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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Particulate Matter: a closer look  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate\\u000aMatter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands\\u000aEnvironmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety\\u000aDivision of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment\\u000a(RIVM), has been designed to present the facts on particulate matter in a\\u000acoherent framework. Current knowledge on particulate

Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K

2007-01-01

2

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

3

Source Testing for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

DeVorkin, Howard

4

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

5

Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution - Particulate Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains citations of reports dealing with air pollution - particulate matters; analysis of atmospheric aerosols and particulate matters, specifically particle size, measurement, distribution and identification of pollutants; atmos;heric...

1977-01-01

6

Particulate Matter — What is the Standard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentrated effort to examine and lower the amount of emissions of particulate matter into the atmosphere is occur- ring. It is important to consider how to best address this area. An examination of ongoing work and its relationship to particulate requirements is the focus of this paper. The studies are dependent on the definition of particulate matter. A focus

A. M. Hartstein; F. D. Sutterfield; D. Gurney

1998-01-01

7

METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

8

Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)|

Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

1987-01-01

9

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2013-07-01

11

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 Section 52.2059 Protection...2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed...Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date...

2013-07-01

12

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part DâDisapproval...standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

2013-07-01

13

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

14

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control Strategy Analysis for Particulates, from the Nevada Control...the emission limitation on particulate matter. (1) Clark County District Board of Health, Table 27.1, (Particulate Matter from Process...

2009-07-01

15

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control Strategy Analysis for Particulates, from the Nevada Control...the emission limitation on particulate matter. (1) Clark County District Board of Health, Table 27.1, (Particulate Matter from Process...

2010-07-01

16

Evaluation of the NIOSH MWF Total Particulate Matter: Thoracic Particulate Matter Conversion Factor in a Machining Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worker exposures to metalworking fluids were characterized at a plant that produced air compressors. Full-shift, side-by-side air samples (n = 147) were collected and analyzed for total particulate matter, extractable total particulate matter, thoracic particulate matter, and extractable thoracic particulate matter. The thoracic particulate matter geometric mean of 0.32 m\\/mwas below the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Beth Donovan Reh; Joshua M. Harney; Robert E. McCleery; Charles A. Mueller

2005-01-01

17

Particulate matter and human health focus issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three years ago, Environmental Science & Technology’s\\u000aEditor-in-Chief, Jerry Schnoor, wrote\\u000aan editorial “Carol Browner’s Legacy: PM2.5”\\u000adetailing her decision as EPA administrator to move\\u000aforward to regulate fine particulate matter, or PM2.5\\u000a(particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 ?m) in spite\\u000aof the many uncertainties. That editorial noted that\\u000athe evidence at that time strongly suggested that she\\u000agot

B. Brunekreef; Armistead G. Russell

2009-01-01

18

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

19

SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

20

SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new national monitoring network for tbe measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards,...

21

Health Effects Information Relating to Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) met on December 16-17, 1985 to hold a preliminary discussion with EPA staff and members of the public on health effects information relating to particulate matter that has become available since the Comm...

1986-01-01

22

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 mum (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks

J. Moenster; M. Glasius; O. J. Nielsen; M. Bilde; F. P. Jensen

2005-01-01

23

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

24

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...ApprovalâOn January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

2013-07-01

25

Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol\\/L HC1 solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 24 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional

Katsumi Hirose; Eiichiro Tanoue

1994-01-01

26

Depth Profiles of Particulate Matter and Elements in Particulate Matter in Xi'an, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth profiles of particulate matter and elements in particulate matter collected from two typical resident buildings of a 7-storey building (B1) and a 24-storey building (B2) in the city of Xi'an, China were investigated. Physical characterization and chemical analysis of the settled dusts collected at different heights of B1 and B2 in April 2009 showed that (1) the volume percent

Longhao Zeng; Zongze Cao; Jie Yue; Julia Lu; Chengxiao Zhang

2011-01-01

27

40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262 Section 60.262 Protection... § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45 kg/MW-hr...

2013-07-01

28

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

29

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142 Section 60.142 Protection... § 60.142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under...gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2013-07-01

32

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2013-07-01

33

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2013-07-01

34

Multipollutant Exposures and Health Responses to Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological methods provide opportunities to study interactions of pollutants in complex environments. During the study of health and the environment and the evaluation of particulate matter in Tucson, we found that type, location, and temporality of particulate matter exposures were critical with respect to the various interactions that related to health effects. Indoor particulate matter interacted with other components of

Michael D. Lebowitz; James J. Quackenboss; Michal Krzyzanowski; Mary Kay ORourke; Carl Hayes

1992-01-01

35

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

36

Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

2013-02-01

37

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOURCES--] [Subpart M - Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze] [Sec. 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter...STATIONARY SOURCES-- Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Sec. 60.132 Standard for particulate...

2009-07-01

38

Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

2009-02-01

39

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emissions of filterable particulate matter (FPM), condensible PM (CPM), PM10, and PM2.5 at FGD inlet and stack in a coal-fired power plant were measured by EPA method 201A and method 202. The results indicated that emissions of total particulate matter (TPM) are 40.99mg\\/m3 and 120.58mg\\/m3, and the filterable PMs are the highest emissions at both sampling locations which

Ping Lu; Jiang Wu; Wei-Ping Pan

2010-01-01

40

Information Alert on Particulate Matter in Blood Bags  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... ARC has implemented additional and specialized visual inspection procedures for examining liquid blood components for particulate matter. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

41

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPAâ??s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The developmen...

42

Integration of Suspended Particulate Matter and Oil Transportation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the oil and suspended-particulate-matter interaction program is to describe and model the fate of oil in the water column when the presence of suspended particulate matter is considered. Oil exists in the water column as discrete droplets...

B. E. Kirstein C. Clary D. McNabb J. R. Clayton J. R. Payne

1985-01-01

43

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

44

Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of

Makiko Nakata; Tomio Nakano; Takaaki Okuhara; Itaru Sano; Sonoyo Mukai

2011-01-01

45

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

46

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2013-07-01

47

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

48

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

49

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

50

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...condition; (2) The target particulate matter emission level for each test...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227 Section...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) The requirements...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The...

2009-07-01

52

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227 Section...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) The requirements...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The...

2010-07-01

53

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

54

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2009-07-01

55

Fine particulate matter measurements during the Houston Fine Particulate Matter Supersite Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf Coast Aerosol Research and Characterization Program (GC-ARCH) was established in southeast Texas as one of USEPA's fine particulate matter supersite programs. This 16-month program started in August 2000 (in parallel with the Texas Air Quality Study) and added several monitoring sites for particulate matter to the existing network in Texas. There are 62 sites statewide that have measured total PM2.5 mass (19 in southeast Texas) according to the federal reference methods (FRM) since 1999. Samples from 13 sites (8 in southeast Texas) have also been subject to chemical speciation to determine the composition of fine particulate matter in the state. In addition to FRM monitoring, several continuous TEOM monitors continuously measure PM2.5 mass in the state. This paper presents an overview of the FRM PM2.5 data, the chemical speciation PM2.5 data and the TEOM data in Texas. This analysis complements data from a 1997-1998 PM2.5 study performed by the Houston Regional Monitoring Network and PM2.5 chemical composition data by other researchers from GC-ARCH. The findings are the first step in establishing a conceptual model for PM2.5 formation in Texas. There are strong diurnal patterns observed in PM2.5 mass at sites in southeast Texas that may not be reflected in the 24-hour average FRM data. The predominant chemical components of PM2.5 throughout the state are sulfates and organic carbon. Ozone season PM2.5 levels tend to be higher in total mass but also in the major components: sulfates and organic carbon. This suggests that the secondary components of PM2.5 are important contributors to elevated PM2.5 levels. Both the FRM data and TEOM also reflect strong primary source influences when biomass burning is known to occur in the region.

Allen, D. T.; Russell, M.

2002-05-01

56

Photochemical reactions of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon contained in suspended, coastal marine sediments photochemically dissolves under high doses of artificial sunlight in the laboratory, suggesting that sunlight might induce large changes in the form and fate of organic matter present in suspended particles along turbid, low-latitude coastlines. The primary goal of the work presented here was to develop a quantitative method of predicting the particulate organic carbon (POC) "photodissolution" rate in the coastal waters of Louisiana near the deltas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Pursuit of this objective required measurements of the reaction rate and apparent quantum yield, determination of sediment light absorption properties, and development of a novel method to retrieve the optical properties of coastal water from remotely-sensed reflectance measurements. This dissertation first describes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production and oxygen consumption accompanying photodissolution. The ratio of DIC production to O2 consumption was lower for POC than in previously-described reactions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting greater photochemical incorporation of oxygen into organic matter. Particle light absorption properties control, in part, the rate of photodissolution. Absorption coefficients of suspended sediment samples from the study region are a weak function of organic carbon content but a strong function of reducible iron content. Photodissolution rate measurements and radiative transfer modeling were used to determine the wavelength-dependent apparent quantum yield for the reaction and to constrain the temperature dependence and sample composition-induced variability in the rate. Initial photodissolution rates scaled linearly with the reducible iron content of sediments but the rate was independent of composition over longer periods. High spatial-resolution optical properties of study region waters were obtained from a novel satellite reflectance inversion calibrated using the local mass-normalized optical properties of suspended sediments. Lab-based photodissolution rate measurements were scaled to match field optical conditions determined from available satellite observations. Empirical relationships between local weather and the satellite-based photodissolution predictions allowed estimates of rates on days without satellite imagery. Annually-integrated rates were small relative to river POC inputs, but results suggested photodissolution rates similar in magnitude to CDOM photoreactions.

Estapa, Margaret L.

57

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Copper Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2013-07-01

58

Comparison of Methods for Measuring Concentrations of Semivolatile Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a s...

J. Jetter Z. Guo J. McBrian M. Flynn

2002-01-01

59

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

2013-07-01

60

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

61

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2010-07-01

62

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2013-07-01

64

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

65

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

66

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

67

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

68

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

69

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Delaware § 52.427 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

2013-07-01

70

Environmental occurrence of nitrotriphenylene observed in airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

1- and 2-Nitrotriphenylenes were found in the airborne particulate matter extracts collected in central Tokyo between the winter of 1998 and the winter of 1999. In particular, we have identified and quantified nitrotriphenylenes in the airborne particulate matter extracts collected over four consecutive 6-h periods on 2 December 1999. The concentrations of 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene ranged from 0.04 to 0.44

Satoko Ishii; Yoshiharu Hisamatsu; Koji Inazu; Ken-ichi Aika

2001-01-01

71

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

72

Filter Media for Collecting Diesel Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE mem...

F. Black L. Doberstein

1981-01-01

73

An assemblage model for cation binding by natural particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCAMP (Surface Chemistry Assemblage Model for Particles) describes the equilibrium adsorption of protons and metals by natural particulate matter using a combination of submodels for individual binding phases. Interactions with natural organic matter are described with Humic Ion-Binding Model V, and adsorption by oxides with a surface complexation model that allows for site heterogeneity. An idealized cation exchanger is also

Stephen Lofts; Edward Tipping

1998-01-01

74

Helping children to understand particulate nature of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever I taught about the particulate nature of matter in solids, liquids and gases, I often had difficulty explaining this abstract concept to my students. The students, in turn, had much difficulty conceptualizing the structure and behavior of the particles, which ultimately led to difficulties in understanding the complex configuration of particles in matter at various levels. This article focuses

Muhammad Riaz

2004-01-01

75

Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to…

Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

2003-01-01

76

[Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].  

PubMed

Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1) varying regionally and seasonally due to the changes in specific composition, light and nutrient conditions. PMID:21428080

Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

2011-01-01

77

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

78

The relationship between particulate uranium and thorium-complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium-complexing capacity (ThCC), which is defined as the amount of thorium adsorption onto particulate matter (PM) in 0.1 mol l?1 HCl solution by complexation, has been introduced as a new oceanographic parameter. The ThCC implies the concentration of a strong organic ligand in PM. To specify chemically the strong ligand in PM, we compared the ThCC in PM with particulate

Katsumi Hirose

1995-01-01

79

Chemical speciation of thorium in marine biogenic particulate matter.  

PubMed

Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL) and uranium in particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10(-12) M), and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV), as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms. PMID:15004320

Hirose, Katsumi

2004-02-26

80

Characterization of Particulate Matter for Three Sites in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown strong associations between particulate matter (PM) levels and a variety of health outcomes, leading to changes in air quality standards in many regions, especially the United States and Europe. Kuwait, a desert country located on the Persian Gulf, has a large petroleum industry with associated industrial and urban land uses. It was marked by environmental destruction

Kathleen Ward Brown; Walid Bouhamra; Denise P. Lamoureux; John S. Evans; Petros Koutrakis; David Grantz; James Winebrake; James Corbett; Aaron Falzarano; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Sai Ketha; Steve Zilora; Ove Bergersen; Ketil Haarstad; Serap Erdal; Laurel Berman; Daniel Hryhorczuk; Saeed Abolhasani; H. Frey; Kangwook Kim; William Rasdorf; Phil Lewis; Shih-Hao Pang; Allan Chambers; Melvin Strosher; Tony Wootton; Jan Moncrieff; Philip McCready; Litao Wang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Shuxiao Wang; Junhua Li; Qiang Zhang; David Streets; Joshua Fu; Carey Jang; Hideto Takekawa; Satoru Chatani; Stephanie Konopa; James Mulholland; Matthew Realff; Paul Lemieux; Jaehyun Lim; Liya Yu; Yu. Kostetski; Cheolsoo Lim; Jungho Ryu; Jongchoon Kim; Christian Hogrefe; Kevin Civerolo; Winston Hao; Jia-Yeong Ku; Eric Zalewsky; Gopal Sistla; Ram Hashmonay

2008-01-01

81

Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in residences in Antwerp, Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive study, a first in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at characterizing the residential indoor air quality of subgroups that took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I—1991 and ECHRS II—1996) questionnaire-based asthma and related illnesses studies. This pilot study aimed at the evaluation of particulate matter and various inorganic gaseous compounds in residences in Antwerp. In addition

M. Stranger; S. S. Potgieter-Vermaak; R. Van Grieken

2009-01-01

82

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

83

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

84

In-Stack Condensible Particulate Matter Measurements and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and

Louis A. Corio; John Sherwell

2000-01-01

85

Particulate matter and human health in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epidemiological meta studies for the health impacts of small particulate matter — PM10 — it is possible to predict the number of premature deaths and some morbidity impacts in the UK from prevailing ambient concentrations. The analysis suggests that as many as 12 000 deaths might be attributed to total concentrations, or perhaps 7000 deaths if only ‘anthropogenic’ PM10

Tom Crowards

1996-01-01

86

Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

87

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

Boz, Yezdan

2006-01-01

88

Turkish Pupils’ Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils’ views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a) arrangement and movement

Yezdan Boz

2006-01-01

89

Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of recent research show that particulate matter (PM) composition and size vary widely with both space and time. Despite the variability in PM characteristics, which are believed to influence human health risks, the observed relative health risk estimates per unit PM mass falls within a narrow range of values. Furthermore, no single chemical species appears to dominate health effects;

Cliff I. Davidson; Robert F. Phalen; Paul A. Solomon

2005-01-01

90

Atmospheric Input of Particulate Matter In The Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that aerosols in the Arctic are of importance for atmo- spheric chemistry and climate. But up to now atmospheric input of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean is studied insufficiently. We began aerosol research in the Arctic marine boundary layer in 1991. In this presentation we summarized data on parti- cle size and composition of aerosols

V. P. Shevchenko; A. A. Klyuvitkin; M. Kriews; A. P. Lisitzin; E.-M. Nothig; A. N. Novigatsky; V. V. Smirnov; R. Stein; A. A. Vinogradova

2002-01-01

91

RECEPTOR MODELS RELATING AMBIENT SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER TO SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of receptor models to determine the source contributions to ambient particulate matter loadings at sampling sites, based on common properties between sources and receptors. (This is in contrast to using source models which start with emission rates an...

92

Remarks on the detection of phenols in airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of suspended particulate matter collected in Duisburg were investigated for phenolic compounds. The loaded filters were extracted with dichloromethane for 10 hours in a soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated extract was resolved in cyclohexane and separated into a non polar and a polar fraction on alumina. The polar fraction was taken up in dichloromethane and steam-distilled. The distillate was extracted

R. Tomingas; W. Mönch; U. Matthiesen

1986-01-01

93

SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

94

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

95

PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

96

Dissolution behavior of metals from particulate matter emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is linked to numerous health effects. In order to improve the understanding of the role of its metallic components, their solubility was examined by using serial short-contact dissolutions totalling 1?h and additional sequential contact periods of 1, 4, and 8 days. The dissolution experiments were performed in solutions containing the main biological electrolytes. ICPMS

Denis Bérubé

2007-01-01

97

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCES AND HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The toxicity of PM may differ depending on the type of PM source, and health impacts may vary by location depending on the mix of PM sources impacting each location. The...

98

PROGRESS OF THE NRMRL'S PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Particulate Matter research program has a goal of producing the scientific research data needed to enhance the development of public policy that protects the public health and the environment from harmful effects due to airborne ...

99

LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

100

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...secondary standards, particulate matter is measured in the ambient air...comparisons with the particulate matter standards, all data produced by State and Local Air Monitoring Stations...violation of the particulate matter standards....

2013-07-01

101

Reduction of particulate matter and gaseous emission from marine diesel engines using a catalyzed particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines are used widely as the power sources of coastal ships and international vessels primarily due to their high thermal efficiency, high fuel economy and durable performance. However, the gaseous and solid substances exhausted from diesel engines during the combustion process cause air pollution, in particular around harbor regions. In order to effectively reduce particulate matter and gaseous pollution

Cherng-Yuan Lin

2002-01-01

102

DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

103

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with modified-...

2009-07-01

104

77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY...fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of...RFP) plan, contingency measures, a 2002 base year emissions inventory and...

2012-08-21

105

40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department of Health and Environmental...

2013-07-01

106

40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7...South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control...

2013-07-01

107

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638 Section 52.1638 ...particulate matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988...for Bernalillo County that contained commitments, from the Director of the...

2013-07-01

108

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

109

Comparison of MODIS-based models for retrieving suspended particulate matter concentrations in Poyang Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MODIS-based models for retrieving suspended particulate matter concentrations in Poyang Lake of China were compared.The exponential and cubic models of red band got unbiased suspended particulate matter concentration estimation.The exponential model of red minus infrared band obtained the best stable suspended particulate matter concentration estimation.

Wu, Guofeng; Cui, Lijuan; He, Junjun; Duan, Hongtao; Fei, Teng; Liu, Yaolin

2013-10-01

110

Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms,

Ann M. Dillner; James J. Schauer; Yuanhang Zhang; Limin Zeng; Glen R. Cass

2006-01-01

111

AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER INHIBITS ALVEOLAR FLUID REABSORPTION IN MICE VIA OXIDANT GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a signifi- cant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortal- ity in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveo- lar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambi- ent

Gökhan M. Mutlu; Colleen Snyder; Amy Bellmeyer; Helena Wang; Keenan Hawkins; Saul Soberanes; Lynn C. Welch; Andrew J. Ghio; Navdeep S. Chandel; David Kamp; Jacob I. Sznajder; G. R. Scott Budinger

2006-01-01

112

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy for particulate matter as contained in regulation...strategy for particulate matter as contained in revisions...emission limits in the State's plan are based on...plan for particulate matter entitled, âAn Act to Improve Air Quality in the State by Imposing Limits...

2013-07-01

113

Field tests using radioactive matter.  

PubMed

During recent years, the assessment of possible radiological consequences of a terrorist attack associated with a release of radioactive substances (RaS) has been in the focus of interest of emergency preparedness and radiation protection specialists, as well as experts dealing with the dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Suitable tools for these analyses are applications of mathematical and physical models and simulation of this attack under 'realistic' conditions. The work presented here summarises the results of four tests, in which a RaS (a Tc-99 m solution) was dispersed over a free area with the use of an industrial explosive. Detection methods and techniques employed in these tests are described and values characterising the RaS dispersion--dose rates, surface activities in horizontal and vertical directions, volume activities, their space and time distributions and mass concentrations of aerosols produced after the explosion are presented and compared. These data will be applied to a comparison of outcomes of models used for the assessment of radiation accidents as well as in future field tests carried out under conditions of more complex geometry (indoor environment, terrain obstacles, etc.). PMID:20089512

Prouza, Z; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Michalek, V; Rulik, P; Skrkal, J; Hovorka, J

2010-01-19

114

Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K. [John Hopkins University (US). Bloomberg School of Public Health

2005-07-15

115

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in

Barnett

2008-01-01

116

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a) arrangement and movement of particles in a solid, liquid and gas and (b) application of particulate ideas to explain phase changes. In addition to questionnaires, semi-structured interviews were carried out with pupils. Results indicated that many pupils, even older ones, had difficulties in applying the particulate theory to explain phase changes despite science teaching. The study has several implications for both teachers and curriculum designers.

Boz, Yezdan

2006-04-01

117

High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 ?m). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

Frohlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Despres, Viviane R.; Poschl, Ulrich

2009-01-01

118

Characterization of particulate matter sources in an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily time series measurements of elements or compounds are widely used to apportion the contribution of specific sources of particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere. We present results obtained for the urban area of Genoa (Italy) based on several hundred of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 daily samples collected in sites with different geo-morphological and urbanization characteristics. Elemental concentrations of Na

F. Mazzei; A. D'Alessandro; F. Lucarelli; S. Nava; P. Prati; G. Valli; R. Vecchi

2008-01-01

119

Measurement of fine particulate matter using electron microscopy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient fine particulate matter, defined as material with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), comprises a broad range of primary and secondary particles that are dispersed through the atmosphere from a variety of sources. Attention has recently shifted to investigating ambient PM2.5 because fine particles are thought to have a greater influence on health effects.

Gary S Casuccio; Steven F Schlaegle; Traci L Lersch; Gerald P Huffman; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah

2004-01-01

120

Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of iron particulate matter in coal soot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recoilless resonant absorption of 14.4 keV gamma-rays from 57Co have been carried out on coal soot deposited on the chimneys of railway engines to identify and characterize the iron particulate matter constituting the air pollutants during coal combustion. The analysis shows the presence of hematite (?-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and Fe2+ and Fe3+ mullite/silicates/glasses.

Harchand, K. S.; Raj, D.

1993-04-01

121

Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

2013-12-01

122

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

123

Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

2005-05-01

124

Particulate matter mass measurements for low emitting diesel powered vehicles: what's next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation word-wide imposes stringent emission standards for particulate matter emitted by diesel engines, as an outcome of evidence associating emitted particulate with a series of adverse health effects. Such emission standards call for significant reductions in the particulate matter emission levels for small and large on-road diesel vehicles. In fact, emission levels adopted for the near future are so low

Elias Vouitsis; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

2003-01-01

125

Applicability of the Mass Concentration Standards for Particulate Matter in Alaskan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High particulate matter concentrations were measured in several communities in Alaska using high volume air samplers. Because of these measurements, Anchorage and Fairbanks have been classified Priority 1 for particulate matter. To define and better understand the meaning of particulate measurements in Alaska, the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, in conjunction with local agencies, collected and evaluated air quality data

Timothy M. Gilmore; Thomas R. Hanna

1975-01-01

126

A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating \\

Lily Panyacosit

2000-01-01

127

An evaluation of the protein mass of particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research study provides the characterization of mass percent of protein-based particulate matter in total ambient particulate matter collected in a metropolitan area of NC. The project determined the percentages of protein-based ambient bioaerosols for particles in the 2.5-10 ?m range and for particles in the range of 2.5 ?m or less in 298 samples taken over a six-month period. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all-inclusive indicator of biologically based aerosols. These organic bioaerosols may have nucleated with inorganic non-biological aerosols, or they may be combined with inert aerosols. The source of these bioaerosols may be any combination of pollen, mold, bacteria, insect debris, fecal matter, or dander, and they may induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Ambient samples of PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 were analyzed for gravimetric mass and total protein mass. The results for 19 of 24 sample periods indicated that between 1% and 4% of PM 10-2.5 and between 1% and 2% of PM 2.5 mass concentrations were made of ambient protein bioaerosols. (The remaining 5 of 24 sample periods yielded protein results which were below detectable limits.)

Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Dean, T. R.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

128

Chemical composition of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pollution caused by airborne particulate matter in the winter season in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is a very serious problem. However, there is a complete lack of scientific observation data to define the situation prior to any remediation. PM10 and PM2.5 average monthly values obtained by continuous monitoring showed the concentrations of particles of both size categories exceeded 100 ?g m -3 during November to February (winter). PM10 particles were sampled with filters in January (i.e. during the heating period) and June (i.e.non-heating period) of 2008 in central Ulaanbaatar. To determine the composition of urban airborne particulate matter we analyzed a range of ionic components, multiple elements including heavy metals, and organic and inorganic carbon (soot). We also measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of the soot. Total carbon (sum of organic carbon and inorganic carbon) accounted for 47% of the mass of the PM10 during the heating period and 33% during the non-heating period, and was the largest component of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar. Stable isotope ratios (? 13 C) of soot generated during the heating period (-23.4 ± 0.2‰) approximated the ratios for coal used in Ulaanbaatar (-21.3 to -24.4‰), while the ratios during the non-heating period (-27.1 ± 0.4‰) were clearly different from the coal values. In the heating period, a very high correlation was observed between soot and organic carbon, SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , F - , Zn, As, and Pb, and we concluded that they were derived from coal combustion along with soot. In addition, the concentrations and their ratios relative to each other of Al, Fe, Ca, K, Na, Mg, and Mn hardly differed between the heating period and the non-heating period, and it was concluded that they were derived from soil dust.

Nishikawa, Masataka; Matsui, Ichiro; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Jugder, Dulam; Mori, Ikuko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuyuki

2011-10-01

129

Indoor particulate matter in urban residences of Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Indoor particulate matter samples were collected in 17 homes in an urban area in Alexandria during the summer season. During air measurement in all selected homes, parallel outdoor air samples were taken in the balconies of the domestic residences. It was found that the mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 and < or = 10 microm, respectively) concentrations were 53.5 +/- 15.2 and 77.2 +/- 15.1 microg/m3, respectively. The corresponding mean outdoor levels were 66.2 +/- 16.5 and 123.8 +/- 32.1 microg/m3, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations accounted, on average, for 68.8 +/- 12.8% of the total PM10 concentrations indoors, whereas PM2.5 contributed to 53.7 +/- 4.9% of the total outdoor PM10 concentrations. The median indoor/outdoor mass concentration (I/O) ratios were 0.81 (range: 0.43-1.45) and 0.65 (range: 0.4-1.07) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Only four homes were found with I/O ratios above 1, indicating significant contribution from indoor sources. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 levels and the corresponding outdoor concentrations. PM10 levels were significantly correlated with PM2.5 loadings indoors and outdoors and this might be related to PM10 and PM2.5 originating from similar particulate matter emission sources. Smoking, cooking using gas stoves, and cleaning were the major indoor sources contributed to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. Implications: The current study presents results of the first PM2.5 and PM10 study in homes located in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. Scarce data are available on indoor air quality in Egypt. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentrations. Indoor sources such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning were found to be the major contributors to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. PMID:24010376

Abdel-Salam, Mahmoud M M

2013-08-01

130

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.  

PubMed

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 ?g m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 ?g m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. PMID:21458792

Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Ji?í

2011-04-01

131

Correlation study between suspended particulate matter and DOAS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6 13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Xie, Pinghua; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kuze, Hiroaki; Lagrosas, Nofel; Takeuchi, Nobuo

2006-05-01

132

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01

133

Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station.  

PubMed

Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S workplace diesel generator sets ranged from 2.4 to 436.5 mg Nm?³ and while at pumping station-C, it ranged from 23.2 to 186.5 mg Nm?³. The predicted and ambient respirable suspended particulate matter concentrations are below the national air quality standard for respirable suspended particulate matter in a mixed industrial area. Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable. PMID:20700577

Talwar, B; Pipalatkar, P; Gajghate, D G; Nema, P

2010-08-11

134

Improved emission inventory of particulate matter for the Flemish region (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), department for Monitoring and Research, frequently observes high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5). The concentrations of fine particulate matter in the Flemish region are considered to be amongst the highest in Europe. As it can be transported long-range, natural and anthropogenic sources of fine particulate matter can be local as well as

V. Timmermans; V. Cornelis; C. Polders; F. Sleeuwaert; L. Schrooten; L. Janssen; E. Meynaerts

135

Comparison of Strategies for the Measurement of Mass Emissions from Diesel Engines Emitting Ultra-Low Levels of Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory methods for the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass emissions have traditionally been gravimetric. Modern diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment systems, especially Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), however, emit much smaller amounts of particulate matter as compared to traditional diesel engines and emit particulate matter with variable compositions. These changes have led to difficulties in measuring PM emissions rates from

Z. Gerald Liu; Victoria N. Vasys; Melissa E. Dettmann; James J. Schauer; David B. Kittelson; Jacob Swanson

2009-01-01

136

Estimation of the Monthly Average Ratios of Organic Mass to Organic Carbon for Fine Particulate Matter at an Urban Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent methods are used to estimate the seasonality of the ratio of fine particulate organic matter (OM) to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) for atmospheric particulate matter collected at the St. Louis—Midwest Supersite. The first method assumes that all of the fine particulate matter mass that cannot be attributed to sulfate ion, nitrate ion, ammonium ion, elemental carbon and

Min-Suk Bae; James J. Schauer; Jay R. Turner

2006-01-01

137

Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.  

PubMed

The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. PMID:23425793

Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

2013-02-17

138

The potential for delivery of particulate matter through positive airway pressure devices (CPAP\\/BPAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Airborne particulate matter may induce health risk with inhalation. Special concerns exist for deployed military personnel\\u000a with inhaled particulate matter in desert environments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) used in obstructive sleep\\u000a apnea may facilitate inhalation of particulate matter. We evaluated the ability of commercial CPAP filter systems to eliminate\\u000a inhalation of particulate matter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  An ultrasonic medical nebulizer (DeVilbliss Ultraneb,

David Kristo; Timothy Corcoran; Nina O’Connell; Kristina Thomas; Patrick Strollo

139

Personal coarse particulate matter exposures in an adult cohort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5). Data from these personal measurements were then compared to community-based measures that might typically represent surrogate measurements of exposure often used in epidemiological assessments. To determine personal exposures to various particulate matter (PM) size fractions, a recently evaluated personal PM monitor capable of direct PM 10-2.5 size fraction collection was used. Participants living in the central region of North Carolina and enrolled in the NCAAES were asked to wear the monitor attached to a supporting backpack for 24-h collection periods. These volunteers were monitored for 2 to 4 days with subsequent gravimetric analysis of their PM samples. Personal PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations were observed to be highly variable and ranged from 7.6 to 40.2 ?g/m 3 over an 8-month period. The median for this measurement from all participants (50th percentile) was 13.7 ?g/m 3. A coefficient of determination ( r2) of 0.02 was established for community-based PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations versus personal exposures. Similar coefficients established for PM 2.5 mass revealed only a modest improvement in agreement ( r2 = 0.12). Data from the exposure findings are reported here.

Williams, Ron; Case, Martin; Yeatts, Karin; Chen, Fu-Lin; Scott, James; Svendsen, Erik; Devlin, Robert

140

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season.

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

141

Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 ?g. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

2013-02-01

142

Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 ?g. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

2012-10-01

143

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency performed a particulate matter (PM) exposure assessment based on data from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study was a one-year investigation of PM ...

144

Relationship between Radical Generation by Urban Ambient Particulate Matter and Pulmonary Function of School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) produces adverse effects on the respiratory system, such as pulmonary dysfunction in children, are largely unknown. However, oxidative stress is thought to play an important role. Various chemical compounds in ambient particulate matter, including transition metals and aromatic organic compounds, may contribute to adverse effects through intrinsic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Theo M. C. M. de Kok; Jacob J. Briedé; Geertjan Wesseling; Jos C. S. Kleinjans; Constant P. van Schayck

2006-01-01

145

78 FR 54279 - Proposed Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Particulate Matter Exposure (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...Particulate Matter Exposure (Underground Coal Mines) in 30 CFR 72.510 and 72.520...protection of life and prevention of injuries in coal or other mines. In addition,...

2013-09-03

146

Ecotoxicological Assessment of Ashes and Particulate Matter from Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of ash and particulate matter from the gases generated in coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been determined by the Microtox assay according to the standard leachate procedure. Results are compared with the polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the particulate matter, which was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Although PAHs are considered highly toxic compounds, the low ecotoxicity values

M. Callén; E. Marañón; A. Mastral; R. Murillo; P. Salgado

1998-01-01

147

The biogeochemical reactivity of suspended particulate matter at nested sites in the Dee basin, NE Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the organic matter content associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an often overlooked component of carbon cycling within freshwater riverine systems. The potential biogeochemical reactivity of particulate organic carbon (POC) that affect its interactions and fate, i.e. respired and lost to the atmosphere along river continua or ultimately exported to estuarine and oceanic pools was assessed.Eleven contrasting

J. J. C. Dawson; Y. R. Adhikari; C. Soulsby; M. I. Stutter

148

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section...for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a...factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...affected facility burns only liquid (excluding residual...

2010-07-01

149

The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of…

Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

1996-01-01

150

SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

151

Spectroscopic Characterization of Humic-Like Substances in Airborne Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a standard reference air dust (NIST 1648 – urban particulate matter) as well as in airborne particulate matter collected in German urban and rural areas (Dortmund, Sauerland) 10% and more of the organic carbon can be attributed to macromolecular substances like humic and fulvic acids (HA, FA). Indirect evidence for the presence of humin was also obtained. HA and

N. Havers; P. Burba; J. Lambert; D. Klockow

1998-01-01

152

Particulate matter emissions and smoke opacity from in?use heavy?duty vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous pollution control agencies around the world are attempting to implement smoke opacity tests in efforts to lower ambient fine particulate matter levels. However, this approach is valid only if lower smoke opacity levels do result in lower mass emissions rates and lower number count of particulate matter emissions. This paper is limited to measurements of mass emission rates of

Mridul Gautam; Randall L. Byrd; Daniel K. Carder; Peter D. Banks; Donald W. Lyons

2000-01-01

153

APPLICATION OF AIR DISPERSION MODELLING FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FROM PARTICULATE MATTER POLLUTION IN MEGA CITY DELHI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to apply air dispersion modeling for exposure assessment of particulate matter in terms of mortality change. Ambient particulate matter concentrations have been estimated by AERMOD (07026) for the year 2004 in Delhi, India. Concentration output has been obtained for all sources as well as individual source category. It has been found that though the model

Shweta Bhati; Manju Mohan; Archana Rao

154

Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is

Gayle S. W. Hagler

2007-01-01

155

Metals in Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) and Suspended Particulate Matter From Lake Victoria, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to assess the levels of pollutant metals in suspended particulate matter and Nile perch from Lake Victoria. The metals in particulate matter were determined to ascertain their concentrations at the base of the food chain. Nile perch samples were collected in September 2003 from five major fish processing factories at the shores of Lake Victoria in

JOHN F. MACHIWA

2005-01-01

156

40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1489 Section 52.1489 ...Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the...Plan for Battle Mountain that contains commitments, for implementing all of the...

2013-07-01

157

40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.2306 Section 52.2306 ...Particulate Matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor...Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of the...

2013-07-01

158

40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1637 Section 52.1637 ...Particulate Matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the...Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director of New...

2013-07-01

159

Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in ambient air to the

Hugo Priemus; Elizabeth Schutte-Postma

2009-01-01

160

Particulate matter dynamics in naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and ventilation rates, in two naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns, were continuously monitored for two years. The first barn (B1) housed 400 fresh lactating cows, while the second barn (B2) housed 835 non-fresh lactating cows and 15 bulls. The relationships between PM concentrations and accepted governing parameters (environmental conditions and cattle activity) were examined. In comparison with other seasons, PM concentrations were lowest in winter. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in spring and autumn were relatively higher than those in summer. Overall: the concentrations in the barns and ambient air, for all the PM categories (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP), exhibited non-normal positively skewed distributions, which tended to overestimate mean or average concentrations. Only concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased with ambient air temperature (R2 = 0.60-0.82), whereas only concentrations of TSP increased with cattle activity. The mean respective emission rates of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP for the two barns ranged between 1.6-4.0, 11.9-15.0, and 48.7-52.5 g d-1 cow-1, indicating similar emissions from the two barns.

Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E. L.

2013-04-01

161

On leaf magnetic homogeneity in particulate matter biomonitoring studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been postulated to be a good approach to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution levels. We studied the variation of magnetic hysteresis parameters on leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak previously used for magnetic biomonitoring of air pollution in Rome (Italy). The hysteresis parameters (MRS, MS, BCR and BC) measured on specimens collected at a close spacing on the surface of two single leaves show variances that are smaller than those observed on a collection of Q. ilex leaves sampled from several trees distributed along high-traffic roads. The variability is higher for magnetizations than for coercivities. This suggests a uniform source for the magnetic particles, such that variations are due mainly to changes in concentration. The normalized hysteresis cycles are remarkably similar for all the specimens. Normalization of magnetic moments by mass appears however more efficient than normalization by volume.

Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

2007-03-01

162

Organochlorine pesticides in particulate matter of Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 20 sites in Beijing, China in 2005 and 2006 were analyzed to determine the composition, spatial distribution and sources. Total OCPs of PM2.5 and PM10 ranged from 32.59 pg m(-3) to 9232.31 pg m(-3) and 80.96 pg m(-3) to 9434.97 pg m(-3), respectively, categorized as heavier pollution compared to other cities of China. Among six kinds of functional zones involved, commercial areas and industrial centers were heavily polluted. Distinct concentrations variations were detected in PM with different particle diameters. Pollution distribution was spatially heterogeneous inside the city. The most heavily polluted sites located in the southeast part of the city, where laid many chemical factories. Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that past usage of OCPs was the main source, though there were new inputs in some sites. PMID:18280031

Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Xinghong; Cheng, Hangxin; Xu, Xiaobai; Zhuang, Guangmin; Zhao, Chuandong

2007-12-05

163

Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:22554531

Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

2012-05-02

164

The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

2013-04-01

165

Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land. PMID:22866575

Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

2012-07-01

166

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130–270?m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15–30nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal

Anthi Liati; Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler

2010-01-01

167

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively

Anthi Liati; Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler

2010-01-01

168

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits...and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 ...Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission...

2009-07-01

169

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits...and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 ...Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission...

2010-07-01

170

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

171

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with...

2010-07-01

172

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with...

2013-07-01

173

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter in Curitiba, Brazil and benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of PAHs in particulate matter was investigated in the city of Curitiba, located in south of Brazil. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was collected at six sampling sites whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. The concentration of particulate matter varied from 11.02 to 177.27 ng\\/m. Particulate matter was basically composed of PAHs with 3 and 4 aromatic

Sandro Froehner; Marcell Maceno; Karina Scurupa Machado; André Malheiros

2010-01-01

174

Trends and sources of particulate matter in the Superstition Wilderness using air trajectory and aerosol cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient aerosols adversely affect human health and visibility and impact climate. Identification of sources of particulate matter and its precursors is necessary for developing control strategies. The goal of this research is to utilize long-term speciated particulate matter data and back-trajectory cluster analyses to determine trends and sources of particulate matter in the Superstition Wilderness, a rural area east of

Charity Coury; Ann M. Dillner

2007-01-01

175

Airborne Particulate Matter Inhibits Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption in Mice via Oxidant Generation  

PubMed Central

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Düsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 ?g) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or abscence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 ?M). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase.

Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

2006-01-01

176

Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.  

PubMed

We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health, as well as studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and the impacts of these changes on morbidity/mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty are the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given the uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, increasing morbidity/mortality. There are few projections for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, because few studies have been conducted. More research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts. PMID:20069198

Ebi, Kristie; McGregor, Glenn

177

Molecular composition of organic fine particulate matter in Houston, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX between March 1997 and March 1998 was analyzed to determine the concentration of individual organic compounds. Samples from four sites were analyzed including two industrial locations (Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM-3) site in Channelview and Clinton Drive site near the Ship Channel Turning Basin), one suburban location (Bingle Drive site in Northwest Houston) and one background site (Galveston Island). At the three urban locations, samples were divided into three seasonal sample aggregates (spring, summer and winter), while at the background site a single annual average sample pool was used. Between 10 and 16 individual samples were pooled to get aggregate samples with enough organic carbon mass for analysis. Overall, 82 individual organic compounds were quantified. These include molecular markers which are compounds unique to specific fine particle sources and can be used to track the relative contribution of source emissions to ambient fine particle levels. The differences both spatially and temporally in these tracers can be used to evaluate the variability in emission source strengths.

Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Tropp, R. J.; Kohl, S. D.; Chow, J. C.

178

Effect of ambient particulate matter exposure on hemostasis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was undertaken to determine whether pulmonary exposure to PM alters hemostasis. PM was collected from the Chapel Hill, NC airshed and was administered to mice by intratracheal instillation at a dose previously shown to exacerbate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four hours after exposure, an increase occurred in the number of circulating platelets and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin. The concentration of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in plasma was decreased, whereas the plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was increased. Consistent with these observations, bleeding time from a tail-tip transection was shortened. These results provide evidence that PM exposure alters hemostasis in otherwise healthy animals and may thereby promote clot formation and impede clot resolution in susceptible individuals. The results also establish definite hemostatic endpoints that can be used to further investigate the effects of dose and particle characteristics on the toxicity of ambient particles. PMID:17543851

Cozzi, Emily; Wingard, Christopher J; Cascio, Wayne E; Devlin, Robert B; Miles, Jeremy J; Bofferding, April R; Lust, Robert M; Van Scott, Michael R; Henriksen, Ruth Ann

2007-05-23

179

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m(3) , EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM10-2.5 concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m(3) , while PM2.5 concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m(3) . Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM10-2.5 filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m(3) and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM10-2.5 but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-03-29

180

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

181

Hormesis for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5).  

PubMed

The hypothesis of hormesis - that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them - becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels. PMID:22740783

Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

2011-10-28

182

Hormesis for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis of hormesis – that substances that harm health at high exposures can reduce risks below background at low exposures, e.g., if they activate defenses without overwhelming them – becomes important for practical policy making if it holds for regulated substances. Recently, the U.S. EPA concluded that reductions in ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air caused trillions of dollars worth of human health benefits for a compliance cost of only about $65 billion per year. This conclusion depends on an unverified assumption of a positive, causal, straight-line relation between PM2.5 concentrations and mortality risks. We review empirical data on PM2.5 and mortality risks (and their precursors, inflammatory responses) and conclude that the PM2.5 concentration-response relation may be J-shaped, rather than linear. This possibility implies that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment may well have produced no (or negative) human health benefits, rather than the trillions of dollars worth of reduced mortalities ascribed to it by EPA; and that attempts to achieve further risk-reduction benefits by further reducing PM2.5 concentrations may be counterproductive. This creates a very high value for scientific information that better reveals the true shape of the PM2.5 concentration-response function at and below current ambient levels.

Cox, Louis Anthony (Tony)

2012-01-01

183

SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING  

SciTech Connect

During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

184

The development of a particulate radioactive soil for detergency studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of kaolinite clay has been tagged by neutron irradiation. After an extended cooling period (18 months) to allow the\\u000a short lived nuclides to decay, the clay is still sufficiently radioactive to use it in detergency studies. Extraction tests\\u000a show that about 25% of the radioactivity is labile, i.e., removed by sodium tripolyphosphate but that the remainder is strongly

B. E. Gordon; E. L. Bastin

1968-01-01

185

Deposition, resuspension, and decomposition of particulate organic matter in the sediments of Lake Itasca, Minnesota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment traps were used to investigate the settling, resuspension, and decomposition of particulate organic matter in Lake Itasca, MN (USA). Traps were deployed in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of the deepest basin during June, 1988, sampled twice during stratified conditions (August, September) and once after the lake had mixed (October). The downward flux of particulate material increased from summer to

Randall E. Hicks; Christopher J. Owen; Peter Aas

1994-01-01

186

INFLUENCE OF CHANNEL GEOMORPHOLOGY ON RETENTION OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN A CASCADE MOUNTAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention of particulate and dissolved nutri- ents in streams is a major determinant of food avail- ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow val- ley floor) and unconstrained (broad

Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan D. Steinman

1989-01-01

187

Forms of phosphorus in particulate matter from the Hollands Diep\\/Haringvliet, The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and the different forms of P, in an annual average sample of particulate matter, have been determined to define the nature of the very high concentration of particulate P in the inflowing water of the Hollands Diep\\/ Haringvliet (The Netherlands), and to assess its potential to stimulate the growth of aquatic organisms.

G. T. M. van Eck

1982-01-01

188

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

189

77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky on December 3, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of the Kentucky's December 3, 2008, SIP...

2012-05-25

190

77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky on December 3, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of Kentucky's December 3, 2008, attainment...

2012-08-02

191

40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter (PM-10...1988, the Governor's designee for Arizona submitted a revision to the State Implementation...commitments, from the Director of the Arizona Department of Environmental...

2013-07-01

192

IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

193

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years, has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance the facility's particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with spec...

194

REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

195

STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

196

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

197

ANALYSIS OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PARTICULATE MATTER BY LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and heavy-metal activated room temperature phosphorescence spectra were obtained for ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) reference compounds individually and in mixtures on quartz plates and particulate matter. The results indicate that multic...

198

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

199

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE. PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Environmental particles (PM...

200

IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

201

Scientific and Technical Application Forecast on Chemical Detection of Personnel by Gaseous and Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Scientific and Technological Applications Forecast (STAF) presents a rigorous discussion of Chemical Detection of Personnel by Gaseous and Particulate Matter. Various methods of detecting enemy forces in jungle terrain, hidden in ambush, or otherwise...

R. Orlowski J. Poyer R. Dora

1966-01-01

202

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

203

Relationship between the suspended particulate matter and microorganisms in the White Sea waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer periods of 2003-2005, the spatial and vertical distributions of the suspended particulate matter and bacteria in stratified and homogeneous waters of the White Sea was studied. The results of the study of various quantitative characteristics of the suspended particulate matter (first of all, the area of the surface and the volumetric and mass concentrations) and the abundance of microorganisms in the water are discussed. A direct correlation between the value of the surface area of the suspended particulate matter and the total number of bacteria in the water is revealed. However, it was manifested only during the early summer period of the observations and was not expressed at the end of the summer. The enhanced surface area of the suspended particulate matter can indicate the higher biochemical activity of its particles. The influence of the pelitic fraction on the bacteria abundance in different parts of the sea during the summer is estimated.

Kravchishina, M. D.; Mitzkevich, I. N.; Veslopolova, E. F.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Lisitzin, A. P.

2008-12-01

204

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following wood products industry sources: (1... (c) What are the PM10 emission limits for wood products industry sources? These...not in lieu of, the particulate matter...emissions from direct natural gas fired or...

2013-07-01

205

SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

206

AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

207

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases?especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

208

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

209

Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM2.5

Molini M. Patel; Steven N. Chillrud; Juan C. Correa; Marian Feinberg; Yair Hazi; K. C. Deepti; Swati Prakash; James M. Ross; Diane Levy; Patrick L. Kinney

2009-01-01

210

A study on variations of concentrations of particulate matter with different sizes in Lanzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lanzhou is one of the most air-polluted cities in China and in the world, and its primary air pollutant is particulate matter (PM). Different size particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) have different sources and affect the environment and human health differently, so it is very important to study the pollutant characteristics of different particles in order to deeply

Shigong Wang; Xinyuan Feng; Xiaoqing Zeng; Yuxia Ma; Kezheng Shang

2009-01-01

211

Advances in centrifugal separators for particulate matter control from stationary sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarized recent developments in centrifugal separators for particulate matter (PM) emission control. Airborne\\u000a particulate matter, which is responsible for many health and environmental problems, is generated mostly from combustion processes\\u000a in stationary sources such as house burners and power plants and other production facilities, except field dust. Reverse flow\\u000a cyclones are centrifugal separators having been widely used for

Z. C. Tan; Yuanhui Zhang

2002-01-01

212

MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

213

Climate Change, Tropospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter, and Health Impacts  

PubMed Central

Objective Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. Data sources We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Data synthesis Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Conclusions Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution–related health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations.

Ebi, Kristie L.; McGregor, Glenn

2008-01-01

214

Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics  

PubMed Central

Size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples (including PM2.5 and PM10) were collected at Peking University in Northwestern Beijing, China for a 2 week period prior to the Olympics, during the 2 week period of the Olympics, and for a 4 week period following the 2008 Olympics, during both source control and non-source control period. PM10 concentrations in this study were high correlated with, but a factor of 1.3 times higher than, the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau's PM10 concentrations at near-by sites because of differences in the measurement methods used. The mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were statistically different, and lower by 31 and 35%, during the Olympic period compared to the non-Olympic period. However, the PM concentrations were not statistically different between the source control and non-source control periods. While meteorological parameters (air masses from the south and precipitation) accounted for 40% of the total variation in PM10 concentration, source control accounted for 16%, suggesting that meteorology accounted for more of the variation in PM concentration than source control measures. The PM10 concentrations in Beijing during the Olympic period were 2.9, 3.5, and 1.9 times higher than those in Atlanta, Sydney and Athens. In addition, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations during the Olympic period exceeded the WHO 24-hour guideline 100% and 81% of the time, respectively. Finally, the PM10 concentrations in October, November, and December 2008 were reduced by 9% to 27% compared to the same months in 2007, suggesting that the Olympic source control efforts (and possibly a down turn in the economy) have resulted in lower PM10 concentrations in Beijing.

WANG, WENTAO; PRIMBS, TOBY; TAO, SHU; ZHU, TONG; SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY

2009-01-01

215

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-?- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

216

Performance evaluation of atmospheric particulate matter modeling for East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system associated with emission and meteorological datasets to conduct a one-year Particulate Matter (PM) simulation in East Asia. The performance of the PM simulation results was evaluated against observed data using high-spatial resolution monitoring data from Taiwan (e.g., concentration of PM and its compositions and precursors), Air Pollution Index-derived data in 82 cities of China, and satellite-derived surface PM2.5 concentrations. Based on error analysis of two indicators (overall bias and gross error), the validity of model performance is demonstrated. Daily comparison results at the various stations (cities) in 2007 indicate that the simulations at Taiwan's monitoring stations were superior to those in cities in China. Overall, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Taiwan were underestimated by 11 and 10%, respectively, whereas the simulated PM10 concentrations in six regions of China showed significant differences, with the simulation overall bias ranging between ?55 and 52%. There are two primary reasons for the large differences in model performance between Taiwan and China. First, the grid resolution for China was coarser than that for Taiwan because of the limitation of emission data resolution in the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS). Second, the spatial distribution and magnitude of emissions in the REAS might be incorrect in some regions, particularly in the domain boundary areas of China. In addition to the relatively good emission database for Taiwan, the reasonable emission estimates for the central areas of China may be partially responsible for better model performance of PM in Taiwan.

Chen, Tu-Fu; Tsai, Chang-You; Chang, Ken-Hui

2013-10-01

217

Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration

S. N. Rudnick; D. Leith; M. W. First

1976-01-01

218

Characterisation of Particulate Matter Sampled during a Study of Children's Personal Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter in a UK Urban Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal exposure of children aged 9 – 11 years to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was carried out between January and September 1997 in the London Borough of Barnet. Personal sampling along with home, garden and classroom microenvironmental monitoring was completed for all ten children. Each child was monitored for five days during winter, spring and summer. All children

A. J. Wheeler; I. Williams; R. A. Beaumont; R. S. Hamilton

2000-01-01

219

Estimating Particulate Matter Exposure Risks and Evaluating Health Effects of Evening Particulate Matter Peaks Using GIS-Referenced Data Fusion Methods: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although far from comprehensive with regard to temporal and spa- tial coverage, the first geographic information system (GIS)-refer- enced database on Paso del Norte air quality parameters and impacts is already facilitating development of a variety of advanced models, including diagnostic meteorological models and particulate matter (PM) source and receptor models. When used in conjunction with each other, these models

H. L. C. Meuzelaar; N. S. Arnold; B. Nookala; G. M. Mejía Velázquez; P. O. Medina; J. Ramses-Sánchez

220

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2013-07-01

221

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2013-07-01

222

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

2013-07-01

223

Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.  

PubMed

The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 ?m aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 ?m aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as well as measures that can attenuate the harmful effects of PM. PMID:23098384

Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

2012-12-01

224

Effects of Inhalable Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. Objectives To identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well-characterized exposure. Methods We measured prothrombin time [PT], activated-partial-thromboplastin time [aPTT], Endogenous Thrombin Potentials [ETP] with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-plasminogen activator antigen [t-PA], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP] in 37 workers in a steel-production plant with well-characterized exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter <1?m (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10-PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (post-exposure) day of a four-day workweek. We analysed differences between baseline and post-exposure levels using paired Student’s t-test. We fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of inter-quartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. Results None of the parameters showed any significant changes in post-exposure samples, compared to baseline. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (?[PM1]=?0.33 sec, p=0.08; ?[PMcoarse]=?0.33 sec, p=0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (?[PM1]=+99 nM*min, p=0.02; ?[PMcoarse]=+66 nM*min, p=0.05), t-PA (?[PM1]=+0.72 ng/mL, p=0.01; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.88 ng/mL, p=0.04), and CRP (?[PM1]=+0.59 mg/L, p=0.03; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.48 mg/L, p=0.01). Conclusions PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP, CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation.

Bonzini, Matteo; Tripodi, Armando; Artoni, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea

2011-01-01

225

Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions provide a large amount of aerosol precursors in the lower troposphere, leading to the formation of ammonium nitrate in the atmosphere. This compound can be responsible for high concentrations of particulate matter (PM10and PM2.5) in the boundary layer. In March and April 2007, the forecasts delivered by the chemical transport model (CTM) Chimere, within the operational platform for air quality monitoring and forecasting Prev'Air, exhibited a large underestimation of PM10 levels in the boundary layer. To improve the ability of the model at forecasting PM10 and PM2.5 in spring, we started implementing an online NH3 emission computation within CHIMERE with the goal to substitute the basic time-constant parameterisation by a coupled approach between the CTM and the mechanistic model Volt'Air (INRA). The new method takes into account climatic environmental conditions to accurately assess the ammonia surface fluxes after manure and synthetic fertilizer spreading. Several spatially and temporally resolved input data are required to run the Volt'air model: meteorological variables such as temperature and moisture, crop practices such as fertilizer types, rates and dates of fertilizer applications, and soil properties such as pH and soil texture. Data about crop and grassland areas, fertilization rates and dates are available at cantonal and regional scale in France, and they are delivered through annual crop statistics and agricultural practices survey. These data are then intersected with the corresponding land cover types using the Corine Land Cover database (2006). The spatial and temporal distributions of meteorological data are provided by the meso-scale model WRF with high resolution in time (hour) and space (typically less than 25 km) using GFS data. We will present the set-up of this new modelling approach, with details about the input data and the modelling tools, and will present first results from a preliminary study carried out over France between September 2005 and June 2006. In particular, first results on ammonia concentrations simulated with the new scheme will be highlighted. Its potential role for inorganic aerosol formation will be shown.

Lynda, Hamaoui-Laguel; Frédérik, Meleux; Matthias, Beekmann; Laurent, Létinois; Edouard, Debry; Bertrand, Bessagnet; Sophie, Génermont

2010-05-01

226

Systemic Microvascular Dysfunction and Inflammation after Pulmonary Particulate Matter Exposure  

PubMed Central

The epidemiologic association between pulmonary exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular dysfunction is well known, but the systemic mechanisms that drive this effect remain unclear. We have previously shown that acute pulmonary exposure to PM impairs or abolishes endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation in the rat spinotrapezius muscle. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the effect of pulmonary PM exposure on systemic microvascular function and to identify local inflammatory events that may contribute to these effects. Rats were intratracheally instilled with residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or titanium dioxide at 0.1 or 0.25 mg/rat 24 hr before measurement of pulmonary and systemic microvascular responses. In vivo microscopy of the spinotrapezius muscle was used to study systemic arteriolar responses to intraluminal infusion of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or iontophoretic abluminal application of the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE). Leukocyte rolling and adhesion were quantified in venules paired with the studied arterioles. Histologic techniques were used to assess pulmonary inflammation, characterize the adherence of leukocytes to systemic venules, verify the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the systemic microvascular wall, and quantify systemic microvascular oxidative stress. In the lungs of rats exposed to ROFA or TiO2, changes in some bronchoalveolar lavage markers of inflammation were noted, but an indication of cellular damage was not found. In rats exposed to 0.1 mg ROFA, focal alveolitis was evident, particularly at sites of particle deposition. Exposure to either ROFA or TiO2 caused a dose-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. However, exposure to these particles did not affect microvascular constriction in response to PHE. ROFA and TiO2 exposure significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in paired venules, and these cells were positively identified as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). In ROFA- and TiO2-exposed rats, MPO was found in PMNLs adhering to the systemic microvascular wall. Evidence suggests that some of this MPO had been deposited in the microvascular wall. There was also evidence for oxidative stress in the microvascular wall. These results indicate that after PM exposure, the impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in the systemic microcirculation coincides with PMNL adhesion, MPO deposition, and local oxidative stress. Collectively, these microvascular observations are consistent with events that contribute to the disruption of the control of peripheral resistance and/or cardiac dysfunction associated with PM exposure.

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Barger, Mark; Millecchia, Lyndell; Rao, K. Murali K.; Marvar, Paul J.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Castranova, Vincent; Boegehold, Matthew A.

2006-01-01

227

Short-term effects of particulate matter: an inflammatory mechanism?  

PubMed

"Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here," asked Alice. "That depends a good deal on where you want to go to," said the cat. (Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) A large number of epidemiological studies show positive correlations between increasing levels of particulate matter (PM) in urban air and short-term morbidity and mortality for diverse acute cardiopulmonary diseases. Brought about by PM increments, inflammation is thought to exacerbate preexisting inflammatory diseases. Experimental evidence suggests a hierarchical oxidative stress model, in which a weakened antioxidant defense, as observed in disease or induced by inhaled particles, increases the PM ability to cause lung inflammation, accounting for exacerbations that occur in asthmatics and in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. The role of PM-induced inflammation leading to acute cardiovascular events such as arrhythmia, heart failure, and myocardial infarction is more speculative. There is neither clear-cut evidence in humans that inhaled PM could get as far as blood circulation nor that proinflammatory mediators are significantly released from inflamed lung tissues, nor that blood coagulability is critically altered. As a whole, data in humans indicate that short-term inflammatory responses to PM are not always detected; they are usually mild and loosely correlated with functional changes. Among these studies, the diversity of PM characteristics, dose metrics, and endpoints hampers a clear discerning of inflammatory mechanism(s). Thus, the question arises as to whether inflammation represents the mechanism of acute cardiopulmonary PM toxicities in susceptible individuals, or rather an event that may coexist with other relevant mechanism(s). This review article discusses the evidence in humans linking short-term PM increments to inflammation and to exacerbations of cardiopulmonary diseases. Although there is a large amount of data available, there still remains a gulf between the number of epidemiological and panel studies and that of controlled exposures. Research on controlled exposure needs expanding, so that the results of time-series and panel studies will be better understood and short-term standards for human exposure may be more confidently allocated. PMID:17661213

Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Lotti, Marcello

2007-01-01

228

Distribution and composition of particulate organic matter in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical composition and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter (POM) were studied in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in summer 1989 to assess the quantitative role of organic carbon fractions in the cycling of organic matter in the water column. Large differences in chemical composition were observed between surface and deep layers. The results indicated that, despite large geographical differences,

Mauro Fabiano; Paolo Povero; Roberto Danovaro

1993-01-01

229

Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study…

Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

2007-01-01

230

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER: ELEMENTAL CARBON, ORGANIC CARBON, AND MASS RECONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon matter (OM), particulate matter less than 2.5 um (PM2.5), and reconstructed soil, trace element oxides, and sulfate are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) complex for airborne particulate matter (...

231

Seasonal Variability of Particulate Organic Matter in a Mountain Stream in Central Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper was to study the influence of environmental characteristics of the Mediterranean climate on seasonal variability of particulate organic matter abundance in a mountain stream. Coarse and fine fractions of both suspended and benthic particulate organic matter were determined on 14 occasions between February 1998 and November 1999 in a second-order Mediterranean stream in Central Spain (Arroyo Mediano). Temporal variability of suspended organic matter followed a seasonal pattern, attributed to litter-fall inputs, instream processing, and the hydrological regime. Suspended organic matter (SOM) and its seasonal variability fall well within the range reported for streams in temperate non-Mediterranean deciduous forest. However, we found no seasonal trend in benthic organic matter (BOM) storage, and it seems that the amount of BOM remained fairly constant throughout the year. Reach retention (evaluated as the ratio between BOM and SOM per m2) was higher in summer during reduced stream flow, mainly due to coarse particulate organic matter storage. These observations do not differ from those reported for other headwater streams in temperate forested biomes, from which we conclude that there was no evidence of a Mediterranean influence on particulate organic matter dynamics in the Mediano stream, nor probably in other headwater Mediterranean streams.

Mollá, Salvador; Robles, Santiago; Casado, Carmen

2006-10-01

232

A case study of spatial variation and enrichment of selected elements in ambient particulate matter around a large coal-fired power station in Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant use of coal in power sectors has been associated with adverse environmental impacts. Ambient air monitoring for the two size fractions of particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and non-respirable suspended particulate matter (NRSPM) in the downwind and upwind directions of a large coal-fired power station in central India, was carried out. Collected samples of ambient particulate

Rajnikant Sharma; Shamsh Pervez

2004-01-01

233

Size composition of particulate organic matter in the lagoon of Tikehau atoll (Tuamotu archipelago)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particulate matter was comprehensively investigated from 6 to 17 April 1986 in the lagoon of Tikehau atoll (15°00'S; 148°10'W). Dry weight (DW), particulate organic carbon (POC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and chlorophyll a were measured for five size-classes (0.2 to 0.8 µm, 0.8 to 3 µm, 3 to 35 µm, 35 to 200 µm, and 200 to 2000 µm). Taxa

J. Blanchot; L. Charpy; R. Le Borgne

1989-01-01

234

Children’s Exposure to Indoor Particulate Matter in Naturally Ventilated Schools in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high levels of indoor particulate matter in developing countries and the apparent scale of its impact on the global burden of disease underline the importance of particulate as an environmental health risk and the consequent need for monitoring them particularly in indoor school microenvironments. PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1.0 levels were monitored inside and outside the classrooms of four

Mahima Habil; Ajay Taneja

2011-01-01

235

Exposure to particulate matter on an Indian stone-crushing site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:A large number of labourers work in the stone-crushing industry in India. Many of these workers are also exposed to high levels of particulate matter in their homes from the use of biomass fuels. As part of our investigations to examine the health of these workers we characterised their exposure to respirable crystalline silica and a number of other particulate

S Semple; D A Green; G McAlpine; H Cowie; A Seaton

2008-01-01

236

Total suspended particulates and radioactivity in air variations with meteorological parameters in Damascus city during one year.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of total suspended particulates (TSP) have been taken weekly from Damascus city (33.40 Lat., 36.30 Long) over one year (July 1993-June 1994). The aim is to study the variations of TSP and air radioactivity. Also samples of particulates materials l...

I. Othman K. Al-Kharfan Z. Al-Hares A. A. Aba

1997-01-01

237

40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.332 Control strategy: Particulate...On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10 nonattainment...and December 9, 1993, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

2013-07-01

238

Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

239

Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulates and Associated Organic Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this phase of the CAPE-24 program was to develop and validate an analytical method for the analysis of PNA in diesel exhaust particulate. The first year of work included construction of a test engine facility, development of an analytical...

B. A. Petersen C. C. Chuang G. W. Kinzer P. W. Meehan R. M. Riggin

1980-01-01

240

Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories

M Rossbach; R Jayasekera; G Kniewald; Nguyen Huu Thang

1999-01-01

241

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

242

Carbonaceous characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

To determine the characteristic of carbonaceous species in atmospheric particles in Hong Kong, PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using high volume (hi-vol.) air samplers from November 2000 to February 2001. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analyzed by the selective thermal manganese dioxide oxidation (TMO) method. The ratios of PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios were 0.61, 0.78 and 0.53 for particulate matter collected at PolyU station (PolyU, near a major traffic corridor), Kwun Tong station (KT, mixed residential/commercial/industrial) and the Hok Tsui background station (HT), respectively. These results indicate that the PM2.5 concentrations constitute the majority of the PM10) concentrations, especially in urban and industrial areas of Hong Kong. The average concentrations at the three sites ranged from 73.11 to 83.52 microg/m3 for PM10 and from 42.37 to 57.38 microg/m3 for PM2.5. The highest daily mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 125.89 microg/m3 and 116.89 microg/m3 at KT, respectively. The correlation between PM10 and PM2.5 was high at KT and HT (r > 0.9, P < 0.01). This means that the sources of PM10 and PM2.5 may be the same at both sites. The highest mean concentration of OC (12.02 microg/m3) and EC (6.86 microg/m3) in PM10 was found at the PolyU among the three sites. For PM2.5, the highest mean concentration of OC (10.16 microg/m3) was at KT while the highest mean concentration of EC (7.95 microg/m3) was at PolyU. However, the background concentrations at HT were higher than another background area, Kosan, Korea. Transportation of pollutants from the Asian continent may be responsible for the elevations of EC+ OC at the remote site. More than 74% of the EC and more than 79% of the OC were found in the PM2.5 fraction at the three sampling locations. At PolyU station, PM2.5 consisted of 18.18% OC and 11.16% EC while 17.70% OC and 8.81% EC were found in KT station. Thus OC and EC are major constituents of aerosols in Hong Kong. OC/EC ratios for PM10 and PM2.5 were less than 2 at PolyU and KT stations while the ratio exceeded 3 at HT background station. This indicates that OC measured in the urban area may be emitted directly as a primary aerosol. PMID:12685471

Ho, K F; Lee, S C; Yu, Jimmy C; Zou, S C; Fung, Kochy

2002-12-01

243

Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution During The 2008 Beijing Olympics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the particulate matter (PM) pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, size fractionated PM samples of >PM10, PM2.5-PM10, and

Wang, W.; Primbs, T.; Tao, S.; Zhu, T.; Simonich, S. M.

2009-05-01

244

EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demogr

Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

2007-10-01

245

EPA'S Updated Air Quality Standards For Smog (Ozone) and Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 16, 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency released "final air quality standards for particulate matter and ozone (otherwise known as soot and smog)." The EPA Office of Air & Radiation has made the standards, which appear in the July 18, 1997 Federal Register, available (in Adobe Acrobate [.pdf] format). The FR final rules are: "Final Particulate Matter NAAQS," (National Ambient Air Quality Standards,102p.); "Final Ozone NAAQS" (37p.); "Particulate Matter Monitoring Requirements" (86p.); and "Supplemental Information and Request for Comments" (2p.). In addition, there is a 16 page memorandum from President Clinton to the EPA Administrator concerning implementation of the standards, and there are also several fact sheets about the standards. Note that the new standards contain two significant changes from the EPA's November 1996 proposal (discussed in the December 6, 1996 Scout Report). Users can see the Updated Clean Air Standards fact sheet for these changes.

Radiation., United S.

1997-01-01

246

Human exposure to particulate matter potentially contaminated with sin nombre virus.  

PubMed

The most common mechanism for human exposure to hantaviruses throughout North America is inhalation of virally contaminated particulates. However, risk factors associated with exposure to particulates potentially contaminated with hantaviruses are generally not well understood. In North America, Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the most common hantavirus that infects humans, causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which has a significant mortality rate (approximately 35%). We investigated human exposure to particulate matter and evaluated the effects of season, location (sylvan and peridomestic environment), and activity (walking and sweeping) on generation of particulates at the breathing zone (1.5 m above the ground). We found greater volumes of small inhalable particulates during the spring and summer compared to the fall and winter seasons and greater volumes of small inhalable particulates produced in peridomestic, compared to sylvan, environments. Also, greater volumes of particulates were generated at the breathing zone while walking compared to sweeping. Results suggest that more aerosolized particles were generated during the spring and summer months. Our findings suggest that simply moving around in buildings is a significant source of human exposure to particulates, potentially contaminated with SNV, during spring and summer seasons. These findings could be advanced by investigation of what particle sizes SNV is most likely to attach to, and where in the respiratory tract humans become infected. PMID:23532351

Richardson, Kyle S; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard J; Hart, Julie; Carver, Scott

2013-06-01

247

Quantitative Analysis of Particulate Matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze particulate matter from the municipality of Limeira (SP), Brazil. Particulate matter collections were carried out at the meteorological station of the Technology Department of Campinas State University using a sequential filtration sampling system. Coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter, corresponding to the respirable fractions affecting the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, were collected on polycarbonate filters arranged in series in the sampler. After removal in acid, samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation at the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. In the results obtained, it was observed that the coarse fraction made the greatest contribution to PM10 formation. In regard to particulate matter composition, 16 elements were detected in both fractions: S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. By employing multivariate statistical analyses, namely principal components analysis and cluster analysis, it was possible to determine the probable emission sources contributing to the formation of the particulate material. For the coarse fraction, the primary emission source, soil dust, contributed 57%, followed by 30% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 13% from industrial emissions. For the fine fraction, the primary emission source was soil dust, contributing 79%, followed by 13% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 8% from industrial emissions.

Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

2011-12-01

248

Investigation into presence of atmospheric particulate matter in Marikana, mining area in Rustenburg Town, South Africa.  

PubMed

An investigation to find out presence of particulate matter in Marikana, a mining area in Rustenburg town, South Africa, was carried out in the months of August and November of 2008. Samples were collected for measurements of particulate matter (PM) of particle diameters of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. After gravimetric analysis of daily measurements, it was found that PM10 concentration values ranged between 3 and 9 ?g/m(3), PM2.5 concentration values ranged between 16 and 26 ?g/m(3), and PM1 concentration values ranged between 14 and 18 ?g/m(3) for the month of August 2008. For the month of November, it was found that PM10 concentration values ranged between 2 and 8 ?g/m(3), PM2.5 concentration values ranged between 0 and 5 ?g/m(3), and PM1 concentration values ranged between 4 and 15 ?g/m(3). This study was undertaken as preliminary work having in mind that mining activities could be emitting high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere which might be degrading the quality of the air. It was observed, however, that the daily particulate matter especially of PM10 emitted were quite low when compared to laid down International Air Quality Standards. The standards did not give guidelines for particulate matter of diameter 2.5 ?m. It was concluded that particulate matter came from three major sources: platinum mining, domestic biomass burning, and traffic emissions due to fuel burning. PMID:20865322

Kaonga, Brighton; Kgabi, Nnenesi A

2010-09-24

249

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions: epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter,we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured,ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of

Manfred Neubergera; Michael G. Schimek; Friedrich Horak Jr; Michael Kundi; Thomas Frischer; Bostjan Gomiscek; Hans Puxbauma; Helger Hauck

250

Urban particulate matter activates Akt in human lung cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normally picturesque Cache Valley in northern Utah is frequently reported to have the worst particulate (PM) air pollution\\u000a in the United States. Numerous epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere have associated PM exposure to a variety of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases and early mortality. We have previously shown that Cache Valley PM (CVPM) is pro-inflammatory, through a variety\\u000a of mechanisms involving the release

Todd L. Watterson; Brett Hamilton; Randy S. Martin; Roger A. Coulombe

251

The Particulate Theory of Matter for Preservice Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared the effects of participation in six extra credit activities for teaching the concept of matter on female preservice elementary school teachers (n=9) to a control group (n=8). Pre- and posttests to assess changes in the students' understanding of phenomena associated with matter indicated significant changes in experimental students'…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1992-01-01

252

Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Indianapolis, Indiana.  

PubMed

The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter (PM) and elemental 3-day monitoring, 240 participants completed a TAQ on a daily basis during the actual monitoring period. Also, a subset of participants had 3-day outdoor and indoor stationary monitoring at their home (approximately 58 observations), and sampling was conducted at a fixed site (approximately thirty-three 3-day observations). The quality of data was assessed and compared to the Toronto study in terms of linearity of measurement, instrument and method sensitivity, measurement biases, and measurement reproducibility. Twenty-six of the sample filters were subjected to two analyses to characterize the within-laboratory component of precision in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs). The median RSD for Mn was 8.7%, as compared to 2.2% for Toronto. The quality assurance (QA) laboratory exhibited a clear positive bias relative to the primary laboratory for Al and Ca, but no systematic difference was evident for Mn. A high interlaboratory correlation (>0.99) was also attained for Mn. Mean field blank results for PM and Mn were 0.87 microg/m(3) and 0.71 ng/m(3), respectively, which were comparable to the Toronto study. The median RSDs for colocated fixed site and residential samples ranged from 2.2% to 9.0% for PM and from 8.8% to 15.3% for Mn, which were close to those observed in Toronto. For the PM(10), the 90th percentile indoors was 124 microg/m(3) compared with 54 microg/m(3) outdoors. This pattern was even more pronounced for the PM(2.5) data (90th percentiles of 92 microg/m(3) indoors vs 30 microg/m(3) outdoors). Personal PM(2.5) was somewhat higher than the indoor levels, but the percentiles seemed to follow the more highly skewed pattern of the indoor distribution. This difference was largely due to the presence of some smokers in the sample; e.g., exclusion of smokers led to a personal exposure distribution that was more similar to the outdoor distribution. The estimated 90th percentile for the nonsmokers' personal exposures to PM was 43 microg/m(3) compared with 84 microg/m(3) for the overall population. In general, the Indianapolis PM levels of a given type and cut size were somewhat higher than the levels observed in Toronto, e.g., the median and 90th percentile for the personal PM(2.5) exposures were 23 and 85 microg/m(3), respectively, in Indianapolis, while in Toronto, the corresponding percentiles were 19 and 63 microg/m(3). The cities' distributions of the proportion of the PM(10) mass in the 2.5-microm fraction appeared similar for the residential outdoor data (medians of 0.67 and 0.65 for Indianapolis and Toronto, respectively, and 90th percentiles of 0.83 for both cities). For the indoor data, Indianapolis tended to have a larger portion of the mass in the fine fraction (median of 0.80 compared to 0.70 for Toronto). Unlike the PM, the Indianapolis indoor Mn concentration levels were substantially lower than the outdoor levels for both PM sizes, and the median personal levels for Mn in PM(2.5) appeared to fall between the median indoor and outdoor levels. The personal Mn exposure distribution

Pellizzari, E D; Clayton, C A; Rodes, C E; Mason, R E; Piper, L L; Fort, B; Pfeifer, G; Lynam, D

253

Evaluation of the efficiency of extraction of PAHs from diesel particulate matter with pressurized solvents.  

PubMed

Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was evaluated for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-derivatives from diesel particulate matter. Extraction conditions were set up by performing several tests in which temperature, solvent strength, pressure, and static time were gradually increased. The results obtained on a laboratory test material made of a "lean" (low content of soluble fraction) Diesel particulate matter indicate that very severe conditions were needed in order to obtain better recoveries of the higher molecular weight molecules. Moreover, extraction efficiency seems to be influenced by the amount of soluble matter in the particulate, so that a "lean" particulate appears more difficult to extract. Recoveries of the deuterated standards of certain PAHs (i.e. indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) were incomplete even with the toughest conditions tested. Experiments carried out on a certified material (SRM 1650 from NIST) also indicate that PFE can perform a better extraction of some of the PAHs than the method used for certification, but still incomplete. Comparison of results obtained on the SRM with different extraction techniques suggests that the composition of the extract varies considerably with the extraction technique and conditions. It is relevant to notice that recent Diesel engines produce leaner particulate: for future materials more drastic extraction conditions will be required. PMID:12610716

Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Iamiceli, Anna Laura

2003-02-01

254

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

255

Episodes of extremely high concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter in the urban environment of Bor, Serbia.  

PubMed

This paper presents the extremely high concentrations of SO2 and particulate matter measured in the urban area of the town Bor (Serbia) during August 2011. Concentrations of SO2 above 125?gm(-3) and concentrations of particulate matter above 200?gm(-3) recorded over several days indicate significant risk to human health and the ecosystem in this region. PMID:23747157

Djordjevic, Predrag; Nikolic, Djordje; Jovanovic, Ivan; Mihajlovic, Ivan; Savic, Marija; Zivkovic, Zivan

2013-06-06

256

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so…

Othman, Jazilah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2008-01-01

257

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two?tier multiple?choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students’ understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so as to identify possible associations between students’ understandings of the

Jazilah Othman; David F. Treagust; A. L. Chandrasegaran

2008-01-01

258

Trace Gases and Particulate Matter Emissions from Wildfires and Agricultural Burning in Northeastern Mexico during the 2000 Fire Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory of air pollutants emitted from forest and agricultural fires in Northeastern Mexico for the period of January to August of 2000 is presented. The emissions estimates were calculated using an emissions factor methodology. The inventory accounts for the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter emissions include estimates

Alberto Mendoza; Marisa R. Garcia; Patricia Vela; D. Fabian Lozano; David Allen

2005-01-01

259

Genotoxicity induced by fine urban air particulate matter in the macrophages cell line RAW 264.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies support a participation of fine airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5?m in the effects of air pollutants on health. Particulate matter was collected in an urban area of L’Aquila during the winter 2004. Fine particulate samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the chemical inventory of the aerosol particle surfaces

Anna Poma; Tania Limongi; Cinzia Pisani; Vanda Granato; Pietro Picozzi

2006-01-01

260

Storage and transport of particulate organic matter in tropical headwater streams with different catchment land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allochthonous organic matter is an important source of energy, nutrients and habitat for aquatic communities in headwater streams. Organic matter inputs, storage and transport determine the availability of this resource for aquatic organisms. These processes are related to characteristics of the catchment and riparian vegetation. We assessed coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) storage and transport, and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) transport, in eight streams that differ in the land use of their catchments (forest, agriculture, secondary vegetation). Streams draining catchments with greater forest cover (63-100% forest cover) had higher CPOM storage (341.5-1107.4 g•m-2) than streams with more disturbed catchments (89.9-335.2 g•m-2). CPOM and FPOM transport showed no relationship with land use, but were positively related to discharge. Factors such as slope, or discharge could be modulating CPOM and FPOM transport, and masking the effects of land cover on CPOM and FPOM transport.

Moreno, M.; Castillo, M. M.

2012-04-01

261

Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.

2013-09-01

262

Trace element geochemistry of marine biogenic particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Plankton samples were investigated for physical and chemical leaching decomposition to identify the major and trace element composition of particulate carrier phases. The identification of trace element/major element ratios in the biogenic materials was emphasized. The majority of the trace elements in the samples were directly associated with the nonskeletal organic phases of the plankton. Calcium carbonate and opal were not significant carriers for any of the trace elements studied. A refractory phase containing Al and Fe in terrigenous ratios was present in all samples, even from the more remote marine locations.

Collier, R.W.

1981-02-01

263

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy...matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area....

2013-07-01

264

Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazaré submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazaré submarine canyon at ?1600 and ?3300m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic fractions), granulometry, mineralogy and 210Pb concentration of particulate matter over five sediment trap deployments between October 2002 and December 2004. Current meters

Jacobo Martín; Albert Palanques; João Vitorino; Anabela Oliveira; Henko C. de Stigter

2011-01-01

265

Qualitative and quantitative differences in particulate organic matter fractions in organic and conventional farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify functionally important differences in soil organic matter (SOM) that result from use of different farming practices, soils from 9 long-term trials comparing manure+legume-based organic, legume-based organic, and conventional farming systems were collected and particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated to reflect its position within the soil matrix. The free, light POM (FPOM; <1.6gcm?3) not occluded within aggregates and

Emily E. Marriott; Michelle Wander

2006-01-01

266

Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter (PM10) by sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a series of 36 airborne particulate matter (PM10) samples were colleted over a 1 year period at an urban area–Tirupati, India. The samples were collected on paliflex-filters using Mini-Partisol air sampler equipped with PM10 inlet. A three stage sequential extraction procedure viz. environmentally mobile, bound to carbonates and oxides and bound to silicates and organic matter, was

M. Praveen Kumar; S. Venkata Mohan; S. Jayarama Reddy

2008-01-01

267

IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

268

Genotoxicity of urban air particulate matter: Correlations between mutagenicity data, airborne micropollutants, and meteorological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter was monitored at a site representative of the high traffic density of the city of Rome. Inhalable (less than 10 ?m) particles were collected every other day with a high?volume sampler from November 1990 to April 1991. Mutagenicity of particle extracts was evaluated by the microsuspension procedure with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Mutagenic activities

Riccardo Crebelli; Sergio Fuselli; Luigi Turrio Baldassarri; Giovanni Ziemacki; Angelo Carere; Romualdo Benigni

1995-01-01

269

Estimation on dynamic release of phosphorus from wind-induced suspended particulate matter in Lake Taihu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through man-made disturbance experiments, the corresponding relationships be- tween suspended particulate matter (SPM) and wind speed in different lake areas were simu- lated, the physicochemical formal transformation and biological mineralizing and decaying processes of phosphorus in SPM were studied, the contribution of phosphorus transformation to phosphorus loading of the water of Lake Taihu was quantitatively estimated. The results show that

Chengxin FAN; ZHANG Lu; QIN Boqiang; WANG Sumin; HU Weiping; ZHANG Chen

2004-01-01

270

Field Evaluation of Particulate Matter Measurements Using Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance in a Layer House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) is one type of continuous ambient particulate matter (PM) monitor. Adsorption and desorption of moisture and semi-volatile species may cause positive or negative artifacts in TEOM PM mass measurement. The objective of this field study was to investigate possible uncertainties associated with TEOM measurements in the poultry operation environment. For comparisons of TEOM with

Qianfeng Li; Lingjuan Wang-Li; Zifei Liu; Albert J. Heber

2012-01-01

271

Evaluating the Health Risk from Secondary Sulfates in Eastern North American Regional Ambient Air Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) using central area monitors have associated total PM mass, as well as certain individual components of PM, including sulfate, with adverse human health effects. However, some recent studies that used concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) or analyzed the effects of air pollution from different sources or geographic areas sug- gest that while some particles may

Thomas J. Grahame; Richard B. Schlesinger

2005-01-01

272

Particulate Matter in Urban Air: Health Risks, Instrumentation and Measurements, and Political Awareness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major sources of Particulate Matter (PM) in an urban environment is the vehicular traffic. The mobile sources emit large quantities of primary particles, composed mostly of soot and organic material, as well as gases that can act as precursors ...

E. P. Weijers A. Even G. P. A. Kos A. T. J. Groot J. W. Erisman H. M. ten Brink

2001-01-01

273

Evaluation of elemental carbon as a marker for diesel particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric particulate matter originates from a broad range of sources in many urban locations. As health and air quality studies are using elemental carbon measurements to better understand the impact of diesel engines and other combustion sources, there is a great need to clearly understand the relative source contributions to EC concentrations in the atmosphere. However,

James J Schauer

2003-01-01

274

Association of FEV1 in Asthmatic Children with Personal and Microenvironmental Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been shown to exacerbate children's asthma, but the exposure sources and temporal characteristics are still under study. Children's exposure to PM is likely to involve both combustion-related ambient PM and PM related to a child's activity in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments. Among 19 children with asthma, 9-17 years of age, we

Ralph J. Delfino; Penelope J. E. Quintana; Josh Floro; Victor M. Gastañaga; Behzad S. Samimi; Michael T. Kleinman; L.-J. Sally Liu; Charles Bufalino; Chang-Fu Wu; Christine E. McLaren

2004-01-01

275

Characterization of Summertime Coarse Particulate Matter in the Desert Southwest - Arizona, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

A year-long study was conducted in Pinal County, AZ, to characterize coarse (2.5 â?? 10 μm aerodynamic diameter, AD) and fine (< 2.5 μm AD) particulate matter (PMc and PMf, respectively) to further understand spatial and temporal variations in ambient PM concentrations and composi...

276

Predictability of streamflow and particulate organic matter concentration as indicators of stability in prairie streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictability of stream discharge and particulate organic matter (POM) in the water column was estimated, using Colwell's indices of constancy and contingency, for 6 Texas prairie streams (1 each of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order with intermittent or perennial discharge). Stream discharge in these 6 prairie streams varied between 0 and 36000 1 s-1, depending on the stream and season.

B. H. Hill; T. J. Gardner; O. F. Ekisola

1992-01-01

277

Spatial Variation and Source Characterization of Size Fractionated Particulate Matter in Long Beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Angeles Ports complex (the largest in the US) consists of the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles. Due to the high levels of particulate matter (PM) emitted from many sources (some unregulated) in the vicinity of these ports (e.g. marine vessels, diesel and gasoline vehicles, refineries, and power plants) and projected massive expansion, the ports

M. D. Geller; M. Arhami; A. Polidori; C. Sioutas

2007-01-01

278

Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) originating from mobile sources has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease, and an array of environmental problems, including global warming and acid rain. Till date, however, it is not clear which physical characteristics or chemical constituents of PM are significant contributors to the magnitude of the health risk.

Michael D. Geller; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Athanasios Mamakos; Zissis Samaras; Debra A. Schmitz; John R. Froines; Constantinos Sioutas

2006-01-01

279

Trends in the Elemental Composition of Fine Particulate Matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle

Sonja N. Sax; Petros Koutrakis; Pablo A. Ruiz Rudolph; Francisco Cereceda-Balic; Ernesto Gramsch; Pedro Oyola; Zhengmin Qian; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin; Lingli Kong; Duanping Liao; Niannian Yang; Christy Bentley; Shuangqing Xu; Benjamin Burns; Kenneth Krach; Charles Cole; Jessica Mangus; Howard Butler; Baikun Li; Donald Robinson; Ronke Luke-Boone; Vineet Aggarwal; Buzz Harris; Eric Anderson; David Ranum; Thomas Kulp; Karla Armstrong; Ricky Sommers; Thomas McRae; Karin Ritter; Jeffrey Siegell; Doug Pelt; Mike Smylie; Eugene Kim; Philip Hopke; Yi-Ming Kuo; Jian-Wen Wang; Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Stephen Musson; Timothy Townsend; Kurt Seaburg; John Mousa; Ke Du; Mark Rood; Byung Kim; Michael Kemme; Bill Franek; Kevin Mattison; Joan Cook; James Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel Giammar; Jorge Jimenez; Candis Claiborn; Timothy Larson; Timothy Gould; Thomas Kirchstetter; Lara Gundel

2007-01-01

280

Source analysis of fine and coarse particulate matter from livestock houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of the different sources which can contribute to particulate matter (PM) emissions from livestock houses are essential to develop adequate reduction techniques. The aim of this study was to morphologically and chemically characterize several sources of PM from livestock houses. We collected known sources of PM from different housing systems for poultry and pigs, which were later aerosolized

M. Cambra-López; A. G. Torres; A. J. A. Aarnink; N. W. M. Ogink

2011-01-01

281

HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

282

Flue gas conditioning for reducing suspended particulate matter from thermal power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased population and industrial development demands sustainable electricity, the majority of which is produced by thermal power stations, which utilize coal as a fuel all over the world. Coal burning results in generation of large quantities of coal residues, which contains very fine particles that tend to become air-borne and which contribute to the formation of suspended particulate matter (SPM).

S. Shanthakumar; D. N. Singh; R. C. Phadke

2008-01-01

283

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SOURCE-SPECIFIC RESEARCH INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Source-specific research into the health effects of particulate matter is an emerging area of high-priority research. This research has benefited from the efforts in receptor modeling of human exposures, in vitro and in vivo toxicology, clinical research, and epidemiology. New de...

284

PARTITIONING OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL IN CONTROLLED ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS, SEDIMENTS AND SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the transport and incorporation of water-borne oil to sediments, no. 2 fuel oil was added as a dispersion in semiweekly doses to three controlled estuarine ecosystems. Samples of suspended particulate matter and sediments were analyzed by gas chromatography for sat...

285

Genotoxicity and composition of particulate matter from biomass burning in the eastern Brazilian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study Tradescantia pallida micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to assess the genotoxicity of particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 10?m (PM10) in Tangara da Serra (MT), a Brazilian Amazon region that suffers the impact of biomass burning. The levels of PM (coarse and fine size fractions) and black carbon (BC) collected were also

Nilmara de Oliveira Alves; Ana Lúcia Matos Loureiro; Fernando Cavalcante dos Santos; Kátia Halter Nascimento; Rivanildo Dallacort; Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos; Sandra de Souza Hacon; Paulo Artaxo; Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros

2011-01-01

286

Compositional, morphological, and hysteresis characterization of magnetic airborne particulate matter in Rome, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of tree leaves may be used to delineate the abundance and dispersal of anthropogenic airborne particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. In the city of Rome, Italy, circulating vehicles are the main source of magnetic PM, already characterized as prevalently low-coercivity, magnetite-like particles. To further constrain the nature and origin of such magnetic particles, we carried out

Leonardo Sagnotti; Jacopo Taddeucci; Aldo Winkler; Andrea Cavallo

2009-01-01

287

THE ROLE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We have tested the hypothesis that organic and ozonized organic components of particulate matter (PM) may play a role in the induction of lung toxicity reported in some epidemiological studies. Our lab has utilized diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and extracts of diesel exhaust (i....

288

Source-dependent variation in hydroxyl radical production by airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest exposure to airborne particles is responsible for a wide range of adverse health effects, potentially arising from particle-induced oxidative stress. A highly sensitive fluorescence method was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical by a broad range of particle types including urban dust, diesel particulate matter, coal fly ash, kaolinite, and silica. Little or no production

Marjan Alaghmand; Neil V. Blough

2007-01-01

289

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT) [REVISED CHAPTER 9, AUGUST 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is in the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and re...

290

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFTS, Oct 1999 to Aug 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has updated and revised, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic review and revision, where appro...

291

Particulate Matter Stack Emission Compliance Test Procedure for Fuel Burning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication details the particulate matter emissions test procedure that is applicable for conducting compliance tests for fuel burning units required to be tested under Sub-section 7 of Regulation II (1972) as established by the state of West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission. The testing procedure is divided into five parts:…

West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission, Charleston.

292

Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide and Particulate Matter A Comparison of Methods of Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results obtained from great numbers of samples using several different methods of measuring both ambient sulfur dioxide and particulate matter indicated that two different concurrent standard methods of measuring a single pollutant may give significantly different average results. In some communities, a fairly good to excellent correlation appears to exist between some of the different components of

William W. Stalker; Richard C. Dickerson; George D. Kramer

1963-01-01

293

The Dry Deposition of Particulate Matter Above a Loblolly Pine Plantation  

SciTech Connect

The concentration and type of particulate matter found in the atmosphere varies among localities. Like the transport of water vapor, heat, and momentum, the movement of small particles through the boundary layer above a plant canopy is controlled by eddy diffusion. This paper describes data collection design, transport theory, and an analysis of the data collected.

Lorenz, R.

2001-05-29

294

HIERARCHIAL BAYESIAN CALIBRATION: AN APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

In studies of the relationship between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health, researchers frequently use monitoring data with the most extensive temporal coverage. Such data may come from a monitor that is not a federal reference monitor (FRM), a monitor that is d...

295

Particulate Matter Concentration and Air Quality Affected by Windblown Dust in the Columbia Plateau.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several locations within the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest United States failed to achieve air quality standards for PM10 (particulate matter less than or equal to 10µm in aerodynamic diameter) in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. Exceedance of the PM10 standard (more than one day...

296

WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1....

297

SOURCES OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER: THE EMISSION PROFILE OF A SUGAR CANE FOLIAGE BURNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere can have its origins in natural or anthropogenic sources. The profile of sources in a particular site is dependent on local, regional or even long range emission sites or areas, which makes them very difficult to identify. Moreover, the identification of a given source and the quantification of its contribution for the

Simone Andréa Pozza; Ricardo Luiz Bruno; Júlia Exaltação Trevisan; Mariane Giroto Tazinassi; José Antonio; Silveira Gonçalves; José Renato Coury

298

BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONATION OF THE ORGANIC EXTRACT OF SRM 1649 URBAN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Separation of 2 grams of the methylene chloride extract of NIST SRM 1649 (Washington, D.C. urban air particulate matter) into six compound class fractions by acid-base partitioning and silica gel column chromatography is demonstrated here. ecoveries of organic mass and Salmonella...

299

Inhalation Of Concentrated Particulate Matter Produces Pulmonary Inflammation and Systemic Biological Effects in Compromised Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although significant progress has been made over the past few years, there is still debate on the causal fractions that are responsible for particulate matter (PM)-associated adverse health effects. A series of 1-d inhalation exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) were performed in compromised rats, focusing on pulmonary inflammation and changes in blood factors as biological outcomes. Studies were carried

Flemming R. Cassee; A. John F. Boere; Paul H. B. Fokkens; Daan L. A. C. Leseman; Constantinos Sioutas; Ingeborg M. Kooter; Jan A. M. A. Dormans

2005-01-01

300

INSTILLATION OF COARSE ASH PARTICULATE MATTER AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCES A SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Coronary ischemic events increase significantly floowing a ?bad air? day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 causes inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, if pulmonary inflation transl...

301

Case study: Inorganic pollutants associated with particulate matter from an area near a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of Gela (Sicily, Italy) contains one of the largest petroleum refineries in Europe and also has several oil fields both on land and offshore. This paper discusses how the oil refinery and traffic-related air pollution affect the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter over the town of Gela, using pine needles and urban road dust as the means

M. L. Bosco; D. Varrica; G. Dongarra

2005-01-01

302

METHODS TO ESTIMATE THE AMBIENT AND NONAMBIENT COMPONENTS OF TOTAL PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Total human exposure to particulate matter (PM) may be divided into two major components: (1) exposure to ambient-source PM while outdoors plus exposure while indoors to ambient PM that has infiltrated indoors and (2) exposure to nonambient-source PM (due to indoor sources and pe...

303

Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

304

Green urchin as a significant source of fecal particulate organic matter within nearshore benthic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis as a source of fecal particulate organic matter (POM) for the benthic nearshore ecosystems has been studied over a 3.5-month period. Three macroalgae were tested as food sources: Alaria esculenta, Laminaria longicruris and Ulvaria obscura. Urchins were fed ad libitum with either a single alga species or a mixture of all three

Jean Mamelona; Émilien Pelletier

2005-01-01

305

Ingestion of natural particulate organic matter and subsequent assimilation, respiration and growth by tropical lagoon zooplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of ingestion of natural particulate organic matter and subsequent assimilation and respiration by zooplankton at Enewetak Atoll lagoon (Marshall Islands) were measured using a flow-through system. Maximum daily ingestion rates of carbon and nitrogen, expressed as a percentage of the body content, were 79 and 37%, respectively, for the large copepod Undinula vulgaris; 112 and 65%, respectively, for a

R. P. Gerber; M. B. Gerber

1979-01-01

306

Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter at Secondary and Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the present study is to elicit students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can…

Ayas, Alipasa; Ozmen, Haluk; Calik, Muammer

2010-01-01

307

Evaluation of the degree of coherence found in students' conceptions concerning the particulate nature of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' conceptions are characterized by some authors as having a high degree of coherence while, in the minds of others, they show little coherence and great heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to throw light on this problem by reference to the particulate nature of matter, a topic where great discrepancies have been observed in the degree of coherence

Enrique Jiménez Gómez

2006-01-01

308

The particulate nature of matter and conceptual change: A cross-age study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual understanding of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) has been shown to be critical for success in learning chemistry. Over the past 20 years, conceptual change research has revealed a host of student misconceptions about the PNM. Additionally, models, and more recently multimedia, are being used to help students visualize processes at the molecular level. For this study, a

Ellen J. Yezierski

2003-01-01

309

A Comparison of Applied and Theoretical Knowledge of Concepts Based on the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school chemistry students' (n=183) applied and theoretical knowledge of dissolution, diffusion, effusion, and states of matter were compared. Study found that students' formal reasoning ability and their preexisting knowledge are associated with their conceptions and use of particulate theory. A significant difference between applied and…

Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Abraham, Michael R.

1991-01-01

310

Effects of the feeding behavior of Crassostrea gigas (Bivalve Molluscs) on biosedimentation of natural particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the particulate matter found in bottom sediment comes from material rejected as pseudofaeces or produces as faeces by Crassostrea gigas. The amount of pseudofaeces rejected is proportional to the amount of seston for total seston values up to 4.6 mg 1-1. For this values up to pseudofaeces production, the amount of faeces is mainly limitated by pseudofaeces production

Jean-Marc Deslous-Paoli; Anne-Marie Lannou; Philippe Geairon; Serge Bougrier; Olivier Raillard; Maurice Héral

1992-01-01

311

Prospective elementary school teachers' understanding of the particulate nature of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate nature of matter (PNM) is fundamental to understanding modern chemistry, and new national standards require that elementary students learn some of these ideas. However, research has shown elementary teachers are not comfortable teaching PNM. A conceptual change approach was applied to a chemistry course designed specifically for elementary education majors. A chemistry concept inventory, individual interviews, and surveys

Larry S. Miller

2008-01-01

312

Evaluation of the Degree of Coherence Found in Students' Conceptions Concerning the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' conceptions are characterized by some authors as having a high degree of coherence while, in the minds of others, they show little coherence and great heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to throw light on this problem by reference to "the particulate nature of matter," a topic where great discrepancies have been observed in…

Gomez, Enrique Jimenez; Benarroch, Alicia; Marin, Nicolas

2006-01-01

313

Teaching the topic of the particulate nature of matter in prospective teachers' training courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an attempt to improve teaching?learning strategies for science as addressed by prospective teachers in the Department of Primary Education of the University of Athens. The aim of the proposed strategy is twofold: to promote the constructivist aspect in science teaching?learning and to improve prospective teachers’ knowledge in the particulate nature of matter. Prospective teachers were confronted with

Panagiotis Kokkotas; Ioannis Vlachos; Vasilis Koulaidis

1998-01-01

314

Students' Conceptual Representations of Gas Volume in Relation to Particulate Model of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most high school chemistry curricula contain a unit on gas volume and a unit on the particulate nature of matter. The existence and persistence of adolescent preconceptions about the material nature of gases is an important factor to be considered in the teaching of principles or theories related to gases. The purpose of the study reported in…

Hwang, Bao-tyan

315

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime particulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral selectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demonstrated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black carbon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorption to OC and BC and find that the absorption Ångström exponent of the light-absorbing OC in these samples ranges from 3.0 to 7.4 and averages 5.0. Further, we calculate that OC would account for 14% and BC would account for 86% of solar radiation absorbed by the wood smoke in the atmosphere (integrated over the solar spectrum from 300 to 2500 nm). OC would contribute 49% of the wood smoke particulate matter absorption of ultraviolet solar radiation at wavelengths below 400 nm and, therefore, may affect tropospheric photochemistry. These results illustrate that BC is the dominant light-absorbing particulate matter species in atmospheres burdened with residential wood smoke and OC absorption is secondary but not insignificant. Further, these results add to the growing body of evidence that light-absorbing OC is ubiquitous in atmospheres influenced by biomass burning and may be important to include when considering particulate matter effects on climate.

Kirchstetter, T. W.; Thatcher, T. L.

2012-07-01

316

Characterization of Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter in Birmingham, AL Using a Network of Passive Samplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US EPA is evaluating the UNC passive sampler as a tool for measuring ambient concentrations of coarse (aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 µm) particulate matter (PM) and for identifying and characterizing PM sources. In spring 2008, the US EPA monitored coarse PM at 11 sites in the Birmingham metropolitan area using collocated active and passive samplers. Sites were

B. Willis; R. Vanderpool; R. Murdoch; R. Long; B. Grover; T. Peters

2008-01-01

317

SOURCE TESTING OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM COTTON HARVESTERS - SYSTEM DESIGN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent air quality legislation has placed increased pressure on agricultural producers in several states across the U.S. In particular, California removed the exemption for agricultural sources from air quality permitting in 2003. Through the use of inaccurate particulate matter emission factors, ag...

318

Determination of free and total carbon in suspended air particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free carbon is a visible, nuisance component of ambient air particulate matter and may also act as a catalyst in aerosol reactions. A method of determining both free and total carbon collected on glass fiber filters is described. Free carbon is determined by combustion of an aliquot of the exposed filter treated with nitric acid; total carbon is determined by

J. A. Pigmenta; George R. Wood

1980-01-01

319

Fluoranthene and pyrene in the suspended particulate matter and surface sediments of the Humber Estuary, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the UK-based Land-Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) community programme, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments have been collected from the Humber estuary, which is a large and complex estuarine system on the east coast of England fed by several rivers including the Trent and Ouse. The samples from four surveys were extracted and analysed to determine the

Jun L Zhou; Tim W Fileman; Sheila Evans; Peter Donkin; Carol Llewellyn; James W Readman; R. Fauzi C Mantoura; Steve J Rowland

1998-01-01

320

STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THE ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING FREQUENCY. (R828678C010)  

EPA Science Inventory

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) concentrations has an impact on human health effects and the setting of PM regulations. Since PM is commonly sampled on less than daily schedules, the magnitude of sampling errors needs to be determined. Daily PM data from Spokane, W...

321

Magnetic properties and Mössbauer spectra of urban atmospheric particulate matter: a case study from Munich, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Due to the high concentrations of iron in anthropogenically-derived atmospheric particulate matter (PM), magnetic techniques are ideal for the study of the behaviour of PM. However, to undertake these studies it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the magnetic mineralogy of PM. This study reports a detailed examination of the magnetic mineralogy of PM samples collected in

A. R. Muxworthy; E. Schmidbauer; N. Petersen

2002-01-01

322

FABRICATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF A MASSIVE VOLUME AIR SAMPLER OF SIZED RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sampler which collects airborne particulate matter in three stages, 3.5 micrometers, 1.7 micrometers, and below 1.7 micrometers (the cutoffs of which closely fit the ACGIH respirable size curve) was constructed previously. Component failures and operational difficulti...

323

Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging evidence suggests that short episodes of high exposure to air pollution occur while commuting. These events can result in potentially adverse health effects. We present a quantification of the exposure of car passengers and cyclists to particulate matter (PM). We have simultaneously measured concentrations (PNC, PM2.5 and PM10) and ventilatory parameters (minute ventilation (VE), breathing frequency and tidal volume)

Luc Int Panis; Bas de Geus; Grégory Vandenbulcke; Hanny Willems; Bart Degraeuwe; Nico Bleux; Vinit Mishra; Isabelle Thomas; Romain Meeusen

2010-01-01

324

Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress generation is a primary mechanism mediating the effects of Particulate Matter (PM) on human health. Although mitochondria are both the major intracellular source and target of oxidative stress, the effect of PM on mitochondria has never been evaluated in exposed individuals. METHODS: In 63 male healthy steel workers from Brescia, Italy, studied between April and May 2006,

Lifang Hou; Zhong-Zheng Zhu; Xiao Zhang; Francesco Nordio; Matteo Bonzini; Joel Schwartz; Mirjam Hoxha; Laura Dioni; Barbara Marinelli; Valeria Pegoraro; Pietro Apostoli; Pier Alberto Bertazzi; Andrea Baccarelli

2010-01-01

325

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

326

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

327

Cellular oxidative response from exposure to size-resolved ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies suggest that particulate matter (PM) derived from different sources may differ in toxicity. The goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro effects of ambient PM and PM components from eight different locations in the U.S. and to investigate the effects of ...

328

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON STUDIES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A working group of investigators, who are characterizing and quantifying the organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) as part of the US EPA's PM 2.5 research program and related studies, was established three years ago to advance the quality and comparability of data on the...

329

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter (BioPM)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina, and Denver, CO, were collected and analyzed as the goal of this ...

330

Environmental Appraisal-Particulate Matter, Oxides of Sulfur, and Sulfuric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of particulate matter and oxides of sulfur in degradation of the atmospheric environment is discussed. The Federal Air Quality Criteria for these pollutants are analyzed for their conformance with the requirement of the Clean Air Act of 1967 that they reflect the latest scientific knowledge pertinent to the indication of their effects on health and welfare. Visibility reduction

John M. Pierrard

1969-01-01

331

Environmental appraisal-particulate matter, oxides of sulfur, and sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of particulate matter and oxides of sulfur in degradation of the atmospheric environment is discussed. The federal air quality criteria for these pollutants are analyzed for their conformance with the requirement of the Clean Air Act of 1967 that they reflect the latest scientific knowledge pertinent to the indication of their effects on health and welfare. Visibility reduction

Puerrard

1969-01-01

332

Speciation of elements in NIST particulate matter SRMs 1648 and 1650  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra for S, Cl, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Cd and Pb and Mössbauer spectra for Fe have been obtained for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) particulate matter (PM) standard reference materials (SRMs): urban PM (SRM 1648) and diesel PM (SRM 1650). The spectral data, complemented by information on elemental

Frank E Huggins; Gerald P Huffman; J. David Robertson

2000-01-01

333

Particulate Matter Exposure Exacerbates High Glucose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Dysfunction through ROS Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus and fine particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP) are both important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate in patients suffering from CVD, resulting in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated DEP levels in the air are attributed to the development of various CVDs, presumably since fine DEP (<2.5

Li Zuo; Dane J. Youtz; Loren E. Wold

2011-01-01

334

Relationship between chemical composition and pulmonary toxicity of source-specific ambient particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported incidence of cardio-pulmonary disease associated with increase in particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity potential of combustion and ambient PM were investigated using data from animal studies at the US EPA....

335

Cytogenetic evaluation of extractable agents from airborne particulate matter generated in the city of Catania (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to document cytogenetic damage associated with air pollution and, possibly, with health effects in the city of Catania, Sicily (Italy), we analyzed the induction of chromosomal aberrations by extractable agents from airborne particulate matter in a Chinese hamster epithelial liver (CHEL) cells. These cells retain their metabolic competence to activate different classes of promutagens\\/procarcinogens into biologically active metabolites.

Salvatore Motta; Concetta Federico; Salvatore Saccone; Vito Librando; Pasquale Mosesso

2004-01-01

336

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (FOURTH EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Jun 2003)  

EPA Science Inventory

This fourth external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

337

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (THIRD EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, May 2002)  

EPA Science Inventory

This third external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2001, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qual...

338

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (First EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, Oct 1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

This external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1996, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Quality St...

339

AIR QUALITY Criteria FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (2001) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This second external review draft document is an updated revision of the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1999, and it will serve as the basis for reevaluating the current National Ambient Air Qua...

340

Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles Induced By Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate among the three size fractions. Airway epithelial cells obtained from 6 normal individuals were exposed to Chapel Hill coarse, fine or ultrafine

Yuh-Chin T. Huang; Edward D. Karoly; Lisa A. Dailey; Michael T. Schmitt; Robert Silbajoris; Donald W. Graff; Robert B. Devlin

2011-01-01

341

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

342

Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can

Odón R. Sánchez-Ccoyllo; Rita Y. Ynoue; Leila D. Martins; Rosana Astolfo; Regina M. Miranda; Edmilson D. Freitas; Alessandro S. Borges; Adalgiza Fornaro; Helber Freitas; Andréa Moreira; Maria F. Andrade

2008-01-01

343

Potential of in vitro Methods for Mechanistic Studies of Particulate Matter induced Cardiopulmonary Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to man-made particulate matter (PM) had increased in the last century due to the enormous increase of human activities, but has decreased due to political measures. PM exposure is not only linked with increased risks of lung cancer, respiratory diseases but more and more information becomes available about PM at current exposure levels as a cause for cardiopulmonary diseases.

Arno C. Gutleb

2011-01-01

344

Potential of In Vitro Methods for Mechanistic Studies of Particulate Matter–Induced Cardiopulmonary Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to manmade particulate matter (PM) increased in the last century due to the enormous increase of human activities, but has since decreased due to political measures. PM exposure is not only linked with increased risks of lung cancer and respiratory diseases, but more and more information becomes available about PM at present exposure levels as a cause of cardiopulmonary

Arno C. Gutleb

2011-01-01

345

Comparison of continuous monitor (TEOM) and gravimetric sampler particulate matter concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) sampler is an EPA designated equivalent method sampler for measuring PM10 concentrations. PM10 refers to the mass fraction of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere having a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers ...

346

Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

347

77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Particulate Matter'' proposed rule should be addressed to Ms. Beth Hassett-Sipple, U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and...Park, NC 27711, telephone number (919) 541-4605, email hassett-sipple.beth@epa.gov. Questions related to the...

2012-06-29

348

Application of a Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model to Respirable Particulate Matter in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico City frequently experiences high levels of air pollution. This is due mainly to its topography and meteorology that suppress pollutant diffusion and dispersion. The atmospheric mixing is extremely poor, especially during the dry winter months. The levels of certain pollutants, such as particulate matter, are of concern since they have severe effects on public health. Visibility deteriorationis one of

Elizabeth Vega; Isidoro García; David Apam; M. Esther Ruíz; Martha Barbiaux

1997-01-01

349

Dispersion Modeling of Inert Particulate Matter in the El Paso, TX- Cd. Juarez, MX Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Paso, TX-Cd. Juarez, MX region is subject to the emission of inert particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere, from a variety of sources. The impact of these emissions has been studied extensively in for regulatory compliance in the area of health effects, air quality and visibility. Little work has been done to study the fate and transport of

R. Pearson; R. Fitzgerald

2005-01-01

350

Sensitivity of global tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated global model of climate, tropospheric gas phase chemistry, and aerosols has been used to investigate the sensitivity of global ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations to climate change. Two simulations corresponding to present (1990s) and future (2050s) climates have been performed and compared. A future climate has been imposed using ocean boundary conditions corresponding to the Intergovernmental Panel

Pavan Nandan Racherla; Peter J. Adams

2006-01-01

351

Statistical issues in the study of air pollution involving airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particles in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the elderly. These results appear consistent across a range of U.S. cities. This and other scientific and policy information formed the basis on which

Lawrence H. Cox

2000-01-01

352

Particulate matter properties and health effects: consistency of epidemiological and toxicological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the ambient particulate matter (PM) fractions or constituents, critically involved in eliciting adverse health effects, is crucial to the implementation of more cost-efficient abatement strategies to improve air quality. This review focuses on the importance of different particle properties for PM-induced effects, and whether there is consistency in the results from epidemiological and experimental studies. An evident problem for

P E Schwarze; J Øvrevik; M Låg; M Refsnes; P Nafstad; R B Hetland; E Dybing

2006-01-01

353

Targeting the components most responsible for airborne particulate matter health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) causes more mortality and morbidity than any other regulated environmental pollutant, but PM is ill defined (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2004). Although regulations to protect people from PM have progressively improved, the ultimate goal is to identify the components most responsible for adverse effects so regulations can be more targeted.

Morton Lippmann

2010-01-01

354

40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter (PM-10...On September 14, 1988, the Governor of Hawaii submitted a revision to the State...the PM-10 Group III SIP. (b) The Hawaii Department of Health has committed...

2013-07-01

355

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE FRACTIONATED AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT CITIES IN THE USA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with dose dependent increases in mortality and morbidity in the exposed population. While most of the early reports focused on PM10, independent studies are now showing that ...

356

Regional variations in particulate matter composition and the ability of monitoring data to represent population exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that relative risks for mortality associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations vary with location in the U.S. with larger associations in both magnitude and strength observed in the East compared to the West. Two factors potentially contributing to the regional heterogeneity in PM-mortality associations observed are regional variations in PM composition and the ability of

J. Allen Davis; Qingyu Meng; Jason D. Sacks; Steven J. Dutton; William E. Wilson; Joseph P. Pinto

2011-01-01

357

Methods for Bias Reduction in Time-Series Studies of Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cities of the United States, measurements of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM) are available only every sixth day. Time-series studies conducted in these cities that investigate the relationship between mortality and PM are restricted to using a single day's PM as the measure of PM exposure, rather than using measurements taken over several consecutive days. Studies showed

Steven Roberts; Michael A. Martin

2007-01-01

358

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

359

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

360

THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY: PM MASS CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently performed the Research Triangle Park Particulate Matter Panel Study. This was a one-year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving participants living within the RTP area of North Carolina. Primary goals were t...

361

Trace metal adsorption onto urban stream suspended particulate matter (Auckland region, New Zealand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal adsorption to suspended particulate matter (SPM) influences bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals in natural waters. For highly contaminated urban catchments in the greater Auckland (New Zealand) area, trace metal adsorption to SPM was assessed and compared to similar data from non-urban catchments in the Auckland region, to determine whether there was any difference in the ability of

Rebecca L. Bibby; Jenny G. Webster-Brown

2006-01-01

362

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-229 Dayton, D.P., and Bursey, J.T. Source Sampling Fine Particulate Matter: Wood-fired Industrial Boiler. EPA-600/R- 01/106, Available: NTIS.10/29/2001 The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitato...

363

Source apportionment of suspended particulate matter at two traffic junctions in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is observed at traffic junctions in India. Factor analysis-multiple regression (FA-MR), a receptor modelling technique has been used for quantitative apportionment of the sources contributing to the SPM at two traffic junctions (Sakinaka and Gandhinagar) in Mumbai, India. Varimax rotated factor analysis identified (qualitative) five possible sources; road dust, vehicular emissions, marine

A. Vinod Kumar; R. S Patil; K. S. V Nambi

2001-01-01

364

On-Road measurement of particulate matter emissions from vehicles: particle concentration, size distribution and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer 2010, we conducted a field experiment in Southern Michigan to measure on-road vehicle emissions. During the campaign, particulate matter (PM) concentrations were monitored with a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) and transmissometer system. The Lidar and transmissometer system measures PM mass concentration of vehicle exhaust using backscatter and extinction of an ultraviolet laser beam directed across the road.

N. Salvadori; S. China; J. Cook; H. D. Kuhns; H. Moosmuller; C. Mazzoleni

2010-01-01

365

Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM) component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles

Jesus A Araujo; Andre E Nel

2009-01-01

366

Biogeochemistry of organic matter in Lake Geneva: I — particulate hydrocarbons as biogenic and anthropogenic molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter in Lake Geneva at a central station (SHL2), was carried out at key periods of the biological cycles from November 1985 to September 1986. The seasonal variability of particulate hydrocarbons was studied in the epilimnion and the hypolimnion, focusing on specific periods such as high phytoplankton productivity and rising herbivorous zooplankton activity

Pierre Scribe; Jean-Sulpice Ngoumbi-Nzouzi; Christine Fuché; Claude Pèpe; Alain Saliot

1990-01-01

367

DIRECT PERSONAL COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA ADULT ASTHMA AND ENVIRONMENT STUDY.  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype coarse particulate matter PM(10-2.5) monitor was field evaluated as part of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES). The NCAAES was designed to evaluate if airway and blood inflammatory markers in moderate asthmatic adults vary with changes in ...

368

Toxicological Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Derived from the Destruction of the World Trade Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the experiments described in this report was to evaluate the toxicity of fine particulate matter (PM) derived from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on the respiratory tract of mice, and thereby contribute to the short-term healt...

2002-01-01

369

Feasibility of High Volume Sampling for Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Trace Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the high volume sampling method (HVS) in extended control networks for the routine determination of total suspended particulate matter and trace metals, particularly traffic lead, has been explored.The HVS coarse particle sampling effectiveness obtained in wind tunnel studies Is assumed to be indicative of the effectiveness under typical ambient meteorological conditions.For TSP, available data indicate the mass

A. van der Meulen; P. Hofschreuder; J. F. van de Vate; F. Oeseburg

1984-01-01

370

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH PLASMINOGEN AND FIBRIOGEN LEVELS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recent reports indicate that the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to fine and coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected via airway inflammation. We investigated whether mark...

371

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of 2 particle sizes in 344 air samples over 86 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um outpoint or with a 2.5-um outpoint. ...

372

Investigations of Atmospheric Trace Gases and Suspended Particulate Matter on Mount Olympus, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atmospheric CO2, water vapor, net oxidant, and suspended particulate matter were measured at the Blue glacier field station, Mount Olympus, Washington, during the summer of 1966. Diurnal variations of CO2, net oxidant, and water vapor are related to mount...

J. J. Kelley

1968-01-01

373

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-02-17

374

Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) (Second Addendum): Assessment of Newly Available Health Effects Information. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second addendum to the Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides evaluates and assesses new scientific information that have emerged since 1982 and their implications for derivation of health-related criteria for particulate matter...

1986-01-01

375

Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. PMID:23831797

Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

2013-07-04

376

Nature of particulate organic matter in the River Indus, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediments from the Indus River collected during 1981 through 1983 were analyzed for POC and its constituent fractions including amino acids, amino sugars and sugars. Percentage of POC decreased with increasing suspended matter concentrations, which suggested dilution of organic matter by mineral matter. The concentrations of amino acids, amino sugars and sugars varied, respectively, between 180 and 2000 g/l, 5 and 125 g/l, and 60 and 1100 g/l. Their contributions to POC varied between 2 and 60% for amino acids and amino sugars, and between 2 and 15% for sugars. They were high during low sediment discharge (February to June), and low during high sediment discharge (August and September). Suspended sediments associated with high sediment discharge periods were characterized by low ratios of: 1. (i) aspartic acid: -alanine 2. (ii) glutamic acid: -aminobutyric acid 3. (iii) amino acids:amino sugars 4. (iv) hexoses:pentoses. These and the relative distribution pattern of the monosaccharides such as galactose, arabinose, mannose and xylose indicated that, not only dilution, but also differences in the sources and processes affect the POC transport in the Indus River. These result in transport of biodegraded organic matter during high sediment discharge periods: this appears to be common to other major rivers of the region, with depositional centers in deep sea areas. These rivers, with their high sediment loads, could contribute up to 8 to 11% of the global annual organic carbon burial in marine sediments.

Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Arain, Rafee

1986-08-01

377

ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within {+-} 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -8} soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10{sup -6} at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor suggest that the flame is lifted at zero swirl allowing O{sub 2} to be entrained and that the flame protrudes further down the reactor explaining the lower soot values measured. An evaluation of the potential for using this measurement technique on full scale boilers suggests that attenuation of the signal across a larger boiler distance is the largest obstacle. The beam would be expected to become completely attenuated under moderate sooting conditions; however, the longer pathlength would improve the ability of the method to measure very small amounts of soot escaping the main combustion zone.

Dale R. Tree

1999-09-01

378

Particulate organic matter in the northwest East China Sea: Implications from amino acids enantiomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north west East China Sea along the main land coast of China is an important region under the strong influence of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. It is a main pathway for the particulate matter of the Changjiang travelling to the open ocean. An investigation was carried out in this interesting region north in May, 2007. Besides common parameters such as pH, nutrients, organic carbon and particulate nitrogen (PN), particulate amino acids enantiomers (PAA) were analyzed for all the surface samples and two typical sections. As influenced by strong terrestrial input, nutrients (e.g. dissolved inorganic nitrogen) in the surface increased much when closing the river mouth. Total suspended matter (TSM) concentrated in region close to the river mouth and around Zhoushan Archipelago, which then quickly decreased seawards. PN and PAA ranged from 0.6-7.8 ?mol/L and 0.46-5.53 ?mol/L, respectively. Elevated PAA concentration can be found along TSM front area. Asx, Glx and Gly were the main amino acids contributors. D-enantiomers accounts for 2%-7.6% of total PAA, indicating the activities of microbial activities. Relatively higher Degradation index (DI) suggests that particulate matter in this region is fresh, relative to other regions in the world.

Zhu, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.

2012-04-01

379

Biochemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Suspended Particulate Matter Over a Tidal Flat of Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal fluctuations in the biochemical composition of the suspended particulate matter were followed during 2 years in a tidal flat of southern Chile. The suspended particulate matter load (seston) was highly dependent on tidal resuspension and primary productivity. Variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the seston were primarily associated with the periods of high and low standing stocks observed in this environment. Their seasonal trends were very similar and highly correlated with those described for other components of the seston, such as organic matter, chlorophyll ? and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. The nutritional quality of the seston was expressed by a food index calculated on the base of the ratio of food material (lipid + carbohydrate + protein) to total seston. This index was negatively correlated with the inorganic fraction of the seston. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best model to explain the variation of the food index included the inorganic fraction of the seston and the particulate organic nitrogen, which together accounted for 85%. The results suggest that the gross analysis of the seston (organic and inorganic fractions) cannot describe fully its nutritive value and a detailed analysis of the biochemical composition is recommended to achieve a better understanding of the quality of the diet available to filter-feeders.

Navarro, J. M.; Clasing, E.; Urrutia, G.; Asencio, G.; Stead, R.; Herrera, C.

1993-07-01

380

Apparatus for removing particulate matter from an atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A compact apparatus for removing harmful particulate contaminants from the air in a work space includes a nozzle for atomizing water. The nozzle is connected to a supply of compressed air and to a supply of water, e.g., an ordinary water tap or storage tank. The apparatus also includes a metal ring and a power supply coupled to the ring to charge atomized water inductively as the water is expelled from the nozzle. A collar supports the ring in fixed, spaced-apart relation adjacent the nozzle. The collar is constructed, at least in part, from a nonconductive plastic, such as nylon, to avoid shorting of the power supply. Additionally, the collar includes a compressed air supply passage for introducing a stream of air into the collar. This air flows past the nozzle and the ring to prevent accumulation of water on the ring and collar and the electrical shorting which may result therefrom. Additionally, the stream of air minimizes degradation of the electrical charge on the fog of atomized water which would otherwise result from the addition thereto of oppositely charged water particles originating from the accumulation of water on the ring.

Hoenig, S.A.; Smart, W.L.

1980-02-26

381

Comparison of methods for online measurement of diesel particulate matter.  

PubMed

Gravimetric analysis is the regulatory method for diesel particulate mass measurement. Because of issues such as adsorption/volatilization artifacts, it faces obstacles in measuring ultra low level emissions from modern diesel engines. Alternative methods of suspended particle mass measurement have been developed that show improvements in time resolution, sensitivity, and accuracy. Three size-resolved methods were considered here. Two methods rely on converting number size distributions obtained using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Conversion techniques were based on effective density measurements and the Lall-Friedlander aggregate model. The third method employs the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer (UNPA) to measure the aggregate size distribution from which mass is calculated. Results were compared with mass concentrations obtained using gravimetric analysis. The effective density conversion resulted in mass concentrations that were highly correlated (R(2) >0.99) with filter mass. The ratios to filter mass concentration were found to be 0.99 ± 0.04, 0.45 ± 0.03, and 0.45 ± 0.19 for the effective density conversion, the Lall-Friedlander conversion, and the UNPA, respectively, for a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the diesel aerosol mass distributions measured by the online techniques are in agreement to within 15-20% with respect to the mass median diameter, while discrepancies were observed in the mass concentration. PMID:22568856

Liu, Zhun; Swanson, Jacob; Kittelson, David B; Pui, David Y H

2012-05-21

382

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 ?g/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

383

College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter Across Reaction Types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been attributed to this struggle in developing conceptual understanding, for example, the abstract nature of the subject and concepts, the fact that most teaching and assessments focus on algorithmic understanding of content, and a missing connections to students' everyday lives. This semester-long grounded theory study examined college level general chemistry students' conceptual understanding of the particulate nature of matter across three different types of reactions. Students were asked to balance the chemical equations, and then draw particulate representations of the reactions. A sample of 10 participants was interviewed to probe for their understanding of underlying chemistry concepts represented by the equations and their particulate drawings. The study sought to compare students' understanding at the symbolic and particulate levels, look at trends across the different reactions, how the trends changed over the semester, and to reveal struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. Analysis of the results shows that there is a gap between students' understanding at the particulate and symbolic levels, inconsistency in students' understanding across the three chemical reactions over the course of the semester, and struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. This study reinforces the need to teach and assess for conceptual understanding, not just in chemistry, but in other subject areas as well. Suggestions for teaching and research are also made.

Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

384

Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars and bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid (Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter (POM) of the Mandovi estuary. SPM was collected from 9 sampling stations in the Mandovi estuary during the pre-monsoon (March) and monsoon (August). Total particulate amino sugar (TPAS) concentrations and yields varied spatially and were 2 to 5 times higher during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon. Negative correlation between salinity and TPAS-C yields [TPAS-C/particulate organic carbon (POC)×100] indicates the influence of terrestrial organic matter on the transport of TPAS-carbon. Glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), and mannosamine (ManN) were abundant during the monsoon. Low GlcN/GalN ratios (<3) indicate bacteria as the major source of amino sugars. Higher amino sugar yields and lower GlcN/GalN ratios during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon indicate enhanced transformation and greater bacterial contribution to POM during the former season. Degradation trends observed with TPAS were well supported by those obtained with carbohydrates and amino acids. Based on Mur concentrations, bacteria accounted for 24% to 35% of the POC and 24% to 62% of the total particulate nitrogen (TPN). Intact bacterial cells, however accounted for a small proportion of POC (2.5% to 4%) and TPN (9% to 11%). Our study suggests that POM was subjected to extensive diagenetic transformation, and its composition was influenced by bacteria, especially during the monsoon.

Khodse, Vishwas B.; Bhosle, Narayan B.

2013-10-01

385

Sources and Chemical Evolution of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds make up a significant fraction of the total composition of atmospheric particles with a diameter of 2.5 mum or less (PM2.5 ) at location throughout the world and seasons throughout the entire year. An understanding of the entire atmospheric PM2.5 system is thus dependent on an adequate understanding of the sources, properties and fate of organic compounds. These species exist in equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase. The fraction of the total mass present in each phase is governed by the volatility of individual species. A variety of emission activities are responsible for injecting this organic mass into the atmosphere including vehicle use, biomass burning, energy generation, industrial processing and plat emissions among other sources. After this initial emission atmospheric oxidants may modify the properties of these compounds, especially their volatility, thereby shifting the equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase and causing condensation or evaporation. This thesis focuses on modeling these complex phenomena in a chemical transport model (CTM) of the atmosphere. We employ the volatility basis set (VBS) in the CTM, PMCAMx-2008, and evaluate it against ambient measurements. While taking into account recent findings about the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosol (POA) and the multigenerational OH oxidation of the vapors in equilibrium with primary as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), we find the model to perform reasonably well for a summertime simulation of the Eastern US (fractional error ? 52% and |fractional bias| ? 30%) for all sites compared. With this acceptably performing model, we explore the source-receptor relationships of organic aerosol (OA). A three US sites (Pittsburgh, PA; Duke Forest, NC; and New York, NY), and one European site (Paris, FR) the bulk OA behaves very much as a regional pollutant with average transport distances of about 100-500 km before arriving at the receptors. The model is also used to calculate the average age of OA species, which is found to be close to 10 hours for POA throughout the entire simulation period and 20-50 hours for SOA with high variability. An analysis of the average transport distance and age of OA as a function of volatility shows that trends are variable and dependent on proximity to sources, even for the relatively simple aging mechanism employed. A budget analysis was performed for the Eastern US simulation in order to constrain the total OA formation predicted by PMCAMx-2008 given its good agreement with observations. This value, 21.6 ktons d-1, is probed with a suite of sensitivity tests exploring the robustness of this result. The most influential process is found to be the OA aging mechanism, as different configurations change the production rate within a range of a factor of 4. Interestingly, there are several aging configurations that make different fundamental assumptions but yield similar model performance. The VBS is then extended to track the elemental ratio of oxygen to carbon atoms in order to better constrain the chemical mechanism and evaluate with ambient data. The module is first implemented into a reduced-scale Lagrangian transport model and evaluated for one site in Europe with high photochemical activity. A simple aging scheme is employed and the model is found to reproduce both the OA mass concentration and O:C at the surface. Comparison of the volatility distribution predicted to thermodenuder measurements showed that the model is within reason, given the high degree of uncertainty in the thermodenuder model itself. This analysis is extended to treat multiple sites and seasons to evaluate the ability of the module to correctly reproduce the variability in O:C seen in the atmosphere. The base-case module (with simple aging chemistry) performed well, but when detailed chemistry was implemented, the model overpredicted OA loadings and underpredicted O:C. This is because the detailed chemical mechanism includes a greater shift in volatility that is more representative of the ad

Murphy, Benjamin Neel

386

Nutrients and particulate organic matter discharged by the Changjiang (Yangtze River): Seasonal variations and temporal trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From September 2009 to August 2010, intensive monthly sampling of nutrients was conducted at two stations at the mouth of the Changjiang (Yangtze River). Particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and their stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) were also measured in selected samples of all months. Most nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, ammonia, and nitrite) as well as POC, PN, and ?13C displayed peak values when the highest or lowest Changjiang monthly discharges occurred, suggesting the Changjiang discharges strongly influence the seasonal variations of these chemicals. The sharply increases in concentrations of ammonia and nitrite in winter probably suggest nitrification was greatly depressed during this cold period. Using five interpolation methods, the annual discharge fluxes of nutrients, POC, and PN from the Changjiang to the East China Sea shelf were calculated. Combining this nutrient data with data from previous studies, the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, in which the influence of seasonal variation was considered, suggests concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the Changjiang have significantly increased during recent decades at rates of 2.2?M yr-1 and 0.03 ?M yr-1, respectively; no significant trend for silicate was noted. Decreased POC annual fluxes along with sharply decreased suspended particulate matter yields were also seen in recent years (1993-2010). However, no distinct changes of ?13C, ?15N, and the POC/PN ratio, which describe the particulate organic matter properties, were observed during this period.

Gao, Lei; Li, Daoji; Zhang, Yanwei

2012-12-01

387

A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

388

Origins of atmospheric particulate matter over the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ANT VII/1 cruise of the RV Polarstern from Bremerhaven (Germany) to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), atmospheric particulate matter was collected by bulk filtration with a time step of 36 hours. Elemental analyses were performed in order to determine atmospheric aerosol concentrations of Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Zn over the North Sea, the Channel, and the North and South Atlantic. The slight and continuous moving in latitude, associated with the large variability in concentration levels and chemical composition, allow us to point out the relative influence of the major sources of particulate matter: desert soil-dust in the tropical North Atlantic, anthropogenic emissions in the North Sea and the Channel, and biomass burning and continental biogenic activity in the tropical South Atlantic.

Losno, R.; Bergametti, G.; Carlier, P.

1992-11-01

389

Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

2013-02-01

390

Evaluation of a Portable Photometer for Estimating Diesel Particulate Matter Concentrations in an Underground Limestone Mine  

PubMed Central

A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-?m impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated with diesel emissions. The calibration factor corrected correlation coefficient (R2) between the underground TC and photometer measurements was 0.93. The main issues holding back the use of a photometer for real-time estimation of DPM in an underground mine are the removal of non-DPM-associated particulate matter from the aerosol stream using devices, such as a cyclone and/or impactor and calibration of the photometer to mine-specific aerosol.

Watts, Winthrop F.; Gladis, David D.; Schumacher, Matthew F.; Ragatz, Adam C.; Kittelson, David B.

2010-01-01

391

Comparison of Different Gas-Phase Mechanisms and Aerosol Modules for Simulating Particulate Matter Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms, Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism version 2 (RACM2) and Carbon-Bond 05 (CB05), and two secondary organic aerosol (SOA) modules, the Secondary Organic Aerosoi Model (SORGAM) and AER\\/EPRI\\/Caltech model (AEC), on fine (aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5) formation is studied. The major sources of uncertainty in the chemistry of SOA formation are

Youngseob Kim; Florian Couvidat; Karine Sartelet; Christian Seigneur

2011-01-01

392

Estimation on dynamic release of phosphorus from wind-induced suspended particulate matter in Lake Taihu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through man-made disturbance experiments, the corresponding relationships between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and wind\\u000a speed in different lake areas were simu lated, the physicochemical formal transformation and biological mineralizing and decaying\\u000a processes of phosphorus in SPM were studied, the contribution of phosphorus transformation to phosphorus loading of the water\\u000a of Lake Taihu was quantitatively estimated. The results show that about

Chengxin Fan; Lu Zhang; Boqiang Qin; Sumin Wang; Weiping Hu; Chen Zhang

2004-01-01

393

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb?Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM10) was significant and data on PM10?bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM10 ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM10?bound

Hassan A. Nasrallah

1993-01-01

394

Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5?m) and separated them into ambient and nonambient components. The personal

Chang-Fu Wu; Ralph J. Delfino; Joshua N. Floro; Penelope J. E. Quintana; Behzad S. Samimi; Michael T. Kleinman; Ryan W. Allen; L.-J. Sally Liu

2005-01-01

395

Learning difficulties associated with the particulate theory of matter in the Scottish Integrated Science course  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThe application of general theories about pupils’ learning to specific courses may be helpful to teachers, but in order to assist teachers and course developers practically it is also necessary to identify pupils’ specific learning difficulties. This paper describes some investigations, using criterion?referenced measurement, into learning difficulties with a particulate theory of matter in the Scottish Integrated Science Course.Results indicate

Alison C. Mitchell; Steuart H. Kellington

1982-01-01

396

Dilution sampling and analysis of particulate matter in biomass-derived syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical biomass gasification, followed by conversion of the produced syngas to fuels and electrical power, is a promising\\u000a energy alternative. Real-world characterization of particulate matter (PM) and other contaminants in the syngas is important\\u000a to minimize damage and ensure efficient operation of the engines it powers and the fuels created from it. A dilution sampling\\u000a system is demonstrated to quantify

Xiaoliang Wang; Curtis Robbins; S. Kent Hoekman; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Dennis Schuetzle

397

Size and Composition Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions: Part 2—Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer\\/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested

Michael A. Robert; Michael J. Kleeman; Christopher A. Jakober

2007-01-01

398

Influence of Season and Location on Pulmonary Response to California's San Joaquin Valley Airborne Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Season and location have documented impacts on particulate matter (PM)-induced morbidity and mortality. Seasonal and regional influences on the physical and chemical properties of PM2.5 (also known as fine\\/ultrafine PM) contribute to differences in exposure burden and adverse respiratory health outcomes experienced in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), which ranks among the worst in the nation for PM pollution. Current

Laurel E. Plummer; Walter Ham; Michael J. Kleeman; Anthony Wexler; Kent E. Pinkerton

2012-01-01

399

Sulfation of calcitic and dolomitic lime mortars in the presence of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulfation of four types of calcitic and dolomitic lime mortars exposed to SO2 in the presence of particulate matter from diesel vehicle exhaust emissions has been investigated. The binders mineralogy and mortars texture are the main factors influencing the formation of deleterious sulfate salts. The type of binder also influences the pore size distribution and the total porosity of the mortars: for equal aggregate (quartz or dolomite), dolomitic lime mortars have smaller pores and higher porosity than calcitic ones. During the first 24 h exposure to SO2, calcitic lime mortars undergo a higher weight increase than dolomitic ones due to rapid formation of gypsum on their surface. However, at the end of the sulfation test (10 days), dolomitic mortars show a higher weight increase due to massive formation of epsomite and gypsum, which is facilitated by their higher porosity and the high reactivity of Mg phases in the porous and partially carbonated binder. Control samples (not covered with diesel particulate matter) also develop calcium and magnesium sulfates upon long term exposure to SO2. This is due to the presence of uncarbonated Ca and Mg hydroxides that promote SO2 fixation as sulfates. However, the amount and size of sulfate crystals are significantly smaller than those observed on samples covered with diesel particulate matter. These results show that diesel particulate matter enhances the sulfation of lime mortars and demonstrate that sulfation of dolomitic lime is an important mechanism for the in situ formation of highly soluble and deleterious hydrated magnesium sulfates (epsomite and hexahydrite). The use of dolomitic limes in the conservation of monuments exposed to air pollution in urban environments may therefore pose a significant risk.

Cultrone, G.; Arizzi, A.; Sebastián, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

2008-12-01

400

Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background) were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802) and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 ?g) did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%), endothelin-1 (20–40%), and metallothionein-II (20–40%) mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p < 0.05), validating delivery of a biologically-effective dose. Despite detection of striking genotype-related differences, including activation of immune and inflammatory pathways consistent with the TNF-induced pathology, and time-related effects attributable to stress from nose-only exposure, microarray analysis failed to identify effects of the inhaled particles. Remarkably, the presence of chronic inflammation did not measurably amplify the transcriptional response to particulate matter. Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

Thomson, Errol M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Vincent, Renaud

2009-01-01

401

Comparing exposure metrics for the effects of fine particulate matter on emergency hospital admissions.  

PubMed

A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in the relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information, which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk. PMID:23942393

Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

2013-08-14

402

Sulfation of calcitic and dolomitic lime mortars in the presence of diesel particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfation of four types of calcitic and dolomitic lime mortars exposed to SO2 in the presence of particulate matter from diesel vehicle exhaust emissions has been investigated. The binders mineralogy\\u000a and mortars texture are the main factors influencing the formation of deleterious sulfate salts. The type of binder also influences\\u000a the pore size distribution and the total porosity of

G. Cultrone; A. Arizzi; E. Sebastián; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2008-01-01

403

Fate of the Evros River suspended particulate matter in the northern Aegean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evros River is the most important river flowing into the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) in terms of freshwater discharge,\\u000a and the second largest one of Eastern Europe after the Danube River. Salinity and temperature measurements, together with\\u000a suspended particulate matter concentrations were obtained in various depths at 14 stations in the adjacent Alexandroupolis\\u000a Gulf during four seasons (June 1998,

Theodore D. Kanellopoulos; Michael O. Angelidis; Dimitrios Georgopoulos; Aristomenis P. Karageorgis

2009-01-01

404

Promoting high school students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter through multiple representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study mainly explored the efficacy of the two instructional interventions, namely Reform-Based Teaching with Multiple Representations (RBTw\\/MR) and Reform-Based Teaching (RBT) on stimulating change in students' conceptual understandings of the particulate nature of matter (PNM) and maintaining those scientific understandings constructed during the instruction over a three-month period. In this context, this study also examined the RBTw\\/MR and RBT

Emine Adadan

2006-01-01

405

STUDENTS’ CONCEPTIONS OF THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER AT SECONDARY AND TERTIARY LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to elicit students’ understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study\\u000a ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered\\u000a to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can be deduced that the number\\u000a of

Alipasa Ayas; Haluk Özmen; Muammer Çalik

2010-01-01

406

Assessment of the sources of suspended particulate matter aerosol using US EPA PMF 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a source apportionment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples using\\u000a positive matrix factorization procedure. The central and local Government of Japan introduced strict emission regulations\\u000a in 2002\\/10 and 2003\\/10, respectively, in curbing SPM pollution from major metropolitans. This paper also highlighted the impact\\u000a of the measures taken by the central

Koichiro Hirano; Shigeki Masunaga

407

Base camp personnel exposure to particulate matter during wildland fire suppression activities.  

PubMed

Wildland fire base camps commonly house thousands of support personnel for weeks at a time. The selection of the location of these base camps is largely a strategic decision that incorporates many factors, one of which is the potential impact of biomass smoke from the nearby fire event. Biomass smoke has many documented adverse health effects due, primarily, to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Minimizing particulate matter exposure to potentially susceptible individuals working as support personnel in the base camp is vital. In addition to smoke from nearby wildland fires, base camp operations have the potential to generate particulate matter via vehicle emissions, dust, and generator use. We monitored particulate matter at three base camps during the fire season of 2009 in Washington, Oregon, and California. During the sampling events, 1-min time-weighted averages of PM(2.5) and particle counts from three size fractions (0.3-0.5 microns, 0.5-1.0 microns, and 1.0-2.5 microns) were measured. Results showed that all PM size fractions (as well as overall PM(2.5) concentrations) were higher during the overnight hours, a trend that was consistent at all camps. Our results provide evidence of camp-based, site-specific sources of PM(2.5) that could potentially exceed the contributions from the nearby wildfire. These exposures could adversely impact wildland firefighters who sleep in the camp, as well as the camp support personnel, who could include susceptible individuals. A better understanding of the sources and patterns of poor air quality within base camps would help to inform prevention strategies to reduce personnel exposures. PMID:22364357

McNamara, Marcy L; Semmens, Erin O; Gaskill, Steven; Palmer, Charles; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

2012-01-01

408

Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at labs in New Zealand and Mexico and will be incorporated in a near future.

Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.

2001-12-01

409

Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest\\u000a threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main\\u000a source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements\\u000a can

Odón R. Sánchez-Ccoyllo; Rita Y. Ynoue; Leila D. Martins; Rosana Astolfo; Regina M. Miranda; Edmilson D. Freitas; Alessandro S. Borges; Adalgiza Fornaro; Helber Freitas; Andréa Moreira; Maria F. Andrade

2009-01-01

410

Particulate matter in exhaled breath condensate: A promising indicator of environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the retention of aerosol particles in the human lung, one of the most important pathways of absorption, is a demanding issue. At present, there is no direct biomarker of exposure for the respiratory system. The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) constitutes a new non-invasive method for sampling from the lung. However, the heterogeneity of the sample due to particulate matter suspended in the condensed phase may influence the quality of analytical results in occupational assessments.The main objective of the study was to confirm the presence of particulate matter in the condensate, to investigate how large the particles in suspension could be and to determine their elemental contents relative to those of EBC matrix.This paper reports on preliminary nuclear microprobe data of particulate matter in EBC. The sizes and the elemental contents of particles suspended in EBC of workers of a lead processing industry and in EBC of non-exposed individuals were inspected. Results demonstrated that EBC of workers contain large aerosol particles, isolated and in agglomerates, contrasting with non-exposed individuals. The particles contained high concentrations of Cl, Ca, Zn and Pb that are elements associated to the production process. These elements were also present in the EBC matrix although in much lower levels, suggesting that a fraction of the inhaled particulate matter was solubilised or their size-ranges were below the nuclear microprobe resolution. Therefore, the morphological characterization of individual particles achieved with nuclear microprobe techniques helped describing EBC constituents in detail, to comprehend their origin and enabled to delineate methodological procedures that can be recommended in occupational assessments. These aspects are critical to the validation of EBC as a biomarker of exposure to metals for the respiratory system.

Pinheiro, Teresa; Alexandra Barreiros, M.; Alves, Luis C.; Felix, Pedro M.; Franco, Cristiana; Sousa, Joana; Almeida, S. M.

2011-10-01

411

Simulations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during an eight-day episode (24 to 31 August 2000) is conducted in association with the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) and the Houston Supersite Project using the EPA's Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and major chemical constituents during the episode are calculated and compared with

Jiwen Fan; Renyi Zhang; Guohui Li; John Nielsen-Gammon; Zhanqing Li

2005-01-01

412

The indirect effect of fine particulate matter on health through individuals' life-style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited literature has been published on the association between environmental health indicators, life-style habits and ambient air pollution. We have examined the association of asthma prevalence and the amount of health investment with daily mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) in 16 metropolitan areas in U.S. using the Behavioral

Cinzia Di Novi

2010-01-01

413

Modelling of particulate matter mass emissions from a light-duty diesel vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution and studies have shown that exposure to the particulate matter in fresh diesel exhaust is a significant risk to health. Short-term peak exposures are thought to have the greatest impact. Despite the development of several vehicle power-based models to estimate the second-by-second mass emission rates of gaseous pollutant species

Robin J. North; Robert B. Noland; Washington Y. Ochieng; John W. Polak

2006-01-01

414

The Indirect Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Health through Individuals' Life-style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited literature has been published on the association between environmental health indicators, life-style habits and ambient air pollution. We have examined the association of asthma prevalence and the amount of health investment with daily mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM25) in 16 metropolitan areas in U.S. using the Behavioral

Cinzia Di Novi

2011-01-01

415

Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: An assessment within a personal exposure study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM10 and PM2.5 organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three

Oussama R. Abou Chakra; Michel Joyeux; Eléna Nerrière; Marie-Pierre Strub; Denis Zmirou-Navier

2007-01-01

416

Comparing Exposure Metrics for the Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions  

PubMed Central

A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete, but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk.

Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H. Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

2013-01-01

417

Real-Time Measurements of Nonmetallic Fine Particulate Matter Adjacent to a Major Integrated Steelworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A campaign took place in Wales (UK) in the spring of 2006 to characterize emissions from a major steelworks through atmospheric measurements. At no time during the measurements was the 24-h air quality standard for PM10 exceeded. However, real-time measurements of single particles by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) allowed detection of particulate matter from the steelworks, which could be

Manuel Dall’Osto; Frank Drewnick; Ray Fisher; Roy M. Harrison

2012-01-01

418

REAL-TIME MEASUREMENTS OF NON METALLIC FINE PARTICULATE MATTER ADJACENT TO A MAJOR INTEGRATED STEELWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A campaign took place in Wales (UK) during in the spring of 2006 to characterise emissions from a major steelworks through atmospheric measurements. At no time during the measurements was the 24-h air quality standard for PM10 exceeded. However, real-time measurements of single particles by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) allowed detection of particulate matter from the steelworks which could

M. Dall’Osto; F. Drewnick; R. Fisher; R. M. Harrison

2012-01-01

419

Exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse\\u000a birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation).\\u000a We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between\\u000a maternal exposure to particulate matter with

Amir Sapkota; Adam P. Chelikowsky; Keeve E. Nachman; Aaron J. Cohen; Beate Ritz

420

Behavior of different phosphorus species in suspended particulate matter in the Changjiang estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary in June 2006 was separated into five\\u000a fractions via water elutriation: clay-very fine silt (<8 µm), fine silt (8–16 µm), medium silt (16–32 µm), coarse silt (32-63\\u000a µm) and sand (>63 µm). The SPM and fractionated particles were sequentially analyzed by a modified SEDEX sequential extraction\\u000a method to obtain

Huijun He; Hongtao Chen; Qingzhen Yao; Yanwen Qin; Tiezhu Mi; Zhigang Yu

2009-01-01

421

Investigating the effect of ballasting by CaCO 3 in Emiliania huxleyi, II: Decomposition of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative relationship between organic carbon and mineral contents of particles sinking below 1800 m in the ocean indicates that organisms with mineral shells such as coccolithophores are of special importance for transporting carbon into the deep sea. Several hypotheses about the mechanism behind this relationship between minerals and organic matter have been raised, such as mineral protection of organic matter or enhanced sinking rates through ballast addition. We examined organic matter decomposition of calcifying and non-calcifying Emiliania huxleyi cultures in an experiment that allowed aggregation and settling in rotating tanks. Biogenic components such as particulate carbon, particulate nitrogen, particulate volume, pigments, transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), and particulate amino acids in suspended particles and aggregates were followed over a period of 30 d. The overall pattern of decrease in organic matter, the amount of recalcitrant organic matter left after 30 d, and the compositional changes within particulate organic matter indicated that cells without a shell are more subject to loss than calcified cells. It is suggested that biogenic calcite helps in the preservation of particulate organic matter (POM) by offering structural support for organic molecules. Over the course of the experiment, half the particulate organic carbon in both calcifying and non-calcifying cultures was partitioned into aggregates and remained so until the end of the experiment. The partial protection of particulate organic matter from solubilization by biominerals and by aggregation that was observed in our experiment may help explain the robustness of the relationship between organic and mineral matter fluxes in the deep ocean.

Engel, Anja; Abramson, Lynn; Szlosek, Jennifer; Liu, Zhanfei; Stewart, Gillian; Hirschberg, David; Lee, Cindy

2009-08-01

422

Apportionment of Ambient Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory Particulate Matter Characterization Site Using Positive Matrix Factorization and a Potential Source Contributions Function Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method

Donald V. Martello; Natalie J. Pekney; Richard R. Anderson; Cliff I. Davidson; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; William F. Christensen; Nolan F. Mangelson; Delbert J. Eatough; Saqib Mukhtar; Atilla Mutlu; Sergio Capareda; Calvin Parnell; Andrew Rutter; Katy Hanford; Jaime Zwers; Anthony Perillo-Nicholas; James Schauer; Mark Olson; Paul Scott; Deborah Proctor; Yinka Afon; David Ervin; Li Wang; Praveen Kolar; James Kastner; Brian Herner; Yifang Zhu; David Fung; Nola Kennedy; William Hinds; Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez; David Stieb; Richard Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; Orly Brion; Hwashin Shin; Vanita Economou; Rich Cook; Vlad Isakov; Jawad Touma; William Benjey; James Thurman; Ellen Kinnee; Darrell Ensley

2008-01-01

423

Field Measurements of Particulate Matter Emissions, Carbon Monoxide, and Exhaust Opacity from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel particulate matter (PM) is a significant contributor to ambient air PM10 and PM2.5 particulate levels. In addition, recent literature argues that submicron diesel PM is a pulmonary health hazard. There is difficulty in attributing PM emissions to specific operating modes of a diesel engine, although it is acknowledged that PM production rises dramatically with load and that high PM

Nigel N. Clark; Ronald P. Jarrett; Christopher M. Atkinson

1999-01-01

424

Audio-Tutorial Elementary School Science Instruction as a Method for Study of Children's Concept Learning: Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The treatment group of first-graders received audio-tutorial instruction in the particulate nature of matter; the control group received audio-tutorial instruction in a nonscience subject. The treatment group used a particulate model to explain the nature of smells much more effectively than the control group. (MLH)|

Hibbard, K. Michael; Novak, Joseph D.

1975-01-01

425

Mineralization of particulate organic matter derived from coral-reef organisms in reef sediments of the Gulf of Aqaba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ and laboratory incubation experiments in a fringing reef in the Gulf of Aqaba were performed to study degradation rates of particulate organic matter in reef sediments. Coral mucus, clam eggs, and zooxanthellae were used as model particulate organic compounds for these experiments. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization rates were calculated by dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and O2 fluxes from

Mohammed Rasheed; Christian Wild; Carin Jantzen; Mohammed Badran

2006-01-01

426

Size distribution and source identification of total suspended particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the urban atmosphere of Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the atmospheric particulate size distribution of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations has been carried out for the city of Delhi. Urban particles were collected using a five-stage impactor at six sites in three different seasons, viz. winter, summer and monsoon in the year 2001. Five samples from each site in each season

Arun Srivastava; V. K. Jain

2007-01-01

427

Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of

HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

2005-01-01

428

Suspended particulate oxides and organic matter interactions in trace metal sorption reactions in a small urban river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative scavenging abilities of suspended particulate oxides (SPOX), and organic matter (SPOM) for Cd, Zn and Cu were evaluated in a small, anthropogenically influenced river. In addition, the factor most important in influencing the sorption density (Ad: metal concentration associated with a given phase divided by the concentration of that geochemical phase in the suspended particulate pool) of each

Lesley A. Warren; Ann P. Zimmerman

1994-01-01

429

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15

430

Estimating the mortality impacts of particulate matter: what can be learned from between-study variability?  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of the link between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and mortality rates have yielded a range of estimates, leading to disagreement about the magnitude of the relationship and the strength of the causal connection. Previous meta-analyses of this literature have provided pooled effect estimates, but have not addressed between-study variability that may be associated with analytical models, pollution patterns, and exposed populations. To determine whether study-specific factors can explain some of the variability in the time-series studies on mortality from particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), we applied an empirical Bayes meta-analysis. We estimate that mortality rates increase on average by 0.7% per 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) concentrations, with greater effects at sites with higher ratios of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5))/PM(10). This finding did not change with the inclusion of a number of potential confounders and effect modifiers, although there is some evidence that PM effects are influenced by climate, housing characteristics, demographics, and the presence of sulfur dioxide and ozone. Although further analysis would be needed to determine which factors causally influence the relationship between PM(10) and mortality, these findings can help guide future epidemiologic investigations and policy decisions. Images Figure 1

Levy, J I; Hammitt, J K; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

431

Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

1999-08-01

432

The concentrations of culturable microorganisms in relation to particulate matter in urban air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient air consists not only of gases but also of bioaerosols and particulate matter. The concentrations of particulate matter in relation to the culturable microorganisms in the urban ambient air and their dependence on air temperature and relative humidity were investigated. The seasonal distribution of particles sizes, the concentrations of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and xerophilic fungi in the air were evaluated. Moreover, the identification of the fungal genera Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were conducted.Within one year at 177 days particle and microorganism concentrations in the ambient air were recorded in the city centre of Graz/Austria.The results show that the concentrations of fine particles and coarse particles were the highest in winter and decreased continuously to a minimum in the summer months depending on temperature and air humidity. The concentrations of xerophilic fungi showed no correlation to the different particle concentrations. The spore concentrations of Cladosporium spp. showed the same results of xerophilic fungi whereas the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus increased with the increase of fine particles. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria were positively correlated with all particle counts. The maximum mesophilic bacteria concentrations were found in the winter months.Further studies are required to evaluate the concentrations of specific microorganisms in the natural environment in relation to the particulate matter.

Haas, D.; Galler, H.; Luxner, J.; Zarfel, G.; Buzina, W.; Friedl, H.; Marth, E.; Habib, J.; Reinthaler, F. F.

2013-02-01

433

EFFECTS OF INHALED COMBUSTION-DERIVED PARTICULATE MATTER ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and rates of morbidity and mortality; these correlations are further strengthened when limited to individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. While si...

434

Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Regional Haze Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides guidance on how to develop emission inventories to meet State Implementation Plan (SIP) requirements for complying with the 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS), the revised particulate matter (PM) NAAQS, and t...

2005-01-01

435

DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

436

ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

437

EFFECT OF SIZE AND CHEMISTRY OF AMBIENT, COMBUSTION AND SURROGATE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON PULMONARY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is much evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) can create adverse health effects including increased morbidity and mortality, the actual physico-chemical characteristics of particles which cause these effects remains elusive. One central hypothesis is that PM ...

438

RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

439

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL PROTEINS PHOSPHORYLATED IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple studies conducted by NHEERL scientists in recent years have shown that acute exposure to metals found associated with combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) alters phosphoprotein metabolism in human airway epithelial cells causing intracellular signaling. This disreg...

440

CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

441

Exposure to fine particulate matter and acute effects on blood pressure: effect modification by measures of obesity and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Observational studies and controlled experiments have provided evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) is capable of acutely increasing blood pressure (BP) in certain scenarios. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent obesity and community location affect relationships between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and blood pressure (BP) measures.Methods:Using data from a stratified random sample survey

S Kannan; J T Dvonch; A J Schulz; B A Israel; G Mentz; J House; P Max; A G Reyes

2010-01-01

442

Heavy Metal Content of Suspended Particulate Matter at World’s Largest ShipBreaking Yard, Alang-Sosiya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study vividly presents results from a seasonal particulate matter measurement campaign conducted at world’s largest ship-breaking\\u000a yard i.e., Alang-Sosiya (Gujarat, India) at six locations and a reference station at Gopnath which is 30 km south of this\\u000a ship-breaking yard. The collected suspended particulate matter (SPM) 24-h samples were critically analyzed for heavy metals\\u000a (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe,

Shaik Basha; Premsingh Mansingh Gaur; Ravikumar Bhagwan Thorat; Rohitkumar Harikrishna Trivedi; Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Nisha Anand; Shalin Hemantbhai Desai; Kalpana Haresh Mody; Bhavnath Jha

2007-01-01

443

Workgroup Report: Workshop on Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter Health Effects—Intercomparison of Results and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and human mortality is well established, the most responsible particle types\\/sources are not yet certain. In May 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Centers Program sponsored the Workshop on the Source Apportionment of PM Health Effects. The goal was to evaluate

George D. Thurston; Kazuhiko Ito; Therese Mar; William F. Christensen; Delbert J. Eatough; Ronald C. Henry; Eugene Kim; Francine Laden; Ramona Lall; Timothy V. Larson; Hao Liu; Lucas Neas; Joseph Pinto; Matthias Stölzel; Helen Suh; Philip K. Hopke

2005-01-01

444

Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71m gm 3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34m gm

G. S. W. Haglera; L. G. Salmonc; J. Z. Yud; E. C. H. Wand; M. Zhengb; L. M. Zenge; Y. H. Zhange; A. K. H. Lauf; J. J. Schauerg

445

Source apportionment of particulate matter at urban mixed site in Indonesia using PMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A receptor model of positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify the emission sources of fine and coarse particulates in Bandung, a city located at about 150 km south-east of Jakarta. Total of 367 samples were collected at urban mixed site, Tegalega area, in Bandung City during wet and dry season in the period of 2001-2007. The samples of fine and coarse particulate matter were collected simultaneously using dichotomous samplers and mini-volume samplers. The Samples from dichotomous Samplers were analyzed for black carbon and elements while samples from mini-volume samplers were analyzed for ions. The species analyzed in this study were Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+. The data were then analyzed using PMF to determine the source factors. Different numbers of source factors were found during dry and wet season. During dry season, the main source factors for fine particles were secondary aerosol (NH 4) 2SO 4, electroplating industry, vehicle emission, and biomass burning, while for coarse particles, the dominant source factors were electroplating industry, followed by aged sea salt, volcanic dust, soil dust, and lime dust. During the wet season, the main source factors for fine particulate matter were vehicle emission and secondary aerosol. Other sources detected were biomass burning, lime dust, soil and volcanic dust. While for coarse particulate matter, the main source factors were sulphate-rich industry, followed by lime dust, soil dust, industrial emission and construction dust.

Lestari, Puji; Mauliadi, Yandhinur Dwi

446

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

447

Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed decrease in fibre density without a significant increase in fibre diameter in the presence of total PM and filtered PM. Conclusion. The results indicate that total PM and filtered PM are capable of causing alterations to the fibrin polymerization and network structure as shown by the changes in permeation properties, the turbidity experiments as well as by confocal microscopy.

Metassan, Sofian; Ariens, Robert A. S.; Scott, D. Julian; Routledge, Michael N.

2009-02-01

448

Enhanced rates of particulate organic matter remineralization by microzooplankton are diminished by added ballast minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM), suspended or in aggregates, of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic material, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM in the water column by zooplankton. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in more rapid kinetics of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Gallinari, M.; Laurenceau, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.

2013-02-01

449

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOTH REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AT AN URBAN SITE IN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that all size fractions of...

450

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their molecular diagnostic ratios in urban atmospheric respirable particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Santiago de Chile city were evaluated to study particulate PAHs profiles during cold and spring weather periods. Urban atmospheric particulate matter PM10 was collected using High Volume PM10 samplers. Fifteen samples of 24 h during austral winter and 20 samples of 24 h during spring, 2000 were collected at two sampling sites (North East and Central areas of the city) whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. Seventeen PAHs were quantified and total PAHs concentration ranged from 1.39 to 59.98 ng m-3, with a seasonal variation (winter vs. spring ratio) from 0.5 to 12.6 ng m-3. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to characterize and identify PAHs emission sources such as combustion and biogenic emissions. Results showed that the major sources of respirable organic aerosol PM10 in Santiago are mobile and stationary ones.

Del Rosario Sienra, María; Rosazza, Nelson G.; Préndez, Margarita

2005-06-01

451

Toxic and inflammatory effects of filters frequently used for the collection of airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies indicate that exacerbations of airway diseases and cardio-respiratory mortality have been associated with high levels of particulate air pollution. In the search for explanatory mechanisms, there is a need to collect particulate matter (such as PM 10/PM 2.5) onto filters for biological analysis. The removal of airborne particulate matter from a filter into solution involves agitation of the samples to release the particles and this is done by such methods as high-speed vortexing. Since it is possible that components of filters could contaminate the preparation and interfere with biological investigations it is necessary to find an inert filter suitable for both particulate collection and biological analysis. Extracts of the following six filters were assessed for toxicological activity both in vivo and in vitro:-Millipore AP20, Whatman GF/A, Whatman WCN, Gelman TF1000, Gelman DM800 and polycarbonate (PC). Treatment with the extract of either Whatman GF/A, Gelman DM800 or Millipore AP20 filters for 24 h significantly ( p<0.001) decreased the metabolic competence of A549 cells, as measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimetholthiazol-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction. In addition instillation of filter extracts into rat lungs was carried out to investigate their ability to cause inflammation. The cellular components of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed for the number of neutrophils, as markers of inflammation. After 24 h the filter extract of the Millipore AP20, polycarbonate (PC), Whatman WCN and Whatman GF/A induced a significant ( P<0.001) influx of neutrophils into the rat lung. Finally the ability of each filter to absorb phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was assessed. The Whatman GF/A increased in weight 13 fold and the Millipore AP20 8 fold. In comparison the polycarbonate and the Gelman TF1000 were hydrophobic. These results suggest that of the six filters tested, the Teflon Gelman TF1000 filter was the most suitable for the collection and subsequent biological analysis of airborne particulate matter, as it releases little in the way of toxic material.

Dick, C. A. J.; Stone, V.; Brown, D. M.; Watt, M.; Cherrie, J. W.; Howarth, S.; Seaton, A.; Donaldson, K.

452

Organic Matter Isotopic and Pigment Composition as Markers of the Provenance and Transport of Particulate Matter at the Gulf of Lion Upper Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of carbon isotopes and organic biomarkers in organic matter collected by sediment traps deployed at the head of six canyons in the Gulf of Lion (GoL) margin between November 2003 and April 2004 has allowed the assessment of geographical, seasonal and event related changes in the provenance and transport of particulate matter and associated organic substances in this region.

J. Fabres; J. Velez; T. Tesi; C. Lee; A. Calafat; S. Heussner; A. Palanques; M. Canals

2006-01-01

453

Nature and dynamics of phosphorus-containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular sources, dynamics and analytical characterizations of the phosphorus (P) containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) are reviewed. Using a combination of 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on samples collected from a depth profile (20 4000 m) at Station Aloha in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the biomolecular associations of P functional groups in marine OM are identified. Compositional differences between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM; 1 100 nm size fraction) and ultrafiltered particulate organic matter (UPOM; 0.1 60 ?m size fraction) as reflected by NMR and elemental analyses indicate that UDOM does not originate from simple solubilization of UPOM, and the aggregation of UDOM is not the primary source of UPOM. Regression analyses indicated a large fraction of the P in UDOM is associated with carbohydrates and amino acids, but not with lipids. Similar analyses for UPOM indicated that P is associated with carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. The P functional groups also appear to be balanced in their distribution among molecular classes, because they remain in relatively constant proportion throughout the ocean.

Sannigrahi, Poulomi; Ingall, Ellery D.; Benner, Ronald

2006-12-01

454

Lipid biomarkers for heterotrophic alteration of suspended particulate organic matter in oxygenated and anoxic water columns of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid, sterol and hydrocarbon composition of suspended particles from the central North Pacific VERTEX IV site and from the Black Sea were used to investigate the abundance of biomarkers produced by heterotrophic alteration of particulate organic matter (POM). At the oceanic VERTEX site, bacterial alteration of organic matter did not contribute significant amounts of diagnostic lipids to particles,

Stuart G. Wakeham

1995-01-01

455

What Do Middle and High School Students Know about the Particulate Nature of Matter after Instruction? Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores middle and high school students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter after they were taught the concept. A total of 87 students (41 high school and 46 middle school) participated in the study. Findings suggest that students held misconceptions about the law of conservation of matter, chemical composition of…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Kotowski, Erin Leigh

2012-01-01

456

LIDAR Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DRI has developed a remote sensing method for on-road particulate matter emissions from gasoline-powered and diesel-powered vehicles called the Vehicle Emissions Remote Sensing System (VERSS). Remote sensing of gaseous pollutants in vehicle exhaust is a well-established, economical way to determine on-road emissions for thousands of vehicles per day. The VERSS adds a particulate matter channel to complement gaseous pollutant measurements. The VERSS uses 266-nm ultraviolet laser light to achieve greater sensitivity than visible light to sub-micrometer particles, where the greatest mass fraction has been reported. The VERSS system integrates the lidar channel with a commercial remote sensing device (RSD) for gaseous pollutants, and the RSD CO2 measurement can be used to estimate fuel-based particle mass emissions. We describe the interpretation and processing of lidar returns from field measurements taken by the combined VERSS during the Southern Nevada Air Quality Study (SNAQS), conducted in the Las Vegas area. With suitable assumptions regarding size distribution and particle composition, the lidar backscatter signal and the RSD yield three basic measurements of particulate matter in the exhaust plume. For each passing vehicle, these three channels are: 1) Columnar extinction in the infrared (IR at 3.9 micrometers) 2) Columnar extinction in the ultraviolet (UV at 266 nm) 3) Range-resolved backscatter at 266 nm (horizontal spatial resolution of 20-25 cm) The 3.9-micrometer channel is a good surrogate for absorption by elemental carbon (EC) in tailpipe emissions and has been utilized in previous studies. Opacity measurements at 266 nm provide optical extinction due to scattering from tailpipe organic carbon (OC) and EC emissions.

Keislar, R. E.; Kuhns, H.; Mazzoleni, C.; Moosmuller, H.; Watson, J.

2002-12-01

457

Particulate matter concentration and air quality affected by windblown dust in the Columbia plateau.  

PubMed

The USEPA has proposed to regulate PM(coarse) (particulate matter 2.5 to 10 microm in diameter). Exceedance of the proposed National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM(coarse) is expected within the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States based on the high frequency of dust storms and the large contribution of crustal material to fugitive dust in the region. The objective of this study was to explore the implication of the proposed NAAQS for PM(coarse) on air quality. Concurrent observations of both PM10 (particulate matter particulate matter

Sharratt, B S; Lauer, D

2006-10-27

458

PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.  

PubMed

The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L ?g(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2012-01-01

459

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

SciTech Connect

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2010-09-15

460

The geochemistry of deepwater particulate matter over the hydrothermal field at 9°d50' N (the East Pacific Rise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of geochemical studies of particulate matter in the water mass over the hydrothermal field at 9°50' N on the East Pacific Rise are presented. The particulate matter was tested in background waters, in the buoyant plume, and in the near-bottom waters. The contents of Si, Al, P, Corg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ag, and Hg were determined. No definite correlations were found between the ele-ments in the background waters. Many of the chemical elements correlated with Fe and associated with its oxyhydroxides in the buoyant plume. In the near-bottom waters, microelements are associated with Fe, Zn, and Cu (probably, to their sulfides formed under fluid mixing with seawater). The matter precipitated in a sed-imentation trap was similar to the near-bottom particulate matter in the elemental composition.

Lukashin, V. N.; Demina, L. L.; Gordeev, V. V.; Gordeev, V. Yu.

2012-04-01

461

The Effect of Rainfall on Biogeochemistry Characterization of Particulate Organic Matter in the Intertidal Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall kinetic energy and surface runoff have the ability to do a substantial amount of work on intertidal landscapes, resulting in a 2-3 order of magnitude increase in suspended sediment concentration in subtidal channels. Low tide rainfall can also alter the bulk composition of carbon and other nutrients in surface sediments and in the water column. We sampled rainfall-mobilized suspended sediment in two intertidal creeks in North Inlet (South Carolina) salt marsh and examined their elemental (carbon and nitrogen), isotopic (?13C and ?15N) and CuO oxidation product (COP) compositions. The concentrations and compositions of rainfall- entrained particulate matter varied widely but were significantly different from no-rain samples and surface marsh sediments. Lignin, amino acid and fatty acid products varied most during rainfall and their concentrations were controlled by rain intensity and surface marsh sediment composition. It appears that rainfall intensity also regulates the variations in COP concentration in the water column, but different sediment sources influence their total amounts. COP parameters such as acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols, cynnamyl/vanillyl ratios and syringyl/vanillyl ratios indicate that rainfall driven organic matter is more degraded and from distinct terrigenous sources. This finding indicates that intertidal rainfall-runoff processes likely entrain deeper sediment, and then suspend and transport organic matter which is distinct from tidally-resuspended particulate matter. Overall, the rainfall-driven supply of organic matter with distinct composition suggests that this process can selectively and efficiently mobilize materials across the intertidal-subtidal interface, affecting the biogeochemistry of both marsh and tidal creeks.

Chen, S.; Torres, R.; Goni, M. A.

2010-12-01

462

JSRP Task 1-Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements and Particulate Matter Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter that was held December 14, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

Pavlish, J. H.; Benson, S. A.

1999-07-01

463

Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the materials in simulated body fluids (SBFs), physiologically based extraction tests (PBETs) are an inexpensive, acellular in vitro test. Bioaccessibility, defined as the fraction of a potential toxicant that becomes soluble in the SBF (e.g. gastric, intestinal, lung or lysosomal fluid), is an indication of the amounts of a potential toxicant that may be available for absorption through ingestion or inhalation. PBETs were conducted on artificially generated dust samples from playas in the Mojave Desert and soil and ash samples from recent California wildfires. Speciation, an important factor in assessing toxicity, was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with ICP-MS detection for arsenic and chromium.

Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

2008-12-01

464

[Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven tress species].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tree leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven tree species, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the species characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those species with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven species was significantly different except for Ph. Tree species with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven tree species was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates. PMID:23947057

Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan

2013-06-01

465

Compilation and Assessment of Recent Positive Matrix Factorization and UNMIX Receptor Model Studies on Fine Particulate Matter Source Apportionment for the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised its particulate matter standards to include an annual standard for fine particulate matter (PM2.5; 15 ?g\\/ m) and a 24-hr standard (65 ?g\\/m). The 24-hr standard was lowered to 35 ?g\\/m in 2006 in an effort to further reduce overall ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Identifying and quantifying sources of particulate matter affecting

Jill A. Engel-Cox; Stephanie A. Weber; Jawad Touma; Andrey Khlystov; Melanie Sattler; Sapna Devanathan; Michael McFarland; Arthur Olivas; Sally Atkins; Robert Kennedy; Kalpesh Patel; Marc Pitchford; William Malm; Bret Schichtel; Naresh Kumar; Douglas Lowenthal; Jenny Hand; Charles Blanchard; Shelley Tanenbaum; George Hidy; Yang Liu; Petros Koutrakis; Ralph Kahn; Solene Turquety; Robert Yantosca; W. Knighton; Scott Herndon; Joanne Shorter; Richard Miake-Lye; Mark Zahniser; Kenichi Akiyama; Akio Shimono; Kazuya Kitasaka; Hatsumi Shimajiri; Koichi Sugihara; Zhiliang Yao; Qidong Wang; Kebin He; Hong Huo; Yongliang Ma; Qiang Zhang; Ying-Hsien Yang; Sue-Jane Lin; Charles Lewis; Xiaohong Xu; Jeffrey Brook; Yanshan Guo

2007-01-01

466

The effects of operating conditions on particulate matter exhaust from diesel locomotive engines.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have shown that fine particulates threaten human health. Since their health impact is associated with both mass and number concentrations, it is necessary to evaluate the emission standards for particulate mass accordingly. This study examined the particulate matter characteristics of diesel locomotive engine exhaust at various engine ratings. Diesel engine exhaust was collected via a dilution tunnel and the concentration and size distribution of fine particles were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Exhaust gasses were measured simultaneously by a stack sampler. The maximum carbon monoxide emission was reached at 59% of the maximum rating, after which emissions decreased. The particle count median diameter increased with the engine rating, until a maximum was reached at 40% of the maximum rating. Most exhaust particles were nanoparticles with the nuclei mode range, a particle diameter (D(P))<50 nm. The increase in particles with the accumulation mode range, 50

Park, Duckshin; Yoon, Younghun; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Kiyoung

2012-01-31

467

Distribution and characteristics of suspended particulate matter in a heavily eutrophic estuary, Tokyo Bay, Japan.  

PubMed

Bulk suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll a (Chl a), ignition loss, particulate organic carbon (POC), organic nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus (PIP), and organic phosphorus were investigated in the heavily eutrophic Arakawa River estuary, Japan. Chl a was high (approximately 35 microg l(-1)) in summer and low (approximately 6.7 microg l(-1)) in winter and autumn. POC from living phytoplankton accounted for approximately 34% and approximately 70% of total POC during low- and high-biomass seasons, respectively. During the low-biomass season, detrital POC distribution was conservative, and less reactive, land-derived materials mainly composed particulate organic materials (POM), but complex mixing of land-derived POM and autochthonous planktonic detritus caused nonconservative detrital POC behavior during the high-biomass season. PIP concentration in SPM decreased with increasing salinity, likely by desorption of soluble orthophosphate (ortho-P). The ortho-P released from SPM, 56% of the ortho-P input from the Arakawa River to the bay, was a significant potential source of biologically available phosphorus causing eutrophication of coastal environments. PMID:15325218

Suzumura, Masahiro; Kokubun, Haruyo; Arata, Nao

2004-09-01

468

Anthropogenic trace metals in sediment and settling particulate matter on a high-energy continental shelf (Sydney, Australia).  

PubMed

The anthropogenic contribution of trace metals to settling particulate matter (SPM) and surficial sediments was determined on the high-energy continental shelf adjacent to Sydney, Australia. Settling particulate matter and surficial sediment was collected in the vicinity of a major sewage outfall and at five control sites on the middle shelf (80-100 m water depth). Sediment traps were deployed on 10 occasions for up to 2 weeks during the summer and winter of 1995 and SPM was analyzed for Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Cobalt, Fe, Mn and Ni act conservatively in SPM and in sediments regionally and are used as normalizing elements to determine anthropogenic enrichment. Surficial sediments and SPM are enriched in Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn near a major ocean outfall and at four of the five control sites, although sewage particles contribute < 5% of trace metals in the total sample. Silver is the most sensitive trace metal tracer for establishing the presence of sewage particulate matter. Sewage particulate matter flux near the outfall was estimated using a two end-member mixing model and is below 0.5 g m(-2) day(-1) during all deployment periods. The mean sewage particulate matter flux at sampling locations 30 km and 60 km north of the outfall are <0.13 g m(-2) day(-1) and <0.01 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively, indicating an efficient dispersal of anthropogenic material on this high energy continental shelf. PMID:12206412

Matthai, Carsten; Birch, Gavin F; Bickford, Gary P

2002-08-01

469

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter in Curitiba, Brazil and benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency factors (TEFs).  

PubMed

The concentration of PAHs in particulate matter was investigated in the city of Curitiba, located in south of Brazil. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was collected at six sampling sites whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. The concentration of particulate matter varied from 11.02 to 177.27 ng/m(3). Particulate matter was basically composed of PAHs with 3 and 4 aromatic rings and it agrees with results of air quality monitoring performed in other cities around the world. Molecular ratios, such as (Benzo(ghi)Perilene/Indene(cd)Pyrene, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P, indicate that the source of PAHs is gasoline engines in the downtown area and diesel engines in surrounding sites representing a heavy traffic situation. It was also investigated the toxic level of particulate matter using the BaP equivalency factor. The BaP(eq) for all samples was between 0.42 to 1.12 ng/m(3). The equivalency BaP(eq) indicated low health risk associated with exposure to the total PAHs content in environmental air. PMID:20658413

Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell; Machado, Karina Scurupa; Malheiros, Andre

2010-09-01

470

Real-world particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked atmospheric particulate matter with human health problems. In many urban areas, mobile sources are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and the dominant source of fine particles or PM2.5 (PM smaller than 2.5 pm in aerodynamic diameter). Dynamometer studies have implicated diesel engines as being a significant source of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 microm), which may also exhibit deleterious health impacts. In addition to direct tailpipe emissions, mobile sources contribute to ambient particulate levels by brake and tire wear and by resuspension of particles from pavement. Information about particle emission rates, size distributions, and chemical composition from in-use light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles is scarce, especially under real-world operating conditions. To characterize particulate emissions from a limited set of in-use vehicles, we studied on-road emissions from vehicles operating under hot-stabilized conditions, at relatively constant speed, in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel along the Pennsylvania Turnpike from May 18 through 23, 1999. There were five specific aims of the study. (1) obtain chemically speciated diesel profiles for the source apportionment of diesel versus other ambient constituents in the air and to determine the chemical species present in real-world diesel emissions; (2) measure particle number and size distribution of chemically speciated particles in the atmosphere; (3) identify, by reference to data in years past, how much change has occurred in diesel exhaust particulate mass; (4) measure particulate emissions from LD gasoline vehicles to determine their contribution to the observed particle levels compared to diesels; and (5) determine changes over time in gas phase emissions by comparing our results with those of previous studies. Comparing the results of this study with our 1992 results, we found that emissions of C8 to C20 hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from HD diesel emissions substantially decreased over the seven-year period. Particulate mass emissions showed a similar trend. Considering a 25-year period, we observed a continued downward trend in HD particulate emissions from approximately 1,100 mg/km in 1974 to 132 mg/km (reported as PM2.5) in this study. The LD particle emission factor was considerably less than the HD value, but given the large fraction of LD vehicles, emissions from this source cannot be ignored. Results of the current study also indicate that both HD and LD vehicles emit ultrafine particles and that these particles are preserved under real-world dilution conditions. Particle number distributions were dominated by ultrafine particles with count mean diameters of 17 to 13 nm depending on fleet composition. These particles appear to be primarily composed of sulfur, indicative of sulfuric acid emission and nucleation. Comparing the 1992 and 1999 HD emission rates, we observed a 48% increase in the NOx/CO2 emissions ratio. This finding supports the assumption that many new-technology diesel engines conserve fuel but increase NOx emissions. PMID:11954677

Gertler, Alan W; Gillies, John A; Pierson, William R; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John C; Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Coulombe, William; Tarnay, Leland; Cahill, Thomas A

2002-01-01

471

30 CFR Particulate - Underground Only  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Only Particulate Diesel Particulate Matter Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57...Apr. 3, 2006] Diesel Particulate MatterâUnderground Only Source: 66...

2010-07-01

472

Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain" Water, Air and Soil Pollution 162:127-142. Pallarés S., Vicente A.B.; Jordán M.M.; Sanfeliu T. (2007) "Study of the levels of concentration of As, Cd and Ni in a ceramic cluster" Water, Air and Soil Pollution 180:51-54.

Sanfeliu, Teófilo

2010-05-01

473

Physicochemical characterization of airborne particulate matter at a mainline underground railway station.  

PubMed

Underground railway stations are known to have elevated particulate matter (PM) loads compared to ambient air. As these particles are derived from metal-rich sources and transition metals may pose a risk to health by virtue of their ability to catalyze generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their potential enrichment in underground environments is a source of concern. Compared to coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate fractions of underground railway airborne PM, little is known about the chemistry of the ultrafine (PM0.1) fraction that may contribute significantly to particulate number and surface area concentrations. This study uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography to compare the elemental composition of size-fractionated underground PM with woodstove, roadwear generator, and road tunnel PM. Underground PM is notably rich in Fe, accounting for greater than 40% by mass of each fraction, and several other transition metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn) compared to PM from other sources. Importantly, ultrafine underground PM shows similar metal-rich concentrations as the coarse and fine fractions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a component of the coarse fraction of underground PM has a morphology indicative of generation by abrasion, absent for fine and ultrafine particulates, which may be derived from high-temperature processes. Furthermore, underground PM generated ROS in a concentration- and size-dependent manner. This study suggests that the potential health effects of exposure to the ultrafine fraction of underground PM warrant further investigation as a consequence of its greater surface area/volume ratio and high metal content. PMID:23477491

Loxham, Matthew; Cooper, Matthew J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Davies, Donna E; Palmer, Martin R; Teagle, Damon A H

2013-04-02

474

Chemical characteristics of particulate organic matter from a small, mountainous river system in the Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the transfer of particulate organic matter (POM) by small mountainous river systems (SMRS) to the ocean,\\u000a we measured the concentration and composition of suspended particles from the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range,\\u000a over a wide range of discharges that included several floods. All particulate constituents measured, including organic carbon,\\u000a nitrogen and biomarkers such

Jeff A. Hatten; Miguel A. Goñi; Robert A. Wheatcroft

475

Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.  

PubMed

Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou. PMID:17265933

Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

2007-01-01

476

[Current status and future prospects of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions in China].  

PubMed

The emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) in 2000 and 2005 were established based on the activity data and emission factors of power, industrial, residential and transportation sectors in China. Future emissions from 2010 to 2030 were projected under different scenarios of energy consumption and PM emission control policies. The emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 in 2005 were 29.98 Mt, 15.30 Mt and 9.79 Mt respectively, and the annual increasing rates were 3.4%, 4.7% and 5.4% during 2000 to 2005. By 2030, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be 23.06 Mt and 10.59 Mt under reference scenario, of which industrial boilers are the largest contributor. With improvement of energy efficiency, the emissions of TSP and PM2.5 would be reduced by 15% and 16% respectively in 2030 compared with that under reference scenario. By intensifying the enforcement of legislation, 25% of TSP and 10% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2015. By tightening the emission standard and promoting high-efficiency dust collector after 2015, 21% of TSP and 19% of PM2.5 can be further reduced in 2030 and the emissions can become 13.81 Mt and 6.88 Mt separately. The control of particulate matter shall cover power, industrial and residential sectors. Actions shall include improving energy efficiency, enforcing legislation and tightening control policies. PMID:19774979

Zhang, Chu-Ying; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Ji-Ming

2009-07-15

477

Geographic differences in inter-individual variability of human exposure to fine particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with short and long term adverse health effects. The amount of ambient PM2.5 that infiltrates indoor locations such as residences depends on air exchange rate (ACH), penetration factor, and deposition rate. ACH varies by climate zone and thus by geographic location. Geographic variability in the ratio of exposure to ambient concentration is estimated based on comparison of three modeling domains in different climate zones: (1) New York City; (2) Harris County in Texas, and (3) a six-county domain along the I-40 corridor in North Carolina. Inter-individual variability in exposure to PM2.5 was estimated using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model. ACH is distinguishably the most sensitive input for both ambient and nonambient exposure to PM2.5. High ACH leads to high ambient exposure indoors but lower non-ambient exposure, and vice versa. For summer, the average ratio of exposure to ambient concentration varies by 13 percent among the selected domains, mainly because of differences in housing stock, climate zone, and seasonal ACH. High daily average exposures for some individuals are mainly caused by non-ambient exposure to smoking or cooking. The implications of these results for interpretation of epidemiological studies are discussed.

Cao, Ye; Frey, H. Christopher

2012-01-01

478

Source-dependent variation in hydroxyl radical production by airborne particulate matter.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest exposure to airborne particles is responsible for a wide range of adverse health effects, potentially arising from particle-induced oxidative stress. A highly sensitive fluorescence method was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical by a broad range of particle types including urban dust, diesel particulate matter, coal fly ash, kaolinite, and silica. Little or no production of *OH was observed in the absence of an added electron donor or H202. In the presence of a biological electron donor (NADPH, 3 mM), the rate of *OH production (ROH) for 3 mg/mL of these particles varied from 23 nM s(-1) for diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) to 0.20 nM s(-1) for coal fly ash (SRM 2689). No detectable *OH was produced by kaolinite or silica. Hydroxyl radical formation was eliminated under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of catalase, indicating that 02 and H202 are required for its generation. Partial inhibition of *OH formation by superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also observed in some cases, suggesting that superoxide (O2*-) is also involved. The metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFX) in most cases suppressed *OH formation, but diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) generally enhanced it, implicating metal ion reactions in OH generation as well. The dependence of ROH on NADPH concentration further implicates particle surface reactions in *OH formation. To our knowledge, these measurements provide the first quantitative estimate of ROH for a broad range of particle types. PMID:17438788

Alaghmand, Marjan; Blough, Neil V

2007-04-01

479

Ambient particulate matter induces relaxation of rat aortic rings in vitro.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown an association between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. We hypothesised that PM, when translocated after inhalation, could affect vascular smooth muscle function. Therefore, total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was sampled and investigated for its ability to affect aortic muscle contraction. Both TSP and TSP supernatant (TSP-sup) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted aortic rings. Relaxation induced by 100 microg/ml TSP was 51.5 +/- 3.1% of total contraction. At 60 and 100 microg/ml, relaxation induced by TSP was significantly higher compared to TSP-sup. Ultrafine TiO2, used as a model to investigate the role of ultrafine particles, did not show an effect. Soluble iron, present in TSP suspensions, seems not to be involved, as chelating with deferoxamine did not affect TSP-induced relaxation. However, TSP effects were inhibited by Trolox, suggesting a role of oxidants. Nudation of aortic rings showed that effects of TSP were only partly endothelium-dependent, while preincubation with L-NAME increased TSP-induced relaxation. From these data, we conclude that both the particle core and soluble components of TSP can affect the smooth muscle function, leading to changes in the vascular contractile response. PMID:11476159

Knaapen, A M; den Hartog, G J; Bast, A; Borm, P J

2001-05-01

480

Enrichment of uranium in particulate matter during litter decomposition affected by Gammarus pulex L.  

PubMed

Plant litter and organic matter of aquatic sediments provide a significant sink of soluble inorganic uranium species in contaminated ecosystems. The uranium content in detritus has been observed to increase significantly during decomposition. However, the influence of the decomposer community on uranium fixation remains unclear. In view of this, we investigated the influence of a shredder (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L) on uranium fixation and mobilization during the degradation of plant litter. Leaf litter from Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. with 1152 mg kg(-1) U of dry biomass (DM) and without uranium was used in a 14-day laboratory experiment. The uranium concentration in the particulate organic material (POM) at the end of experiment was 1427 mg kg(-1) DM. After 14 days of decay, the residues of the leaves show a uranium concentration of 644 mg kg(-1) DM. Uranium concentrations in the media initially increased reaching up to 63.9 microg L(-1) but finally decreased to an average value of 34.3 microg L(-1). Atthe same time, DOC levels increased from 2.43 mg L(-1) up to 11.4 mg L(-1) in the course of the experiment Hence, inorganic uranium fixation onto particulate organic matter was enhanced by the activity of G. pulex. PMID:19192788

Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

2008-12-01

481

Sirt1 protects against thrombomodulin down-regulation and lung coagulation after particulate matter exposure.  

PubMed

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been reported to trigger inflammation and thrombosis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of coagulation pathways in PM-induced thrombosis remain largely unknown. We report here that Sirt1, a member of class III histone deacetylase, controls lung inflammation and coagulation after PM exposure. Sirt1 knock-out mice exhibited aggravated lung vascular leakage and inflammation after PM exposure, which was correlated with increased NF-?B acetylation and activation. Furthermore, Sirt1 knock-out mice were highly susceptible to PM-induced lung coagulation as demonstrated by increased fibrin formation. The increased fibrin formation was associated with reduced tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) expression and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity in the lungs, thus favoring elevated coagulation and disrupted fibrinolysis responses. Thrombomodulin (TM), a central player of the anticoagulant protein C system, is regulated by Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) at the transcriptional level. Our data show that PM exposure led to decreased lung KLF2 and TM expression in wild-type mice, and lung KLF2 and TM protein levels were further decreased in Sirt1 knock-out mice. Importantly, Sirt1 gene delivery inhibited TM and KLF2 down-regulation and reduced lung coagulation after PM exposure. Collectively, our studies indicate that Sirt1 functions as a suppressor of coagulation after particulate matter exposure. PMID:22262770

Wu, Zhuang; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

2012-01-18

482

Inorganic salts in atmospheric particulate matter: Raman spectroscopy as an analytical tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter is composed of inorganic and organic components of natural and anthropogenic origin. Wind-transport is probably the most important process responsible for the emission of solid particulate matter into the troposphere, but there are also important contributions from chemical reactions due to the interaction of different atmospheric components in presence of water and solar radiation. Sulfate, nitrate and carbonate salts can be both reactants and products in this complex dynamic system, and there is no doubt about their important impact on the climate. Both simple and mixed salts can be produced in atmosphere by dissolution-crystallization processes. The Raman spectra of 45 representative salts of the atmospheric environment were recorded and the bands assigned. The chemometric analysis of the spectroscopic data of these 45 salts demonstrates the suitability of Raman spectroscopy to classify and identify sulfate, nitrate and carbonate salts of atmospheric importance. Salts were classified into three groups: "sulfates", "nitrates or carbonates" and "sulfate-nitrates or sulfate-carbonate". This kind of information is relevant in atmospheric studies because specific characteristics of the salts can provide valuable information about the origin of the salts, the atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, thus contributing to the evaluation of environmental impacts.

Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Kampe, Bernd; Ciobot?, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2013-11-01

483

Source apportionment of particulate matter in the ambient air of Hyderabad city, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source apportionment of particulate matter (PM) has been carried out for the city of Hyderabad using the chemical mass balance model (CMB8, Ver. 8.0) in PM10 and PM2.5 size modes. Urban particles were collected using Continuous Particulate Matter Analyzer (TEOM) during different seasons conducted in Punjagutta site, a critical traffic corridor, during June 2004-May 2005. The measurement of PM10 & PM2.5 at the site is measured throughout the day. Samples were collected in every 15 min; additionally i