microenvironmental model composed of three microenvironments. The prediction power is the lowest for the asthmatic children. PMID:12782491

Liu, L-J Sally; Box, Michael; Kalman, David; Kaufman, Joel; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Tim; Lumley, Thomas; Sheppard, Lianne; Wallace, Lance

2003-01-01

279

Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

entrained less saline, high particulate river water offshore. A similar effect was noted during Summer 1999, but to a lesser degree. A shelf edge current associated with anticyclonic flow seems to be a mechanism responsible for the appearance of nepheloid...

Bernal, Christina Estefana

2012-06-07

280

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

Barnett, J. M.

2008-08-22

281

PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

282

THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

283

Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

284

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2012-07-01

286

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2014-07-01

287

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-print Network

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2012-06-07

288

Indoor/outdoor relationship of trace metals in the atmospheric particulate matter of an industrial area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present study is based on the measurement and monitoring of indoor and outdoor atmospheric particulate matter from an industrial area (Wah Cantt, Pakistan). The particulate samples are collected on glass fiber filter paper using high volume air sampler. Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn) in the particulate samples are estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the average TSP level is significantly higher in outdoor atmosphere than indoor, and both of them are higher than WHO and USEPA standards. The distribution of trace metals is considerably diverse in indoor and outdoor particulates. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Mn are significantly higher in outdoor particulates, whereas Cu and Pb levels are considerably higher in the indoor particulates. Source apportionment carried out by PCA and CA is diverse in indoor/outdoor particulates and the major pollution sources identified are industrial activities, automobile emissions and soil derived dust. Among the trace metals, Cd, Sb, Zn, Pb and Co are found to be highly enriched in the atmospheric particulate matter. The present atmospheric trace metals levels are also compared with those reported from other regions around the world, and are many-folds higher than previously reported results.

Nazir, Rashida; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H.

2011-08-01

289

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-02-17

290

Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss on ignition (LOI) is a simple, inexpensive method widely used to estimate organic matter in the water column and sediment of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Suspended particulate matter in estuarine waters however often contains a large fraction of argillaceous minerals whose loss of structural water can introduce significant bias to the method. The accuracy of LOI, in comparison with

Anne-Laure Barillé-Boyer; Laurent Barillé; Henri Massé; Daniel Razet; Maurice Héral

2003-01-01

291

Representations of Fundamental Chemistry Concepts in Relation to the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated high school students' understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course…

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

2013-01-01

292

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER: ELEMENTAL CARBON, ORGANIC CARBON, AND MASS RECONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon matter (OM), particulate matter less than 2.5 um (PM2.5), and reconstructed soil, trace element oxides, and sulfate are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) complex for airborne particulate matter (...

293

Traffic Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism  

PubMed Central

Context Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in autism etiology, yet little research has examined local level air pollution associations using residence-specific exposure assignments. Objective To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRP), air quality, and autism. Design, Setting and Population This study includes data on 279 autism cases and 245 typically developing controls enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study in California. The mother’s address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. TRP was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for autism cases and typically developing controls. Main Outcome Measures Crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for autism. Results Cases were more likely to live at residences in the highest quartile TRP exposure during pregnancy (OR=1.98, 95%CI 1.20–3.31) and the first year of life (OR=3.10, 1.76–5.57) compared to controls. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (NO2 OR=1.81/2SD, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.08/2SD, 95%CI 1.93–2.25; PM10 OR=2.17/2SD, 95%CI 1.49–3.16) and the first year of life (NO2 OR=2.06, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.12, 95%CI 1.45–3.10; PM10 OR=2.14, 95%CI 1.46–3.12). Conclusions Exposure to TRP, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 during pregnancy and the first year of life was associated with autism. Further epidemiological and toxicological examination of likely biological pathways will help determine whether these associations are causal. PMID:23404082

Volk, Heather E.; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

2014-01-01

294

Short-term effects of particulate matter: an inflammatory mechanism?  

PubMed

"Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here," asked Alice. "That depends a good deal on where you want to go to," said the cat. (Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) A large number of epidemiological studies show positive correlations between increasing levels of particulate matter (PM) in urban air and short-term morbidity and mortality for diverse acute cardiopulmonary diseases. Brought about by PM increments, inflammation is thought to exacerbate preexisting inflammatory diseases. Experimental evidence suggests a hierarchical oxidative stress model, in which a weakened antioxidant defense, as observed in disease or induced by inhaled particles, increases the PM ability to cause lung inflammation, accounting for exacerbations that occur in asthmatics and in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. The role of PM-induced inflammation leading to acute cardiovascular events such as arrhythmia, heart failure, and myocardial infarction is more speculative. There is neither clear-cut evidence in humans that inhaled PM could get as far as blood circulation nor that proinflammatory mediators are significantly released from inflamed lung tissues, nor that blood coagulability is critically altered. As a whole, data in humans indicate that short-term inflammatory responses to PM are not always detected; they are usually mild and loosely correlated with functional changes. Among these studies, the diversity of PM characteristics, dose metrics, and endpoints hampers a clear discerning of inflammatory mechanism(s). Thus, the question arises as to whether inflammation represents the mechanism of acute cardiopulmonary PM toxicities in susceptible individuals, or rather an event that may coexist with other relevant mechanism(s). This review article discusses the evidence in humans linking short-term PM increments to inflammation and to exacerbations of cardiopulmonary diseases. Although there is a large amount of data available, there still remains a gulf between the number of epidemiological and panel studies and that of controlled exposures. Research on controlled exposure needs expanding, so that the results of time-series and panel studies will be better understood and short-term standards for human exposure may be more confidently allocated. PMID:17661213

Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Lotti, Marcello

2007-01-01

295

Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind gusts are high, areas of high concentrations were observed to shift slightly in the westerly direction (i.e., prevailing wind direction). Overall, preliminary results of our study suggest that while the air quality in the area immediately surrounding Richmond BUILD and the elementary school is not the poorest in the general region, because they are located close to a major thoroughfare and a railway line these sites are likely to experience poor air quality at some point throughout the year due to shifting wind patterns. As a result, we recommend that signs be posted to warn visitors of the potential for extremely poor air quality.

Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

2009-12-01

296

Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

2014-05-01

297

Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be originated from the PRD and transported back resulting in significant increase of secondary PM concentration, and provides new insight into PM production and transport mechanism in the PRD.

Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

2014-10-01

298

Modeling and source apportionment of diesel particulate matter.  

PubMed

The fine and ultra fine sizes of diesel particulate matter (DPM) are of greatest health concern. The composition of these primary and secondary fine and ultra fine particles is principally elemental carbon (EC) with adsorbed organic compounds, sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, metals, and other trace elements. The purpose of this study was to use an advanced air quality modeling technique to predict and analyze the emissions and the primary and secondary aerosols concentrations that come from diesel-fueled sources (DFS). The National Emissions Inventory for 1999 and a severe southeast ozone episode that occurred between August and September 1999 were used as reference. Five urban areas and one rural area in the Southeastern US were selected to compare the main results. For urban emissions, results showed that DFS contributed (77.9%+/-8.0) of EC, (16.8%+/-8.2) of organic aerosols, (14.3%+/-6.2) of nitrate, and (8.3%+/-6.6) of sulfate during the selected episodes. For the rural site, these contributions were lower. The highest DFS contribution on EC emissions was allocated in Memphis, due mainly to diesel non-road sources (60.9%). For ambient concentrations, DFS contributed (69.5%+/-6.5) of EC and (10.8%+/-2.4) of primary anthropogenic organic aerosols, where the highest DFS contributions on EC were allocated in Nashville and Memphis on that episode. The DFS contributed (8.3%+/-1.2) of the total ambient PM(2.5) at the analyzed sites. The maximum primary DPM concentration occurred in Atlanta (1.44 microg/m(3)), which was 3.8 times higher than that from the rural site. Non-linearity issues were encountered and recommendations were made for further research. The results indicated significant geographic variability in the EC contribution from DFS, and the main DPM sources in the Southeastern U.S. were the non-road DFS. The results of this work will be helpful in addressing policy issues targeted at designing control strategies on DFS in the Southeastern U.S. PMID:17617463

Díaz-Robles, L A; Fu, J S; Reed, G D

2008-01-01

299

Transformation of suspended particulate matter into sediment in the Kara Sea in September of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical processes participating in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment along the Yenisei River-St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) meridional profile were studied using hydrochemical, geochemical, microbiological, radioisotope, and isotope methods. The water-sediment contact zone consists of three subzones: the suprabottom water, the fluffy layer, and the surface sediment. The total number, biomass, and integral activity of the microorganisms (dark 14CO2 assimilation) in the fluffy layer are usually higher than in the suprabottom water and sediment. The fluffy layer shows a decrease in the oxygen content and the growth of the dissolved biogenic elements. It was provided by the particulate organic matter supporting the vital activity of the heterotrophs from the overlying water column and by the flux of reduced compounds (NH4, H2S, CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, and others) from the underlying sediments. The Corg isotopic composition of the fluffy layer and the sediments is 2-4 ‰ heavier than that of the particulate matter and sediment due to the presence of the isotopically heavy biomass of microorganisms. A change in the isotopic composition of the Corg in the fluffy layer and surface sediment as compared to the Corg of the particulate matter is a widespread phenomenon in the Arctic shelf seas and proves the leading role of microorganisms in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment.

Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Savvichev, A. S.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Dara, O. M.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Zakharova, E. E.; Rozanov, A. G.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

2013-09-01

300

Application of thermal analysis and photoelectron spectroscopy for the characterization of particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and thermal evolved gas analysis (EGA) have been applied to characterize sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species in atmospheric particulate matter. Particulate amines and amides previously identified only by ESCA have been detected by EGA, a bulk method, for the first time. EGA and ESCA results suggest the existence of a sulfate similar to ammonium sulfate but with some of the ammonium ions replaced by a charged organic nitrogen complex. 8 references, 8 figures.

Dod, R.L.; Novakov, T.

1982-01-01

301

Human Exposure to Particulate Matter Potentially Contaminated with Sin Nombre Virus  

PubMed Central

The most common mechanism for human exposure to hantaviruses throughout North America is inhalation of virally contaminated particulates. However, risk factors associated with exposure to particulates potentially contaminated with hantaviruses are generally not well understood. In North America, Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the most common hantavirus that infects humans, causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which has a significant mortality rate (approximately 35%). We investigated human exposure to particulate matter and evaluated the effects of season, location (sylvan and peridomestic environment), and activity (walking and sweeping) on generation of particulates at the breathing zone (1.5 m above the ground). We found greater volumes of small inhalable particulates during the spring and summer compared to the fall and winter seasons and greater volumes of small inhalable particulates produced in peridomestic, compared to sylvan, environments. Also, greater volumes of particulates were generated at the breathing zone while walking compared to sweeping. Results suggest that more aerosolized particles were generated during the spring and summer months. Our findings suggest that simply moving around in buildings is a significant source of human exposure to particulates, potentially contaminated with SNV, during spring and summer seasons. These findings could be advanced by investigation of what particle sizes SNV is most likely to attach to, and where in the respiratory tract humans become infected. PMID:23532351

Richardson, Kyle S.; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard J.; Hart, Julie; Carver, Scott

2014-01-01

302

Human exposure to particulate matter potentially contaminated with sin nombre virus.  

PubMed

The most common mechanism for human exposure to hantaviruses throughout North America is inhalation of virally contaminated particulates. However, risk factors associated with exposure to particulates potentially contaminated with hantaviruses are generally not well understood. In North America, Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the most common hantavirus that infects humans, causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which has a significant mortality rate (approximately 35%). We investigated human exposure to particulate matter and evaluated the effects of season, location (sylvan and peridomestic environment), and activity (walking and sweeping) on generation of particulates at the breathing zone (1.5 m above the ground). We found greater volumes of small inhalable particulates during the spring and summer compared to the fall and winter seasons and greater volumes of small inhalable particulates produced in peridomestic, compared to sylvan, environments. Also, greater volumes of particulates were generated at the breathing zone while walking compared to sweeping. Results suggest that more aerosolized particles were generated during the spring and summer months. Our findings suggest that simply moving around in buildings is a significant source of human exposure to particulates, potentially contaminated with SNV, during spring and summer seasons. These findings could be advanced by investigation of what particle sizes SNV is most likely to attach to, and where in the respiratory tract humans become infected. PMID:23532351

Richardson, Kyle S; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard J; Hart, Julie; Carver, Scott

2013-06-01

303

BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the US EPA's 1998 Baltimore Epidemiology-Exposure Panel Study, a group of 21 residents of a single building retirement community wore personal monitors recording personal fine particulate air pollution concentrations (PM2.5) for 27 days, while other monitors recorde...

304

Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media  

DOEpatents

A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

2014-11-11

305

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

306

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charged to the still when a catalyst is added to the still and...still during blowing without a catalyst; and (4) Particulate...still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is...after achieving the maximum production rate at which the...

2010-07-01

307

Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

308

Estimating the global abundance of ground level presence of particulate matter (PM2.5).  

PubMed

With the increasing awareness of the health impacts of particulate matter, there is a growing need to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations of the global abundance of ground level airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5). Here we use a suite of remote sensing and meteorological data products together with groundbased observations of particulate matter from 8,329 measurement sites in 55 countries taken 1997-2014 to train a machinelearning algorithm to estimate the daily distributions of PM2.5 from 1997 to the present. In this first paper of a series, we present the methodology and global average results from this period and demonstrate that the new PM2.5 data product can reliably represent global observations of PM2.5 for epidemiological studies. PMID:25599634

Lary, David J; Faruque, Fazlay S; Malakar, Nabin; Moore, Alex; Roscoe, Bryan; Adams, Zachary L; Eggelston, York

2014-01-01

309

EPA'S Updated Air Quality Standards For Smog (Ozone) and Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 16, 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency released "final air quality standards for particulate matter and ozone (otherwise known as soot and smog)." The EPA Office of Air & Radiation has made the standards, which appear in the July 18, 1997 Federal Register, available (in Adobe Acrobate [.pdf] format). The FR final rules are: "Final Particulate Matter NAAQS," (National Ambient Air Quality Standards,102p.); "Final Ozone NAAQS" (37p.); "Particulate Matter Monitoring Requirements" (86p.); and "Supplemental Information and Request for Comments" (2p.). In addition, there is a 16 page memorandum from President Clinton to the EPA Administrator concerning implementation of the standards, and there are also several fact sheets about the standards. Note that the new standards contain two significant changes from the EPA's November 1996 proposal (discussed in the December 6, 1996 Scout Report). Users can see the Updated Clean Air Standards fact sheet for these changes.

Radiation., United S.

1997-01-01

310

Particulate matter inflammation and receptor sensitivity are target cell specific.  

PubMed

The complexity of primary source particulate matter (PM) and the various cell types encountered by its inhalation raise the possibility that target cells are differentially activated. Since epithelial cells, which line the nasal-tracheal-bronchial airways, and sensory C fibers, which terminate throughout this epithelial layer, are initially targeted by inhaled PM, we compared their relative biological response in vitro to PM originating from volcanic (MSH), anthropogenic (diesel), residential (woodstove), urban ambient (St. Louis, Ottawa), and industrial emission (coal fly ash, CFA; residual oil fly ash, ROFA; oil fly ash, OFA) sources. Increases in intracellular calcium (i.e., [Ca(2+)](i)) are a second-messenger event that indicates cellular activation and signal transduction, in both nerve and epithelial cells. Single-cell calcium imaging recordings were taken of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to selected PM (50 microg/ml or 30 microg/cm(2)). These cells responded with variable increases in [Ca(2+)](i) ranging from abrupt increases, which returned to baseline upon washing of the cells, to oscillations of the [Ca(2+)](i) that did not wash out. Increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and inflammatory cytokine (i.e., interleukin 6, IL-6) release were measured in populations of BEAS-2B cells exposed to PM (50 microg/ml) and were shown to significantly correlate (r(2) =.80). BEAS-2B cells, stained histochemically with cobalt, displayed a concentration-dependent precipitation in response to acid pH and capsaicin, indicating the presence of acid-sensitive pathways (e.g., VR1 and acid-sensitive receptors). To demonstrate the relevance of these pathways to inflammatory cytokine (i.e., IL-6) release, BEAS-2B cells were pretreated (15 min) with antagonists to the vanilloid (VR1) receptor (i.e., capsazepine, CPZ) or acid-sensitive pathways (i.e., amiloride) before their exposure to the selected PM. A significant reduction of IL-6 release occurred in response to all PM, except for MSH and diesel exhaust. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which innervate the tracheal airways, were dissociated from fetal mice and pretreated with CPZ or amiloride before exposure (4 h) to the selected PM (50 microg/ml). Overall, significantly higher release occurred in PM-exposed sensory neurons relative to that of BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Although both CPZ and amiloride significantly reduced IL-6 release for all PM, the degree of inhibition was less for the PM-exposed DRG relative to BEAS-2B cells. These data show that differential increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and IL-6 release occur in BEAS-2B epithelial cells and DRG sensory neurons, when exposed to PM derived from different sources. The degree of this activation, however, depends not only on the source of the PM, but also on its cellular target. This differential sensitivity of target cells may contribute to the organism's overall inflammatory response to PM exposure. PMID:12122578

Veronesi, Bellina; de Haar, Colin; Roy, Josee; Oortgiesen, Marga

2002-02-01

311

Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

Zhang, J.

2003-12-01

312

Design of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics-monte carlo radiation transport methodology for radioactive particulate resuspension studies.  

PubMed

There are numerous scenarios where radioactive particulates can be displaced by external forces. For example, the detonation of a radiological dispersal device in an urban environment will result in the release of radioactive particulates that in turn can be resuspended into the breathing space by external forces such as wind flow in the vicinity of the detonation. A need exists to quantify the internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses that are delivered to bystanders; however, current state-of-the-art codes are unable to calculate accurately radiation doses that arise from the resuspension of radioactive particulates in complex topographies. To address this gap, a coupled computational fluid dynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport approach has been developed. With the aid of particulate injections, the computational fluid dynamics simulation models characterize the resuspension of particulates in a complex urban geometry due to air-flow. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particulates are then used by the Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to calculate the radiation doses delivered to various points within the simulated domain. A particular resuspension scenario has been modeled using this coupled framework, and the calculated internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses have been deemed reasonable. GAMBIT and FLUENT comprise the software suite used to perform the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended is used to perform the Monte Carlo Radiation Transport simulations. PMID:25162421

Ali, Fawaz; Waller, Ed

2014-10-01

313

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so…

Othman, Jazilah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2008-01-01

314

Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emitted from wind tunnel simulations of biomass burning for five herbaceous crop residues (rice, wheat and barley straws, corn stover, and sugar cane trash) and four wood fuels (walnut and almond prunings and ponderosa pine and Douglas fir slash) was collected and analyzed for mojor elements and water soluble species. Primary constituents of the particulate matter were C,

S. Q. Turn; B. M. Jenkins; J. C. Chow; L. C. Pritchett; D. Campbell; T. Cahill; S. A. Whalen

1997-01-01

315

77 FR 15656 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OAR-2003-0062, by one of the following methods...information (CBI) or other information whose...that emit particulate matter...reviewing authorities responsible for implementing Clean...identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register...NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM) B. Measuring...codified as originally intended. This would mean......

2012-03-16

316

Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.

2013-09-01

317

Engineering analysis of fugitive particulate matter emissions from cattle feedyards  

E-print Network

study were used by Peters and Blackwood (1977) for the development of a cattle feedyard total suspended particulate (TSP) fugitive emission factor for the USEPA. Peters and Blackwood (1977) reported an emission factor for TSP of 127 kg/ 1000 hd...-day (280#/1000hd-day) for the feedyard surface and their emission factor was included in AP-42 (USEPA, 1985). Parnell et al. (1999) reported errors in the process used by Peters and Blackwood (1977) to develop the TSP AP-42 emission factor...

Hamm, Lee Bradford

2006-04-12

318

Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and precise sampling and analytical procedures are essential in environmental geochemical studies. This report provides a detailed description of the techniques and analytical procedures for sampling, grain size determinations, and for precise and accurate AAS determination of the major and trace metals in marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. In addition, it describes the procedures for the chemical partition of the metals, determination of readily oxidizable organic matter, and calcium carbonate. A separate section discusses the normalization of trace metal data.

Loring, D. H.; Rantala, R. T. T.

1992-07-01

319

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

320

Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

321

Circulating adhesion molecules after short-term exposure to particulate matter among welders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Studies from several countries indicate that welders experience increased risk of mortality and morbidity from ischaemic heart disease. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, vascular responses to particulate matter contained in welding fumes may play a role. To investigate this, we studied the acute effects of welding fume exposure on the endothelial component of vascular function, as measured by circulating

S C Fang; E A Eisen; J M Cavallari; M A Mittleman; D C Christiani

2010-01-01

322

Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

323

IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

324

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND COMMUNITY SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

325

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

326

Characterization of particulate matter in the hot product gas from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the hot product gas from three different atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers: a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier, and an indirect BFB gasifier (the latter integrated with a CFB boiler). All gasifiers displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in

Eva Gustafsson; Leteng Lin; Michael Strand

2011-01-01

327

Respiratory dose of inhaled particulate matter and its health implications in susceptible populations.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) in the air is known to cause adverse health effects, particularly in elderly subjects with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease. Although observed health effects are likely caused by multiple factors, the respiratory dose is one factor of particular con...

328

Transcription Factor Activation Following Exposure of an Intact Lung Preparation to Metallic Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic constituents contained in ambient particulate matter have been associated with adverse effects in a number of epidemiologic, in vitro, and in vivo studies. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a metallic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuel oil, which has been shown to induce a variety of proinflammatory responses in lung cells. We have examined signaling pathways activated

James M. Samet; Robert Silbajoris; Tony Huang; Ilona Jaspers

2002-01-01

329

Comparative In Vivo and Ex Vivo Toxicity Studies of Wildfire Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) generated from biomass burning is of concern particularly as the frequency and severity of wildfires have been increasing. Size-fractionated PM samples (ultrafine, <0.2 µm; fine, 0.2-2.5 µm; coarse, 2.5-10 µm) were colle...

330

An investigation of ammonia and inorganic particulate matter in California during the CalNex campaign  

E-print Network

Airborne observations from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in May and June 2010 are used to investigate the role of ammonia (NH3) in fine particulate matter (PM[subscript ...

Schiferl, Luke Daniel

331

Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter Hamaoui-Laguel L.1  

E-print Network

Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter formation Hamaoui-Laguel L.1. This was interpreted as a wrong estimate of ammonia emissions. Agriculture is the main source of anthropogenic ammonia emissions. Ammonia reacts with sulfuric and nitric acids to form ammonium sulfate and nitrate aerosols

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Commuter exposure to particulate matter in public transportation modes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined commuter’s exposure to respirable suspended particulate matters while commuting in public transportation modes. The survey was conducted between October 1999 and January 2000 in Hong Kong. A total of eight public transportation modes, that are bus, tram, public light bus, taxi, ferry, Kowloon–Canton Railway, Mass Transit Railway and Light Rail Transit, were selected in the study. They

L. Y. Chan; W. L. Lau; S. C. Lee; C. Y. Chan

2002-01-01

333

Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

334

PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLER ERRORS DUE TO THE INTERACTION OF PARTICLE SIZE AND SAMPLER PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural operations across the United States are encountering difficulties in complying with the current air pollution regulations for particulate matter (PM). The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM in terms of PM10, are ambient air concentration limits set by EPA that should ...

335

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) [REVISED CHAPTER 9, AUGUST 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is in the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and re...

336

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFTS, Oct 1999 to Aug 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has updated and revised, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and revision, where appro...

337

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONATION OF THE ORGANIC EXTRACT OF SRM 1649 URBAN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Separation of 2 grams of the methylene chloride extract of NIST SRM 1649 (Washington, D.C. urban air particulate matter) into six compound class fractions by acid-base partitioning and silica gel column chromatography is demonstrated here. ecoveries of organic mass and Salmonella...

338

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

339

College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter across Reaction Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been…

Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

2012-01-01

340

Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: The Cloud-Cover Problem  

E-print Network

less than 2.5 m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) cannot be estimated from satellite observations under. This paper is focused only on aerosols or particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 m in aerodynamic diameter (PM when the operational parameters can be held constant, the heat-induced loss of volatile material could

Christopher, Sundar A.

341

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND SULFUR OXIDES (Final, 1982)  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter and sulfur oxides are two of six major air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scienti...

342

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of 2 particle sizes in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um outpoint or with a 2.5-um outpoint. ...

343

77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA proposes to make revisions to the primary and secondary NAAQS for PM to provide requisite protection of public health and welfare, respectively, and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and ambient air monitoring, reporting,......

2012-06-29

344

78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA is making revisions to the suite of standards for PM to provide requisite protection of public health and welfare and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and to the ambient air monitoring, reporting, and network design......

2013-01-15

345

DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES UNDER WINTERTIME CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um) mass con...

346

THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO  

EPA Science Inventory

THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO. LA Dailey1, C Sioutas2, JM Soukup1, S Becker1, RB Devlin1. 1National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, RTP, NC,USA; 2USC, Civil & Environmental Engineering, LA, ...

347

PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

348

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

349

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2012-07-01

350

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2011-07-01

351

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2306 Particulate Matter (PM10... On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State...requirements of the PM10 Group II SIPs. The Texas Air Control Board adopted these...

2013-07-01

354

INSTILLATION OF COARSE ASH PARTICULATE MATTER AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCES A SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Coronary ischemic events increase significantly floowing a ?bad air? day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 causes inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, if pulmonary inflation transl...

355

Particulate matter emission modelling based on soot and SOF from direct injection diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) emission is one of the major pollutants from diesel engines, and it is harmful for human health and influences the atmospheric visibility. In investigations for reducing PM emission, a simulation model for PM emission is a useful tool. In this paper, a phenomenological, composition based PM model of direct injection (DI) diesel engines has been proposed and

P. Q. Tan; Z. Y. Hu; K. Y. Deng; J. X. Lu; D. M. Lou; G. Wan

2007-01-01

356

PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH: USING HUMAN STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. The World Health Organization has estimated that PM contributes to the deaths of 500,000 people world-wide each year. Epidemiologic stu...

357

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

358

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels  

E-print Network

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Source sampling of particulate matter emissions from cotton harvesting - system design and evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

State and regional air pollution regulatory agencies are required by federal law to reduce ambient particulate matter concentrations in non-attainment areas to a level in compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards. All emission regulations, including reduction regulations, should be base...

360

A Comparison of Applied and Theoretical Knowledge of Concepts Based on the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school chemistry students' (n=183) applied and theoretical knowledge of dissolution, diffusion, effusion, and states of matter were compared. Study found that students' formal reasoning ability and their preexisting knowledge are associated with their conceptions and use of particulate theory. A significant difference between applied and…

Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Abraham, Michael R.

1991-01-01

361

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT PROXIMITIES TO A HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have shown associations between proximity to highways and adverse health effects. Toxicology studies in animals are needed to examine the basis for these observations. Airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for 2 weeks using a high-volume im...

362

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

363

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

364

Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

365

THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: PM MASS CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently performed the Research Triangle Park Particulate Matter Panel Study. This was a one-year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving participants living within the RTP area of North Carolina. Primary goals were t...

366

A FUNCTIONAL DATA ANALYSIS APPROACH FOR EVALUATING TEMPORAL PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSES TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

E-print Network

, including air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Bradycardia and hypothermia are often conducting physiological research to characterize the toxicity of environmental pollutants in animals and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection

Lee, Chihoon

367

Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR\\/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the \\

A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; J. Hu; Z. Zhao; S.-H. Chen; M. J. Kleeman

2010-01-01

368

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

369

TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3 1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

370

& Source apportionment of particulate matter in the United States and associations with lung inflammatory Markers  

EPA Science Inventory

Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured...

371

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH PLASMINOGEN AND FIBRIOGEN LEVELS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recent reports indicate that the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to fine and coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected via airway inflammation. We investigated whether mark...

372

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF MODELS-3 CMAQ USING PARTICULATE MATTER DATA FROM THE IMPROVE NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and wel...

373

Comparative inflammatory effects of differential particulate matter species in an OVA-sensitization and challenge model  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to respirable ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes allergic immunity that may also occur on exposure to environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP) or emission source DEP (cDEP). Our hypothesis tested whether APM, eDEP or cDEP provide immune adjuvancy in an antige...

374

Effects of organic chemicals derived from ambient particulate matter on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of components of ambient particulate matter (PM) on individuals with predisposing respiratory disorders are not well defined. We have previously demonstrated that airway exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or organic chemicals (OC) extracted from DEP (DEP–OC) enhances lung inflammation related to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The present study aimed to examine the effects of airway exposure to

Ken-ichiro Inoue; Hirohisa Takano; Rie Yanagisawa; Seishiro Hirano; Takahiro Kobayashi; Takamichi Ichinose; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

375

STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THE ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING FREQUENCY. (R828678C010)  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) concentrations has an impact on human health effects and the setting of PM regulations. Since PM is commonly sampled on less than daily schedules, the magnitude of sampling errors needs to be determined. Daily PM data from Spokane, W...

376

AnEmpiricalStudyoftheImpactofFreewayTrafficonin1 VehicleExposuretoUltrafineParticulateMatter2  

E-print Network

41 7,834 words [5,584 words + 3 table x250 + 6 figures x250]42 43 44 45 46 #12;Bigazzi, Kendrick particulate matter. As48 more commuters are spending a significant portion of their daily routine inside their exposure. Surprisingly, traffic variables have little significant57 impact on UFP exposure concentrations

Bertini, Robert L.

377

TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised ratsUrmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

378

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter (BioPM)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina, and Denver, CO, were collected and analyzed as the goal of this ...

379

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCE ATTRIBUTION FOR SOUTHEAST TEXAS USING 14C/13C RATIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Radiocarbon analyses of fine particulate matter samples collected during the summer of 2000 in southeast Texas indicate that a substantial fraction of the aerosol carbon at an urban/suburban site (27% to 73%) and at a rural, forested site (44% to 77%) was modern carbon. Data fr...

380

Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy-driven associated gas flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however, flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emission factors for flares were reviewed and

James D. N. McEwen; Matthew R. Johnson

2012-01-01

381

Outdoor particulate matter and childhood asthma admissions in Athens, Greece: a time-series study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter with diameter less than 10 micrometers (PM10) that originates from anthropogenic activities and natural sources may settle in the bronchi and cause adverse effects possibly via oxidative stress in susceptible individuals, such as asthmatic children. This study aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor PM10 concentrations on childhood asthma admissions (CAA) in Athens, Greece. METHODS: Daily counts

Panagiotis T Nastos; Athanasios G Paliatsos; Michael B Anthracopoulos; Eleftheria S Roma; Kostas N Priftis

2010-01-01

382

Indoor and Outdoor Relationships of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter at Primary Schools in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have found that indoor air pollution affects human, especially children and the elderly, more compared to ambient atmospheric air. This study aims to investigate respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) concentration in selected primary schools with different surrounding human activities, and to establish statistical relationships between indoor and outdoor air pollutant concentrations in each selected schools in Kuala Terengganu. Failure

Nur Zafirah Mohd Sofian; Marzuki Ismail

2012-01-01

383

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON STUDIES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A working group of investigators, who are characterizing and quantifying the organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) as part of the US EPA's PM 2.5 research program and related studies, was established three years ago to advance the quality and comparability of data on the...

384

Composition and variability of downward particulate matter fluxes in the Palamós submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the temporal and spatial variability of downward particle fluxes in the Palamós submarine canyon, seven sediment traps were moored inside and in the vicinity of the canyon from March to November 2001. Total mass fluxes, major constituent (organic carbon, opal, calcium carbonate and lithogenics) contents and fluxes, and 210Pb activity of particulate matter were obtained from two consecutive

J. Martín; A. Palanques; P. Puig

2006-01-01

385

Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng ?l-1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m-3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m-3. In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m-3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m-3 in some samples from a suburban location.

Moukhtar, S.; Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Irei, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

2011-11-01

386

Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

2001-01-01

387

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

May 15, 2002 Abstract submitted by Stephen H. Gavett for American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) annual meeting October 7-11, 2002 in Charlotte, NC. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER Stephen H ...

388

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (First EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Oct 1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

This external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1996, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Quality St...

389

AIR QUALITY Criteria FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (2001) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This second external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1999, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

390

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Jun 2003)  

EPA Science Inventory

This fourth external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

391

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (THIRD EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, May 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This third external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qual...

392

Suspended particulate matter fluxes through the Straits of Dover, English Channel: observations and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations at various levels within the water column, together with salinity and temperature, were measured using water samples collected from six stations across the Straits of Dover. The sampling programme covered a 16-month period, undertaken during 23 cruises. On the basis of the spatial variability in the concentrations, the water bodies are divided by several boundaries,

Robert LAFITE; Susan SHIMWELL; Nicolas GROCHOWSKI; Jean-Paul DUPONT; Linda NASH; Jean-Claude SALOMON; Louis CABIOCH; Michael COLLINS; Shu GAO

2000-01-01

393

WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1....

394

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

395

40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O...the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere ...mass concentration of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) in ambient air...

2011-07-01

396

Particulate organic matter dynamics in coastal systems of the northern Beibu Gulf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine particle fluxes are an integral part of land-ocean-connectivity and influence coastal environmental conditions. In areas with strong anthropogenic impact they may contribute to coastal eutrophication. To investigate the particulate biogeochemistry of a human affected estuary, we sampled suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter along the land-ocean continuum from Nanliu River to Lianzhou Bay in southern China. Riverine particle fluxes exceed inputs from land based pond aquaculture. Elemental (C/N) and isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon (?13C) and total nitrogen (?15N) showed that suspended and sedimentary organic matter (OM) mainly derive from freshwater and marine phytoplankton, with minor contributions from terrestrial and aquaculture derived particles. Amino acid composition indicates subseasonal variability of production and freshness of phytoplankton OM. Strongest compositional changes of suspended particles are associated with storm-related extreme precipitation events, which introduce soil derived OM. High concentrations of chlorophyll a reflect eutrophic conditions in riverine and coastal waters. Human impact results in high ?15N signals in suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter. Using these in a comparison with two little affected sites shows that anthropogenic influence disperses from the Nanliu River to remote estuaries and mangrove areas. Our results suggest that autochthonous production binds anthropogenic nutrients in particles that are transported along the coast.

Kaiser, David; Unger, Daniela; Qiu, Guanglong

2014-07-01

397

Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss on ignition (LOI) is a simple, inexpensive method widely used to estimate organic matter in the water column and sediment of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Suspended particulate matter in estuarine waters however often contains a large fraction of argillaceous minerals whose loss of structural water can introduce significant bias to the method. The accuracy of LOI, in comparison with elemental analysis, was evaluated in 105 water samples from the Marennes-Oléron Bay (French Atlantic coast). The suspended particulate matter analysed ranged from 7 to 108 mg l -1, with a mean inorganic fraction of 81.3±s.d. 7.2%. LOI overestimated particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations by up to 300% (mean 98 ± s.d. 28%), and this overestimation was significantly related to particulate inorganic matter (PIM) concentrations. POM overestimation increased linearly with PIM, representing a mean 8.7±s.d. 2.0% of PIM. This value was compared with a theoretical correction factor based on the specific clay composition of PIM at the study site and on thermo-gravimetric analysis for standard clay. The clay fraction, which represents 90% of PIM in the Marennes-Oléron Sound, consists of 40% illite, 30% kaolinite and 30% montmorillonite. The similarity between the theoretical correction factor (9.3% of PIM) and the overestimation based on measurements (8.7%), suggests that a priori correction of POM data is possible. In fact, for three bodies of water along the French Atlantic coast, whose inorganic resuspended matter shows the same mineralogical composition, POM concentrations as estimated by LOI can be corrected by subtracting 9.3% of PIM mass.

Barillé-Boyer, Anne-Laure; Barillé, Laurent; Massé, Henri; Razet, Daniel; Héral, Maurice

2003-09-01

398

Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of suspended particulate matter and particulate organic carbon in the Saronikos Gulf (eastern Mediterranean, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998-1999, beam attenuation coefficient ( bac) profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations were assessed during five cruises in the Saronikos Gulf, eastern Mediterranean, Greece. SPM and POC concentrations (0.05-1.84 mg l-1 and 10.2-468.6 ?g l-1, respectively) exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, related to the different environmental characteristics of various sectors of the gulf, including wind regime and biological productivity. The Elefsis and Keratsini bays, as well as the area around Psyttaleia Island, showed the highest POC concentrations. The vertical distribution of POC at stations in the western basin, as well as in the inner and outer Saronikos Gulf is characterised by higher POC concentrations in surface waters, associated with higher biological activity. The wastewater treatment plant effluents discharged south of the Psyttaleia Island are a major source of organic particles which directly influence the intermediate water layers, at least during the stratification period. Assessments of relationships between bac and SPM or POC concentrations revealed a relatively strong correlation between bac and POC. An equation converting bac readings to POC concentration was established which can be applied to historical and/or future bac measurements, independently of season. POC concentrations estimated from calibrated continuous transmissometer readings were used to estimate the standing stock of POC in the Saronikos Gulf, which varied between 6,110×106 and 13,450×106 g C during the period June 1998 to February 1999.

Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.

2005-12-01

399

Atmospheric organic particulate matter: From smoke to secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the development of our understanding of the sources, formation mechanisms, physical and chemical transformations of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) during the last thirty years. Until recently, organic particulate material was simply classified as either primary or secondary with the primary component being treated in models as nonvolatile and inert. However, this oversimplified view fails to explain the highly oxygenated nature of ambient OA, the relatively small OA concentration gradients between urban areas and their surroundings, and the concentrations of OA during periods of high photochemical activity. A unifying framework for the description of all components based on their volatility distribution (the volatility basis set) can be used for the treatment of a wide range of processes affecting organic aerosol loadings and composition in the atmosphere. These processes include direct organic particle and vapor emissions, chemical production of organic PM from volatile precursors, chemical reactions (aging) in all phases, as well as deposition of both particles and vapors and chemical losses to volatile products. The combination of this new framework with the recent results of laboratory studies can resolve some of the discrepancies between OA observations and laboratory results. The mass balance of the organic material as a function of its volatility is investigated and used to frame the corresponding constraints on the system. Finally we revisit the traditional definitions of primary and secondary organic aerosol and propose a new set of terms and definitions based on the improvements of our understanding.

Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N.

400

Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies.  

PubMed

A new passive particle collector (inert surrogate surface) that collects particles from all directions has been developed. It was used to measure particle deposition at 35 test sites as part of a project that examined corrosion of materials in order that variation in particulate material could be used in development of dose-response functions in a modern multi-pollutant environment. The project, MULTI-ASSESS, was funded by the EU to examine the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage. Passive samplers were mounted rain-protected, and both in wind-protected and wind-exposed positions, to match the exposure of the samples for corrosion studies. The particle mass and its chemical content (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium) were analysed. The loss of light reflectance on the surrogate surface was also measured. Very little ammonium and potassium was found, and one or more anions are missing in the ion balance. There were many strong correlations between the analysed species. The mass of analysed water-soluble ions was fairly constant at 24% of the total mass. The particle mass deposited to the samplers in the wind-protected position was about 25% of the particles deposited to an openly exposed sampler. The Cl-/Na+ ratios indicate a reaction between HNO(3) and NaCl. The deposited nitrate flux corresponds to the missing chloride. The Ca2+ deposition equals the SO4(2-) deposition and the anion deficiency. The SO4(2-) deposition most likely originates from SO2 that has reacted with basic calcium-containing particles either before or after they were deposited. The particle depositions at the urban sites were much higher than in nearby rural sites. The deposited mass correlated surprisingly well with the PM(10) concentration, except at sites very close to traffic. PMID:16518649

Ferm, Martin; Watt, John; O'Hanlon, Samantha; De Santis, Franco; Varotsos, Costas

2006-03-01

401

Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars and bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid (Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter (POM) of the Mandovi estuary. SPM was collected from 9 sampling stations in the Mandovi estuary during the pre-monsoon (March) and monsoon (August). Total particulate amino sugar (TPAS) concentrations and yields varied spatially and were 2 to 5 times higher during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon. Negative correlation between salinity and TPAS-C yields [TPAS-C/particulate organic carbon (POC)×100] indicates the influence of terrestrial organic matter on the transport of TPAS-carbon. Glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), and mannosamine (ManN) were abundant during the monsoon. Low GlcN/GalN ratios (<3) indicate bacteria as the major source of amino sugars. Higher amino sugar yields and lower GlcN/GalN ratios during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon indicate enhanced transformation and greater bacterial contribution to POM during the former season. Degradation trends observed with TPAS were well supported by those obtained with carbohydrates and amino acids. Based on Mur concentrations, bacteria accounted for 24% to 35% of the POC and 24% to 62% of the total particulate nitrogen (TPN). Intact bacterial cells, however accounted for a small proportion of POC (2.5% to 4%) and TPN (9% to 11%). Our study suggests that POM was subjected to extensive diagenetic transformation, and its composition was influenced by bacteria, especially during the monsoon.

Khodse, Vishwas B.; Bhosle, Narayan B.

2013-10-01

402

Mineralization of particulate organic matter derived from coral-reef organisms in reef sediments of the Gulf of Aqaba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ and laboratory incubation experiments in a fringing reef in the Gulf of Aqaba were performed to study degradation rates of particulate organic matter in reef sediments. Coral mucus, clam eggs, and zooxanthellae were used as model particulate organic compounds for these experiments. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization rates were calculated by dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and O2 fluxes from

Mohammed Rasheed; Christian Wild; Carin Jantzen; Mohammed Badran

2006-01-01

403

Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor  

SciTech Connect

We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic collection efficiency using an increased temperature gradient, and shielding the resonator electronics from deposition of ultrafine particles.

White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

2008-08-01

404

Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-02-01

405

Dynamics of coarse particulate matter in the turbidity maximum zone of the Gironde Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of studies devoted to coarse particulate matter (CPM) in estuaries, although this fraction can disturb activities that filter large volumes of water, such as industrial or fishery activities. In the macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde Estuary, a monthly sampling of CPM was performed in 2011 and 2013 at two stations in the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ) to understand its seasonal, tidal and hydrological dynamics. Regardless of the season and station, low quantities of CPM (few g m-3) were observed in comparison with suspended particulate matter (several 103 g m-3). The highest concentrations were consistently recorded in bottom waters and at the upstream station. Whereas there is no clear link between the CPM present in the column water and spring or neap tides, an increase in the CPM size has been identified at the two stations after a flood event, fact potentially critical regarding filtering functioning of estuarine activities.

Fuentes-Cid, Ana; Etcheber, Henri; Schmidt, Sabine; Abril, Gwenaël; De-Oliveira, Eric; Lepage, Mario; Sottolichio, Aldo

2014-01-01

406

Comparing Exposure Metrics for the Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions  

PubMed Central

A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete, but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk. PMID:23942393

Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H. Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

2013-01-01

407

Distribution and characterization of dissolved and particulate organic matter in Antarctic pack ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and composition of organic matter were investigated in Antarctic pack ice in early spring and summer. Accumulation\\u000a of organic compounds was observed with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) reaching 717 and\\u000a 470 ?M C, respectively and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) up to 3,071 ?g Xanthan gum equivalent l?1. POC and TEP seemed to be influenced mainly by algae.

I. Dumont; V. Schoemann; D. Lannuzel; L. Chou; J.-L. Tison; S. Becquevort

2009-01-01

408

Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at labs in New Zealand and Mexico and will be incorporated in a near future.

Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

2001-12-01

409

Comparing exposure metrics for the effects of fine particulate matter on emergency hospital admissions.  

PubMed

A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in the relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information, which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk. PMID:23942393

Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

2013-01-01

410

Base camp personnel exposure to particulate matter during wildland fire suppression activities.  

PubMed

Wildland fire base camps commonly house thousands of support personnel for weeks at a time. The selection of the location of these base camps is largely a strategic decision that incorporates many factors, one of which is the potential impact of biomass smoke from the nearby fire event. Biomass smoke has many documented adverse health effects due, primarily, to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Minimizing particulate matter exposure to potentially susceptible individuals working as support personnel in the base camp is vital. In addition to smoke from nearby wildland fires, base camp operations have the potential to generate particulate matter via vehicle emissions, dust, and generator use. We monitored particulate matter at three base camps during the fire season of 2009 in Washington, Oregon, and California. During the sampling events, 1-min time-weighted averages of PM(2.5) and particle counts from three size fractions (0.3-0.5 microns, 0.5-1.0 microns, and 1.0-2.5 microns) were measured. Results showed that all PM size fractions (as well as overall PM(2.5) concentrations) were higher during the overnight hours, a trend that was consistent at all camps. Our results provide evidence of camp-based, site-specific sources of PM(2.5) that could potentially exceed the contributions from the nearby wildfire. These exposures could adversely impact wildland firefighters who sleep in the camp, as well as the camp support personnel, who could include susceptible individuals. A better understanding of the sources and patterns of poor air quality within base camps would help to inform prevention strategies to reduce personnel exposures. PMID:22364357

McNamara, Marcy L; Semmens, Erin O; Gaskill, Steven; Palmer, Charles; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

2012-01-01

411

Particulate matter deposition and nutrient fluxes onto the sediments of the venice lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) deposition has been quantified by means of traps placed on the sediment surface in three areas of the Venice lagoon differentiating for the biogeochemical properties. The average amounts of SPM collected in areas A, B, C were 41, 65, and 140 kg myear, respectively, and in the ranges 22–533, 17–535 and 46–947 g m day. Suspended

A. Sfriso; B. Pavoni; A. Marcomini; S. Raccanelli; A. A. Orio

1992-01-01

412

Dilution sampling and analysis of particulate matter in biomass-derived syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical biomass gasification, followed by conversion of the produced syngas to fuels and electrical power, is a promising\\u000a energy alternative. Real-world characterization of particulate matter (PM) and other contaminants in the syngas is important\\u000a to minimize damage and ensure efficient operation of the engines it powers and the fuels created from it. A dilution sampling\\u000a system is demonstrated to quantify

Xiaoliang Wang; Curtis Robbins; S. Kent Hoekman; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Dennis Schuetzle

413

Determination of trace metals in air particulate matters by capillary electrophoresis with spectrophotometric detection  

SciTech Connect

Chemical analysis of trace metals in air particulate matters are required for studies in the apportionment of major air pollution sources, occupational health protection, environmental monitoring of ambient and indoor air, and for atmospheric aerosol research purpose. The demand for the required analysis is towards more sensitive, cheaper and automated method, as well as capability of differentiating different chemical species present in the air particulate matters. The recent advance of capillary electrophoresis provides an alternative method for multi-element determination with capability of speciation of different chemical elements for both total and leachable metal determination. It also uses equipment available in many chemical laboratories with reasonable capital and low running cost. In the present paper, the application of CE for trace metal analysis in air particulate matters will be investigated in three areas. The first area is the development of sample pretreatment method. For total metal analysis, the microwave digestion method is chosen based on short digestion time and reduced contamination. The second area is the optimization of the CE buffers. The use of strong and weak complex system is compared using histidine and 4-methylbenzylamine for indirect UV detection and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS) for direct UV detection for CE separation of alkali and alkaline earth metals (ammonium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium) with transition metals (cobalt, cadmium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper). The role of lactic acid, 18-crown-6 and other additives to effect satisfactory separation of closely co-migrated pairs and to achieve suitable separation of large amounts of alkali metals (ppm) from trace levels of transition metals (ppb) will be discussed for both leachable and total metals present in air particulate matters.

Fung, Y.S.; Tung, H.S. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-12-31

414

Methodology to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Certified Commercial Aircraft Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented

Roger L Wayson; Gregg G Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Mridul Gautam; Nigel Clark; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Eric Edgerton; Gary Casuccio; Rick Saylor; Traci Lersch; Benjamin Hartsell; John Jansen; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

415

Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions From Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for fuel savings and environmental benefits are readily apparent. As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx<\\/SUB>, CO2<\\/SUB>, O2<\\/SUB>, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a

John M. E. Storey; John F. Thomas; Samuel A. Lewis; Thang Q. Dam; K. Dean Edwards; Gerald L. Devault; Dominic J. Retrossa

416

Indoor\\/outdoor relationships of particulate matter in domestic homes with roadside, urban and rural locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter was measured inside and outside seven homes within Birmingham, UK, and two homes in rural locations during a 12 month period. Two of the urban homes were on the 10th and 13th floor of a multi-storey block of flats in the city centre; others were at ground level. Direct reading TEOM instruments provided near real-time data for PM10,

N. C Jones; C. A Thornton; D Mark; R. M Harrison

2000-01-01

417

Fine particulate matter and visibility in the Lake Tahoe Basin: Chemical characterization, trends, and source apportionment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speciated PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m) data has been collected for about 20 yr (1990–present) at a rural location in the Lake Tahoe Basin (Bliss State Park) and about 15 yr (1989–2004) at an urban site in South Lake Tahoe. The Bliss State Park site is representative of the Desolation Wilderness, a Class I air quality

Mark C. Green; L. W. Antony Chen; David W. DuBois; John V. Molenar

2012-01-01

418

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of matter

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

419

METALS MIMIC AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY INDUCED BY IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO UTAH VALLEY AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER EXTRACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Epidemiologic studies have shown positive associationsbetween changes in ambient particulate matter (PM) levels in Utah Valley during 1986-1988, and the respiratory health of the local population. Ambient PM reductions coincided withclosure of an open-hearth steel...

420

THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

421

RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

422

ACTIVATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO UTAH VALLEY PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in the Utah Valley (UV) has previously been associated with a variety of adverse health effects. To investigate intracellular signaling mechanisms for pulmonary responses to UV PM inhalation, human primary airway epithelial cells (NHBE)...

423

EFFECT OF SIZE AND CHEMISTRY OF AMBIENT, COMBUSTION AND SURROGATE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON PULMONARY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is much evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) can create adverse health effects including increased morbidity and mortality, the actual physico-chemical characteristics of particles which cause these effects remains elusive. One central hypothesis is that PM ...

424

CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

425

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERSENSITIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE. SS Nadadur UP Kodavanti, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, ORD, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711....

426

ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

427

THE ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS WITH SPECIFIC HEALTH EFFECTS IN HEALTHY HIGHWAY PATROL OFFICERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimated exposures to ambient respirable particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants have been statistically associated with mortality and morbidity in epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world. Although some subpopulations (e.g., asthmatics; elderly, pulmonar...

428

Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

429

DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

430

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL PROTEINS PHOSPHORYLATED IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple studies conducted by NHEERL scientists in recent years have shown that acute exposure to metals found associated with combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) alters phosphoprotein metabolism in human airway epithelial cells causing intracellular signaling. This disreg...

431

Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

432

40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...quality standards for particulate matter as specified in § 50.6 and § 50.7 of this chapter. The measurement process is nondestructive, and the size of the sample collected is usually adequate for subsequent chemical analysis. Quality assurance...

2014-07-01

433

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15

434

Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.] [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

1999-08-01

435

Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter and hospitalization for respiratory disease. It was an ecological time series study with daily indicators of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children up to 10 years old, living in Piracicaba, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson regression model was used. The relative risks were RR = 1.008; 95%CI 1.001;1.016 for lag 1 and RR = 1.009; 95%CI 1.001;1.017 for lag 3. The increment of 10 ?g/m3in particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter implies increase in relative risk of between 7.9 and 8.6 percentage points. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter was associated with hospitalization for respiratory disease in children. PMID:24626559

Cesar, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C; de Carvalho, João Andrade

2013-01-01

436

Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.  

PubMed

A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed. PMID:12099501

Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

2002-01-01

437

Dispersion Modeling of Inert Particulate Matter in the El Paso, TX- Cd. Juarez, MX Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Paso, TX-Cd. Juarez, MX region is subject to the emission of inert particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere, from a variety of sources. The impact of these emissions has been studied extensively in for regulatory compliance in the area of health effects, air quality and visibility. Little work has been done to study the fate and transport of the particulate matter within the region. The Environmental Physics Group at The University of Texas at El Paso has recently applied the SARMAP Air Quality Model (SAQM) to model the dispersion of inert particulate matter in the region. The meteorological data for the SAQM was created with the Penn State/NCAR meteorological modeling system, version 5 (MM5). The SAQM was used to simulate three common occurrences for large particulate emission and concentration. The first was times of heavy traffic volume at the international bridges which cause large numbers of cars to sit, with engines running, for extended periods of time. The second was moderate to high wind events that cause large amounts of coarse particulate matter to become entrained in the atmosphere and transported into and around the region. The third is a temperature inversion which traps the particulate matter at the surface during morning rush hour. The initial conditions for particulate matter, for the two cases involving mobile emissions, were derived from the 1999 version 3 national emissions inventory (NEI) mobile, on-road data from the EPA. Output from the MM5 was used to as the meteorological driver for the SAQM. The MM5 was initialized with data from the NCAR reanalysis project. Meteorological data collected in the region bye the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the EPA was used for Four Dimensional Data Assimilation. The MM5 was nudged with gridded, surface and observational data. Statistical analysis was done on the MM5 for the variables, wind speed, wind direction, temperature and mixing ratio. The statistics performed included RMSE, RMSEs, RMSEu and index of agreement. MM5 output with low RMSE and high index of agreement was used to drive the SAQM. The MM5 grid domains were 39x39 at 36km, 47x47 at 12km, 55x55 at 4 km and 40x40 at 1.3km. The SAQM was applied on to the 1.3km domain. For the case of emission at the international bridges, the bridges' latitude and longitude were translated to grid cell locations. The NEI data derived for those locations were set as emission rates for those cells. The SAQM was run for a 24hr period starting at twelve pm local time with the emissions ending after morning rush hour. The same conditions were done for the inversion time period with the addition of emissions for major roadways and arterial feeders. No data is available for concentrations of entrained particulate matter during wind events. Thus, the entrainment episodes were simulated with varying initial concentrations along the boundary of the domain. The emission rates were varied for each simulation to give both a very intense episode, and a moderate episode lasting for 12 hrs with the SAQM simulation ending after 24 hrs. Analysis for all the simulations was done to show the spatial and temporal evolution of the PM. Temporal comparisons were done between EPA PM2.5 to show identify similarities in the evolution of the SAQM with observation.

Pearson, R.; Fitzgerald, R.

2005-05-01

438

Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.  

PubMed

A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident. PMID:24291555

Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

2014-02-15

439

Mineral composition of the suspended particulate matter in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral composition of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) was studied for the White Sea area. The comparative analysis of the composition of the marine SMP and the SPM of the rivers of the White Sea catchment area was performed, including the Severnaya Dvina River, one of the major sources of the terrigenous suspended matter to the sea. The research of such kind is faced with numerous methodological difficulties, which slows down the study process. Data on the mineral composition of the SPM are scarce. Applying the method of X-ray powder diffractometry, we assessed the bulk mineral composition of the SPM with special regard to its clay fraction.

Kravchishina, M. D.; Dara, O. M.

2014-05-01

440

Temporal variability of trace metal mobility of urban particulate matter from Beijing – A contribution to health impact assessments of aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total element concentration and the chemical fractionation of 18 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, Zn) in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) from Beijing, China, were studied for a period of three years (July 2005–May 2008, n=35). Additionally, particulate matter smaller than 2.5?m (PM2.5) was included in

Nina J. Schleicher; Stefan Norra; Fahe Chai; Yizhen Chen; Shulan Wang; Kuang Cen; Yang Yu; Doris Stüben

2011-01-01

441

Influence of suspended particulate matter on salinity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity is a very important parameter in marine science, which is normally measured via the electrical conductivity of sea water. Suspended Particular Matter (SPM) can influence salinity measurements but so far there had been no experimental studies to test this. In this paper a new laboratory study about the influence of SPM on conductivity based salinity measurements is presented. Different sensor types were deployed to investigate the influence of the conductivity sensor design on the observed salinity deviations. The role of clay minerals was additionally analysed. Two natural mud samples of different origins were used to set up various SPM concentrations. The results have shown that high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 300 g l-1) can distort salinity measurements up to 30%. On average only 22% of the observed salinity deviation could be explained by the adsorption of ions by clay minerals. The CTD cell geometry had no verifiable effect, in the resolution limits of the instruments. The observed salinity deviations were caused by a “blinding effect” of the sensor due to the dissolved particles.

Held, Philipp; Kegler, Philip; Schrottke, Kerstin

2014-08-01

442

Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

Palanques, A.; Drake, D.E.

1990-01-01

443

Modeling wintertime particulate matter formation in central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wintertime episode during the 2000 California Regional PM Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was simulated with the air quality model CMAQ-MADRID. Model performance was evaluated with 24-h average measurements available from CRPAQS. Modeled organic matter (OM) was dominated by emissions, which were probably significantly under-represented, especially in urban areas. In one urban area, modeled daytime nitrate concentrations were low and evening concentrations were high. This diurnal profile was not explained by the partition of nitrate between the gas and particle phases, because gaseous nitric acid concentrations were low compared to PM nitrate. Both measured and simulated nitrate concentrations aloft were lower than at the surface at two tower locations during this episode. Heterogeneous reactions involving NO 3 and N 2O 5 accounted for significant nitrate production in the model, resulting in a nighttime peak. The sensitivity of PM nitrate to precursor emissions varied with time and space. Nitrate formation was on average sensitive to NO x emissions. However, for some periods at urban locations, reductions in NO x caused the contrary response of nitrate increases. Nitrate was only weakly sensitive to reductions in anthropogenic VOC emissions. Nitrate formation tended to be insensitive to the availability of ammonia at locations with high nitrate, although the spatial extent of the nitrate plume was reduced when ammonia was reduced. Reductions in PM emissions caused OM to decrease, but had no effect on nitrate despite the role of heterogeneous reactions. A control strategy that focuses on NO x and PM emissions would be effective on average, but reductions in VOC and NH 3 emissions would also be beneficial for certain times and locations.

Pun, Betty K.; Balmori, Rochelle T. F.; Seigneur, Christian

444

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity  

SciTech Connect

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the relationship between air pollutants and adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with risk of adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research of metal exposure should include social health outcomes.

Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

2011-11-15

445

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

446

SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

447

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOTH REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AT AN URBAN SITE IN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that all size fractions of...

448

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

449

[Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].  

PubMed

Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health. PMID:11942144

Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

2002-01-01

450

Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units. PMID:24462881

Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stéphane; Bussières, Denis; Lagacé, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frédéric

2014-03-01

451

Composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a disturbed watershed of southeast Brazil (Piracicaba River basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental and isotopic composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter was investigated in the Piracicaba River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Comparison of riverine organic matter from the Piracicaba River basin, a region where rivers and streams receive urban sewage and industrial effluents, with data reported for the pristine Amazon system revealed significant differences associated with anthropogenic impacts. One

Alex V Krusche; Luiz A Martinelli; Reynaldo L Victoria; Marcelo Bernardes; Plinio B de Camargo; Maria V Ballester; Susan E Trumbore

2002-01-01

452

The geochemistry of deepwater particulate matter over the hydrothermal field at 9°d50' N (the East Pacific Rise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of geochemical studies of particulate matter in the water mass over the hydrothermal field at 9°50' N on the East Pacific Rise are presented. The particulate matter was tested in background waters, in the buoyant plume, and in the near-bottom waters. The contents of Si, Al, P, Corg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ag, and Hg were determined. No definite correlations were found between the ele-ments in the background waters. Many of the chemical elements correlated with Fe and associated with its oxyhydroxides in the buoyant plume. In the near-bottom waters, microelements are associated with Fe, Zn, and Cu (probably, to their sulfides formed under fluid mixing with seawater). The matter precipitated in a sed-imentation trap was similar to the near-bottom particulate matter in the elemental composition.

Lukashin, V. N.; Demina, L. L.; Gordeev, V. V.; Gordeev, V. Yu.

2012-04-01

453

Measurement of suspended particulate matter under near-inertial drifiting sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has attempted to investigate the dynamic behavior of suspended particulate matters (SPM) under the sea ice. Main objectives are (1) to report the role of rapidly-melting summer sea ice as a new source of SPM, and (2) to estimate the vertical and temporal variation in size and settling flux of SPM under sea ice using novel holographic and acoustic techniques. Mooring observation of hydrography, hydrodynamics and suspended particles distribution under a drifting sea ice revealed the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper mixed layer of the marginal ice zone. The ice floe where the mooring system was installed drifted as near-inertial motion with approximately 12-h cycle. Due to the high melt rates of the sea ice during the summertime, a large amount of particulate matters embedded in the sea ice were released into the underlying water column. Using the mooring package, an on-ice experiment was performed to estimate the vertical and temporal variation in SPM. SPM concentration under the sea ice fluctuated in the range of 60-100 mg/l during the rapidly-melting summertime. Results suggest that combined effects of the increase in insolation, ice algal production, and the decrease in ice and snow cover and multi-year sea ice extent could create favorable conditions for enhancing the concentration and flux of SPM during the rapidly-melting summer season. With the thinning and retreat trend of Arctic sea ice, it is expected that under-ice water column will in future receive a much higher rate of discharge of particulate matters from melting sea ice.

Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Yong Hoon; Lee, Hyunjung; Hwang, Byongjun

2014-05-01

454

Spatial and seasonal variability of particulate matter optical and size properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter plays a paramount role in the biogeochemical processes taking place in the marine environment. We report seasonal (spring and summer 2008) distribution of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean, along a transect extending from the open Ionian Sea to the North Aegean Sea, including measurements in the Levantine Sea. A suite of optical instruments measuring beam attenuation (beam cp), fluorescence and particle size, the latter obtained with the innovative in-situ laser particle sizer LISST-Deep are used in concert with traditional measurements of particulate matter concentration (PMC), and total chlorophyll ? from bottle samples. PMCs were generally low during both seasons (range: 0.02-0.85 mg L- 1), with values substantially higher in the euphotic zone during spring. The deep waters (> 200 m) in the Eastern Mediterranean exhibit extremely low PMCs, well-below 0.1 mg L- 1. Total chlorophyll ? concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.28 ?g L- 1 in spring and from 0.08 to 0.19 ?g L- 1 in summer, verifying the ultra-oligotrophic character of the area. A significant correlation of beam cp and fluorescence in spring suggests that sources of particles are primarily biogenic in the surface waters. Deep water formation triggered the development of a ~ 900-m thick benthic nepheloid layer in the N. Aegean Sea. LISST-Deep revealed valuable information on the particle volume concentrations and the median particle size. It is striking that large particles (range: 31-230 ?m; median ~ 85 ?m) predominate in the entire region, from the surface up to the deep waters. In addition, accumulation of particles in the pycnocline is observed during summer; however, it is possible that schlieren (increase in beam attenuation due to scattering off of density gradients) could be responsible for the high particle volume concentrations and large median particle diameters recorded. These measurements, conducted for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean constitute valuable baseline information for future research.

Karageorgis, A. P.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Pagou, K.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Pavlidou, A.; Anagnostou, Ch.

2012-12-01

455

Correction of particulate matter concentrations to reference temperature and pressure conditions  

SciTech Connect

The 1997 revisions to the particulate matter NAAQS included changes in the reporting method of observed concentrations. Pollutant concentration data contained in EPA`s Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) prior to the 1997 revisions had been required to be reported in units corrected to standard temperature and pressure (25{degree} C, 760 mm Hg). This requirement was removed so that, in the new regulations, the particulate matter data will be reported to AIRS at local temperature and pressure. This work analyzes the impact of this revision to the spatial and temporal pattern of PM10 concentrations. The influence of pressure and temperature individually on the correction of US PM10 concentrations was first examined over a seasonal time scale. The two correction factors were then combined to produce a total correction factor and, subsequently, uncorrected PM10 concentration maps at local conditions were derived. The temperature correction was further inspected for purposes of determining differences between quarterly and monthly aggregations. Particulate matter concentrations expressed in terms of local pressure may be between 10 and 25 percent lower than those reported at standard pressure with the largest decreases occurring in the high elevation areas of the western US The temperature correction is most influential in the Northeast and Upper Midwest during the cold months with PM concentrations up to 10% higher than those reported at standard temperature. Combing the temperature and pressure corrections results in PM10 increases up to 5% in the Northeast and Upper Midwest during the winter and decreases up to 25% in the West, with the summer months experiencing greater decreases than the winter.

Falke, S.R.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis

1998-12-31

456

PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.  

PubMed

The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L ?g(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2012-01-01

457

Granulometry of Non-colloidal Particulate Matter Transported by Urban Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the granulometry of non-colloidal particulate matter (PM) from four urban transportation land use catchments\\u000a (source areas) in Baton Rouge, Little Rock, North Little Rock, and New Orleans. Particle gradations ranging from 1 to greater\\u000a than 10,000 ?m were separated into dissolved (less than 1 ?m), suspended (1–25 ?m), settleable (25–75 ?m), and sediment (75–4750 ?m)\\u000a fractions. In Baton Rouge, the primary site,

Hong Lin; Gaoxiang Ying; John Sansalone

2009-01-01

458

Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Size-resolved aerosol mass and chemical composition were measured during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Daily samples were collected for 12 months from July 2001 to June 2002. Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used to collect aerosol samples of fine particulate matter smaller than 10?m. Measurements of PM0.056, PM0.10, PM0.18, PM0.32, PM0.56, PM1.0, PM1.8 and PM2.5 with the MOUDI are

Juan C. Cabada; Sarah Rees; Satoshi Takahama; Andrey Khlystov; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson; Allen L. Robinson

2004-01-01

459

Local order and valence state of Fe in urban suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations were carried out on urban suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) with the aim of studying the local order and valence state of iron, a metal abundant in this type of material, particularly in urban environments. XANES results, based on the comparison with model compounds fayalite (Fe2+) and ferrihydrite (Fe3+), show that iron is prevalent as Fe3+, whereas EXAFS data attribute the prevalent Fe3+ to a nanocrystalline phase of ferrihydrite. The dominance of Fe3+ (less soluble than Fe2+) is further confirmed by the fact that previous leaching experiments did not show Fe presence in the solution.

d'Acapito, Francesco; Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gianfagna, Antonio

2014-12-01

460

Annual and Seasonal Variations of Trace Metals in Atmospheric Suspended Particulate Matter in Islamabad, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Suspended particulate matter (TSP) in urban atmosphere of Islamabad was collected using a high volume sampling technique\\u000a for a period of one year. The nitric acid–perchloric acid extraction method was used and the metal contents were estimated\\u000a by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest mean concentration was found for Ca at 4.531 µg\\/m3, followed by Na (3.905 µg\\/m3), Fe (2.464 µg\\/m3), Zn (2.311 µg\\/m3),

Munir H. Shah; N. Shaheen

2008-01-01

461

[Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven trees species].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tree leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven tree species, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the species characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those species with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven species was significantly different except for Ph. Tree species with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven tree species was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates. PMID:23947057

Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan

2013-06-01

462

Characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in Neversink Reservoir, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural organic matter (NOM) was isolated from the water of the Neversink Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply, located in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The NOM was fractionated into the following nine different fractions by the isolation procedure: (1) coarse particulates, (2) fine-particulate organics, (3) solvent-extractable organics, (4) hydrophobic neutrals (HPON fraction), (5) dissolved colloids, (6) bases, (7) hydrophobic acids (HPOA), (8) transphilic acids + neutrals (TPI-A+N), and (9) hydrophilic acids + neutrals (HPI-A+N). Each of these fractions, with exception of the first and the third which were too small for the complete series of analyses, was characterized by elemental, carbohydrate, and amino acid analyses, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectrometry. The data obtained from these analyses indicate (1) that the fine-particulate organics and colloids are mainly composed of peptidoglycans, and lipopolysaccharides derived from algal, bacterial, and fungal cell walls, (2) that the HPO-N fraction most likely consists of a mixture of alicyclic terpenes and carbohydrates, (3) that the HPOA fraction consists mainly of lignin components conjugated to carbohydrates, (4) that the TPI-A+N and the HPI-A+N fractions most likely represent complex mixtures of relatively low molecular weight carboxylic acids derived from terpenes, carbohydrates, and peptides, and (5) that the base fraction is composed of free amino acids, browning reaction products, and peptide fragments.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Cox, Larry G.

2005-01-01

463

Time course of bronchial cell inflammation following exposure to diesel particulate matter using a modified EAVES.  

PubMed

Electrostatic deposition of particles onto the surface of well-differentiated airway cells is a rapid and efficient means to screen for toxicity associated with exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution. This work describes the development and application of an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES) with increased throughput and ease-of-use. The modified EAVES accommodates standard tissue culture plates and uses an alternating electric field to deposit a net neutral charge of aerosol onto air-interface cell cultures. Using this higher-throughput design, we were able to examine the time-course (1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 h post-exposure) of transcript production and cytotoxicity in well-differentiated human bronchial cells exposed to diesel particulate matter at levels of 'real-world' significance. Statistically significant responses were observed at exposure levels (?0.4 ?g/cm(2)) much lower than typically reported in vitro using traditional submerged/resuspended techniques. Levels of HO-1, IL-8, CYP1A1, COX-2, and HSP-70 transcripts increased immediately following diesel particulate exposure and persisted for several hours; cytotoxicity was increased at 24h. The modified EAVES provides a platform for higher throughput, more efficient and representative testing of aerosol toxicity in vitro. PMID:24681185

Hawley, Brie; McKenna, Dave; Marchese, Anthony; Volckens, John

2014-08-01

464

The effects of operating conditions on particulate matter exhaust from diesel locomotive engines.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have shown that fine particulates threaten human health. Since their health impact is associated with both mass and number concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the emission standards for particulate mass accordingly. This study examined the particulate matter characteristics of diesel locomotive engine exhaust at various engine ratings. Diesel engine exhaust was collected via a dilution tunnel and the concentration and size distribution of fine particles were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Exhaust gasses were measured simultaneously by a stack sampler. The maximum carbon monoxide emission was reached at 59% of the maximum rating, after which emissions decreased. The particle count median diameter increased with the engine rating, until a maximum was reached at 40% of the maximum rating. Most exhaust particles were nanoparticles with the nuclei mode range, a particle diameter (D(P))<50 nm. The increase in particles with the accumulation mode range, 50

Park, Duckshin; Yoon, Younghun; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Kiyoung

2012-03-01

465

Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing  

PubMed Central

The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation. PMID:24830453

Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

2014-01-01

466

Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 ?g/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 ?g/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 ?g/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 ?g/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 ?g/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 ?g/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

2014-11-18

467

Real-world particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked atmospheric particulate matter with human health problems. In many urban areas, mobile sources are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and the dominant source of fine particles or PM2.5 (PM smaller than 2.5 pm in aerodynamic diameter). Dynamometer studies have implicated diesel engines as being a significant source of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 microm), which may also exhibit deleterious health impacts. In addition to direct tailpipe emissions, mobile sources contribute to ambient particulate levels by brake and tire wear and by resuspension of particles from pavement. Information about particle emission rates, size distributions, and chemical composition from in-use light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles is scarce, especially under real-world operating conditions. To characterize particulate emissions from a limited set of in-use vehicles, we studied on-road emissions from vehicles operating under hot-stabilized conditions, at relatively constant speed, in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel along the Pennsylvania Turnpike from May 18 through 23, 1999. There were five specific aims of the study. (1) obtain chemically speciated diesel profiles for the source apportionment of diesel versus other ambient constituents in the air and to determine the chemical species present in real-world diesel emissions; (2) measure particle number and size distribution of chemically speciated particles in the atmosphere; (3) identify, by reference to data in years past, how much change has occurred in diesel exhaust particulate mass; (4) measure particulate emissions from LD gasoline vehicles to determine their contribution to the observed particle levels compared to diesels; and (5) determine changes over time in gas phase emissions by comparing our results with those of previous studies. Comparing the results of this study with our 1992 results, we found that emissions of C8 to C20 hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from HD diesel emissions substantially decreased over the seven-year period. Particulate mass emissions showed a similar trend. Considering a 25-year period, we observed a continued downward trend in HD particulate emissions from approximately 1,100 mg/km in 1974 to 132 mg/km (reported as PM2.5) in this study. The LD particle emission factor was considerably less than the HD value, but given the large fraction of LD vehicles, emissions from this source cannot be ignored. Results of the current study also indicate that both HD and LD vehicles emit ultrafine particles and that these particles are preserved under real-world dilution conditions. Particle number distributions were dominated by ultrafine particles with count mean diameters of 17 to 13 nm depending on fleet composition. These particles appear to be primarily composed of sulfur, indicative of sulfuric acid emission and nucleation. Comparing the 1992 and 1999 HD emission rates, we observed a 48% increase in the NOx/CO2 emissions ratio. This finding supports the assumption that many new-technology diesel engines conserve fuel but increase NOx emissions. PMID:11954677

Gertler, Alan W; Gillies, John A; Pierson, William R; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John C; Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Coulombe, William; Tarnay, Leland; Cahill, Thomas A

2002-01-01

468

Chemical characteristics of particulate organic matter from a small, mountainous river system in the Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the transfer of particulate organic matter (POM) by small mountainous river systems (SMRS) to the ocean,\\u000a we measured the concentration and composition of suspended particles from the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range,\\u000a over a wide range of discharges that included several floods. All particulate constituents measured, including organic carbon,\\u000a nitrogen and biomarkers such

Jeff A. Hatten; Miguel A. Goñi; Robert A. Wheatcroft

469

Physicochemical Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter at a Mainline Underground Railway Station  

PubMed Central

Underground railway stations are known to have elevated particulate matter (PM) loads compared to ambient air. As these particles are derived from metal-rich sources and transition metals may pose a risk to health by virtue of their ability to catalyze generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their potential enrichment in underground environments is a source of concern. Compared to coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate fractions of underground railway airborne PM, little is known about the chemistry of the ultrafine (PM0.1) fraction that may contribute significantly to particulate number and surface area concentrations. This study uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography to compare the elemental composition of size-fractionated underground PM with woodstove, roadwear generator, and road tunnel PM. Underground PM is notably rich in Fe, accounting for greater than 40% by mass of each fraction, and several other transition metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn) compared to PM from other sources. Importantly, ultrafine underground PM shows similar metal-rich concentrations as the coarse and fine fractions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a component of the coarse fraction of underground PM has a morphology indicative of generation by abrasion, absent for fine and ultrafine particulates, which may be derived from high-temperature processes. Furthermore, underground PM generated ROS in a concentration- and size-dependent manner. This study suggests that the potential health effects of exposure to the ultrafine fraction of underground PM warrant further investigation as a consequence of its greater surface area/volume ratio and high metal content. PMID:23477491

2013-01-01

470

Dominant impact of residential wood burning on particulate matter in Alpine valleys during winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project AEROWOOD (Aerosols from wood burning versus other sources), particulate matter was collected at two Swiss Alpine valleys during winter. Apportionment of aerosols from transit traffic and residential wood burning was performed using radiocarbon (14C) determinations of the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions. On daily average, 88% and 65% of the total carbonaceous matter (including all other atoms than carbon) originated from non-fossil sources inside and outside of the village, respectively, which is mainly attributed to wood burning. These proportions were generally higher during the evening compared to morning hours, when traffic intensity waned and heating activities increased. 14C measurements of EC indicated episodes of both nearly pure traffic and wood-burning sources, respectively, of which the latter extreme has not been observed for EC under ambient conditions before. Results show that regulatory measures for the improvement of air quality must consider residential wood burning as an important source even in industrialized countries.

Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.; Sandradewi, Jisca; Alfarra, M. Rami; Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Lukas; Baltensperger, Urs

2007-03-01

471

Heavy metals in particulate and colloidal matter from atmospheric deposition of urban Guangzhou, South China.  

PubMed

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and colloidal matter (COM) in annual dry and wet deposition samples in urban Guangzhou were for the first time collected, and their trace metals were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The deposition flux of SPM and of metal elements varied largely among the investigated seasons, and reached the maximum in spring. The correlation analysis indicated that significant correlations existed among some of the metal elements in the deposition samples. The enrichment factors (EF) of metals in COM in the deposition ranging from 79.66 to 130,000 were much higher than those of SPM ranging from 1.65 to 286.48, indicating the important role of COM. The factor analysis showed that emissions from street dust, non-ferrous metal production, and heavy fuel oil were major sources of the trace metals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to quantitatively estimate anthropogenic source. PMID:24418749

Huang, Wen; Duan, Dandan; Zhang, Yulong; Cheng, Hefa; Ran, Yong

2014-08-30

472

Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

2012-01-01

473

Potential for Misidentification of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals as Molecular Pollutants in Particulate Matter  

PubMed Central

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been shown to form on the surfaces of various types of transition metal-containing particulate matter (PM), and it has been demonstrated they are capable of initiating adverse health impacts. Following sonification and solvent extraction for chemical analysis, they are partially converted to molecular species. Alcoholic solvents extracted the EPFRs with near 100% efficiency, while nonpolar hydrocarbon solvents exhibited <20% efficiency and dichloromethane exhibited 20–55% efficiency. The extracted radicals reacted in solution to form multiple molecular reaction products including catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran. This suggests that EPFRs in environmental samples are indistinguishable from molecular pollutants and are subject to misidentification as molecular adsorbates when traditional extraction and chemical analysis methods are employed. On the basis of these findings, the origin of the toxicity of particulate matter contaminated with toxic organic compounds should be considered for re-evaluation to include the possibility that EPFRs may be a significant contributor, and the impact of some molecular pollutants may have been overestimated. PMID:20155937

TRUONG, HIEU; LOMNICKI, SLAWO; DELLINGER, BARRY

2014-01-01

474

Inorganic salts in atmospheric particulate matter: Raman spectroscopy as an analytical tool.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter is composed of inorganic and organic components of natural and anthropogenic origin. Wind-transport is probably the most important process responsible for the emission of solid particulate matter into the troposphere, but there are also important contributions from chemical reactions due to the interaction of different atmospheric components in presence of water and solar radiation. Sulfate, nitrate and carbonate salts can be both reactants and products in this complex dynamic system, and there is no doubt about their important impact on the climate. Both simple and mixed salts can be produced in atmosphere by dissolution-crystallization processes. The Raman spectra of 45 representative salts of the atmospheric environment were recorded and the bands assigned. The chemometric analysis of the spectroscopic data of these 45 salts demonstrates the suitability of Raman spectroscopy to classify and identify sulfate, nitrate and carbonate salts of atmospheric importance. Salts were classified into three groups: "sulfates", "nitrates or carbonates" and "sulfate-nitrates or sulfate-carbonate". This kind of information is relevant in atmospheric studies because specific characteristics of the salts can provide valuable information about the origin of the salts, the atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, thus contributing to the evaluation of environmental impacts. PMID:23880412

Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Kampe, Bernd; Ciobot?, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2013-11-01

475

A preliminary test method for masonry heater particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A test method for determining carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from masonry heaters is described and results of tests on two masonry heaters are presented. The method specifies fueling protocol and laboratory measurement procedures for determination of both emission factors (g/kg) and rates (g/hr). The fuel load size and fueling intervals are dependent upon the firebox volume of the masonry heater. The test method starts with a room temperature masonry heater and involves five firings to achieve burn rates in two ranges, where the burn rate is defined as the dry mass of the fuel load divided by the time between loadings. Emission samples are extracted from a dilution tunnel with a set flow rate and configuration. Particulate matter sampling is similar to US EPA Method 5G for woodstoves, and Co concentration is measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The emissions results for each firing are weighted according to EPA Method 28 to obtain the overall emission totals for the test.

Stern, C.H.; Jaasma, D.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (United States)); Shelton, J.W. (Shelton Research Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States))

1991-08-01

476

Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

2007-12-01

477

Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks  

SciTech Connect

Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

2009-07-28

478

Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

2014-10-01

479

[Current status and future prospects of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions in China].  

PubMed

The emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) in 2000 and 2005 were established based on the activity data and emission factors of power, industrial, residential and transportation sectors in China. Future emissions from 2010 to 2030 were projected under different scenarios of energy consumption and PM emission control policies. The emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 in 2005 were 29.98 Mt, 15.30 Mt and 9.79 Mt respectively, and the annual increasing rates were 3.4%, 4.7% and 5.4% during 2000 to 2005. By 2030, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be 23.06 Mt and 10.59 Mt under reference scenario, of which industrial boilers are the largest contributor. With improvement of energy efficiency, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be reduced by 15% and 16% respectively in 2030 compared with that under reference scenario. By intensifying the enforcement of legislation, 25% of TSP and 10% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2015. By tightening the emission standard and promoting high-efficiency dust collector after 2015, 21% of TSP and 19% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2030 and the emissions can become 13.81 Mt and 6.88 Mt separately. The control of particulate matter shall cover power, industrial and residential sectors. Actions shall include improving energy efficiency, enforcing legislation and tightening control policies. PMID:19774979

Zhang, Chu-Ying; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Ji-Ming

2009-07-15

480

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth Weight in New York, New York  

PubMed Central

Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008–2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m indicated that for each 10-µg/m3 increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth. PMID:24218031

Savitz, David A.; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Carr, Jessie L.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D.

2014-01-01

481

Spatial Interpolation of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations Using the Shortest Wind-Field Path Distance  

PubMed Central

Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197

Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

2014-01-01

482

Particulate matter and components of the organic substance in the surface waters of the Southern and Atlantic Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated studies of the particulate matter and organic compounds in the surface waters and the snow-ice cover by means of geochemical (the concentrations of the particulate matter, the Corg, the hydrocarbons, the lipids, and the chlorophyll a) and optical techniques were performed in the Southern Ocean and in the east of the Atlantic Ocean along the vessel's route: Africa-Antarctica-Africa-St. Petersburg. The correlations between the treated compounds were found. It was shown that the supply of pollutants affects not only the concentrations but also the proportions of the considered compounds. New data were obtained on the processes of the accumulation of particulate matter and organic compounds under the ice formation.

Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Artem'ev, V. A.

2013-02-01

483

Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further implications for the ballast hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key role in organic matter flux to the deep. Here experiments were carried out in rolling tanks to observe the incorporation of suspended biogenic minerals (calcium carbonate coccoliths or silica diatom frustules) into diatom aggregates and examine their influence on aggregate character. Addition of higher concentrations of suspended minerals to tanks resulted in a decrease in aggregate volume and mass and in an increase in aggregate number. POC to dry weight ratios also declined as mineral concentrations increased, saturating at 2-5 weight percent POC. Large amounts of suspended particulate material, consisting of miniscule aggregates of both inorganic material and organic matter, formed during the experiments. This suggested sizable scavenging of dissolved organic matter into the particulate phase during the experiment in general, and in particular associated with the presence of suspended minerals. Some of the increase in particulate inorganic matter may have been tied to cation crosslinking of the polymerized organic matter. The C to N ratio of this scavenged material was lower in the opal experiments than in the calcium carbonate experiments, suggesting differences in the compounds being formed.

de La Rocha, Christina L.; Nowald, Nicolas; Passow, Uta

2008-12-01

484

Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon  

SciTech Connect

This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

2009-04-16

485

Aerodynamic size distribution of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air in the city of Cleveland, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.

Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

1974-01-01

486

40 CFR 86.1935 - What special provisions may apply as a consequence of a delay in the particulate matter accuracy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...consequence of a delay in the particulate matter accuracy margin report for portable emission measurement...of a delay in the particulate matter accuracy margin report for portable emission measurement...Program to Develop Emission Measurement Accuracy Margins for Heavy-Duty In-Use...

2010-07-01

487

ANALYSIS OF COMPONENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) FOR AN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDY OF TWO SENSITIVE COHORTS IN ATLANTA, GA  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction An exposure assessment study was conducted in Atlanta, GA during fall 1999 and spring 2000 to examine the short-term effects of exposure to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants on heart rate variability (HRV). Characterization of particulate matter (PM...

488

The CCRUSH study: Characterization of coarse and fine particulate matter in northeastern Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter in the troposphere adversely impacts human health when inhaled and alters climate through cloud formation processes and by absorbing/scattering light. Particles smaller than 2.5 mum in diameter (fine particulate matter; PM2.5), are typically emitted from combustion-related sources and can form and grow through secondary processing in the atmosphere. Coarse particles (PM10-2.5), ranging 2.5 to 10 mum, are typically generated through abrasive processes, such as erosion of road surfaces, entrained via resuspension, and settle quickly out of the atmosphere due to their large size. After deciding against regulating PM10-2.5 in 2006 citing, among other reasons, mixed results from epidemiological studies of the pollutant and lack of knowledge on health impacts in rural areas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) funded a series of studies that investigated the ambient composition, toxicology, and epidemiology of PM10-2.5. One such study, The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study, aimed to characterize the composition, sources, and health effects of PM10-2.5 in semi-arid northeastern Colorado and consisted of two field campaigns and an epidemiological study. Summarized here are the results from the two field campaigns, the first of which included over three years of continuous PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentration monitoring at multiple sites in urban-Denver and rural-Greeley, Colorado. This data set was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. During the second year of continuous monitoring, PM 10-2.5 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected for compositional analyses that included: elemental composition, bulk elemental and organic carbon concentrations, water-soluble organic carbon concentrations, UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and endotoxin content. Elemental composition was used to understand enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric particles and to identify sources via positive matrix factorization (PMF). The organic fraction of both particulate size ranges was explored with a variety of bulk characterization techniques commonly utilized in analysis of soil and aquatic natural organic matter. To date, the CCRUSH study is one of the largest research efforts devoted to understanding PM10-2.5 and provides the US EPA with vital information that will be used in future policy making decisions regarding the regulation of this pollutant.

Clements, Nicholas Steven

489

Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last two decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which has allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol science, and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last two decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. But, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important effects on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing BC emissions, using known control measures would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China, and the USA. Thus there is much that could be done to reduce effects of atmospheric PM on the climate and the health of the environment and human population. A prioritized list of actions to mitigate the full range of effects of PM is currently undeliverable due to shortcomings in knowledge of aerosol science among which the roles of PM in global climate and the relative roles of different PM precursor sources and their response to climate and land use change over the remaining decades of this century are prominent.

Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

2015-01-01

490

Particulate matter air quality assessment over southeast United States using satellite and ground measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particles (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum) can penetrate deep inside the human lungs and recent scientific studies have shown thousands of deaths occur each year around the world, prematurely, due to a high concentration of particulate matter. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of surface level fine particulate matter air quality is very important. Typically air quality measurements are made from ground stations. In recent years, linear regression relationships between satellite derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface measured PM2.5 mass concentration are formed and used to estimate PM2.5 in the areas where surface measurements are not available. This type of simple linear relationships varies with regions and seasons, and does not provide accurate enough estimation of surface level pollution and many studies have shown that AOT alone is not sufficient for PM2.5 mass concentration estimations. Furthermore, AOT represents aerosol loading in the entire column of the atmosphere whereas PM2.5 is measured at the surface; hence, the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols coupled with meteorology becomes critical in PM2.5 estimations. In this dissertation I used three years (2004-2006) of coincident hourly PM2.5, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived AOT, and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyzed meteorological fields to assess PM2.5 air quality in the Southeast United States. I explored the use of two-variate (TVM), multi-variate (MVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods for estimating PM2.5 over 85 stations in the region. First, satellite data were analyzed for sampling biases, quality, and impact of clouds. Results show that MODIS-Terra AOT data was available only about 50% of the days in any given month due to cloud over and unfavorable surface conditions, but this produced a sampling bias of less than 2 mugm-3. Results indicate that there is up to three fold improvements in the correlation coefficients (R) while using MVM (that includes meteorology) over different regions and seasons when compared to the TVM and further improvements were noticed when ANN method is applied. The improvement in absolute percentage error of estimation ranges from 5% to 50% over different seasons and regions when compared with TVM models. Overall ANN models performed better than TVM and MVM models. Based on these results, we recommend using meteorological variables along with satellite observations for improving particulate matter air quality assessment from satellite observations in the region.

Gupta, Pawan

491

Determination of PAHs in diesel particulate matter using thermal extraction and solid phase micro-extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from chemical analysis of the diesel particulate matter (DPM) requires considerable sampling expertise and is often time-consuming because sample preparation demands strict extraction procedures due to the complex nature of the DPM matrix. In this study, a method to measure the emissions of the 16-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority PAHs adsorbed in diesel particles has been developed. This method involves the capture of the DPM in glass microfibre filters, thermal extraction of the compounds from the particulate matrix in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), determination of the concentration by means of a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibre and subsequent analysis using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Analyses of a fully characterised DPM prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (SRM 1650b), were performed and calculated errors showed that the method is capable of giving reliable quantitative data. Additionally, DPM collected from a diesel engine was analyzed and the results showed the high method sensitivity to the engine operating conditions.

Ballesteros, R.; Hernández, J. J.; Lyons, L. L.

492

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

493

Influence of oxygenated organic aerosols (OOAs) on the oxidative potential of diesel and biodiesel particulate matter.  

PubMed

Generally, the magnitude of pollutant emissions from diesel engines running on biodiesel fuel is ultimately coupled to the structure of the fuel's constituent molecules. Previous studies demonstrated the relationship between the organic fraction of particulate matter (PM) and its oxidative potential. Herein, emissions from a diesel engine running on different biofuels were analyzed in more detail to explore the role that different organic fractions play in the measured oxidative potential. In this work, a more detailed chemical analysis of biofuel PM was undertaken using a compact time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (c-ToF AMS). This enabled a better identification of the different organic fractions that contribute to the overall measured oxidative potentials. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a profluorescent nitroxide molecular probe 9-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl-5-ethynyl)-10-(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEAnit). Therefore, the oxidative potential of the PM, measured through the ROS content, although proportional to the total organic content in certain cases, shows a much higher correlation with the oxygenated organic fraction as measured by the c-ToF AMS. This highlights the importance of knowing the surface chemistry of particles for assessing their health impacts. It also sheds light onto new aspects of particulate emissions that should be taken into account when establishing relevant metrics for assessing health implications of replacing diesel with alternative fuels. PMID:23763365

Stevanovic, S; Miljevic, B; Surawski, N C; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Brown, R; Ristovski, Z D

2013-07-16

494

Characterization of ultrafine particulate matter from traditional and improved biomass cookstoves.  

PubMed

Biomass combustion in cookstoves has a substantial impact on human health, affects CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) affect the earth's radiative balance. Various initiatives propose to replace traditional fires with "improved" (nontraditional) cookstoves to offset negative local and global effects. In this laboratory study, we compared the size, composition, and morphology of ultrafine particulate emissions from a "three-stone" traditional fire to those from two improved stove designs (one "rocket", one "gasifier"). Measurement tools included a scanning mobility particle sizer, PTFE and quartz filter samples, and transmission electron microscopy. In the improved stoves, particulate mass (PM) emissions factors were much lower although median particle size was also lower: 35 and 24 nm for the rocket and gasifier, respectively, vs 61 nm for the three-stone fire. Particles from improved stoves formed clearly defined chain agglomerates and independent spheres with little evidence of volatile matter and had a higher proportion of BC to total PM, although overall BC emissions factors were fairly uniform. The 3-fold increase in quantities of sub-30 nm particles from improved cookstoves warrants further consideration by health scientists, with due consideration to the higher combustion efficiencies of improved cookstoves. PMID:23469776

Just, Brian; Rogak, Steven; Kandlikar, Milind

2013-04-01

495

Dynamics of settling particulate matter during typhoon Muifa in Heini Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Settling particulate matter (SPM) is widely used to describe the sedimentary environment. We have investigated here the SPM collected with a time-series sediment trap in the Heini Bay, Weihai, Shandong Peninsula, China, during the super typhoon Muifa (August 2011, maximum wind speed 55 m/s). Meteorological and hydrological parameters were measured for 18 days. By analyzing the particle flux, grain size, and loss-on-ignition (organic matter content) of SPM we found dramatic changes in these parameters, induced by typhoon Muifa for about 6 days. With the arrival of typhoon, the daily SPM fluxes increased sharply to the maximum at 76.4 g/(m2·d) on the first day and this increase is about 9 times of the normal value, and after 6 days the SPM decreased to the normal value gradually. Other parameters, such as grain size of SPM and organic matter also experienced similar changes. Using these SPM parameters, we divided the settling progress by cluster analysis into three phases: strong (for 3 days), weak (for 3 days), and zero typhoon impact.

Liu, Xiao; Huang, Haijun; Yan, Liwen; Liu, Yanxia; Ma, Lijie

2015-01-01

496

Bim mediates mitochondria-regulated particulate matter-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We studied the role of Bim, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member in Airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 ?m)-induced apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). PM induced AEC apoptosis by causing significant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation. PM upregulated pro-apoptotic protein Bim and enhanced translocation of Bim to the mitochondria. ShRNABim blocked PM-induced apoptosis by preventing activation of the mitochondrial death pathway suggesting a role of Bim in the regulation of mitochondrial pathway in AEC. Accordingly, we provide the evidence that Bim mediates PM-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:17716672

Zhang, J.; Ghio, A.J.; Chang, W.; Kamdar, O.; Rosen, G.D.; Upadhyay, D.

2007-01-01

497

Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates: Formation mechanism and fate in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes.

Loh, Andrew; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong; Yim, Un Hyuk

2014-12-01

498

Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

1985-09-01

499

Removal of particulate matter emitted from a subway tunnel using magnetic filters.  

PubMed

We removed particulate matter (PM) emitted from a subway tunnel using magnetic filters. A magnetic filter system was installed on the top of a ventilation opening. Magnetic field density was increased by increasing the number of permanent magnet layers to determine PM removal characteristics. Moreover, the fan's frequency was adjusted from 30 to 60 Hz to investigate the effect of wind velocity on PM removal efficiency. As a result, PM removal efficiency increased as the number of magnetic filters or fan frequency increased. We obtained maximum removal efficiency of PM10 (52%), PM2.5 (46%), and PM1 (38%) at a 60 Hz fan frequency using double magnetic filters. We also found that the stability of the PM removal efficiency by the double filter (RSD, 3.2-5.8%) was higher than that by a single filter (10.9-24.5%) at all fan operating conditions. PMID:24499385

Son, Youn-Suk; Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Chung, Sang-Gwi; Lee, Jai-Hyo; Kim, Jo-Chun

2014-03-01

500

[Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers. PMID:24812935

Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

2014-02-01