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1

Particulate Matter  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements March 13, 2013 - An updated “Strategies ... for over 300 cities across the U.S. "Particulate matter," also known as particle pollution or PM, is ...

2

PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In promulgating the new PM2.5 NAAQS (July 1997), Congress recognized scientific uncertainties associated with fine particulate matter to include composition, source-receptor relationships, and health and exposure effects. As a result, Congress provided EPA with dire...

3

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01

4

Source Testing for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

DeVorkin, Howard

5

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

6

Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate Matter The Basics We’ve all seen dirty bathrooms ... the spring. These are visible sources of particulate matter, or PM for short. Show more PM is ...

7

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

8

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

9

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2012-07-01

10

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2012-07-01

11

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2013-07-01

12

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2012-07-01

13

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2013-07-01

14

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2011-07-01

15

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2011-07-01

16

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2011-07-01

17

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2010-07-01

18

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.427 Section 52.427 Protection...427 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment...Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) nonattainment area has...

2014-07-01

20

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 Section 52.2059 Protection...2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) [Reserved] (b) EPA...Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) nonattainment area has...

2014-07-01

21

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

... 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2014-07-01

22

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 1 DIESEL EXHAUST for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grant titled "Review of Diesel Particulate Matter Sampling Methods

Minnesota, University of

23

OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

24

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

25

Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

1985-01-01

26

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

27

Instrumentation for diesel particulate matter emissions research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and sampling of diesel particulate matter in mine air presents a challenge due to the complexity of the diesel aerosol. The results of a series of tests carried out by the National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, in an underground mine were used to evaluate severalmeasurementmethodsthatarecurrentlyusedtocharacterizeparticulatematteremittedbydiesel-powered equipment. This paper presents an overview of these techniques

S. E. Mischler; A. D. Bugarski; J. D. Noll

28

REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

29

Roadside measurements of particulate matter size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roadside measurements were performed in order to document the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) under dilution conditions similar to those found in real world. These activities covered measurements at engine test beds, at different locations in a road tunnel as well as in an urban environment. In order to get a clear picture of the evolution of the PM

Peter J. Sturm; Urs Baltensperger; Michael Bacher; Bernhard Lechner; Stefan Hausberger; Bernhard Heiden; David Imhof; Ernest Weingartner; Andre S. H. Prevot; Ralf Kurtenbach; Peter Wiesen

2003-01-01

30

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

31

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

32

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 ...Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a...June 1, 1980. Analysis and control strategy development: 1. Analyze...

2011-07-01

34

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment....

2011-07-01

35

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of...

2011-07-01

36

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF OLDER ADULTS TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors that influence the amount of particulate matter that potentially susceptible elderly Americans are exposed to is an issue of concern. This presentation and abstract investigates these factors using data obtained from three longitudinal particulate matter panel studies...

37

Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol\\/L HC1 solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 24 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional

Katsumi Hirose; Eiichiro Tanoue

1994-01-01

38

Comments on the Criteria Document for Particulate Matter Air Pollution  

E-print Network

on particulate matter air pollution. The document, called Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, is the first step in the process of setting air quality standards in the United States. Once the criteriaComments on the Criteria Document for Particulate Matter Air Pollution Richard Smith Peter Guttorp

Washington at Seattle, University of

39

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2012-07-01

40

40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142 Section 60.142 Protection... § 60.142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under...gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

42

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2013-07-01

44

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262 Section 60.262 Protection... § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45 kg/MW-hr...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2013-07-01

47

40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142 Section 60.142 Protection... § 60.142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under...gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2012-07-01

48

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2012-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2011-07-01

51

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2010-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2011-07-01

53

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2011-07-01

54

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2010-07-01

55

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

56

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with gaseous and liquid fuels, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding STD as specified by the following equation: STD=X [1.3(Y)+(Z)] Where: STD=Particulate matter emission limit, g of particulate/kg (lb of...

2013-07-01

57

75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection...The updates were made to the particulate matter standards by adding fine particulate standards...standards. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by...

2010-04-08

58

Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing functions were examined...

Bernal, Christina Estefana

2012-06-07

59

Occupational Medicine Implications of Engineered Nanoscale Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

Safety in Nanotechnology Research Occupational Medicinenanotechnology revolution promises dramatic advancements in science, technology, medicineMedicine Implications of Engineered Nanoscale Particulate Matter The emerging nanotechnology

Kelly, Richard J.

2008-01-01

60

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

61

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

62

40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.332 Section 52.332 Protection...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.332 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992,...

2011-07-01

63

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...exempt from: (1) Any particulate matter and opacity standards of part 60 or...

2012-07-01

64

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

65

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

67

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2013-07-01

69

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2012-07-01

70

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

71

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...condition; (2) The target particulate matter emission level for each test...

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

73

Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea  

E-print Network

Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea Ouz Particulates Suspended particulate matter Biogenic matter Biogenic material Plankton Planktonic metal Terrestrial Water column Anoxic basin Sediment Brackish water Rivers Danube Turkish rivers Enrichments

Murray, James W.

74

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

75

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

76

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2010-07-01

77

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2011-07-01

78

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

79

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...exempt from: (1) Any particulate matter and opacity standards of part 60 or...

2010-07-01

80

75 FR 65567 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Chapter 3745-17, ``Particulate Matter Standards.'' The revisions were submitted...review requirements. The particulate matter (PM) standards contain the...

2010-10-26

81

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...exempt from: (1) Any particulate matter and opacity standards of part 60 or...

2011-07-01

82

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

83

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2010-07-01

85

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2011-07-01

86

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2011-07-01

87

40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52...Georgia> § 52.578 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. Link...follows: § 52.578 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter....

2011-07-01

88

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...condition; (2) The target particulate matter emission level for each test...

2014-07-01

89

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2014-07-01

90

40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval...Inc., shall not emit particulate matter in excess of 0.03 grains per...

2014-07-01

91

Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

Baitimirova, M.; Katkevics, J.; Baumane, L.; Bakis, E.; Viksna, A.

2013-12-01

92

Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

1991-01-01

93

Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2010-09-01

94

Photochemical reactions of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon contained in suspended, coastal marine sediments photochemically dissolves under high doses of artificial sunlight in the laboratory, suggesting that sunlight might induce large changes in the form and fate of organic matter present in suspended particles along turbid, low-latitude coastlines. The primary goal of the work presented here was to develop a quantitative method of predicting the particulate organic carbon (POC) "photodissolution" rate in the coastal waters of Louisiana near the deltas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Pursuit of this objective required measurements of the reaction rate and apparent quantum yield, determination of sediment light absorption properties, and development of a novel method to retrieve the optical properties of coastal water from remotely-sensed reflectance measurements. This dissertation first describes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production and oxygen consumption accompanying photodissolution. The ratio of DIC production to O2 consumption was lower for POC than in previously-described reactions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting greater photochemical incorporation of oxygen into organic matter. Particle light absorption properties control, in part, the rate of photodissolution. Absorption coefficients of suspended sediment samples from the study region are a weak function of organic carbon content but a strong function of reducible iron content. Photodissolution rate measurements and radiative transfer modeling were used to determine the wavelength-dependent apparent quantum yield for the reaction and to constrain the temperature dependence and sample composition-induced variability in the rate. Initial photodissolution rates scaled linearly with the reducible iron content of sediments but the rate was independent of composition over longer periods. High spatial-resolution optical properties of study region waters were obtained from a novel satellite reflectance inversion calibrated using the local mass-normalized optical properties of suspended sediments. Lab-based photodissolution rate measurements were scaled to match field optical conditions determined from available satellite observations. Empirical relationships between local weather and the satellite-based photodissolution predictions allowed estimates of rates on days without satellite imagery. Annually-integrated rates were small relative to river POC inputs, but results suggested photodissolution rates similar in magnitude to CDOM photoreactions.

Estapa, Margaret L.

95

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

96

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

97

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

98

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

99

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2012-07-01

101

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2011-07-01

102

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2010-07-01

103

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

104

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2012-07-01

105

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2010-07-01

106

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2011-07-01

107

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

108

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

109

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS Supplemental Report # 2 AEROSOL DYMAMICS Arnold University of Minnesota Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research................................................................................................. 3 Diesel aerosol composition and structure................................................... 3

Minnesota, University of

110

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

2010-07-01

111

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

2012-07-01

112

Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations  

E-print Network

State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators...

Bairy, Jnana 1988-

2013-01-02

113

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum...

2011-07-01

114

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-print Network

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01

115

Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

116

Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10[sup 6.6] L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth.

Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro (Meterological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

1994-01-01

117

Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (?). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

2011-11-01

118

FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

119

The relationship between particulate uranium and thorium-complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium-complexing capacity (ThCC), which is defined as the amount of thorium adsorption onto particulate matter (PM) in 0.1 mol l?1 HCl solution by complexation, has been introduced as a new oceanographic parameter. The ThCC implies the concentration of a strong organic ligand in PM. To specify chemically the strong ligand in PM, we compared the ThCC in PM with particulate

Katsumi Hirose

1995-01-01

120

Particulate matter as an amplifier for astronomical light pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we state that the main factor that influences seasonal changes in the brightness of the cloudless, moonless, light-polluted night sky is primarily particulate matter, emitted mainly from low-emission sources, especially in winter. This effect is particularly noticeable in Cracow and its surroundings, one of the places in Europe that is most polluted by particulate matter. Measurements taken over a period of one year have allowed us to show a linear relationship between the concentration of particulate matter and the brightness of the clear, cloudless night sky. We have also found similar correlations in other, industrialized areas of Poland, as well as at the Mount Suhora Astronomical Observatory. We believe that the factor described here should be taken into account when planning the construction of new astronomical observatories, especially those located near large urban areas.

?ci??or, T.; Kubala, M.

2014-11-01

121

[Determination of particulate matter in small volume antibiotic injections].  

PubMed

Amounts of particulate matter present in 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan were determined using light obscuration particle analyzer (HIAC). The vial volume range of each batch of product was 7-20 ml, and each vial contained 1 g as antibiotic potency. In 4 products, contents of particles between 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter were counted 2,000-7,000 per vial, and particles in other products were counted less than 2,000 per vial. Numbers of particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in diameter were much less than the USP XXI criteria for particulate matter in small volume injections. The product of the highest counts for particles between 10 and 25 microns in diameter showed counts amounted to 0.13% of the USP XXI criteria. In the 25-50 microns particulate diameter range, particulate matters were detected only in 2 products, and they were less than 0.2% of the USP XXI criteria. Particles over 50 microns in diameter were not detected in any products. These results showed that 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan had good qualities regarding contents of particulate matter. PMID:2746842

Niizeki, M; Tanno, K

1989-03-01

122

75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the 24-hour fine particulate standard and revoking...standard for course particulate. Wisconsin updated...Federal standards for particulate matter. DATES: Comments...Acting Chief, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air...

2010-04-08

123

Discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter sources with magnetic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmful effects of anthropogenically derived particulate matter (PM) on human health have attracted the attention of environmental research in recent years. Particles < 10 mu m (PM10) are of special interest because they can be inhaled deeply into the lung. Since magnetic minerals are common in natural and anthropogenic PM, magnetic bulk properties have been used to characterise urban

S. Spassov; R. Egli; F. Heller; D. K. Nourgaliev

2003-01-01

124

Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

Ozmen, Haluk

2011-01-01

125

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

126

EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects

Michelle L. Bell; Tracey Holloway

2007-01-01

127

Suspended particulate matter (SPM) in rivers: empirical data and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work uses three data-bases to derive the first (as far as we know) operational empirical model to predict concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in rivers. SPM is a variable of fundamental importance in aquatic sciences. This empirical model is meant to be used as a sub-model in models where the main aim is to predict concentrations of radionuclides,

Lars Håkanson; Maya Mikrenska; Krassimir Petrov; Ian Foster

2005-01-01

128

Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

129

Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

130

Turkish Pupils’ Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils’ views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a) arrangement and movement

Yezdan Boz

2006-01-01

131

PROGRESS OF THE NRMRL'S PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Particulate Matter research program has a goal of producing the scientific research data needed to enhance the development of public policy that protects the public health and the environment from harmful effects due to airborne ...

132

Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs  

DOEpatents

A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

2012-02-21

133

Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily

Amy E. Gildemeister; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim

2007-01-01

134

A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

135

LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

136

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...On April 30, 1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10 ) for the Group II areas within the Cities of DePere,...

2010-07-01

137

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...On June 23, 1988, and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10 ) for the Group II areas within Marion and Vigo Counties and...

2014-07-01

138

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...On April 30, 1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10 ) for the Group II areas within the Cities of DePere,...

2013-07-01

139

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

...On April 30, 1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10 ) for the Group II areas within the Cities of DePere,...

2014-07-01

140

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...On April 30, 1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10 ) for the Group II areas within the Cities of DePere,...

2011-07-01

141

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS FINAL REPORT Prepared by David B. Kittelson of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research Minneapolis, MN January 14, 1999 #12;01/14/99 Page 2 TABLE ................................................................................................................5 DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSION REGULATIONS .............................7 PHYSICAL

Minnesota, University of

142

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

143

PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

144

NOAA Technical Report ERL 417-PMEL 35 Suspended Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

and Duwamish River runoff in winter, 2) a uniform mid-depth minimum-SPM zone, and 3) a bottom nepheloid layer nepheloid layer in Elliott Bay. iv #12;Suspended Particulate Matter in Elliott Bay Edward T. Baker 1) a thin «5 m) surface layer of variable SPM concentration dominated by phytoplankton growth in summer

145

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

146

Fatty Acids in Surface Particulate Matter from the North Atlantic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fatty acid composition of particulate matter from surface waters in the North Atlantic has been investigated. A high proportion is long-chain polyunsaturated acids, typical of a marine origin. The low relative abundance of iso and anteiso 15-carbon ac...

D. M. Schultz, J. G. Quinn

1972-01-01

147

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing...following equation: STD=X [1.3(Y)+(Z)] Where: STD=Particulate matter...60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a...

2012-07-01

148

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing...following equation: STD=X [1.3(Y)+(Z)] Where: STD=Particulate matter...60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a...

2011-07-01

149

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing...following equation: STD=X [1.3(Y)+(Z)] Where: STD=Particulate matter...60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a...

2010-07-01

150

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...heat boiler in which auxiliary or supplemental liquid or solid fossil fuel is burned, particulate matter in excess of that permitted...Btu)) of heat input attributable to such liquid or solid fossil fuel. [39 FR 9315, Mar. 8, 1974, as amended at 42...

2010-07-01

151

Determination of s(iv) in particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur (IV) is extracted from particulate matter with a formaldehyde based solution containing a chelating agent for the dissolution of insoluble sulfites. Measurement is subsequently made by a spectrophotometric method, based on the Schiff reaction with pararosaniline. Results are presented for several simple inorganic sulfites, carbonyl-S(IV) addition compounds, fly ash and smelter samples and "Fe(III)-S(IV)" aerosol.

Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; DeCesare, Kymron B.; Brummer, Margaret

152

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

153

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits using . . . You...

2012-07-01

154

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits using . . . You...

2011-07-01

155

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits using . . . You...

2010-07-01

156

40 CFR 52.226 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley and Mountain Counties...  

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley and Mountain Counties...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley and Mountain Counties...Air Quality Standards for particulate matter: (1) Kings County APCD....

2014-07-01

157

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. ...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2010-07-01

158

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. ...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2012-07-01

159

40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. 60.47c Section 60.47c Protection... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2010-07-01

160

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. ...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2013-07-01

161

40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. 60.47c Section 60.47c Protection... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2013-07-01

162

40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section... Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. ...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2011-07-01

163

40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. 60.47c Section 60.47c Protection... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2012-07-01

164

40 CFR 60.47c - Emission monitoring for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. 60.47c Section 60.47c Protection... Emission monitoring for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided...Measurement Policy Group (D243-02), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. This...

2011-07-01

165

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter...CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter...an emissions increase, and a control strategy demonstration has not been...

2011-07-01

166

40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter...CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter...an emissions increase, and a control strategy demonstration has not been...

2010-07-01

167

40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.933 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a)...

2011-07-01

168

78 FR 23524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Ambient Air Quality Standards...Implementation Plan (SIP) for particulate matter under the Clean Air Act. This...Federally regulated criteria pollutant definitions and...

2013-04-19

169

78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards AGENCY...Implementation Plan (SIP) for particulate matter under the Clean Air Act (CAA...Federally regulated criteria pollutant definitions and...

2013-04-19

170

STATUS AND PROGRESS IN PARTICULATE MATTER FORECASTING: INITIAL APPLICATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ FORECAST MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with me...

171

An Overview of Particulate Matter and its Cost-efficient Evaluation  

E-print Network

Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of sizes and types of particles. Exposure to airborne particulate matter adversely affects human health. In this paper, sources of particles are summarized, and epidemiological and toxicological...

Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01

172

CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

173

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

174

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

175

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

176

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

177

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

178

Similarities of boundary layer ventilation and particulate matter roses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution wind sector or rose analyses show that under South-Easterly winds, many areas of the UK experience an increase in mean airborne particulate matter concentration of up to 30%over the average for all directions. This is often attributed solely to long-range transport of pollutants from continental Europe. Here, we present a rose analysis that suggests an additional influence of boundary

Matthew Rigby; Roger Timmis; Ralf Toumi

2006-01-01

179

Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) in Workplaces in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is regarded as carcinogenic in Germany, with threshold limit values for underground noncoal mining of 0.6 mg\\/m and for surface workplaces of 0.2 mg\\/m. The current German practice for workplace surveillance is described, and sampling and measurement procedures are discussed. Currently, diesel soot is collected on quartz fiber filters using the respirable dust fraction and oxidized

Dirk Dahmann; Hans-Dieter Bauer

1997-01-01

180

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-print Network

of total suspended particulate matter versus age of the birds measured in four commercial tunnel ventilated broiler houses in Central TX during June-December 2000 compared to mean concentrations reported in the literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80... 22 Ammonia emission rates versus age of the birds measured in four commercial tunnel ventilated broiler houses in Central TX during June-December 2000 compared to mean emission rates reported by Groot Koerkamp et al. (1998) . 82 23 Ammonia...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2012-06-07

181

Spatio-temporal modeling of fine particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this article, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipate urban\\/rural differences with regard to both mean levels and variability. Hence\\u000a we introduce two random effects components, one for rural or background levels

Sujit K. Sahu; Alan E. Gelfand; David M. Holland

2006-01-01

182

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

183

Organic geochemistry of suspended and settling particulate matter in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter contained in particulate matter in Lake Michigan waters and sediments has been characterized by C \\/ N ratios and by distributions of biomarker fatty acids, alkanols, sterols, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Differences in organic constituents of particulate matter from various depths and distances from shore indicate a complex interaction of production, transformation, and destruction of the organic matter contained

P. A. Meyers; M. J. Leenheer; B. J. Eaoie; S. J. Maule

1984-01-01

184

Particulate organic matter sinks and sources in high Arctic fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this paper is to present results on concentrations, fluxes and isotopic composition (?13Corg) of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon (measures of particulate and sedimentary organic matter, respectively) in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. The terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the Kongsfjorden reached 760 · 106 ± 145 · 106 g Corg y- 1, forced mostly by the glaciers' activity. This constituted 5-10% of the bulk POC supplied to the system. Marine primary production was the main source of the remaining 90-95% of POC. Organic carbon burial rates amounted to 9 ± 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the central and 13 ± 1 g Corg m- 2 y- 1 in the outer part of the fjord. Two terrestrial POM ?13Corg end members were identified: the ancient organic matter (OM) supplied by glaciers and rivers fed by water discharged from the glaciers (from - 25.4‰ to - 25.1‰), and the fresh terrestrial POM (from - 26.7‰ to - 26.6‰). Marine OM was characterized by a wide range of ?13Corg signatures: from ? - 26.1‰ for the phytoplankton depleted in 13Corg to ca. - 15.8‰ for debris of marine phytobenthos. The lack of distinct marine ?13Corg end member and the resemblance of phytoplankton ?13Corg signatures to the terrestrial POM ?13Corg end member precluded the use of the two ?13Corg end member mixing model to trace the terrestrial OM in Kongsfjorden, which is also very likely to happen in other Arctic regions.

Kuli?ski, Karol; K?dra, Monika; Lege?y?ska, Joanna; Gluchowska, Marta; Zaborska, Agata

2014-11-01

185

Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and measured dust storm concentration variability at Beijing in the course of time. The results show the importance of intertwine investigations of measurements and modeling, the analysis of local air pollution levels as well as the impact and analysis of advective processes in the greater region of Beijing. Comprehensive investigations on particulate matter are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the source strengths and source attribution to the overall air pollution level. Only this knowledge can help to formulate and to introduce specific reduction measures to reduce coarser as well as finer particulates.

Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

2013-05-01

186

Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

2014-10-01

187

The Role of Particulate Matter in the Development of Hypoxia on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf  

E-print Network

Controlling Hypoxia program (hypoxia.tamu.edu). Discrete samples of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration were obtained for analysis and calibration of optical instruments interfaced with a profiling CTD, a towed undulating...

Cochran, Emma Mary

2013-07-31

188

STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION INVOLVING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological research in the early 1990s focusing on health effects of airborne particulate matter pointed to a statistical association between increases in concentration of particulate in ambient air and increases in daily nonaccidental mortality, particularly among the eld...

189

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01

190

Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

2011-10-04

191

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.  

PubMed

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 ?g m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 ?g m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. PMID:21458792

Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Ji?í

2011-05-01

192

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01

193

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

SciTech Connect

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

194

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOEpatents

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16

195

Mineralogy of Particulate Matter Suspended in Sea Water.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction analysis of the particulate matter of water samples from the Caribbean Sea, one from the surface and one from a depth of 768 meters, shows that the material has a mineral composition comparable to that found in deep-sea sediments of the area. The minerals found in the water samples include illite, the most abundant clay; kaolinite; chlorite; talc; mixed-layer clay; quartz; feldspar; and amphibole. Kaolinite and chlorite are more abundant relative to illite in the sediments than in the suspended material. PMID:17734497

Jacobs, M B; Ewing, M

1965-07-01

196

Modeling the effects of near-surface plumes of suspended particulate matter on  

E-print Network

of the water column associated with near-surface plumes of suspended particulate matter on spectral remote, such as phytoplankton blooms [13,14] and turbid plumes in coastal waters produced by discharge of terrestrial matter [15Modeling the effects of near-surface plumes of suspended particulate matter on remote

Stramski, Dariusz

197

Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Yapaulo, Renato A [ORNL; Orita, Tetsuo [ORNL; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai [University of Wisconsin; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Akard, Michael [Horiba Instruments Inc.

2009-01-01

198

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

199

Personal coarse particulate matter exposures in an adult cohort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5). Data from these personal measurements were then compared to community-based measures that might typically represent surrogate measurements of exposure often used in epidemiological assessments. To determine personal exposures to various particulate matter (PM) size fractions, a recently evaluated personal PM monitor capable of direct PM 10-2.5 size fraction collection was used. Participants living in the central region of North Carolina and enrolled in the NCAAES were asked to wear the monitor attached to a supporting backpack for 24-h collection periods. These volunteers were monitored for 2 to 4 days with subsequent gravimetric analysis of their PM samples. Personal PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations were observed to be highly variable and ranged from 7.6 to 40.2 ?g/m 3 over an 8-month period. The median for this measurement from all participants (50th percentile) was 13.7 ?g/m 3. A coefficient of determination ( r2) of 0.02 was established for community-based PM 10-2.5 mass concentrations versus personal exposures. Similar coefficients established for PM 2.5 mass revealed only a modest improvement in agreement ( r2 = 0.12). Data from the exposure findings are reported here.

Williams, Ron; Case, Martin; Yeatts, Karin; Chen, Fu-Lin; Scott, James; Svendsen, Erik; Devlin, Robert

200

Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.  

PubMed

The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. PMID:23425793

Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

2013-04-01

201

Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 ?g. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

2013-02-01

202

Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school  

SciTech Connect

Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. Respirable particle concentrations ranged from 13 to 38 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. The most abundant fungi identified were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Yeasts. Gram +, gram {minus} and actinomyces were also quantified. A strong relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. Use of a one compartment mass balance model applied to each room is shown to be a useful method for evaluating and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy were the best estimate of occupancy based emissions.

Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

1999-07-01

203

Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

204

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. - Highlights: {yields} We studied concentration, composition and morphology of coarse particles in gyms. {yields} Indoor concentration of coarse particles was high during days with pupils activity. {yields} Effect of outdoor coarse dust on indoor levels was weak and inconsistent. {yields} Six main groups of minerals contributing to indoor resuspended dust were determined. {yields} The most abundant coarse particles were human skin scales.

Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-05-15

205

Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:22554531

Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

2012-06-15

206

The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

1996-01-01

207

Relationship between Radical Generation by Urban Ambient Particulate Matter and Pulmonary Function of School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which particulate matter (PM) produces adverse effects on the respiratory system, such as pulmonary dysfunction in children, are largely unknown. However, oxidative stress is thought to play an important role. Various chemical compounds in ambient particulate matter, including transition metals and aromatic organic compounds, may contribute to adverse effects through intrinsic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Janneke G. F. Hogervorst; Theo M. C. M. de Kok; Jacob J. Briedé; Geertjan Wesseling; Jos C. S. Kleinjans; Constant P. van Schayck

2006-01-01

208

Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds--Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils  

E-print Network

; Phosphate; Marine particulate matter; Marine sediment; Soils 1. Introduction Phosphorus (P) is used by allOxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds--Application for marine particulate matter, sediments phosphatic compounds (y18 Op) can be used as a tracer for phosphate sources and to evaluate the cycling

Paytan, Adina

209

Particulate Matter Removal from a Gas Stream using High?Voltage Discharge Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examines the use of a high?voltage discharge plasma technology to remove particulate matter from an air stream. Concentrations of the particulate matter were measured at the inlet and the outlet of the discharge plasma with the help of an optical particle counter to determine the particle removal efficiency. The experimental results indicate that the particle removal efficiency of

2008-01-01

210

Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particulate matter might accelerate thrombosis. We found that mice treated with a dose of well characterized particulate matter of less than 10 ?M in diameter exhibited a shortened bleeding time, decreased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times (decreased plasma clotting times), increased levels of fibrinogen, and increased activity of factor II, VIII, and X. This prothrombotic tendency was associated with increased generation of intravascular thrombin, an acceleration of arterial thrombosis, and an increase in bronchoalveolar fluid concentration of the prothrombotic cytokine IL-6. Knockout mice lacking IL-6 were protected against particulate matter–induced intravascular thrombin formation and the acceleration of arterial thrombosis. Depletion of macrophages by the intratracheal administration of liposomal clodronate attenuated particulate matter–induced IL-6 production and the resultant prothrombotic tendency. Our findings suggest that exposure to particulate matter triggers IL-6 production by alveolar macrophages, resulting in reduced clotting times, intravascular thrombin formation, and accelerated arterial thrombosis. These results provide a potential mechanism linking ambient particulate matter exposure and thrombotic events. PMID:17885684

Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Green, David; Bellmeyer, Amy; Baker, Christina M.; Burgess, Zach; Rajamannan, Nalini; Christman, John W.; Foiles, Nancy; Kamp, David W.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Dean, David A.; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G.R. Scott

2007-01-01

211

Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway  

EPA Science Inventory

The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

212

Timing and Scope of Emission Reductions for Airborn Particulate Matter: A Simplified Model  

E-print Network

Timing and Scope of Emission Reductions for Airborn Particulate Matter: A Simplified Model Michael PARTICULATE MATTER: A SIMPLIFIED MODEL Michael J Phelan1 Chapman University Abstract Environmental health the timing and scope of policy. Problems of this kind fall within the framework of the theory of irreversible

Washington at Seattle, University of

213

Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was

S. Swamy; J. Power; D. Pham; K. B. Preston; A. Iqbal

2007-01-01

214

Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf  

E-print Network

Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental that contributed to the evolution of observed thermal structure and resuspension of particulate matter during properties was obtained at a mooring site near the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf-break (70 m water

Chang, Grace C.

215

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

216

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Naples (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on PAH in the atmospheric particulate matter of the city of Naples has been carried out. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was sampled in three sampling sites (West, East and central areas of the city), whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. In each site, 24h samplings for 7 consecutive days were performed during three sampling campaigns, in

Anna Maria Caricchia; Salvatore Chiavarini; Massimo Pezza

1999-01-01

217

A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 µm) F...

218

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from a  

E-print Network

An evaluation of European air pollution regulations for particulate matter monitored from, stationarity. Abstract Statistical methods are needed for evaluating many aspects of air pollution regu particulate matter (PM) is an important air pollutant for which regu- lations have been issued recently

Sahu, Sujit K

219

Discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter sources with magnetic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The harmful effects of anthropogenically derived particulate matter (PM) on human health have attracted the attention of environmental research in recent years. Particles < 10 ? m (PM10) are of special interest because they can be inhaled deeply into the lung. Since magnetic minerals are common in natural and anthropogenic PM, magnetic bulk properties have been used to characterise urban pollution. Bulk magnetic properties, however, do not always correlate well with the total PM mass because of the variability of different dust sources (Muxworthy, 2001). The magnetic contribution of the different PM10 sources may be quantified using a linear unmixing model (Egli, in press). The sources are identified by analysing magnetic remanence demagnetisation curves of samples collected in characteristic sites (rural regions, sub-urban areas and city centres with high traffic frequencies) with variable degree of pollution (< 1 % to 80 % of the total PM10 mass). Additional samples documenting specific dust contamination have been taken in a motorway tunnel and in an underground railway station. The magnetic results are compared with a detailed source analysis based on extensive chemical measurements (Hüglin, 2000). The main pollution sources are combustion products of motor vehicles and waste incineration. The correlation between individual magnetic components and the mass contribution of different PM10 sources suggests the use of appropriate magnetic methods as a valuable and rapid tool for monitoring pollution sources. Egli, R., Analysis of the field dependence of remanent magnetization curves, Journal of Geophysical Research, in press. Hüglin, C., Anteil des Strassenverkehrs an den PM10 und PM2.5 Immissionen, Bericht C4, NFP 41, BUWAL, Bern, 2000. Muxworthy, A. R., J. Matzka and N. Petersen, Comparison of magnetic parameters of urban atmospheric particulate matter with pollution and meteorological data, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4379-4386, 2001.

Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

2003-04-01

220

Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land. PMID:22866575

Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

2012-07-01

221

The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

2013-04-01

222

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production...I comply with the particulate matter standards for...

2010-07-01

223

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

224

Evaluation of particulate matter abatement strategies for almond harvest.  

PubMed

Almond harvest accounts for substantial PM10 (particulate matter [PM] < or =10 microm in nominal aerodynamic diameter) emissions in California each harvest season. This paper evaluates the effects of using reduced-pass sweepers and lower harvester separation fan speeds (930 rpm) on lowering PM emissions from almond harvesting operations. In-canopy measurements of PM concentrations were collected along with PM concentration measurements at the orchard boundary; these were used in conjunction with on-site meteorological data and inverse dispersion modeling to back-calculate emission rates from the measured concentrations. The harvester discharge plume was measured as a function of visible plume opacity during conditioning operations. Reduced-pass sweeping showed the potential for reducing PM emissions, but results were confounded because of differences in orchard maturity and irrigation methods. Fuel consumption and sweeping time per unit area were reduced when comparing a reduced-pass sweeper to a conventional sweeper. Reducing the separation fan speed from 1080 to 930 rpm led to reductions in PM emissions. In general, foreign matter levels within harvested product were nominally affected by separation fan speed in the south (less mature) orchard; however, in samples conditioned using the lower fan speed from the north (more mature) orchard, these levels were unacceptable. PMID:21516936

Faulkner, William B; Downey, Daniel; Giles, D Ken; Capareda, Sergio C

2011-04-01

225

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter 1.0General (a) This appendix...computations necessary for analyzing particulate matter data to determine attainment of...

2012-07-01

226

A review of receptor modelling of industrially emitted particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review summarizes the different receptor models that have been adopted at industrial and urban sites to apportion the sources of particulate matter (PM) from industries. Industrial processes and those associated with industry (such as transportation) are an important source of airborne PM which includes trace elements, organic and elemental carbon, and PAHs. Industry also emits gaseous pollutants which form secondary aerosol in the atmosphere. Most published studies have employed chemical mass balance (CMB), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and/or principal component analysis (PCA) models as source apportionment tools. These receptor models were mostly applied to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM10 compositional data, particularly the inorganic constituents. Some studies have combined two or more of these receptor models, which provides useful information on the uncertainties associated with different models. Industry has been reported to contribute from 0 to 70% of PM mass at industrial sites. It appears that some studies are unsuccessful in apportioning PM from industry, e.g., unable to distinguish industrial emissions from other sources. A critical evaluation of the literature data also showed that the choice of appropriate tracers for industry, both generically and for specific industries, varies between different PM source apportionment studies. This is not surprising considering the significant difference in source profiles of PM from different types of industry, which may compromise source apportionment of industrial emissions using CMB with non-local source profiles. It may also affect the attribution of industrial emissions in multivariate statistical models (e.g. PMF and PCA). It is concluded that a general classification of the source “industry” is rarely appropriate for PM source apportionment. Indeed, such studies may even need to consider the different processes within a particular industry, such as a steelworks, which emit PM with significantly different chemical signatures. It is suggested that future source apportionment studies should make every effort to measure source profiles of PM from different industrial processes, and where possible, use multiple models in order to more accurately apportion the source emissions from industry.

Taiwo, Adewale M.; Harrison, Roy M.; Shi, Zongbo

2014-11-01

227

Airborne Particulate Matter Inhibits Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption in Mice via Oxidant Generation  

PubMed Central

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Düsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 ?g) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or abscence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 ?M). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase. PMID:16439801

Mutlu, Gokhan M.; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

2006-01-01

228

In-stack condensible particulate matter measurements and issues.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 202 (for in-stack condensible PM10) and EPA Method 201/201A (for in-stack filterable PM10) results were conducted. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises approximately three-fourths (76%) of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil- and natural gas-fired boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 50% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil-, natural gas-, and kerosene-fired combustion turbines showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 69% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Based on these limited measurements, condensible PM can make a significant contribution to total PM10 emissions for fossil fuel-fired units. A positive bias (indicating more condensible PM than is actually emitted) may exist in the measured data due to the conversion of dissolved sulfur dioxide to sulfate compounds in the sampling procedure. In addition, these Method 202 results confirm that condensible PM, on average, is composed mostly of inorganic matter, regardless of the type of fuel burned. PMID:10680350

Corio, L A; Sherwell, J

2000-02-01

229

Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.  

PubMed

Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality. PMID:17537480

Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

2007-10-01

230

Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 ?m (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

2010-01-01

231

Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

2014-11-01

232

Molecular composition of organic fine particulate matter in Houston, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX between March 1997 and March 1998 was analyzed to determine the concentration of individual organic compounds. Samples from four sites were analyzed including two industrial locations (Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM-3) site in Channelview and Clinton Drive site near the Ship Channel Turning Basin), one suburban location (Bingle Drive site in Northwest Houston) and one background site (Galveston Island). At the three urban locations, samples were divided into three seasonal sample aggregates (spring, summer and winter), while at the background site a single annual average sample pool was used. Between 10 and 16 individual samples were pooled to get aggregate samples with enough organic carbon mass for analysis. Overall, 82 individual organic compounds were quantified. These include molecular markers which are compounds unique to specific fine particle sources and can be used to track the relative contribution of source emissions to ambient fine particle levels. The differences both spatially and temporally in these tracers can be used to evaluate the variability in emission source strengths.

Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Tropp, R. J.; Kohl, S. D.; Chow, J. C.

233

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

234

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

235

An empirical model for prediction of lake water suspended particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of fundamental importance in lake mass balance modelling to distinguish between the dissolved and particulate fractions. To do this, the suspended particulate matter concentration (SPM) is needed as well as measured or modelled values of the partition coefficient (Kd). A regression model for SPM based on data from 26 European lakes covering a wide limnological range is presented.

Martin Lindström; Lars Håkanson; Otto Abrahamsson; Håkan Johansson

1999-01-01

236

The Heavy metal chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter emitted by mount etna volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter, collected by air filtration in the plumes from various active craters and vents at Mount Etna, Sicily, in June 1976, allowed to estimate a discharge of particulate elements to the atmosphere shown to be representative of Mount Etna long-term activity. For some enriched trace elements in this volcanic aerosol (Cu, Zn,

P. Buat-Ménard; M. Arnold

1978-01-01

237

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of particulates in 369 air samples over 175 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um cutpoint. Keywords: air; metals. The...

238

Distribution, composition, and transport of suspended particulate matter in the vicinity of Willapa submarine canyon, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the waters over Willapa submarine canyon and the adjacent continental slope off the coast of Wasington describe an apparently continuous botton nepheloid layer ranging in thickness from 160 to 530 m and composed of particles supplied primarily by the nearby Columbia River. Near-bottom particulate concentrations, estimated by continuous vertical profiles of

EDWARD T. BAKER

1976-01-01

239

TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

240

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Several hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem from PM transitio...

241

EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanism(s) of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Some hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem fro...

242

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases?especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

243

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: ...

244

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

245

THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

246

AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

247

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...

248

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

...average concentration of particulate matter shall be determined by using method 5. Traversing during sampling by method 5 shall be according to method 1. The minimum sampling time shall be 2 hours and the minimum sampling volume shall be 60...

2014-07-01

249

Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

250

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

251

Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

252

Impairment of NO-Dependent Relaxation in Intralobar Pulmonary Arteries: Comparison Between Urban Particulate Matter and  

E-print Network

PM particulate matter SRM1648 Standard Reference Materials 1648 ufcb ultrafine carbon black ufTiO2 unaffected. Unlike SRM1648, ultrafine carbon black, ultrafine or fine TiO2 manufactured particles did

Boyer, Edmond

253

REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

254

Soluble Components of Ultraflne Particulate Matter Stimulate Endothelial H202 Production  

EPA Science Inventory

A growing body of evidence shows a strong association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular health effects such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. The mechanisms by which PM causes cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown, but there is increasi...

255

77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental...on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM 2.5 attainment demonstration that was...

2012-01-12

256

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

257

IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

258

Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

259

SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

260

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

261

Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

262

Back-calculating emission rates for ammonia and particulate matter from area sources using dispersion modeling  

E-print Network

making must rely upon sound science and engineering as the core of appropriate policy making (objective analysis in lieu of subjective opinion). This research evaluated particulate matter and ammonia concentration data as well as two modeling methods, a...

Price, Jacqueline Elaine

2004-11-15

263

Errors associated with particulate matter measurements on rural sources: appropriate basis for regulating cotton gins  

E-print Network

Agricultural operations across the United States are encountering difficulties complying with current air pollution regulations for particulate matter (PM). PM is currently regulated in terms of particle diameters less than or equal to a nominal 10...

Buser, Michael Dean

2004-09-30

264

Air dispersion modeling of particulate matter from ground-level area sources  

E-print Network

State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRAs) often use dispersion modeling to predict downwind concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from a facility. As such, a facility may be granted or denied an operating permit based on the results...

Meister, Michael Todd

2012-06-07

265

Impact of meteorology, traffic characteristics, and distance from roadway on roadside concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Traffic-laden roadways are major contributors to poor air quality in developed areas, elevating pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and ozone. Among the numerous air pollutants emitted by vehicles, ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter ...

266

Burial and decomposition of particulate organic matter in a temperate, siliciclastic, seasonal wetland  

E-print Network

Understanding the role of freshwater wetlands in the global carbon cycle has become more important as evidence of climate change grows. In this paper, we examine the burial and decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) in a temperate...

Welsh, Lisa Williamson

2009-05-15

267

SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

268

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

269

Distribution of heavy metals in water, particulate matter and sediments of Gediz River (Eastern Aegean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first document of heavy metal levels in surficial sediment, water and particulate matter of the Gediz\\u000a River collected from five different sites in August, October 1998, February, June 1999. The present work attempts to establish\\u000a the status of distribution and environmental implications of metals in the sediment, water and particulate matter and their\\u000a possible sources

F. Kucuksezgin; E. Uluturhan; H. Batki

2008-01-01

270

Biomonitoring of Toxic Compounds of Airborne Particulate Matter in Urban and Industrial Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical\\u000a composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool\\u000a to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter on man and environment. Two widely applied biomonitoring procedures, namely\\u000a the standardised ryegrass exposure for monitoring of

Andreas Klumpp; Helge Ro-Poulsen

271

Determination of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric particulate matter by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid method has been optimised to determine glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric particulate matter by extraction and derivatisation with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solutions. Minimal sample preparation was required by mixing a portion of filter charged with atmospheric particulate matter with 5?mL of a saturated solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (1.6?g?L) in acetonitrile and acidified by H2SO4 (50?µL?L). Chromatographic analyses were carried

Susana García-Alonso; Rosa Pérez-Pastor; M. Luisa Sevillano-Castaño

2006-01-01

272

Hydrological properties, suspended matter, and particulate fluxes in the water column of the Bear Island Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CTD and nephelometric sounding data are considered along with the parameters of the nearbottom currents and particulate fluxes measured by a subsurface mooring station in the northern part of the Bear Island Trough. It is shown that the near-bottom current is characterized by highly variable parameters, while the distribution of suspended particulate matter demonstrates surface and bottom maximums. The horizontal and vertical fluxes of sedimentary matter in the nepheloid layer are studied.

Lukashin, V. N.; Shcherbinin, A. D.

2007-02-01

273

Climate Change, Tropospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter, and Health Impacts  

PubMed Central

Objective Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. Data sources We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Data synthesis Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Conclusions Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution–related health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations. PMID:19057695

Ebi, Kristie L.; McGregor, Glenn

2008-01-01

274

Chemical composition of ambient particulate matter and redox activity.  

PubMed

Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Increasing studies have suggested that such adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. The study aimed to assess physical characteristics and chemical compositions of PM and to correlate the results to their redox activity. PM(2.5) (mass aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm) and ultrafine particles (UFPs, mass media aerodynamic diameter <0.1 microm) were collected in an urban area, which had heavy traffic and represented ambient air pollution associated with vehicle exhaust. Background samples were collected in a rural area, with low traffic flow. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals were analyzed. The dithiothreitol activity assay was used to measure the redox activity of PM. Results showed that UFPs have higher concentrations of OC, EC, and PAHs than those of PM(2.5). Several metals, including Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Pb, and Mn, were detected. Among them, Cu had the highest concentrations, followed by Fe and Zn. Organic carbon constituted 22.8% to 59.7% of the content on the surface of PM(2.5) and UFPs. Our results showed higher redox activity on a per PM mass basis for UFPs as compared to PM(2.5). Linear multivariable regression analyses showed that redox activity highly correlated with PAH concentrations and organic compounds, and insignificantly correlated with EC and metals, except soluble Fe, which increased redox activity in particle suspension due to the presence of ROS. PMID:19902370

Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

2010-10-01

275

Particulate Matter-Induced Health Effects: Who Is Susceptible?  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological, controlled human exposure, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a variety of health effects in response to particulate matter (PM) exposure with some of these studies indicating that populations with certain characteristics may be disproportionately affected. Objective To identify populations potentially at greatest risk for PM-related health effects, we evaluated epidemiological studies that examined various characteristics that may influence susceptibility, while using results from controlled human exposure and toxicological studies as supporting evidence. Additionally, we formulated a definition of susceptibility, building from the varied and inconsistent definitions of susceptibility and vulnerability used throughout the literature. Data synthesis We evaluated recent epidemiological studies to identify characteristics of populations potentially susceptible to PM-related health effects. Additionally, we evaluated controlled human exposure and toxicological studies to provide supporting evidence. We conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies that presented stratified results (e.g., < 65 vs. ? 65 years of age), controlled human exposure studies that examined individuals with underlying disease, and toxicological studies that used animal models of disease. We evaluated results for consistency across studies, coherence across disciplines, and biological plausibility to assess the potential for increased susceptibility to PM-related health effects in a specific population or life stage. Conclusions We identified a diverse group of characteristics that can lead to increased risk of PM-related health effects, including life stage (i.e., children and older adults), preexisting cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, genetic polymorphisms, and low-socioeconomic status. In addition, we crafted a comprehensive definition of susceptibility that can be used to encompass all populations potentially at increased risk of adverse health effects as a consequence of exposure to an air pollutant. PMID:20961824

Sacks, Jason D.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Luben, Thomas J.; Johns, Douglas O.; Buckley, Barbara J.; Brown, James S.; Ross, Mary

2011-01-01

276

Exposure to airborne particulate matter in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.  

PubMed

Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, has severe air pollution, although few studies examine air pollution and health in this region. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies in Nepal used time-activity diaries or conducted personal monitoring of individuals' exposures. We investigated personal exposure of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM(2.5)) by location, occupation, and proximity to roadways. PM(2.5) monitoring, time-activity diary, respiratory health questionnaire, and spirometer testing were performed from 28 June 2009 to 7 August 2009 for 36 subjects, including traffic police (TP), indoor officer workers next to main road (IOWs_NMR) and away from main road (IOWs_AMR), in urban area (UA), urban residential area, and semi-UA (SUA). TP had the highest exposure of all the occupations (average 51.2??g/m(3), hourly maximum >500??g/m(3)). TP levels were higher at the UA than other locations. IOW_NMR levels (averaged 46.9 ?g/m(3)) were higher than those of IOW_AMR (26.2??g/m(3)). Exposure was generally higher during morning rush hours (0800-1100 hours) than evening rush hours (1500-1800 hours) for all occupations and areas (78% of days for TP and 84% for urban IOW). PM(2.5) personal exposures for each occupation at each location exceeded the World Health Organization ambient PM(2.5) guideline (25??g/m(3)). Findings suggest potential substantial health impacts of air pollution on this region, especially for TP. PMID:22395259

Gurung, Anobha; Bell, Michelle L

2012-01-01

277

Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P.; Spinazze, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

2014-01-01

278

Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 ?g/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 ?g/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 ?g/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 ?g/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 ?g/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

2014-10-01

279

Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

280

THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

281

PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

282

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2013-07-01

283

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2012-07-01

284

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2011-07-01

285

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2010-07-01

286

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particulate emissions, alternative control measures, and to develop and implement...associated reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further progress...associated reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further...

2013-07-01

287

Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For each event type, the source of each measured element is determined to be soil or anthropogenic and profiles are created that characterize the particulate matter composition. Dust storms are associated with winds traveling from desert regions and high total suspended particle (TSP) and PM2.5 concentrations. Sixty-two percent of TSP is due to elements with oxides and 98% of that is from soil. Urban pollution events have smaller particulate concentrations but 49% of the TSP is from soil, indicating that dust is a major component of the particulate matter even when there is not an active dust storm. The industrial pollution event is characterized by winds from the southwest, the location of the Capitol Steel Company, and high particulate concentrations. PM2.5 mass and acidic ion concentrations are highest during the industrial pollution event as are Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Cd, Cs and Pb concentrations. These elements can be used as tracers for industrial pollution from the steel mill complex. The industrial pollution is potentially more detrimental to human health than dust storms due to higher PM2.5 concentrations and higher acidic ion and toxic particulate matter concentrations.

Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

2006-03-01

288

Attributing health effects to individual particulate matter constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a general consensus in the scientific community that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) composition plays a significant role in the health effects attributed to PM; indeed, components may be more important than PM concentration alone in explaining health responses. As evidence linking composition to health impacts continues to accumulate in the epidemiological, toxicological, and controlled human exposure arenas, it is becoming more urgent from a policy perspective to determine which components or combination of components are most harmful to human health. While several reviews on this topic have focused on specific types of studies, such as source apportionment studies or those using concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), no review has been published that holistically examines the evidence from all component-based studies. In particular, while source apportionment is a useful tool for developing an understanding of potential contributing sources to PM2.5 in certain areas, it is also subject to significant limitations, and therefore results from those studies need to be interpreted with care. We reviewed published studies that (1) included at least two PM components; (2) did not only group them statistically into factors; and (3) quantitatively determined the relationship between the components and health effects. The majority of the studies examined yielded significant findings for specific components of PM, but not for PM concentration, demonstrating that PM alone does not drive health responses. Overall, the epidemiological studies did not fully exonerate any major component class of PM2.5 mass, but did demonstrate that more scrutiny needs to be given to carbon-containing PM components (elemental and organic carbon), as growing evidence suggests these are most strongly associated with adverse health outcomes. The results of controlled human exposure studies are consistent with this premise, although only two such studies were available for consideration. Toxicological studies suggest that several elements, including aluminum, silicon, vanadium, and nickel, are most closely associated with health impacts, although many other elements, as well as carbon-containing components, have been implicated as well. There are no PM components for which there is unequivocal evidence of zero health impact. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results as it is unclear whether a component per se is responsible for health impacts or is an index or surrogate for some other pollutant.

Rohr, Annette C.; Wyzga, Ronald E.

2012-12-01

289

Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be originated from the PRD and transported back resulting in significant increase of secondary PM concentration, and provides new insight into PM production and transport mechanism in the PRD.

Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

2014-10-01

290

Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.  

PubMed

The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 ?m aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 ?m aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as well as measures that can attenuate the harmful effects of PM. PMID:23098384

Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

2012-12-01

291

Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

2014-05-01

292

Effects of Inhalable Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. Objectives To identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well-characterized exposure. Methods We measured prothrombin time [PT], activated-partial-thromboplastin time [aPTT], Endogenous Thrombin Potentials [ETP] with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-plasminogen activator antigen [t-PA], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP] in 37 workers in a steel-production plant with well-characterized exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter <1?m (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10-PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (post-exposure) day of a four-day workweek. We analysed differences between baseline and post-exposure levels using paired Student’s t-test. We fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of inter-quartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. Results None of the parameters showed any significant changes in post-exposure samples, compared to baseline. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (?[PM1]=?0.33 sec, p=0.08; ?[PMcoarse]=?0.33 sec, p=0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (?[PM1]=+99 nM*min, p=0.02; ?[PMcoarse]=+66 nM*min, p=0.05), t-PA (?[PM1]=+0.72 ng/mL, p=0.01; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.88 ng/mL, p=0.04), and CRP (?[PM1]=+0.59 mg/L, p=0.03; ?[PMcoarse]=+0.48 mg/L, p=0.01). Conclusions PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP, CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation. PMID:19922434

Bonzini, Matteo; Tripodi, Armando; Artoni, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea

2011-01-01

293

Representations of Fundamental Chemistry Concepts in Relation to the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated high school students' understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course…

Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

2013-01-01

294

Moore et al. 1 An Empirical Study of Particulate Matter Exposure for Passengers  

E-print Network

matter Abstract Current guidelines for the location and design of bus stops do not take into account air on the concentration of particulate matter air pollution inside and outside semi- enclosed bus stop shelters orientation of bus shelters relative to the roadway significantly affects exposure to roadside air pollution

Bertini, Robert L.

295

Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study…

Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

2007-01-01

296

Distribution and composition of particulate organic matter in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical composition and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter (POM) were studied in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in summer 1989 to assess the quantitative role of organic carbon fractions in the cycling of organic matter in the water column. Large differences in chemical composition were observed between surface and deep layers. The results indicated that, despite large geographical differences,

Mauro Fabiano; Paolo Povero; Roberto Danovaro

1993-01-01

297

Transformation of suspended particulate matter into sediment in the Kara Sea in September of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical processes participating in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment along the Yenisei River-St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) meridional profile were studied using hydrochemical, geochemical, microbiological, radioisotope, and isotope methods. The water-sediment contact zone consists of three subzones: the suprabottom water, the fluffy layer, and the surface sediment. The total number, biomass, and integral activity of the microorganisms (dark 14CO2 assimilation) in the fluffy layer are usually higher than in the suprabottom water and sediment. The fluffy layer shows a decrease in the oxygen content and the growth of the dissolved biogenic elements. It was provided by the particulate organic matter supporting the vital activity of the heterotrophs from the overlying water column and by the flux of reduced compounds (NH4, H2S, CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, and others) from the underlying sediments. The Corg isotopic composition of the fluffy layer and the sediments is 2-4 ‰ heavier than that of the particulate matter and sediment due to the presence of the isotopically heavy biomass of microorganisms. A change in the isotopic composition of the Corg in the fluffy layer and surface sediment as compared to the Corg of the particulate matter is a widespread phenomenon in the Arctic shelf seas and proves the leading role of microorganisms in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment.

Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Savvichev, A. S.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Dara, O. M.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Zakharova, E. E.; Rozanov, A. G.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

2013-09-01

298

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

299

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2012-07-01

300

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2011-07-01

301

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2013-07-01

302

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate...atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain...030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0.06 lb/ton), or...

2010-07-01

303

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control particulate...the stack gas according to the formula: ER30SE99.027 Where: Pc is the corrected concentration of the pollutant in the stack...

2013-07-01

304

Report of the Particulate Matter Research Strategies Workshop, Park City, Utah, April 29–30, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

An informal one-and-a-half-day workshop devoted to research needs on the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) was held in Park City, Utah, on April 29 and 30, 1996, in conjunction with the Second Colloquium on Particulate Air Pollution and Health at Park City, Utah, on May 1–3, 1996. The objective of the workshop was to prepare a holistic assessment

Morton Lippmann; John D. Bachmann; Flemming R. Cassee; Leendert van Bree; Kevin E. Driscoll; Robert F. Phalen; C. Arden Pope III; Sidney C. Soderholm; William E. Wilson

1998-01-01

305

EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demogr

Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

2007-10-01

306

Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution During The 2008 Beijing Olympics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the particulate matter (PM) pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, size fractionated PM samples of >PM10, PM2.5-PM10, and

Wang, W.; Primbs, T.; Tao, S.; Zhu, T.; Simonich, S. M.

2009-05-01

307

EPA'S Updated Air Quality Standards For Smog (Ozone) and Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 16, 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency released "final air quality standards for particulate matter and ozone (otherwise known as soot and smog)." The EPA Office of Air & Radiation has made the standards, which appear in the July 18, 1997 Federal Register, available (in Adobe Acrobate [.pdf] format). The FR final rules are: "Final Particulate Matter NAAQS," (National Ambient Air Quality Standards,102p.); "Final Ozone NAAQS" (37p.); "Particulate Matter Monitoring Requirements" (86p.); and "Supplemental Information and Request for Comments" (2p.). In addition, there is a 16 page memorandum from President Clinton to the EPA Administrator concerning implementation of the standards, and there are also several fact sheets about the standards. Note that the new standards contain two significant changes from the EPA's November 1996 proposal (discussed in the December 6, 1996 Scout Report). Users can see the Updated Clean Air Standards fact sheet for these changes.

Radiation., United S.

1997-01-01

308

Quantitative Analysis of Particulate Matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze particulate matter from the municipality of Limeira (SP), Brazil. Particulate matter collections were carried out at the meteorological station of the Technology Department of Campinas State University using a sequential filtration sampling system. Coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter, corresponding to the respirable fractions affecting the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, were collected on polycarbonate filters arranged in series in the sampler. After removal in acid, samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation at the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. In the results obtained, it was observed that the coarse fraction made the greatest contribution to PM10 formation. In regard to particulate matter composition, 16 elements were detected in both fractions: S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. By employing multivariate statistical analyses, namely principal components analysis and cluster analysis, it was possible to determine the probable emission sources contributing to the formation of the particulate material. For the coarse fraction, the primary emission source, soil dust, contributed 57%, followed by 30% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 13% from industrial emissions. For the fine fraction, the primary emission source was soil dust, contributing 79%, followed by 13% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 8% from industrial emissions.

Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

2011-12-01

309

Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

Zhang, J.

2003-12-01

310

Investigation into presence of atmospheric particulate matter in Marikana, mining area in Rustenburg Town, South Africa.  

PubMed

An investigation to find out presence of particulate matter in Marikana, a mining area in Rustenburg town, South Africa, was carried out in the months of August and November of 2008. Samples were collected for measurements of particulate matter (PM) of particle diameters of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. After gravimetric analysis of daily measurements, it was found that PM10 concentration values ranged between 3 and 9 ?g/m(3), PM2.5 concentration values ranged between 16 and 26 ?g/m(3), and PM1 concentration values ranged between 14 and 18 ?g/m(3) for the month of August 2008. For the month of November, it was found that PM10 concentration values ranged between 2 and 8 ?g/m(3), PM2.5 concentration values ranged between 0 and 5 ?g/m(3), and PM1 concentration values ranged between 4 and 15 ?g/m(3). This study was undertaken as preliminary work having in mind that mining activities could be emitting high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere which might be degrading the quality of the air. It was observed, however, that the daily particulate matter especially of PM10 emitted were quite low when compared to laid down International Air Quality Standards. The standards did not give guidelines for particulate matter of diameter 2.5 ?m. It was concluded that particulate matter came from three major sources: platinum mining, domestic biomass burning, and traffic emissions due to fuel burning. PMID:20865322

Kaonga, Brighton; Kgabi, Nnenesi A

2011-07-01

311

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions: epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter,we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured,ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of

Manfred Neubergera; Michael G. Schimek; Friedrich Horak Jr; Michael Kundi; Thomas Frischer; Bostjan Gomiscek; Hans Puxbauma; Helger Hauck

312

Toxic evaluation of organic extracts from airborne particulate matter in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of carbon compounds, which originate mostly from anthropogenic sources. The toxicity of organic fractions from particulate matter have been mainly evaluated by considering their mutagenic activity. This research expands on the toxicologic profile of organic compounds adsorbed to particulate matter, specifically in Puerto Rico, by using the cytotoxic neutral red bioassay (NRB). The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air. We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649). We used the NRB to determine toxicologic differences of extracts between an urban industrialized site with anthropogenic activity versus a coastal region with less human activity. The cytotoxicity associated with organic compounds in particulate matter collected at the urban industrialized site was detected in both the particulate matter (3/4) 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and particulate matter (3/4) 100 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(100)). Greater toxic effects were observed in PM(10) extracts than in PM(100) extracts, but PM(10) toxic effects were not significantly different from those in PM(100). The extracts from the industrialized site were more cytotoxic than the extracts from coastal reference site, although in the summer, extracts from both sites were significantly cytotoxic to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the nonpolar extracts of both PM(10) and PM(100) exerted the greatest cytotoxicity, followed by the polar, and, finally, the moderately polar extract. This study demonstrates that extracts from the Guaynabo industrialized site were more toxic than similar extracts obtained from a reference coastal site in Fajardo, Puerto Rico. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10903617

Reyes, D R; Rosario, O; Rodriguez, J F; Jimenez, B D

2000-01-01

313

Seasonal and diurnal variations of particulate nitrate and organic matter in the Central European atmospheric aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate and several organic compounds such as dicarboxylic acids (e.g. succinic acid, glutaric acid), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) or n-alkanes form the group of the most volatile compounds in atmospheric aerosol particles. The transition of these compounds between gas and particulate phase may significantly change the aerosol particles radiative properties, the heterogeneous chemical properties, and, naturally, the total particulate mass concentration. To better assess these time-dependent effects, three intensive field experiments were conducted in 2008-2009 at the Central European EMEP research station Melpitz (Germany) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Data coverage from all seasons highlighted organic matter as being the most important particulate fraction during summertime, while the nitrate fraction was more prevalent in winter. The variation in particulate nitrate was inherently linked to the gas-to-particle-phase equilibrium of ammonium nitrate, which depends on ambient temperature and relative humidity. During short episodes immediately after dawn, the particulate nitrate seems to disobey this dependency so that additional local nitrate formation, such as from HONO photolysis is needed as an explanation. During the summer 2008's experiment, a remarkable diurnal evolution in the oxidation state of the organic matter became evident, which could be correlated to hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone concentrations indicating photochemical transformation process. In summer, the organic particulate matter seems to be heavily influenced by regional secondary formation and transformation processes, facilitated by photochemical production processes as well as a diurnal cycling of the substances between the gas and particulate phase. In winter, these processes were obviously much weaker, so that organic matter apparently originated mainly from aged particles and long range transport.

Poulain, L.; Spindler, G.; Birmili, W.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

2011-04-01

314

The Particulate Theory of Matter for Preservice Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of participation in six extra credit activities for teaching the concept of matter on female preservice elementary school teachers (n=9) to a control group (n=8). Pre- and posttests to assess changes in the students' understanding of phenomena associated with matter indicated significant changes in experimental students'…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

1992-01-01

315

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

Barnett, J. M.

2008-08-22

316

Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Indianapolis, Indiana.  

PubMed

The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter (PM) and elemental 3-day monitoring, 240 participants completed a TAQ on a daily basis during the actual monitoring period. Also, a subset of participants had 3-day outdoor and indoor stationary monitoring at their home (approximately 58 observations), and sampling was conducted at a fixed site (approximately thirty-three 3-day observations). The quality of data was assessed and compared to the Toronto study in terms of linearity of measurement, instrument and method sensitivity, measurement biases, and measurement reproducibility. Twenty-six of the sample filters were subjected to two analyses to characterize the within-laboratory component of precision in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs). The median RSD for Mn was 8.7%, as compared to 2.2% for Toronto. The quality assurance (QA) laboratory exhibited a clear positive bias relative to the primary laboratory for Al and Ca, but no systematic difference was evident for Mn. A high interlaboratory correlation (>0.99) was also attained for Mn. Mean field blank results for PM and Mn were 0.87 microg/m(3) and 0.71 ng/m(3), respectively, which were comparable to the Toronto study. The median RSDs for colocated fixed site and residential samples ranged from 2.2% to 9.0% for PM and from 8.8% to 15.3% for Mn, which were close to those observed in Toronto. For the PM(10), the 90th percentile indoors was 124 microg/m(3) compared with 54 microg/m(3) outdoors. This pattern was even more pronounced for the PM(2.5) data (90th percentiles of 92 microg/m(3) indoors vs 30 microg/m(3) outdoors). Personal PM(2.5) was somewhat higher than the indoor levels, but the percentiles seemed to follow the more highly skewed pattern of the indoor distribution. This difference was largely due to the presence of some smokers in the sample; e.g., exclusion of smokers led to a personal exposure distribution that was more similar to the outdoor distribution. The estimated 90th percentile for the nonsmokers' personal exposures to PM was 43 microg/m(3) compared with 84 microg/m(3) for the overall population. In general, the Indianapolis PM levels of a given type and cut size were somewhat higher than the levels observed in Toronto, e.g., the median and 90th percentile for the personal PM(2.5) exposures were 23 and 85 microg/m(3), respectively, in Indianapolis, while in Toronto, the corresponding percentiles were 19 and 63 microg/m(3). The cities' distributions of the proportion of the PM(10) mass in the 2.5-microm fraction appeared similar for the residential outdoor data (medians of 0.67 and 0.65 for Indianapolis and Toronto, respectively, and 90th percentiles of 0.83 for both cities). For the indoor data, Indianapolis tended to have a larger portion of the mass in the fine fraction (median of 0.80 compared to 0.70 for Toronto). Unlike the PM, the Indianapolis indoor Mn concentration levels were substantially lower than the outdoor levels for both PM sizes, and the median personal levels for Mn in PM(2.5) appeared to fall between the median indoor and outdoor levels. The personal Mn exposure distribution

Pellizzari, E D; Clayton, C A; Rodes, C E; Mason, R E; Piper, L L; Fort, B; Pfeifer, G; Lynam, D

2001-01-01

317

Field tests using radioactive matter 2.  

PubMed

Results of field tests with explosive dispersal of a radioactive substance (RaS) are presented. The paper deals with tests exploiting artificial obstacles as a continuation and expansion of the tests used in this study performed in free area described previously. The essential goal of the tests was to estimate the distribution of the released RaS in the case of intentional abuse of radioactive sources and to get a set of data applicable to testing physical or mathematical models of propagation. Effects of different geometrical and meteorological conditions on the distribution of dispersed RaS were studied via the assessment of dose rate, surface and volume activities, aerosol mass and activity aerodynamic diameters. The principal results can be summarised as follows: the prevalent proportion of the activity of the radionuclide dispersed by an explosion (born by the blast wave and by air convection) is transferred to the detection system/collecting pads essentially within the first minute. Enhanced aerosol mass concentrations were also detected within the same period. The RaS carried by the blast wave passed through the polygon (50 m) within <1 s. An expected crucial impact of meteorological conditions at the moment of the explosion and shortly after was proved by the tests. PMID:22923250

Rulik, P; Prouza, Z; Hovorka, J; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Fronka, A; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Skrkal, J

2013-04-01

318

Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter from passenger cars.  

PubMed

Using our measurement results on particulate emissions from passenger cars we have calculated ambient air concentrations for various US and European scenarios. This was carried out with the help of mathematical dispersion models for different traffic situations including street canyons and motorways. We have been very conservative in our choice of the scenarios, i.e. we have always used situations in which there are very high stress levels (e.g. constantly high traffic flow instead of average traffic flow). Finally, the thus determined air concentrations are compared with the corresponding air quality standard available from the literature. PMID:2484034

Schürmann, D

1989-01-01

319

Trace element geochemistry of marine biogenic particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Plankton samples were investigated for physical and chemical leaching decomposition to identify the major and trace element composition of particulate carrier phases. The identification of trace element/major element ratios in the biogenic materials was emphasized. The majority of the trace elements in the samples were directly associated with the nonskeletal organic phases of the plankton. Calcium carbonate and opal were not significant carriers for any of the trace elements studied. A refractory phase containing Al and Fe in terrigenous ratios was present in all samples, even from the more remote marine locations.

Collier, R.W.

1981-02-01

320

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in benthic layer particulate matter and sediments of Lake Superior  

SciTech Connect

Samples of suspended particulate matter from the nepheloid layer and the benthic sediment layer (fluff zone), as well as core samples of the underlying sediment column, were collected from two locations in Lake Superior during manner submersible dives. All samples were analyzed for eight rare earth elements (REE's), biogenic silica, and organic carbon. The REE patterns indicate lithogenous material is a dominant component in all samples but that significant amounts of REE's derived from the water column are also present. Biogenous sources (diatom shells), on the other hand, contribute negligibly to the REE geochemistry of these samples. Statistical analyses of the geochemical data suggest that the mechanism by which REE's are removed from the water column involve scavenging by particulate phases of Fe. The Precambrian banded iron formations around Lake Superior represent an abundant source of dissolved and particulate Fe to the lake. Absolute concentrations of both REE's and Fe are greater in the fluff layer than in the nepheloid layer; however, the nepheloid layer contains 24-57% more REE's on a per unit Fe basis. This difference may be due to longer exposure of nepheloid particulate matter to lake waters than fluff, diminished scavenging efficiency at higher Fe levels, and/or to the fact that particulate matter in the fluff layer is derived from surficial sediments which have lost some REE's during early diagenesis. A comparison of the Ce-anomalies of the suspended layers with the sediments indicates the sediments have undergone some degree of early diagenesis.

Olivarez, A.M.; Owen, R.M.; Long, D.T.

1989-01-01

321

Particulate matter spatial–temporal distribution and associated surface sediment properties: Thermaikos Gulf and Sporades Basin, NW Aegean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) distribution was studied in the NW Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) over a series of four seasons. PM concentrations in the surface and bottom nepheloid layers exhibit persistent maxima close to the river mouths; the rivers are identified as the major sources of PM. In general, higher particulate matter concentration (PMC) values appear in the shelf of the

Aristomenis P Karageorgis; Christos L Anagnostou

2001-01-01

322

An Investigation into the Relationship between Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter and Their Understanding of Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough understanding of chemical bonding requires familiarity with the particulate nature of matter. In this study, a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of ten items (five items involving each of the two concepts) was developed to assess students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding so…

Othman, Jazilah; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2008-01-01

323

A new approach to simulate characterization of particulate matter employing support vector machines.  

PubMed

This paper, for the first time, applies the support vector machines (SVMs) paradigm to identify the optimal segmentation algorithm for physical characterization of particulate matter. Size of the particles is an essential component of physical characterization as larger particles get filtered through nose and throat while smaller particles have detrimental effect on human health. Typical particulate characterization processes involve image reading, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, and representation. Of these various steps, knowledge based selection of optimal image segmentation algorithm (from existing segmentation algorithms) is the key for accurately analyzing the captured images of fine particulate matter. Motivated by the emerging machine-learning concepts, we present a new framework for automating the selection of optimal image segmentation algorithm employing SVMs trained and validated with image feature data. Results show that the SVM method accurately predicts the best segmentation algorithm. As well, an image processing algorithm based on Sobel edge detection is developed and illustrated. PMID:21185646

Mogireddy, K; Devabhaktuni, V; Kumar, A; Aggarwal, P; Bhattacharya, P

2011-02-28

324

Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and precise sampling and analytical procedures are essential in environmental geochemical studies. This report provides a detailed description of the techniques and analytical procedures for sampling, grain size determinations, and for precise and accurate AAS determination of the major and trace metals in marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. In addition, it describes the procedures for the chemical partition of the metals, determination of readily oxidizable organic matter, and calcium carbonate. A separate section discusses the normalization of trace metal data.

Loring, D. H.; Rantala, R. T. T.

1992-07-01

325

Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. METHODS: We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and

Claudio Pelucchi; Eva Negri; Silvano Gallus; Paolo Boffetta; Irene Tramacere; Carlo La Vecchia

2009-01-01

326

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER AND SULFUR OXIDES (Final, 1982)  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter and sulfur oxides are two of six major air pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scienti...

327

Particulate Matter Exposure Exacerbates High Glucose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Dysfunction through ROS Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus and fine particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP) are both important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate in patients suffering from CVD, resulting in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated DEP levels in the air are attributed to the development of various CVDs, presumably since fine DEP (<2.5

Li Zuo; Dane J. Youtz; Loren E. Wold

2011-01-01

328

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

329

Primary consumers and particulate organic matter: Isotopic evidence of strong selectivity in the estuarine transition zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater-saltwater transition zones of upper estuaries often contain high concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM) that could potentially support their productive food webs. Our objectives were to define the carbon and nitrogen isotopic characteristics of POM across the estuarine transition zone (ETZ) of the St. Lawrence River, Canada, and to determine the availability of this material to primary consumers.

Christine Martineau; Warwick F. Vincent; Jean-Jacques Frenette; Julian J. Dodson

2004-01-01

330

Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ?PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7

Lutz Ahrens; Sachi Taniyasu; Leo W. Y. Yeung; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Paul K. S. Lam; Ralf Ebinghaus

2010-01-01

331

Chemical changes involving nitrogen metabolism in water and particulate matter during primary production experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of ammonia and nitrate by particulate matter during photosynthesis in large light and dark bottles was followed by colorimctric and mass spectromctric methods. Ammonia uptake as determined by tho 15N isotope was always higher than the parallel estimate from colorimctric analysis. The uptake (or release ) of ammonia in the dark was inversely related to the protein content

L. PROCHÁZKOVÁ; P. BLAZKA; M. KRÁLOVÁ

1970-01-01

332

Structure analysis and size distribution of particulate matter from candles and kerosene combustion in burning chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning of candles generates particulate matter of fine dimensions that produces poor indoor air quality, so it may cause harmful impact on human health. In this study solid aerosol particles of burning of candles of different composition and kerosene combustion were collected in a closed laboratory system. Present work describes particulate matter collection for structure analysis and the relationship between source and size distribution of particulate matter. The formation mechanism of particulate matter and their tendency to agglomerate also are described. Particles obtained from kerosene combustion have normal size distribution. Whereas, particles generated from the burning of stearin candles have distribution shifted towards finer particle size range. If an additive of stearin to paraffin candle is used, particle size distribution is also observed in range of towards finer particles. A tendency to form agglomerates in a short time is observed in case of particles obtained from kerosene combustion, while in case of particles obtained from burning of candles of different composition such a tendency is not observed. Particles from candles and kerosene combustion are Aitken and accumulation mode particles

Baitimirova, M.; Osite, A.; Katkevics, J.; Viksna, A.

2012-08-01

333

Scrubbing effect on diesel particulate matter from transesterified waste oils blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to understand the impact of biodiesel chemical structure, specifically fatty acid composition on particulate matter formation, particularly on the retention of hydrocarbons by soot due to the scrubbing effect and absorption processes.A typical diesel fuel supplied in petrol stations, two biofuels composed of methyl esters from the transesterification process of waste oils with different

A. Durán; J. M. Monteagudo; O. Armas; J. J. Hernández

2006-01-01

334

Neural networks estimation of diesel particulate matter composition from transesterified waste oils blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to study the effect of specific fatty acid methyl esters preset in biofuels on particulate matter emissions. A typical diesel fuel supplied in petrol stations (reference), two biofuels composed of methyl esters from the transesterification process of waste oils with different origins and some blends of biofuels with the reference fuel were tested in

A. Durán; M. Lapuerta; J. Rodríguez-Fernández

2005-01-01

335

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

association between increases in concentration of particles in ambient air and increases in daily present in ambient air in the form of solid particles or liquid droplets. Particulate matter and five suspended particles (TSP) in ambient air. The maximum size of particles collected by devices monitoring

Washington at Seattle, University of

336

PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH: USING HUMAN STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND SUSCEPTIBILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. The World Health Organization has estimated that PM contributes to the deaths of 500,000 people world-wide each year. Epidemiologic stu...

337

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

May 15, 2002 Abstract submitted by Stephen H. Gavett for American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) annual meeting October 7-11, 2002 in Charlotte, NC. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER Stephen H ...

338

RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE SAMPLES: 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sources of particulate matter exposure for an elderly population in a city north of Baltimore, MD were evaluated using advanced factor analysis models. Data collected with Versatile Air Pollutant Samplers (VAPS) positioned at a community site, outside and inside of an elderly ...

339

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 33243343 Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 3324­3343 Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter (POM) in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas Nicholas R. Batesa,�, Dennis A. Hansellb , S. Bradley Moranc , Louis A. Codispotid a Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc., 17 Biological Station Lane

Hansell, Dennis

340

An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter (BioPM)  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina, and Denver, CO, were collected and analyzed as the goal of this ...

341

PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

342

Black Carbon Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Buoyancy Driven Associated Gas Flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emission factors for flares were reviewed and

James D. N. McEwen; Matthew R. Johnson

2012-01-01

343

Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy-driven associated gas flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaring is a technique used extensively in the oil and gas industry to burn unwanted flammable gases. Oxidation of the gas can preclude emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas); however, flaring creates other pollutant emissions such as particulate matter (PM) in the form of soot or black carbon (BC). Currently available PM emission factors for flares were reviewed and

James D. N. McEwen; Matthew R. Johnson

2012-01-01

344

DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT SYSTEM  

E-print Network

DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT SYSTEM JAMES L. COX in the California current system were analyzed for DDT residues. DDT residue concentrations in whole seawater and Washington, to 5.6 X 10- 12 glml off southern California. Geographical patterns in these concentration values

345

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON STUDIES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A working group of investigators, who are characterizing and quantifying the organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) as part of the US EPA's PM 2.5 research program and related studies, was established three years ago to advance the quality and comparability of data on the...

346

DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES UNDER WINTERTIME CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for potential use as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) capable of providing an estimate of coarse particle (PMc: particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um) mass con...

347

The importance of autochthonous particulate organic matter in large floodplain rivers: evidence of restoring hydrological connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention efficiency of a specific reach is one key factor controlling particulate organic matter (POM) dynamics in running waters. Floodplains enhance the retention of riverine POM, thereby altering its structure and diagenetic state, and constitute a substantial autochthonous source. Hydrological connectivity between the river and its floodplains determine the importance of floodplains for the whole-river POM dynamics. The elemental

T. Hein; C. Baranyi; A. Steel; F. Schiemer

2003-01-01

348

Author's personal copy Biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter from lakes of different trophic  

E-print Network

stratification. Eutro- phic conditions in Lake Lugano are reflected by enhanced alkalinity, elevated total and interflows due to density stratification. The depth trends at Lake Lugano are a result of high primaryAuthor's personal copy Biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter from lakes of different

Wehrli, Bernhard

349

A Comparison of Applied and Theoretical Knowledge of Concepts Based on the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school chemistry students' (n=183) applied and theoretical knowledge of dissolution, diffusion, effusion, and states of matter were compared. Study found that students' formal reasoning ability and their preexisting knowledge are associated with their conceptions and use of particulate theory. A significant difference between applied and…

Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Abraham, Michael R.

1991-01-01

350

Students' Conceptual Representations of Gas Volume in Relation to Particulate Model of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most high school chemistry curricula contain a unit on gas volume and a unit on the particulate nature of matter. The existence and persistence of adolescent preconceptions about the material nature of gases is an important factor to be considered in the teaching of principles or theories related to gases. The purpose of the study reported in this…

Hwang, Bao-tyan

351

Concept Development in Relation to the Particulate Theory of Matter in the Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated concept development related to particulate theory of matter in 130 children (ages 8-12) in two contrasting Warwickshire middle schools. Results are set against background policies/practices in science teaching as revealed by responses from teacher questionnaires (N=60) and analysis of several science curricula. (JN)

Comber, Mary

1983-01-01

352

College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter across Reaction Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been…

Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

2012-01-01

353

& Source apportionment of particulate matter in the United States and associations with lung inflammatory Markers  

EPA Science Inventory

Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured...

354

Trace metal adsorption onto urban stream suspended particulate matter (Auckland region, New Zealand)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal adsorption to suspended particulate matter (SPM) influences bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals in natural waters. For highly contaminated urban catchments in the greater Auckland (New Zealand) area, trace metal adsorption to SPM was assessed and compared to similar data from non-urban catchments in the Auckland region, to determine whether there was any difference in the ability of

Rebecca L. Bibby; Jenny G. Webster-Brown

2006-01-01

355

FABRICATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF A MASSIVE VOLUME AIR SAMPLER OF SIZED RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sampler which collects airborne particulate matter in three stages, 3.5 micrometers, 1.7 micrometers, and below 1.7 micrometers (the cutoffs of which closely fit the ACGIH respirable size curve) was constructed previously. Component failures and operational difficulti...

356

Spatial-temporal association between fine particulate matter and daily mortality 1  

E-print Network

air pollution levels at any given location and time. However, these numerical models could have a sign words: air pollution; Bayesian hierarchical models; conditional autoregressive models; computer models, Montserrat Fuentes, and Brian J. Reich Abstract Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a mixture of pollutants

Reich, Brian J.

357

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-229 Dayton, D.P., and Bursey, J.T. Source Sampling Fine Particulate Matter: Wood-fired Industrial Boiler. EPA-600/R- 01/106, Available: NTIS.10/29/2001 The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitato...

358

Comparison of magnetic parameters of urban atmospheric particulate matter with pollution and meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic hysteresis parameters were measured for three sample sets of respirable atmospheric particulate matter collected in Munich, Germany, and were compared with pollution data and meteorological data using principal component analysis. The sample sets were collected at two urban locations by the filter method during August 1998–July 1999. The samples were measured in weekly batches, with the longest data set

Adrian R. Muxworthy; Jürgen Matzka; Nikolai Petersen

2001-01-01

359

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: A review of methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

European publications dealing with source apportionment (SA) of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) between 1987 and 2007 were reviewed in the present work, with a focus on methods and results. The main goal of this meta-analysis was to provide a review of the most commonly used SA methods in Europe, their comparability and results, and to evaluate current trends and identify

M. Viana; T. A. J. Kuhlbusch; X. Querol; A. Alastuey; R. M. Harrison; P. K. Hopke; W. Winiwarter; M. Vallius; S. Szidat; A. S. H. Prévôt; C. Hueglin; H. Bloemen; P. Wåhlin; R. Vecchi; A. I. Miranda; A. Kasper-Giebl; W. Maenhaut; R. Hitzenberger

2008-01-01

360

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF MODELS-3 CMAQ USING PARTICULATE MATTER DATA FROM THE IMPROVE NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and wel...

361

A Shelter to Protect a Passive Sampler for Coarse Particulate Matter, PM10 ? 2.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work designed and tested a shelter to protect a passive sampler for measuring coarse particulate matter, PM10 ? 2.5. The shelter protects the sampler from precipitation and reduces the effects of wind on the deposition of particles to its collection surface. Six shelters were tested in a wind tunnel at three wind speeds: 2, 8, and 24 km hr.

Darrin K. Ott; Thomas M. Peters

2008-01-01

362

Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size distributions of diesel exhaust particulate matter measured from a large number of vehicles and test engines, using a variety of diesel fuels, collapse onto a single characteristic lognormal distribution, when normalized by total particle number and plotted against a scaled diameter. Distinctly different characteristic distributions are observed for direct injection and for port injection gasoline vehicles. These signature

Stephen J. Harris; M. Matti Maricq

2001-01-01

363

MASS CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS FROM THE NERL RTP PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Exposure Research Laboratory's (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study has completed a one-year investigation of personal, residential and ambient PM-related mass concentrations in two potentially susceptible subpopulations. PM2.5, P...

364

Source Apportionment of Daily Fine Particulate Matter at Jefferson Street, Atlanta, GA, during Summer and Winter  

E-print Network

Source Apportionment of Daily Fine Particulate Matter at Jefferson Street, Atlanta, GA, during of Technology, Atlanta, GA Lin Ke School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA; and Department of Biological Science, California State University, Los Angeles, CA Fu Wang

Zheng, Mei

365

Stocks and dynamics of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved and particulate organic matter was measured during six cruises to the southern Ross Sea. The cruises were conducted during late austral winter to autumn from 1994 to 1997 and included coverage of various stages of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom. The data from the various years are compiled into a representative seasonal cycle in order to assess general patterns of

Craig A. Carlson; Dennis A. Hansell; Edward T. Peltzer; Walker O. Smith Jr

2000-01-01

366

AGGREGATION OF SELECTED RADM SIMULATIONS TO ESTIMATE ANNUAL AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter is an issue of increasing concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ecent epidemiological studies link an increase in mortality and other detrimental health effects, especially to the young, elderly and others with...

367

RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT PROXIMITIES TO A HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have shown associations between proximity to highways and adverse health effects. Toxicology studies in animals are needed to examine the basis for these observations. Airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for 2 weeks using a high-volume im...

368

INSTILLATION OF COARSE ASH PARTICULATE MATTER AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCES A SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Coronary ischemic events increase significantly floowing a ?bad air? day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 causes inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, if pulmonary inflation transl...

369

Hidden Cost of U.S. Agricultural Exports: Particulate Matter from Ammonia Emissions  

E-print Network

to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations% of the gross food export value. Livestock operations in densely populated areas have particularly large health previous valuation studies, we use a chemical transport model with detailed representation of aerosol

Jacob, Daniel J.

370

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

371

IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

372

Comparative inflammatory effects of differential particulate matter species in an OVA-sensitization and challenge model  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to respirable ambient particulate matter (APM) provokes allergic immunity that may also occur on exposure to environmental diesel exhaust particles (eDEP) or emission source DEP (cDEP). Our hypothesis tested whether APM, eDEP or cDEP provide immune adjuvancy in an antige...

373

Suspended particulate matter on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic) during ice-free conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical turbidity surveys combined with pigment, plankton, and current measurements were used to investigate the vertical and horizontal dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Laptev Sea, one of the largest Siberian shelf seas, during the ice-free period. Optical measuring devices prove to be an excellent tool to measure SPM distribution in real time. SPM concentrations were quantified owing

C. Wegner; J. A Hölemann; I. Dmitrenko; S. Kirillov; K. Tuschling; E. Abramova; H. Kassens

2003-01-01

374

Geochemistry of rare earth elements in benthic layer particulate matter and sediments of Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of suspended particulate matter from the nepheloid layer and the benthic sediment layer (fluff zone), as well as core samples of the underlying sediment column, were collected from two locations in Lake Superior during manner submersible dives. All samples were analyzed for eight rare earth elements (REE's), biogenic silica, and organic carbon. The REE patterns indicate lithogenous material is

Annette M. Olivarez; Robert M. Owen; David T. Long

1989-01-01

375

Slope transport of suspended particulate matter on the Aquitanian margin of the Bay of Biscay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal characteristics of the water masses and the dispersion of the suspended particulate matter were investigated using current meter, hydrographic and nephelometric observations, gathered during the ECOFER experiment (1989–1991) in the Cap-Ferret Canyon on the Aquitanian margin of the Bay of Biscay. While characteristics of the deep water masses were stable from one year to another, large hydrographic

Xavier Durrieu de Madron; Patrice Castaing; François Nyffeler; Thierry Courp

1999-01-01

376

Distribution and transport of suspended particulate matter in Monterey Canyon, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

From August 1993 to August 1994, six moorings that measure current, temperature, salinity, and water clarity were deployed along the axis of Monterey Canyon to study the circulation and transport of water and suspended particulate matter through the canyon system. The moorings occupied three sites that are morphologically different: a narrow transverse section (axis width 900 m) at 1450 m

J. P Xu; Marlene Noble; Stephen L Eittreim; Leslie K Rosenfeld; Franklin B Schwing; Cynthia H Pilskaln

2002-01-01

377

INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND COMMUNITY SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recently conducted the 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly. The primary goal of that study was to establish the relationship between outdoor PM concentrations and actual h...

378

Students' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter at Secondary and Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study is to elicit students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter via a cross-age study ranging from secondary to tertiary educational levels. A questionnaire with five-item open-ended questions was administered to 166 students from the secondary to tertiary levels of education. In light of the findings, it can…

Ayas, Alipasa; Ozmen, Haluk; Calik, Muammer

2010-01-01

379

Evaluation of the TEOM method for the measurement of particulate matter for Texas cattle feedlots  

E-print Network

and Patashnick (R&P) Series1400a monitors. The R&P Series 1400a monitor uses the TEOM method to measure particulate matter (PM) concentrations and was approved by EPA in 1990 as an automated equivalent method PM10 sampler. Since its approval, many state air...

Skloss, Stewart James

2009-05-15

380

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

381

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels  

E-print Network

Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of particulate matter (PM) from diesel and leaded gasoline motor vehicles exhaust emissions on sulfation of granites, syenite and gabbro stones have been experimentally studied. Abundant gypsum crystals and corrosion features developed on stones covered with diesel PM (DPM) following 72h exposure to 100ppm SO2 at a relative humidity of 100%. In contrast, very small amounts of gypsum

J. Simão; E. Ruiz-Agudo; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2006-01-01

383

Preliminary study of airborne particulate matter in a Beijing sampling station by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term study on airborne particulate matter (APM) and air pollution trend in Beijing has been undertaken supported by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Sampling was carried out using Gent stacked filter unit sampler at a sampling station (traffic representative) in Beijing city. Two hundred and ten samples were collected during 1999 and

Lei Cao; Weizhi Tian; Bangfa Ni; Yangmei Zhang; Pingsheng Wang

2002-01-01

384

Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile  

PubMed Central

Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10?µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15?µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Raul G. E.; Leiva Guzman, Manuel A.

2014-01-01

385

QUANTIFYING HAZARDOUS SPECIES IN PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size- segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used...

386

Probing into regional ozone and particulate matter pollution in the United States  

E-print Network

Probing into regional ozone and particulate matter pollution in the United States: 1. A 1 year CMAQ to reproduce concentrations and long-term trends of major criteria pollutants such as surface ozone (O3, and column mass abundances of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO2), tropospheric ozone residuals (TORs

Jacobson, Mark

387

Source apportionment of fine particulate matter measured in an industrialized coastal urban area of South Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corpus Christi is a growing industrialized urban airshed in South Texas impacted by local emissions and regional transport of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). Positive matrix factorization (PMF2) technique was used to evaluate particulate matter pollution in the urban airshed by estimating the types of sources and its corresponding mass contributions affecting the measured ambient PM 2.5 levels. Fine particulate matter concentrations by species measured during July 2003 through December 2008 at a PM 2.5 speciation site were used in this study. PMF2 identified eight source categories, of which secondary sulfates were the dominant source category accounting for 30.4% of the apportioned mass. The other sources identified included aged sea salt (18.5%), biomass burns (12.7%), crustal dust (10.1%), traffic (9.7%), fresh sea salt (8.1%), industrial sources (6%), and a co-mingled source of oil combustion & diesel emissions (4.6%). The apportioned PM mass showed distinct seasonal variability between source categories. The PM levels in Corpus Christi were affected by biomass burns in Mexico and Central America during April and May, sub-Saharan dust storms from Africa during the summer months, and a continental haze episode during August and September with significant transport from the highly industrialized areas of Texas and the neighboring states. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was performed and it identified source regions and the influence of long-range transport of fine particulate matter affecting this urban area.

Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

2011-07-01

388

An investigation of ammonia and inorganic particulate matter in California during the CalNex campaign  

E-print Network

Airborne observations from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in May and June 2010 are used to investigate the role of ammonia (NH3) in fine particulate matter (PM[subscript ...

Schiferl, Luke Daniel

389

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

390

AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH PLASMINOGEN AND FIBRIOGEN LEVELS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction: Recent reports indicate that the elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to fine and coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected via airway inflammation. We investigated whether mark...

391

MODELINGJAPANESE OYSTER PHYSIOLOGICALPROCESSEStThlDER NATURAL TIDAL VARIATIONIN SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding and growth ofthe Japanese oyster Crassostreagigas is simulated by a deterministic mode!. However, physiological processes. estimated by statistical relationships, have not been tested under extremeenvironmental conditions such as high level ofsuspended particulate matter. Ecophysiological experiments were therefore conducted insitu in the BayofMarennes-Oléronduring a spring and neap tide cycle in May 1991, to get a better representation of2 important componems

Laurent BarilIé; Jean Proul

392

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-02-17

393

Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. PMID:23831797

Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

2013-10-01

394

Influences of study design and location on the relationship between particulate matter air pollution and birthweight.  

PubMed

A large number of studies have identified a relationship between particulate matter air pollution and birthweight. Although reported associations are small and varied, they have been identified in studies from places around the world. Exposure assignment, covariates and study inclusion criteria vary among studies. To examine the effect of these and other study characteristics on associations between particulate matter and birthweight, US birth records for singletons delivered at 40 weeks gestation in 2001-03 during the months of March, June, September and December were linked to quarterly estimates of pollution exposure, both particulate matter exposure and exposure to multiple pollutants, by county of residence and month of birth. Annual, 9-month and trimester-specific exposures were assigned. Among births linked to particulate matter exposure there was a small association between coarse particle exposure and birthweight (beta -13 g per 10 microg/m(3) increase [95% CI -18.3 g, -7.6 g]) after controlling for maternal factors; this association was attenuated slightly and remained statistically significant after further adjustment for contextual factors, year of birth, region, or urban-rural status. The associations were slightly weaker among births linked to multiple pollutant exposure than among births linked to just particulate matter exposure. The association varied markedly by region, ranging from a decrement of 43 g per 10 microg/m(3)[95% CI -58.6 g, -27.6 g] in the north-west to a null association in the south-west. Trimester findings were smaller, yet remained significant and varied regionally. The association between fine particle exposure and birthweight varied considerably, with an overall small positive association that became null after control for region. This study found that wide regional differences in association may contribute to the varied published findings. The association between coarse particle exposure and birthweight appeared robust, if small; fine particles had no overall association with birthweight. PMID:18426516

Parker, Jennifer D; Woodruff, Tracey J

2008-05-01

395

Assessment of the natural sources of particulate matter on the opencast mines air quality.  

PubMed

Particulate matter is the main air pollutant in open pit mining areas. Preferred models that simulate the dispersion of the particles have been used to assess the environmental impact of the mining activities. Results obtained through simulation have been compared with the particle concentration measured in several sites and a coefficient of determination R(2)<0.78 has been reported. This result indicates that in the open pit mining areas there may be additional sources of particulate matter that have not been considered in the modeling process. This work proposes that the unconsidered sources of emissions are of regional scope such as the re-suspension particulate matter due to the wind action over uncovered surfaces. Furthermore, this work proposes to estimate the impact of such emissions on air quality as a function of the present and past meteorological conditions. A statistical multiple regression model was implemented in one of the world's largest open pit coal mining regions which is located in northern Colombia. Data from 9 particle-concentration monitoring stations and 3 meteorological stations obtained from 2009 to 2012 were statistically compared. Results confirmed the existence of a high linear relation (R(2)>0.95) between meteorological variables and particulate matter concentration being humidity, humidity of the previous day and temperature, the meteorological variables that contributed most significantly in the variance of the particulate matter concentration measured in the mining area while the contribution of the AERMOD estimations to the short term TSP (Total Suspended Particles) measured concentrations was negligible (<5%). The multiple regression model was used to identify the meteorological condition that leads to pollution episodes. It was found that conditions drier than 54% lead to pollution episodes while humidities greater than 70% maintain safe air quality conditions in the mining region in northern Colombia. PMID:25016110

Huertas, J I; Huertas, M E; Cervantes, G; Díaz, J

2014-09-15

396

Comparison and trend study on acidity and acidic buffering capacity of particulate matter in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acidity of about 2000 particulate matter samples from aircraft and ground-based monitoring is analyzed by the method similar to soil acidity determination. The ground-based samples were collected at about 50 urban or background sites in northern and southern China. Moreover, the acidic buffering capacity of those samples is also analyzed by the method of micro acid-base titration. Results indicate that the acidity level is lower in most northern areas than those in the south, and the acidic buffering capacity showed inverse tendency, correspondingly. This is the most important reason why the pollution of acidic-precipitation is much more serious in Southern China than that in Northern China. The acidity increases and the acidic buffering capacity drops with the decreasing of the particle sizes, indicating that fine particle is the main influencing factor of the acidification. The ionic results show that Ca salt is the main alkaline substance in particulate matter, whereas the acidification of particulate matter is due to the SO 2 and NO x emitted from the fossil fuel burning. And among of them, coal burning is the main contributor of SO 2, however the contribution of NO x that emitted from fuel burning of motor vehicles has increased in recent years. By comparison of the experimental results during the past 20 years, it can be concluded that the acid precipitation of particulate matter has not been well controlled, and it even shows an increasing tendency in China lately. The acid precipitation of particulate matter has begun to frequently attack in part of the northern areas. Multiple regression analysis indicates that coefficient value of the ions is the lowest at the urban sites and the highest at the regional sites, whereas the aircraft measurement results are intermediate between those two kinds of sites.

Ren, Lihong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qingyue; Yang, XiaoYang; Tang, Dagang

2011-12-01

397

A simple direct injection method for GC/MS analysis of PAHs in particulate matter.  

PubMed

A simple direct injection method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or other organic components of particulate matter by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. This method uses a small custom brass capsule to insert a particulate sample deposited on a quartz fiber filter or powdery sample directly into a GC injector inlet. This approach was applied in the analysis of PAHs in diesel emissions and other particulate samples, which are introduced into the GC and analyzed by MS using selected ion monitoring mode. Quantitation is based on the concentration of PAHs in a standard reference material (SRM), which are certified by US National Institute of Standard Technology to avoid matrix effects on extraction efficiency. A standard filter is prepared by deposition of small amount of SRM of diesel particulate or ambient PM on quartz fiber filter. By this method, the linearity for 12 kinds of PAHs (3 to 6 rings) was demonstrated from 0.022 mg to 0.65 mg of SRM 1650. The linearity of BaP, for example, was confirmed from 0.028 to 0.845 ng. The reproducibility of this method determined by analyzing the standard filter was 15.4%. By selecting an appropriate SRM as a standard material, this method is applicable for analyzing PAHs in fine particulate matter of less than 1 microm from various origins. Preliminary results for a series of ambient particulate matter, roadside PM, diesel soot and sidestream smoke, are presented. This method enables analysis of organic chemical substances, for example PAHs, in PM without any pretreatment using organic solvent, and without any expensive modification of GC instrument. PMID:19088410

Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Smith, Thomas J

2008-12-01

398

Inhaled ultrafine particulate matter affects CNS inflammatory processes and may act via MAP kinase signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

In addition to evidence that inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, the brain may also constitute a site adversely effected by the environmental presence of airborne particulate matter. We have examined the association between exposure to PM and adverse CNS effects in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice exposed to two levels of concentrated ultrafine particulate matter in central Los Angeles. Mice were killed 24 hr after the last exposure and brain, liver, heart, lung and spleen tissues were collected and frozen for subsequent bioassays. There was clear evidence of aberrant immune activation in the brains of exposed animals as judged by a dose-related increase in nuclear translocation of two key transcription factors, NF-kB and AP-1. These factors, are involved in the promotion of inflammation. Increased levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also found consequent to particulate inhalation suggesting that glial activation was taking place. In order to determine the mechanism by which these events occurred, levels of several MAP kinases involved in activation of these transcription factors were assayed by Western blotting. There were no significant changes in the proportion of active (phosphorylated) forms of ERK-1, IkB and p38. However the fraction of JNK in the active form was significantly increased in animals receiving the lower concentration of concentrated ambient particle (CAPs). This suggests that the signaling pathway by which these transcription factors are activated involves the activation of JNK. PMID:18420360

Kleinman, M. T.; Araujo, J.; Nel, A.; Sioutas, C.; Campbell, A.; Cong, P. Q.; Li, H.; Bondy, S. C.

2008-01-01

399

Genetic and epigenetic influence on the response to environmental particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Ambient air pollution, including particulate matter, and gaseous pollutants, are important environmental exposures that adversely affect human health. Because of their heritable and reversible nature, epigenetic modifications provide a plausible link between environment and alterations in gene expression that might lead to disease. Epidemiologic evidence supports that environmental exposures in childhood impact susceptibility to disease later in life, supporting that epigenetic changes can impact ongoing development and promote disease long after the environmental exposure has ceased. Indeed, allergic disorders often have their roots in early childhood and early exposure to particulate matter has been strongly associated with the subsequent development of asthma. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of responses to ambient air pollutants, specifically respirable particulate matter, and their association with the development of allergic disorders. Understanding these epigenetic biomarkers and how they integrate with genetic influences to translate the biologic impact of particulate exposure is critical to developing novel preventative and therapeutic strategies for allergic disorders. PMID:22196522

Ji, Hong; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana

2011-01-01

400

Seasonal variability of the suspended particulate matter concentration in Chupa Inlet of the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the dynamics of the concentration of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Corg in the seawater of Chupa Inlet were performed for the three-year period of 2010-2012. In general, the concentration of SPM increased from the spring through the summer, decreased through the autumn period, and declined dramatically in the winter. The ratio of the organic matter in the SPM decreased gradually from the surface water layer to the bottom and averaged 61%. The abiotic factors affecting the SPM concentration and suspended organic matter were studied; the water temperature and tide events were named as the liming ones.

Mityaev, M. V.; Berger, V. Ya.

2014-05-01

401

Deep-SeaResearch.1977,Vol.24,pp.511to 548. PergamonPress. PrintedinGreatBritain. The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter  

E-print Network

operating in the water column allows the deposition of particulate matter. Bottom dwelling organisms, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400 m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean~traet--Particulate matter, divided into 53-1xmsize fractions, was obtained in profile from the upper 400

Bishop, James K.B.

402

Nuclear Matter Equation of State, Incompressibility and Proton Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mean field calculation is carried out to obtain the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction (DDM3Y). The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of the symmetric nuclear matter (SNM). In this work, the energy variation of the exchange potential is treated properly in the negative energy domain of nuclear matter in contrast to an earlier work where it was assumed to vary negligibly inside nuclear fluid. The EoS of SNM, thus obtained, is not only free from the superluminosity problem but also provides good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. The DDM3Y, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculation, provides excellent description for proton radioactivity.

Bandyopadhyay, A.; Basu, D. N.

2009-01-01

403

Particulate-phase and gaseous elemental mercury emissions during biomass combustion: controlling factors and correlation with particulate matter emissions.  

PubMed

Mercury emissions from wildfires are significant natural sources of atmospheric mercury, but little is known about what controls speciation of emissions important to mercury deposition processes. The goal of this study was to quantify gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and particulate-phase mercury (PHg) emissions from biomass combustion to identify key factors controlling the speciation. Emissions were characterized in an exhaust stack 17 m above fires using a gaseous mercury analyzer and quartz-fiber filters. Fuels included fresh and air-dried leaves, needles, and branches with different fuel moistures (9-95% of dry weight) and combustion properties (e.g., from < 10 to 90% of fire durations characterized by flaming phases). Fuel moisture was the overall driving factor defining emissions, with GEM being the dominant fraction (> or = 95%) in low moisture fuels and substantial PHg contributions--up to 50% of total mercury emissions--in fresh fuels. High PHg emissions were observed during smoldering combustion whereas flaming-dominated fires showed insignificant PHg emissions. PHg mass emissions were correlated with particulate matter (PM; r2 = 0.67), organic carbon (OC; r2 = 0.63) and sulfur (S; r2 = 0.46) mass emissions, but not with elemental carbon (EC) nor with the total mercury emissions. These data suggest that the formation of PHg involves similar processes as the formation of particulate OC, for example condensation of volatile species onto preexisting smoke particles during cooling and dilution. Based on the observed relationship between PM and OC mass concentrations and published emission inventories, we estimate global PHg emissions by wildfires of 4-5 Mg yr(-1). PMID:18323093

Obrist, Daniel; Moosmüller, Hans; Schürmann, Roger; Chen, L W Antony; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

2008-02-01

404

Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 ?g/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

405

Design of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics-monte carlo radiation transport methodology for radioactive particulate resuspension studies.  

PubMed

There are numerous scenarios where radioactive particulates can be displaced by external forces. For example, the detonation of a radiological dispersal device in an urban environment will result in the release of radioactive particulates that in turn can be resuspended into the breathing space by external forces such as wind flow in the vicinity of the detonation. A need exists to quantify the internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses that are delivered to bystanders; however, current state-of-the-art codes are unable to calculate accurately radiation doses that arise from the resuspension of radioactive particulates in complex topographies. To address this gap, a coupled computational fluid dynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport approach has been developed. With the aid of particulate injections, the computational fluid dynamics simulation models characterize the resuspension of particulates in a complex urban geometry due to air-flow. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particulates are then used by the Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to calculate the radiation doses delivered to various points within the simulated domain. A particular resuspension scenario has been modeled using this coupled framework, and the calculated internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses have been deemed reasonable. GAMBIT and FLUENT comprise the software suite used to perform the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended is used to perform the Monte Carlo Radiation Transport simulations. PMID:25162421

Ali, Fawaz; Waller, Ed

2014-10-01

406

Sources and Chemical Evolution of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds make up a significant fraction of the total composition of atmospheric particles with a diameter of 2.5 mum or less (PM2.5 ) at location throughout the world and seasons throughout the entire year. An understanding of the entire atmospheric PM2.5 system is thus dependent on an adequate understanding of the sources, properties and fate of organic compounds. These species exist in equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase. The fraction of the total mass present in each phase is governed by the volatility of individual species. A variety of emission activities are responsible for injecting this organic mass into the atmosphere including vehicle use, biomass burning, energy generation, industrial processing and plat emissions among other sources. After this initial emission atmospheric oxidants may modify the properties of these compounds, especially their volatility, thereby shifting the equilibrium between the particulate- and gas-phase and causing condensation or evaporation. This thesis focuses on modeling these complex phenomena in a chemical transport model (CTM) of the atmosphere. We employ the volatility basis set (VBS) in the CTM, PMCAMx-2008, and evaluate it against ambient measurements. While taking into account recent findings about the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosol (POA) and the multigenerational OH oxidation of the vapors in equilibrium with primary as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA), we find the model to perform reasonably well for a summertime simulation of the Eastern US (fractional error ? 52% and |fractional bias| ? 30%) for all sites compared. With this acceptably performing model, we explore the source-receptor relationships of organic aerosol (OA). A three US sites (Pittsburgh, PA; Duke Forest, NC; and New York, NY), and one European site (Paris, FR) the bulk OA behaves very much as a regional pollutant with average transport distances of about 100-500 km before arriving at the receptors. The model is also used to calculate the average age of OA species, which is found to be close to 10 hours for POA throughout the entire simulation period and 20-50 hours for SOA with high variability. An analysis of the average transport distance and age of OA as a function of volatility shows that trends are variable and dependent on proximity to sources, even for the relatively simple aging mechanism employed. A budget analysis was performed for the Eastern US simulation in order to constrain the total OA formation predicted by PMCAMx-2008 given its good agreement with observations. This value, 21.6 ktons d-1, is probed with a suite of sensitivity tests exploring the robustness of this result. The most influential process is found to be the OA aging mechanism, as different configurations change the production rate within a range of a factor of 4. Interestingly, there are several aging configurations that make different fundamental assumptions but yield similar model performance. The VBS is then extended to track the elemental ratio of oxygen to carbon atoms in order to better constrain the chemical mechanism and evaluate with ambient data. The module is first implemented into a reduced-scale Lagrangian transport model and evaluated for one site in Europe with high photochemical activity. A simple aging scheme is employed and the model is found to reproduce both the OA mass concentration and O:C at the surface. Comparison of the volatility distribution predicted to thermodenuder measurements showed that the model is within reason, given the high degree of uncertainty in the thermodenuder model itself. This analysis is extended to treat multiple sites and seasons to evaluate the ability of the module to correctly reproduce the variability in O:C seen in the atmosphere. The base-case module (with simple aging chemistry) performed well, but when detailed chemistry was implemented, the model overpredicted OA loadings and underpredicted O:C. This is because the detailed chemical mechanism includes a greater shift in volatility that is more representative of the ad

Murphy, Benjamin Neel

407

Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars and bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid (Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter (POM) of the Mandovi estuary. SPM was collected from 9 sampling stations in the Mandovi estuary during the pre-monsoon (March) and monsoon (August). Total particulate amino sugar (TPAS) concentrations and yields varied spatially and were 2 to 5 times higher during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon. Negative correlation between salinity and TPAS-C yields [TPAS-C/particulate organic carbon (POC)×100] indicates the influence of terrestrial organic matter on the transport of TPAS-carbon. Glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), and mannosamine (ManN) were abundant during the monsoon. Low GlcN/GalN ratios (<3) indicate bacteria as the major source of amino sugars. Higher amino sugar yields and lower GlcN/GalN ratios during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon indicate enhanced transformation and greater bacterial contribution to POM during the former season. Degradation trends observed with TPAS were well supported by those obtained with carbohydrates and amino acids. Based on Mur concentrations, bacteria accounted for 24% to 35% of the POC and 24% to 62% of the total particulate nitrogen (TPN). Intact bacterial cells, however accounted for a small proportion of POC (2.5% to 4%) and TPN (9% to 11%). Our study suggests that POM was subjected to extensive diagenetic transformation, and its composition was influenced by bacteria, especially during the monsoon.

Khodse, Vishwas B.; Bhosle, Narayan B.

2013-10-01

408

Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 ?g/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities.

Sattar, Y.; Rashid, M.; Ramli, M.; Sabariah, B.

2014-02-01

409

Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

Sengupta, Ishita

410

Weight of the evidence or wait for the evidence? Protecting underground miners from diesel particulate matter.  

PubMed

A coalition of mine operators has used a variety of tactics to obstruct scientific inquiry and impede public health action designed to protect underground miners from diesel particulate matter. These workers are exposed to the highest level of diesel particulate matter compared with any other occupational group. This case study profiles a decade-long saga of the Methane Awareness Resource Group Diesel Coalition to impede epidemiological studies on diesel exhaust undertaken by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Cancer Institute, and to derail a health standard promulgated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The case study highlights the coalition's mastery of legislative, judicial, and executive branch operations and the reaction of policymakers. PMID:16380560

Monforton, Celeste

2006-02-01

411

Evaluation of a Portable Photometer for Estimating Diesel Particulate Matter Concentrations in an Underground Limestone Mine  

PubMed Central

A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-?m impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated with diesel emissions. The calibration factor corrected correlation coefficient (R2) between the underground TC and photometer measurements was 0.93. The main issues holding back the use of a photometer for real-time estimation of DPM in an underground mine are the removal of non-DPM-associated particulate matter from the aerosol stream using devices, such as a cyclone and/or impactor and calibration of the photometer to mine-specific aerosol. PMID:20410071

Watts, Winthrop F.; Gladis, David D.; Schumacher, Matthew F.; Ragatz, Adam C.; Kittelson, David B.

2010-01-01

412

An investigation into the relationship between the major chemical components of particulate matter in urban air.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) generally comprises such chemical components as inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and metals. In terms of environmental studies, these major chemical components of particulate matter (MCP) are important in understanding PM distribution, behaviors and source apportionment. In this study, the MCP fractions of total suspended particles (TSP) were measured at an urban residential area in Seoul, Korea from February to December in 2009. The behavior of each individual MCP was studied in order to explain their relationship to environmental conditions and sources. The MCP measured during this study period was able to account between 54% (spring) to 67% (fall) of total TSP composition. During the study period, it was found that the TSP sampled comprised mostly: anions, OC, cations, EC, and metals in decreasing order of abundance. Although such relative ordering seems to remain fairly constant over time, the relative balance of this relationship may be altered by variations in environmental conditions. PMID:24134889

Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Shon, Zang-Ho; Park, Chan Goo; Song, Sang-Keun; Ro, Chul-Un; Brown, Richard J C

2014-01-01

413

Particulate Matter Exposure in Cars Is Associated with Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Young Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac pa- tients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and am- bient PM2.5 were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Carolina Highway Patrol troopers. Nine troopers (age 23 to 30) were monitored on 4 successive days while working a 3 P.M. to

Michael Riediker; Wayne E. Cascio; Thomas R. Griggs; Margaret C. Herbst; Philip A. Bromberg; Lucas Neas; Ronald W. Williams; Robert B. Devlin

2004-01-01

414

Emission Scenarios for Particulate Matter Research And Policy Assessment in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) in air is one of the topical key air pollution problems. In Finland the observed annual levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were roughly 30 and 10 mg\\/m 3 , respectively, in urban areas in 1990s. The national air quality criteria were mainly exceeded in city centers and near heavily trafficked roads. The Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES)

Matti Johansson; Niko Karvosenoja; Petri Porvari; Kaarle Kupiainen

415

Effects of particulate matter on the pulmonary and vascular system: time course in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was performed within the scope of two multi-center European Commission-funded projects (HEPMEAP and PAMCHAR) concerning source-composition-toxicity relationship for particulate matter (PM) sampled in Europe. The present study aimed to optimize the design for PM in vivo toxicity screening studies in terms of dose and time between a single exposure and the determination of the biological responses in

Miriam E Gerlofs-Nijland; A John F Boere; Daan LAC Leseman; Jan AMA Dormans; Thomas Sandström; Raimo O Salonen; Leendert van Bree; Flemming R Cassee

2005-01-01

416

Learning difficulties associated with the particulate theory of matter in the Scottish Integrated Science course  

Microsoft Academic Search

EnglishThe application of general theories about pupils’ learning to specific courses may be helpful to teachers, but in order to assist teachers and course developers practically it is also necessary to identify pupils’ specific learning difficulties. This paper describes some investigations, using criterion?referenced measurement, into learning difficulties with a particulate theory of matter in the Scottish Integrated Science Course.Results indicate

Alison C. Mitchell; Steuart H. Kellington

1982-01-01

417

Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background) were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802) and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 ?g) did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%), endothelin-1 (20–40%), and metallothionein-II (20–40%) mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p < 0.05), validating delivery of a biologically-effective dose. Despite detection of striking genotype-related differences, including activation of immune and inflammatory pathways consistent with the TNF-induced pathology, and time-related effects attributable to stress from nose-only exposure, microarray analysis failed to identify effects of the inhaled particles. Remarkably, the presence of chronic inflammation did not measurably amplify the transcriptional response to particulate matter. Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression. PMID:19284582

Thomson, Errol M; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; Vincent, Renaud

2009-01-01

418

Comparing Exposure Metrics for the Effects of Fine Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions  

PubMed Central

A crucial step in an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution is to accurately quantify exposure of the population. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the health effects estimates associated with short-term exposure to fine particulate matter with respect to three potential metrics for daily exposure: ambient monitor data, estimated values from a deterministic atmospheric chemistry model, and stochastic daily average human exposure simulation output. Each of these metrics has strengths and weaknesses when estimating the association between daily changes in ambient exposure to fine particulate matter and daily emergency hospital admissions. Monitor data is readily available, but is incomplete over space and time. The atmospheric chemistry model output is spatially and temporally complete, but may be less accurate than monitor data. The stochastic human exposure estimates account for human activity patterns and variability in pollutant concentration across microenvironments, but requires extensive input information and computation time. To compare these metrics, we consider a case study of the association between fine particulate matter and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory cases for the Medicare population across three counties in New York. Of particular interest is to quantify the impact and/or benefit to using the stochastic human exposure output to measure ambient exposure to fine particulate matter. Results indicate that the stochastic human exposure simulation output indicates approximately the same increase in relative risk associated with emergency admissions as using a chemistry model or monitoring data as exposure metrics. However, the stochastic human exposure simulation output and the atmospheric chemistry model both bring additional information which helps to reduce the uncertainly in our estimated risk. PMID:23942393

Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Sucic, Katarina; Jiao, Wan; Dominici, Francesca; Frey, H. Christopher; Reich, Brian; Fuentes, Montserrat

2013-01-01

419

Exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing number of studies have investigated the impact of maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse\\u000a birth outcomes, particularly low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g at birth) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation).\\u000a We performed a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature and a meta-analysis to quantify the association between\\u000a maternal exposure to particulate matter with

Amir Sapkota; Adam P. Chelikowsky; Keeve E. Nachman; Aaron J. Cohen; Beate Ritz

420

Identification and emission rates of molecular tracers in coal smoke particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of n-alkanoic acids, UCM and phenolic compounds with increasing rank, and (2) the increase in the homohopane index [S\\/(S+R)] with increasing rank.

D. R. Oros; B. R. T. Simoneit

2000-01-01

421

Environmental chemistry and mineralogy of particulate air matter around Selebi Phikwe nickel–copper plant, Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at chemically and mineralogically characterizing whole particulate air matter (PAM) occurring at the Selebi Phikwe nickel–copper (Ni–Cu) area in Botswana, and postulating its possible environmental implications. Heavy metals concentrations in PAM samples around the Selebi Phikwe Ni–Cu plant were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and the mineral phases identified by X-ray powder diffraction technique. The particles consisted

G Ekosse; D. J van den Heever; L de Jager; O Totolo

2004-01-01

422

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and its Relationship to Air Pollution Particulate Matter (PM10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a transmittance measurements technique collected by using FieldSpec HandHeld (Fieldspec HH) spectroradiometer to derive the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in the atmosphere at 550 nm to improve the particulate matters of less than 10 micron (PM10) concentrations mapping. The concentrations of PM10 at selected locations were measured simultaneously with the atmospheric transmittance measurements using DustTrak Aerosol Monitor

Nadzri Othman; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Hwee San Lim; Khiruddin Abdullah

2009-01-01

423

Methodology to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Certified Commercial Aircraft Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented

Roger L Wayson; Gregg G Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Mridul Gautam; Nigel Clark; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Eric Edgerton; Gary Casuccio; Rick Saylor; Traci Lersch; Benjamin Hartsell; John Jansen; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

424

A reanalysis of fine particulate matter air pollution versus life expectancy in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduction in population exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with improvements in life expectancy. This article presents a reanalysis of this relationship and comments on the results from a study on the reduction of ambient air PM2.5 concentrations versus life expectancy in metropolitan areas of the United States. The results of the reanalysis show

Goran Krsti?

2012-01-01

425

A reanalysis of fine particulate matter air pollution vs. life expectancy in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduction in population exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with improvements in life expectancy. This article presents a reanalysis of this relationship and comments on the results from a study on the reduction of ambient air PM2.5 concentrations vs. life expectancy in metropolitan areas of the United States. The results of the reanalysis show

Goran Krsti?

2012-01-01

426

Microbial activity and particulate matter in the benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) of the deep Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of suspended particulate matter as well as bacterial biomass and activity in near-bottom waters was investigated at six stations in the deep Arabian Sea (2000–4500m water depth). Water samples were obtained from heights between 0.1–1000 m above bottom (m a.b.) with a bottom water sampler or with a CTD-rosette during two cruises in May 1997 and February 1998.

Antje Boetius; Barbara Springer; Carolin Petry

2000-01-01

427

Measurements of OC and EC in Coarse Particulate Matter in the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content of filter-based, 24-hr integrated particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 ?m (PM10–2.5) was measured at two urban and two rural locations in the southeastern United States. On average, total carbon (OC + EC) comprised approximately 30% of PM10–2.5 mass at these four sites. Carbonate carbon was measured on

Eric S Edgerton; Gary S Casuccio; Rick D Saylor; Traci L Lersch; Benjamin E Hartsell; John J Jansen; D. Alan Hansen; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Mridul Gautam; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Roger Wayson; Gregg Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

428

Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: Progress, Potential and Pitfalls Abstract. Fine or respirable particles with particle aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) affect visibility, change cloud properties, reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation, affect human health and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. These particles are injected into the atmosphere either as primary emissions or form into

S. A. Christopher

2009-01-01

429

Trends in Speciated Fine Particulate Matter and Visibility across Monitoring Networks in the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and visibility in the Southeastern United States were evaluated for sites in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments, Speciated Trends Network, and Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study networks. These analyses are part of the technical assessment by Visibility Improvement–State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS), the regional

Patricia F. Brewer; Joseph P. Adlhoch

2005-01-01

430

Catalytic performance of supported precious metal catalysts for the combustion of diesel particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

CeO2 and TiO2 supported precious metal (Ag, Pt and Pd) catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method, and their catalytic performance for oxidation of simulated diesel particulate matter (PM) was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and mass spectrometry (MS) under both tight-contact (TC) and loose-contact (LC) conditions. The simulated PM was prepared by liquid-phase adsorption of SOF

Cheol-Beom Lim; Hajime Kusaba; Hisahiro Einaga; Yasutake Teraoka

2011-01-01

431

Base camp personnel exposure to particulate matter during wildland fire suppression activities.  

PubMed

Wildland fire base camps commonly house thousands of support personnel for weeks at a time. The selection of the location of these base camps is largely a strategic decision that incorporates many factors, one of which is the potential impact of biomass smoke from the nearby fire event. Biomass smoke has many documented adverse health effects due, primarily, to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Minimizing particulate matter exposure to potentially susceptible individuals working as support personnel in the base camp is vital. In addition to smoke from nearby wildland fires, base camp operations have the potential to generate particulate matter via vehicle emissions, dust, and generator use. We monitored particulate matter at three base camps during the fire season of 2009 in Washington, Oregon, and California. During the sampling events, 1-min time-weighted averages of PM(2.5) and particle counts from three size fractions (0.3-0.5 microns, 0.5-1.0 microns, and 1.0-2.5 microns) were measured. Results showed that all PM size fractions (as well as overall PM(2.5) concentrations) were higher during the overnight hours, a trend that was consistent at all camps. Our results provide evidence of camp-based, site-specific sources of PM(2.5) that could potentially exceed the contributions from the nearby wildfire. These exposures could adversely impact wildland firefighters who sleep in the camp, as well as the camp support personnel, who could include susceptible individuals. A better understanding of the sources and patterns of poor air quality within base camps would help to inform prevention strategies to reduce personnel exposures. PMID:22364357

McNamara, Marcy L; Semmens, Erin O; Gaskill, Steven; Palmer, Charles; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

2012-01-01

432

Identification, Abundance and Origin of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Fine Atmospheric Particulate Matter of Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic chemical composition of the fine fraction of atmospheric particulate matter in Athens has been studied, in order\\u000a to establish emission sources. The results of the analyses of the aliphatic fraction indicate that all samples contain n-alkanes ranging from C14 to C32, with C25, C26, C27 and C29 being the more abundant congeners. Fossil fuels biomarkers such as extended

G. Andreou; S. D. Alexiou; G. Loupa; S. Rapsomanikis

2008-01-01

433

Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl

M Radzi Bin Abas; Noorsaadah A Rahman; Nasr Yousef M. J Omar; M. Jamil Maah; Azizan Abu Samah; Daniel R Oros; Angelika Otto; Bernd R. T Simoneit

2004-01-01

434

Trace metal composition of particulate matter of the Danube River and Turkish rivers draining into the Black Sea  

E-print Network

Trace metal composition of particulate matter of the Danube River and Turkish rivers draining and sediments in the Black Sea. Suspended matter and surface sediment samples were collected from the Danube matter data from Turkish rivers and surface sediment from the Danube River were very similar to each

Murray, James W.

435

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15

436

Estimating the mortality impacts of particulate matter: what can be learned from between-study variability?  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of the link between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and mortality rates have yielded a range of estimates, leading to disagreement about the magnitude of the relationship and the strength of the causal connection. Previous meta-analyses of this literature have provided pooled effect estimates, but have not addressed between-study variability that may be associated with analytical models, pollution patterns, and exposed populations. To determine whether study-specific factors can explain some of the variability in the time-series studies on mortality from particulate matter [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), we applied an empirical Bayes meta-analysis. We estimate that mortality rates increase on average by 0.7% per 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) concentrations, with greater effects at sites with higher ratios of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5))/PM(10). This finding did not change with the inclusion of a number of potential confounders and effect modifiers, although there is some evidence that PM effects are influenced by climate, housing characteristics, demographics, and the presence of sulfur dioxide and ozone. Although further analysis would be needed to determine which factors causally influence the relationship between PM(10) and mortality, these findings can help guide future epidemiologic investigations and policy decisions. Images Figure 1 PMID:10656850

Levy, J I; Hammitt, J K; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

437

Particulate suspended matters and cases of respiratory disease in Rio de Janeiro city (Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper investigates the existence of a possible relationship between suspended particulate matters levels and cases of respiratory diseases from a random and systematic sample of medical and air pollution records in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Records of emergency cases of the year 1991 (months of January, June and July) were collected at Miguel Couto Hospitals and suspended particulate matter (1980-1995) at FEEMA (Rio de Janeiro Environmental Agency). The results revealed that the diseases of the respiratory system of those patients who seek the hospital's emergency care are more frequent during the wintertime. Their number increases markedly during winter months of June and July when compared with the summer's (January) number of cases. The analysis of the historical series (1980-1995) of atmospheric pollution measured at Bonsucesso monitoring station showed that the monthly figures (measured by the number of times that the value exceed the national standard, maximum daily concentration of 240 micro g (-3), are higher in wintertime (June, July and August). During this same period the level of pollution by atmospheric particulate matter in Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area measured by the annual geometric averages showed results well above the national standard (80 micro g(-3). This unfavorable situation, together with the fast growing number of new cars circulating in the city and the absence of a clear air pollution control and management plan, may contribute to an increase of the incidence and seriousness of respiratory diseases during subsequent winter months. PMID:12400551

Brilhante, Ogenis M; Tambellini, Anna M T

2002-06-01

438

Study of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Dongguan.  

PubMed

Total suspended and size-segregated atmospheric particles were collected in four seasons at three representative points in different functional areas of Dongguan City. The detailed size distributions of six nitro-PAHs [2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 9-nitroanthracene, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL), 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP)] were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using a binary elution gradient (methanol and water). We used a toxicity assessment based on potency equivalency factors (PEFs) to estimate the inhalation risk of the particulate matter. The results showed that, aside from 2-NF and 2-NFL, the content of the other four nitro-PAHs in the microparticles (<0.4 ?m) were more than 20%, a percentage significantly higher than other fractions of particulate matter. The seasonal distribution of nitro-PAHs shows that their concentrations were higher in the winter, while the PAH concentrations were higher in the summer. The study found that secondary formation (2-NFL and 2-NP) had a positive correlation with NO x and NO2, but a negative correlation with O3. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity of particulate matter in Dongguan City ranged from 0.04 to 2.63 ng m(-3), and the carcinogenic index ranged from 0.04?×?10(-6) to 2.39?×?10(-6). These values do not represent a serious threat to human health. PMID:24578256

Lan, Shan-Hong; Lan, Hui-Xia; Yang, Dan; Wu, Xiu-Wen

2014-06-01

439

Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

2013-01-01

440

Dispersion Modeling of Inert Particulate Matter in the El Paso, TX- Cd. Juarez, MX Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Paso, TX-Cd. Juarez, MX region is subject to the emission of inert particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere, from a variety of sources. The impact of these emissions has been studied extensively in for regulatory compliance in the area of health effects, air quality and visibility. Little work has been done to study the fate and transport of the particulate matter within the region. The Environmental Physics Group at The University of Texas at El Paso has recently applied the SARMAP Air Quality Model (SAQM) to model the dispersion of inert particulate matter in the region. The meteorological data for the SAQM was created with the Penn State/NCAR meteorological modeling system, version 5 (MM5). The SAQM was used to simulate three common occurrences for large particulate emission and concentration. The first was times of heavy traffic volume at the international bridges which cause large numbers of cars to sit, with engines running, for extended periods of time. The second was moderate to high wind events that cause large amounts of coarse particulate matter to become entrained in the atmosphere and transported into and around the region. The third is a temperature inversion which traps the particulate matter at the surface during morning rush hour. The initial conditions for particulate matter, for the two cases involving mobile emissions, were derived from the 1999 version 3 national emissions inventory (NEI) mobile, on-road data from the EPA. Output from the MM5 was used to as the meteorological driver for the SAQM. The MM5 was initialized with data from the NCAR reanalysis project. Meteorological data collected in the region bye the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the EPA was used for Four Dimensional Data Assimilation. The MM5 was nudged with gridded, surface and observational data. Statistical analysis was done on the MM5 for the variables, wind speed, wind direction, temperature and mixing ratio. The statistics performed included RMSE, RMSEs, RMSEu and index of agreement. MM5 output with low RMSE and high index of agreement was used to drive the SAQM. The MM5 grid domains were 39x39 at 36km, 47x47 at 12km, 55x55 at 4 km and 40x40 at 1.3km. The SAQM was applied on to the 1.3km domain. For the case of emission at the international bridges, the bridges' latitude and longitude were translated to grid cell locations. The NEI data derived for those locations were set as emission rates for those cells. The SAQM was run for a 24hr period starting at twelve pm local time with the emissions ending after morning rush hour. The same conditions were done for the inversion time period with the addition of emissions for major roadways and arterial feeders. No data is available for concentrations of entrained particulate matter during wind events. Thus, the entrainment episodes were simulated with varying initial concentrations along the boundary of the domain. The emission rates were varied for each simulation to give both a very intense episode, and a moderate episode lasting for 12 hrs with the SAQM simulation ending after 24 hrs. Analysis for all the simulations was done to show the spatial and temporal evolution of the PM. Temporal comparisons were done between EPA PM2.5 to show identify similarities in the evolution of the SAQM with observation.

Pearson, R.; Fitzgerald, R.

2005-05-01

441

Mineral composition of the suspended particulate matter in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral composition of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) was studied for the White Sea area. The comparative analysis of the composition of the marine SMP and the SPM of the rivers of the White Sea catchment area was performed, including the Severnaya Dvina River, one of the major sources of the terrigenous suspended matter to the sea. The research of such kind is faced with numerous methodological difficulties, which slows down the study process. Data on the mineral composition of the SPM are scarce. Applying the method of X-ray powder diffractometry, we assessed the bulk mineral composition of the SPM with special regard to its clay fraction.

Kravchishina, M. D.; Dara, O. M.

2014-05-01

442

Distribution and dispersal of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrographic data, water and bottom-sediment samples, and a GEOPROBE tripod experiment were used to examine the distribution and dynamics of suspended particulate matter on the Ebro shelf in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. In the absence of strong winds and storms, primary sediment supply from the Ebro River is dispersed along the shelf by a general southward flow. In such calm conditions, suspended-matter concentrations on the shelf are lower than 3 mg/l and transfer of material from the shelf to the slope takes place principally over the shelf edge north of the Columbretes Islands. Very fine sediment deposited in a mid-shelf mud belt (30-80 m deep) is cohesive and resistant to erosion. Only relatively rare, strong storms are able to resuspend particles from the deeper, central region of this cohesive deposit. When resuspension takes place, suspended-particulate-matter concentration increases and the general dispersal pattern of suspended matter is altered. Near the seafloor, distribution of suspended matter is greatly influenced by the distribution of the mid-shelf muds from which particles are resuspended. Resuspension occurs more intensively and frequently along the shallower (20-40 m) edge of the cohesive deposit and near the delta. ?? 1990.

Palanques, A.; Drake, D. E.

1990-01-01

443

THE ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS WITH SPECIFIC HEALTH EFFECTS IN HEALTHY HIGHWAY PATROL OFFICERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimated exposures to ambient respirable particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants have been statistically associated with mortality and morbidity in epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world. Although some subpopulations (e.g., asthmatics; elderly, pulmonar...

444

Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

445

DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (MICROFACPM) FOR PREDICTING REAL TIME MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Health risk evaluation needs precise measurement and modeling of human exposures in microenvironments to support review of current air quality standards. The particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles are a major component of human exposures in urban microenvironments. Cu...

446

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for...

2013-07-01

447

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for...

2014-07-01

448

40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1181 How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for...

2011-07-01

449

RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

450

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERSENSITIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE. SS Nadadur UP Kodavanti, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, ORD, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711....

451

EFFECTS OF INHALED COMBUSTION-DERIVED PARTICULATE MATTER ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and rates of morbidity and mortality; these correlations are further strengthened when limited to individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. While si...

452

EFFECT OF SIZE AND CHEMISTRY OF AMBIENT, COMBUSTION AND SURROGATE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON PULMONARY INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is much evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) can create adverse health effects including increased morbidity and mortality, the actual physico-chemical characteristics of particles which cause these effects remains elusive. One central hypothesis is that PM ...

453

PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON FINDINGS FROM THE FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This collection of papers, which is the first coordinated publication of results from the Phase II Supersites Program, reflects the objectives of the program - to characterize particulate matter, to provide information, such as source-receptor relationships, that support health...

454

Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-Infrared Spectrometry for the Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation-infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for detecting and identifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban air particulate matter are demonstrated. The ability of GC/MI-IR to discriminate betwee...

J. W. Childers, N. K. Wilson, R. K. Barbour

1989-01-01

455

CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

456

AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER: PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ISSUES RELATED TO HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, especially in individuals with cardiopulmonary disease. These epidemiologic findings are the cornerstone of EPA's revision of the PM National Ambient Quality Standards to include PM less tha...

457

Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

458

Study of particulate matter formation and evolution in near-field aircraft plumes using a one-dimensional microphysical model  

E-print Network

Environmental concerns have led to a growing effort to investigate and characterize the particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft engines. This thesis presents a one-dimensional microphysics and chemical kinetics ...

Zhang, Jianye, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

459

PREFACE OF SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This article is the preface or editors note to a dedicated issue of Aerosol Science and Technology, journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research. It includes a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites ...

460

THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

461

Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.  

PubMed

A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident. PMID:24291555

Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

2014-02-15

462

Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.  

PubMed

A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed. PMID:12099501

Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

2002-01-01

463

Real-time measurement of particulate matter in bars, karaoke and night club in urban area of Ulsan, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality monitoring was conducted to evaluate data on the levels of indoor and ambient particulate matter in public places such as bars, night clubs and karaoke in Ulsan, Korea. Sampling was carried out simultaneously indoors and outdoors during winter 2007-2008. Measured pollutants were inhalable (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. Several air quality parameters were also measured simultaneously in

Vitaly Afanasyev; Byeong-Kyu Lee; Kwang-Deok Kim

2008-01-01

464

Heavy Metal Content of Suspended Particulate Matter at World’s Largest ShipBreaking Yard, Alang-Sosiya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study vividly presents results from a seasonal particulate matter measurement campaign conducted at world’s largest ship-breaking\\u000a yard i.e., Alang-Sosiya (Gujarat, India) at six locations and a reference station at Gopnath which is 30 km south of this\\u000a ship-breaking yard. The collected suspended particulate matter (SPM) 24-h samples were critically analyzed for heavy metals\\u000a (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe,

Shaik Basha; Premsingh Mansingh Gaur; Ravikumar Bhagwan Thorat; Rohitkumar Harikrishna Trivedi; Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Nisha Anand; Shalin Hemantbhai Desai; Kalpana Haresh Mody; Bhavnath Jha

2007-01-01

465

Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity  

SciTech Connect

Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical significance. In summary, airborne exposure to manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with increased risk of adjudication. Causality cannot be proven in observational studies such as this one, but the association warrants further examination in other research studies. Comprehensive epidemiologic investigations of metal exposure in pediatric populations should include social health outcomes, including measures of delinquent or criminal activity. Furthermore, the influence of metals on the neurotoxic pathway leading to delinquent activity should be further explored. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the relationship between air pollutants and adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manganese, mercury, and particulate matter are associated with risk of adjudication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research of metal exposure should include social health outcomes.

Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

2011-11-15

466

Effect of fish size and hydraulic regime on particulate organic matter dynamics in a recirculating aquaculture system: elemental carbon and nitrogen approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the capabilities of particulate organic matter removal devices is critical to the development of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The size of fish and water flow rates were evaluated as factors determining the distribution of particulate wastes throughout the RAS. Elemental carbon and nitrogen analyses (CHN) were employed in order to characterize particulate matter and to evaluate the performances of

M. A. Franco-Nava; J. P. Blancheton; G. Deviller; A. Charrier; J. Y. Le-Gall

2004-01-01

467

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

468

Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed decrease in fibre density without a significant increase in fibre diameter in the presence of total PM and filtered PM. Conclusion. The results indicate that total PM and filtered PM are capable of causing alterations to the fibrin polymerization and network structure as shown by the changes in permeation properties, the turbidity experiments as well as by confocal microscopy.

Metassan, Sofian; Ariens, Robert A. S.; Scott, D. Julian; Routledge, Michael N.

2009-02-01

469

Comparison of the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from the combustion of agricultural and forest biomasses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural (switchgrass, fast-growing willow and the dried solid fraction of pig manure) and forest (wood mixture of Black Spruce and Jack Pine) biomasses in a small-scale unit (17.58kW). Concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NH3, N2O, SO2, HCl, and H2O were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and converted into emission rates. Opacity was also evaluated and particulates were sampled. Results showed significantly higher emissions of SO2, NO2 and PM with the combustion of agricultural biomass compared to the forest biomass. However, further studies should be carried out so regulations can be adapted in order to permit the combustion of agricultural biomass in small-scale combustion units. PMID:24462881

Brassard, Patrick; Palacios, Joahnn H; Godbout, Stéphane; Bussières, Denis; Lagacé, Robert; Larouche, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Frédéric

2014-03-01

470

SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

471

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOTH REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AT AN URBAN SITE IN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that all size fractions of...

472

Chemical composition and mass closure of particulate matter at six urban sites in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter was investigated in 7-week field campaigns of contrasting air pollution at six urban background sites in Europe. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. The sampling campaigns were carried out as follows: Duisburg/Germany October-November 2002 (autumn), Prague/Czech Republic November 2002-January 2003 (winter), Amsterdam/Netherlands January-March 2003 (winter), Helsinki/Finland March-May 2003 (spring), Barcelona/Spain March-May 2003 (spring) and Athens/Greece June-July 2003 (summer). Aerosol samples were collected in 3+4-day periods per week ( N=14) using two identical virtual impactors (VI). All the filter samples were analysed with the same instruments to obtain particulate mass, inorganic ions, total and watersoluble elements, and elemental and organic carbon content. The campaign means of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranged from 8.3 to 30 and 5.4 to 29 ?g m -3, respectively. The "wet and cool" seasons favoured a low coarse-to-fine particulate mass ratio (<1), whereas the ratio was high (>1) during the warmer and drier spring and summer campaigns. According to chemical mass closure, the major components in PM 2.5 were carbonaceous compounds (organic matter+elemental carbon), secondary inorganic ions and sea salt, whereas those in PM 2.5-10 were soil-derived compounds, carbonaceous compounds, sea salt and nitrate. The major and minor components together accounted for 79-106% and 77-96% of the gravimetrically measured PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 mass, respectively. In conclusion, the measured PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in the campaigns could be reconstructed to a large extent with the help of harmonized particulate sampling and analysis of the selected chemical constituents. The health significance of the observed differences in chemical composition and emission sources between the size-segregated particulate samples will be investigated in toxicological cell and animal studies.

Sillanpää, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Saarikoski, Sanna; Frey, Anna; Pennanen, Arto; Makkonen, Ulla; Spolnik, Zoya; Van Grieken, René; Braniš, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Salonen, Raimo O.

473

Toxic and inflammatory effects of filters frequently used for the collection of airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies indicate that exacerbations of airway diseases and cardio-respiratory mortality have been associated with high levels of particulate air pollution. In the search for explanatory mechanisms, there is a need to collect particulate matter (such as PM 10/PM 2.5) onto filters for biological analysis. The removal of airborne particulate matter from a filter into solution involves agitation of the samples to release the particles and this is done by such methods as high-speed vortexing. Since it is possible that components of filters could contaminate the preparation and interfere with biological investigations it is necessary to find an inert filter suitable for both particulate collection and biological analysis. Extracts of the following six filters were assessed for toxicological activity both in vivo and in vitro:-Millipore AP20, Whatman GF/A, Whatman WCN, Gelman TF1000, Gelman DM800 and polycarbonate (PC). Treatment with the extract of either Whatman GF/A, Gelman DM800 or Millipore AP20 filters for 24 h significantly ( p<0.001) decreased the metabolic competence of A549 cells, as measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimetholthiazol-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction. In addition instillation of filter extracts into rat lungs was carried out to investigate their ability to cause inflammation. The cellular components of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed for the number of neutrophils, as markers of inflammation. After 24 h the filter extract of the Millipore AP20, polycarbonate (PC), Whatman WCN and Whatman GF/A induced a significant ( P<0.001) influx of neutrophils into the rat lung. Finally the ability of each filter to absorb phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was assessed. The Whatman GF/A increased in weight 13 fold and the Millipore AP20 8 fold. In comparison the polycarbonate and the Gelman TF1000 were hydrophobic. These results suggest that of the six filters tested, the Teflon Gelman TF1000 filter was the most suitable for the collection and subsequent biological analysis of airborne particulate matter, as it releases little in the way of toxic material.

Dick, C. A. J.; Stone, V.; Brown, D. M.; Watt, M.; Cherrie, J. W.; Howarth, S.; Seaton, A.; Donaldson, K.

474

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

SciTech Connect

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2010-09-15

475

Nature and dynamics of phosphorus-containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular sources, dynamics and analytical characterizations of the phosphorus (P) containing components of marine dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM) are reviewed. Using a combination of 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on samples collected from a depth profile (20-4000 m) at Station Aloha in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the biomolecular associations of P functional groups in marine OM are identified. Compositional differences between ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM; 1-100 nm size fraction) and ultrafiltered particulate organic matter (UPOM; 0.1-60 ?m size fraction) as reflected by NMR and elemental analyses indicate that UDOM does not originate from simple solubilization of UPOM, and the aggregation of UDOM is not the primary source of UPOM. Regression analyses indicated a large fraction of the P in UDOM is associated with carbohydrates and amino acids, but not with lipids. Similar analyses for UPOM indicated that P is associated with carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. The P functional groups also appear to be balanced in their distribution among molecular classes, because they remain in relatively constant proportion throughout the ocean.

Sannigrahi, Poulomi; Ingall, Ellery D.; Benner, Ronald

2006-12-01

476

In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter: contribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM1) was collected at an urban and a rural site in Switzerland during a hibernal high air pollution episode and was investigated for estrogenicity using an estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay (ER-CALUX). All samples that were tested induced estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Observed estrogenic activities corresponded to 17beta-estradiol (E2) CALUX equivalent concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ng E2-CEQ per gram of PM1 (particulate matter of < or = 1 microm aerodynamic diameter) and from 0.07 to 1.25 pg E2-CEQ per m(3) of sampled air. There was a strong correlation between the PM1 estrogenicity of the urban and rural sites (r = 0.92). Five hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hydroxy-PAHs), which show structural similarities to E2, were assessed for their estrogenic activity. The following order of estrogenic potency was found: 2-hydroxychrysene > 2-hydroxyphenanthrene > 1-hydroxypyrene > 2-hydroxynaphthalene > 1-hydroxynaphthalene. Three of these hydroxy-PAHs, namely 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxynaphthalene, were detected in all PM1 extracts. However, they contributed only 0.01-0.2% to the overall estrogenic activity. Hence, mainly other estrogenic compounds not yet identified by chemical analysis must be responsible for the observed activity. The temporal trend of PM1 estrogenicity at the urban and rural site, respectively, was compared with the time course of several air pollutants (NO2, NO, SO2, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar irradiation, wind velocity). However, specific emission sources and formation processes of atmospheric xenoestrogens could not be elucidated. This study showed that ambient particulate matter contains compounds that are able to interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and potentially also interfere with estrogen-regulated pathways in vivo. PMID:19021152

Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Schmid, Peter; Hueglin, Christoph; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

2009-04-01

477

Spatial and seasonal variability of particulate matter optical and size properties in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter plays a paramount role in the biogeochemical processes taking place in the marine environment. We report seasonal (spring and summer 2008) distribution of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean, along a transect extending from the open Ionian Sea to the North Aegean Sea, including measurements in the Levantine Sea. A suite of optical instruments measuring beam attenuation (beam cp), fluorescence and particle size, the latter obtained with the innovative in-situ laser particle sizer LISST-Deep are used in concert with traditional measurements of particulate matter concentration (PMC), and total chlorophyll ? from bottle samples. PMCs were generally low during both seasons (range: 0.02-0.85 mg L- 1), with values substantially higher in the euphotic zone during spring. The deep waters (> 200 m) in the Eastern Mediterranean exhibit extremely low PMCs, well-below 0.1 mg L- 1. Total chlorophyll ? concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.28 ?g L- 1 in spring and from 0.08 to 0.19 ?g L- 1 in summer, verifying the ultra-oligotrophic character of the area. A significant correlation of beam cp and fluorescence in spring suggests that sources of particles are primarily biogenic in the surface waters. Deep water formation triggered the development of a ~ 900-m thick benthic nepheloid layer in the N. Aegean Sea. LISST-Deep revealed valuable information on the particle volume concentrations and the median particle size. It is striking that large particles (range: 31-230 ?m; median ~ 85 ?m) predominate in the entire region, from the surface up to the deep waters. In addition, accumulation of particles in the pycnocline is observed during summer; however, it is possible that schlieren (increase in beam attenuation due to scattering off of density gradients) could be responsible for the high particle volume concentrations and large median particle diameters recorded. These measurements, conducted for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean constitute valuable baseline information for future research.

Karageorgis, A. P.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Pagou, K.; Kontoyiannis, H.; Pavlidou, A.; Anagnostou, Ch.

2012-12-01

478

Microbial respiration activities related to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to reveal differences in the relevance of particulate as well as water-soluble organic matter (OM) fractions from topsoils to the easily biodegradable soil organic matter (SOM). We selected eight paired sites with quite different soil types and soil properties. For each of these sites, we took samples from adjacent arable and forest topsoils. Physically uncomplexed, macro-, and

M. Kaiser; S. Wirth; R. H. Ellerbrock; M. Sommer

2010-01-01

479

Organic Matter Isotopic and Pigment Composition as Markers of the Provenance and Transport of Particulate Matter at the Gulf of Lion Upper Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of carbon isotopes and organic biomarkers in organic matter collected by sediment traps deployed at the head of six canyons in the Gulf of Lion (GoL) margin between November 2003 and April 2004 has allowed the assessment of geographical, seasonal and event related changes in the provenance and transport of particulate matter and associated organic substances in this region.

J. Fabres; J. Velez; T. Tesi; C. Lee; A. Calafat; S. Heussner; A. Palanques; M. Canals

2006-01-01

480

Archaea in Black Sea water column particulate matter and sediments—evidence from ether lipid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytane and long-chain, C40, head-to-head acyclic (C40:0cy) and cyclic isoprenoids with 1–3 cyclopentyl rings (C40:1cy, C40:2cy, and C40:3cy) derived from archaeal core lipids are present in Black Sea particulate matter from both the oxic and anoxic zones and in sediment cores from the central basin and the western continental margin. The occurrence of these ether-linked isoprenoids throughout the water column

Linda L King; Tamara K Pease; Stuart G Wakeham

1998-01-01

481

Air Quality in Terms of Particulate Matter (PM10) and Element Components in Antananarivo City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this research was to study the size distribution of the toxic elements, undesirables ones and PM10 in the aerosols of Antananarivo urban areas using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. This work was carried out in the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Program organized by the IAEA in 1998. The results of the study show that lead exceeds the recommended value of the WHO (0.5?g.m-3) and the PM10 particles exceed also the recommended value (150?g.m-3). Therefore, the Antananarivo urban area is classified as saturated zone for both parameters (lead and particulate matter).

Andriambololona, Raoelina; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Rakotondramanana, H. T.; Rasolofonirina, M.

2002-07-01

482

The biogeochemical reactivity of suspended particulate matter at nested sites in the Dee basin, NE Scotland.  

PubMed

Variation in the organic matter content associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an often overlooked component of carbon cycling within freshwater riverine systems. The potential biogeochemical reactivity of particulate organic carbon (POC) that affect its interactions and fate, i.e. respired and lost to the atmosphere along river continua or ultimately exported to estuarine and oceanic pools was assessed. Eleven contrasting sites draining nested catchments (5-1837 km(2)) in the River Dee basin, NE Scotland were sampled during summer 2008 to evaluate spatio-temporal variations in quantity and quality (biogeochemical reactivity) of SPM during relatively low flow conditions. Mean SPM concentrations increased from 0.21 to 1.22 mg L(-1) between the uppermost and lowest mainstem sites. Individually, POC concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 0.55 mg L(-1) and accounted for ca. 3-15% of total aqueous organic carbon transported. The POC content was partitioned into autotrophic (2.78-73.0 mg C g(-1) SPM) and detrital (119-388 mg C g(-1) SPM) biomass carbon content. The particulate respired CO(2)-C as a % of the total carbon associated with SPM, measured by MicroResp™ over 18 h, varied in recalcitrance from 0.49% at peat-dominated sites to 3.20% at the lowermost mainstem site. Significant (p<0.05) relationships were observed between SPM biogeochemical reactivity measures (% respired CO(2)-C; chlorophyll ?; bioavailable-phosphorus) and arable and improved grassland area, associated with increasing biological productivity downstream. Compositional characteristics and in-stream processing of SPM appear to be related to contributory land use pressures, that influence SPM characteristics and biogeochemistry (C:N:P stoichiometry) of its surrounding aqueous environment. As moorland influences declined, nutrient inputs from arable and improved grasslands increasingly affected the biogeochemical content and reactivity of both dissolved and particulate matter. This increases the potential for recycling of the organic matter that is either transported from upstream or entering further along the riverine continuum. PMID:21945186

Dawson, J J C; Adhikari, Y R; Soulsby, C; Stutter, M I

2012-09-15

483

New particulate matter and dioxin/furan emission limits for hazardous waste combustors considered  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of promulgating new, stricter emission limits for hazardous waste combustors (HWCs), EPA recently completed a study of particulate matter (PM) and dioxin/furan emissions from these devices. The agency`s activities stem, in part, from the draft combustion strategy issued by EPA Administrator Carol Browner on May 18, 1993. Among other things, the draft strategy calls for more stringent emission limits from hazardous waste incinerators as well as boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) that burn waste-derived fuels. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

1995-01-01

484

Magnetic particulate matters in the ashes of few commonly used Indian cigarettes.  

PubMed

Physical aspects of tobacco samples, used in some commonly available Indian brands of cigarettes, with emphasis on their magnetic characterization before and after they get burnt into ashes, are described. The present work highlights the ultrafine nature of the cigarette ashes and provides a compositional insight of their constituent particulate matters as revealed by the XRD and SEM studies. Based on the EDX spectra, elemental distributions of different tobacco samples, before and after they get burnt, are presented. In this work, magnetic measurements of the un-burnt tobacco samples are reported. An attempt is made to shed light on the origin of magnetism observed in these samples. PMID:25049142

Bhattacharjee, Ashis; Mandal, Haradhan; Roy, Madhusudan; Kusz, Joachim; Zubko, Maciej

2014-11-01

485

Local order and valence state of Fe in urban suspended particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations were carried out on urban suspended particulate matter (PM2.5) with the aim of studying the local order and valence state of iron, a metal abundant in this type of material, particularly in urban environments. XANES results, based on the comparison with model compounds fayalite (Fe2+) and ferrihydrite (Fe3+), show that iron is prevalent as Fe3+, whereas EXAFS data attribute the prevalent Fe3+ to a nanocrystalline phase of ferrihydrite. The dominance of Fe3+ (less soluble than Fe2+) is further confirmed by the fact that previous leaching experiments did not show Fe presence in the solution.

d'Acapito, Francesco; Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gianfagna, Antonio

2014-12-01

486

Characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in Neversink Reservoir, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural organic matter (NOM) was isolated from the water of the Neversink Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply, located in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The NOM was fractionated into the following nine different fractions by the isolation procedure: (1) coarse particulates, (2) fine-particulate organics, (3) solvent-extractable organics, (4) hydrophobic neutrals (HPON fraction), (5) dissolved colloids, (6) bases, (7) hydrophobic acids (HPOA), (8) transphilic acids + neutrals (TPI-A+N), and (9) hydrophilic acids + neutrals (HPI-A+N). Each of these fractions, with exception of the first and the third which were too small for the complete series of analyses, was characterized by elemental, carbohydrate, and amino acid analyses, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectrometry. The data obtained from these analyses indicate (1) that the fine-particulate organics and colloids are mainly composed of peptidoglycans, and lipopolysaccharides derived from algal, bacterial, and fungal cell walls, (2) that the HPO-N fraction most likely consists of a mixture of alicyclic terpenes and carbohydrates, (3) that the HPOA fraction consists mainly of lignin components conjugated to carbohydrates, (4) that the TPI-A+N and the HPI-A+N fractions most likely represent complex mixtures of relatively low molecular weight carboxylic acids derived from terpenes, carbohydrates, and peptides, and (5) that the base fraction is composed of free amino acids, browning reaction products, and peptide fragments.

Wershaw, Robert L.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Cox, Larry G.

2005-01-01

487

Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 ?g/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 ?g/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 ?g/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 ?g/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 ?g/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 ?g/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

2014-11-18

488

Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing  

PubMed Central

The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-based air quality index (PAQI) based on a weighting method is proposed to provide a more objective assessment of the particulate pollution. The study demonstrates that, in 2010, most of mainland China faced a lightly polluted situation in PAQI case; there were three areas obviously under moderate pollution (Hubei, Sichuan-Chongqing border region and Ningxia-Inner Mongolia border region). Simultaneously, two indicators are calculated with the combination of population density gridded data to reveal Chinese population exposure to PM2.5. Comparing per capita PM2.5 concentration with population-weighted PM2.5 concentration, the former shows that the high-level regions are distributed in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter are in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong. By comparison, the results demonstrate that population-weighted PM2.5 concentration is more in line with the actual situation. PMID:24830453

Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

2014-01-01

489

Litter dynamics and particulate organic matter outwelling from a subtropical mangrove in Okinawa Island, South Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litter dynamics and outwelling of particulate organic matter (POM) was investigated in a subtropical mangrove (Okinawa Island, South Japan) in order to quantify the impact of mangrove POM on adjacent intertidal sediments. A distinct seasonal pattern was found with maximum litter fall during the autumn season, and minimum during winter. Total litter production between sites did not differ significantly. Tall mangroves (average 7 m) did not show any higher contribution to the litter production than short mangroves (average 4 m). The mean annual litter production was 12.95 ± 2.95 t ha -1 (dry weight) with leaf fall contributing more than 70% of the total litter production. Analysis of fatty acids (FAs) in the surface sediments of an adjacent mud flat and sand flat during the winter, spring and autumn seasons indicated that outwelling of POM from the mangrove ecosystem occurs. However, it is spatially restricted to within 300 m from the mangrove forest. The magnitude of the outwelling increased during spring and autumn consistent with the increase in the total litter production. Despite the presence of mangrove-derived organic matter in the estuarine surface sediments, autochthonous sources of organic matter, green macroalgae ( Ulva pertusa and Enteromorpha intestinalis), diatoms and bacteria are the main contributors of sedimentary organic matter and ?3 and ?6 PUFAs than mangrove-derived (POM) during winter and spring. While the contribution of mangrove-derived POM to sedimentary organic matter is limited to the autumn season.

Mfilinge, Prosper L.; Meziane, Tarik; Bachok, Zainudin; Tsuchiya, Makoto

2005-04-01

490

Real-world particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a highway tunnel.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked atmospheric particulate matter with human health problems. In many urban areas, mobile sources are a major source of particulate matter (PM) and the dominant source of fine particles or PM2.5 (PM smaller than 2.5 pm in aerodynamic diameter). Dynamometer studies have implicated diesel engines as being a significant source of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 microm), which may also exhibit deleterious health impacts. In addition to direct tailpipe emissions, mobile sources contribute to ambient particulate levels by brake and tire wear and by resuspension of particles from pavement. Information about particle emission rates, size distributions, and chemical composition from in-use light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles is scarce, especially under real-world operating conditions. To characterize particulate emissions from a limited set of in-use vehicles, we studied on-road emissions from vehicles operating under hot-stabilized conditions, at relatively constant speed, in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel along the Pennsylvania Turnpike from May 18 through 23, 1999. There were five specific aims of the study. (1) obtain chemically speciated diesel profiles for the source apportionment of diesel versus other ambient constituents in the air and to determine the chemical species present in real-world diesel emissions; (2) measure particle number and size distribution of chemically speciated particles in the atmosphere; (3) identify, by reference to data in years past, how much change has occurred in diesel exhaust particulate mass; (4) measure particulate emissions from LD gasoline vehicles to determine their contribution to the observed particle levels compared to diesels; and (5) determine changes over time in gas phase emissions by comparing our results with those of previous studies. Comparing the results of this study with our 1992 results, we found that emissions of C8 to C20 hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from HD diesel emissions substantially decreased over the seven-year period. Particulate mass emissions showed a similar trend. Considering a 25-year period, we observed a continued downward trend in HD particulate emissions from approximately 1,100 mg/km in 1974 to 132 mg/km (reported as PM2.5) in this study. The LD particle emission factor was considerably less than the HD value, but given the large fraction of LD vehicles, emissions from this source cannot be ignored. Results of the current study also indicate that both HD and LD vehicles emit ultrafine particles and that these particles are preserved under real-world dilution conditions. Particle number distributions were dominated by ultrafine particles with count mean diameters of 17 to 13 nm depending on fleet composition. These particles appear to be primarily composed of sulfur, indicative of sulfuric acid emission and nucleation. Comparing the 1992 and 1999 HD emission rates, we observed a 48% increase in the NOx/CO2 emissions ratio. This finding supports the assumption that many new-technology diesel engines conserve fuel but increase NOx emissions. PMID:11954677

Gertler, Alan W; Gillies, John A; Pierson, William R; Rogers, C Fred; Sagebiel, John C; Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Coulombe, William; Tarnay, Leland; Cahill, Thomas A

2002-01-01

491

Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in ?g m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical