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Sample records for radioactive particulate matter

  1. Particulate Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... A-Z Index Advanced Search What are you looking for? Learn the Issues Science & Technology Laws & Regulations About EPA Contact Us Particulate Matter (PM) You are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements ...

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the EPA Administrator issued new Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) that added PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 micrometers in size). The new standard was developed largely on the basis of epidemiological studies that found relatively con...

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In promulgating the new PM2.5 NAAQS (July 1997), Congress recognized scientific uncertainties associated with fine particulate matter to include composition, source-receptor relationships, and health and exposure effects. As a result, Congress provided EPA with dire...

  4. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  5. Interpretation of atmospheric pollution phenomena in relationship with the vertical atmospheric remixing by means of natural radioactivity measurements (radon) of particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Brocco, Domenico; Lepore, Luca; Pareti, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results of seasonal monitoring campaign for primary (benzene and carbon monoxide) and secondary (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) pollutants and for the natural radioactivity of the particulate matter in the urban area of Rome, are reported to investigate acute atmospheric pollution episodes. Comparing the daily concentration trends of primary and secondary pollutants with those of the natural radioactivity, considered as index of the vertical diffusion in the low boundary layer, it has been evidenced that the acute pollution episodes in Rome occur in the winter period for the high atmospheric stability (primary pollution) and in the summer period for the strong diurnal atmospheric remixing (secondary pollution). PMID:12911151

  6. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  7. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  8. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  9. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  10. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  11. Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

  12. METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

  13. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  14. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  15. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate Matter The Basics We’ve ...

  16. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  17. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  18. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  19. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  20. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  1. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  2. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  3. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  4. PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

  5. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

  7. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  8. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  9. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  10. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  11. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  12. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  14. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  15. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  16. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  17. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  18. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  19. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  20. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  1. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  3. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  4. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  5. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  9. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  10. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  12. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  13. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  14. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Approval—On August 1, 2013, the State of Wisconsin submitted a revision to their Particulate Matter State... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  1. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  2. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  3. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  5. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  6. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  8. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  9. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  10. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  11. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  12. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  13. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  14. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  15. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  18. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  19. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  1. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  2. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  3. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  4. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  5. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  6. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  7. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  8. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  9. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  10. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  11. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  12. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  13. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 Section 52.2059 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  8. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  9. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Jandačka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and iťs deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  10. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  11. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  12. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each...

  13. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30... state to EPA Region 1 dated July 12, 2012. (d) Disapproval—Submittal from the Massachusetts...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  16. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  17. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  19. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  20. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC... submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment... accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these areas to submit an...

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  6. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  8. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30... state to EPA Region 1 dated July 12, 2012. (d) Disapproval—Submittal from the Massachusetts...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  11. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  12. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  18. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  19. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitimirova, M.; Katkevics, J.; Baumane, L.; Bakis, E.; Viksna, A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  20. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  1. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  2. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  3. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  4. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.302 Standard for particulate...

  5. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  6. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  7. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  10. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  11. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

  14. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  15. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  17. Settling Efficiency of Urban Particulate Matter Transported by Stormwater Runoff.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Penna, Nadia; Piro, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of control measures in urban areas is to retain particulate matter washed out by stormwater over impermeable surfaces. In stormwater control measures, particulate matter removal typically occurs via sedimentation. Settling column tests were performed to examine the settling efficiency of such units using monodisperse and heterodisperse particulate matter (for which the particle size distributions were measured and modelled by the cumulative gamma distribution). To investigate the dependence of settling efficiency from the particulate matter, a variant of the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), a Microsoft Excel function based on multi-objective EPR technique (EPR-MOGA), called EPR MOGA XL, was used as a data-mining strategy. The results from this study have shown that settling efficiency is a function of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and of the median diameter (d50 index), obtained from the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the samples. PMID:26961472

  18. EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

  19. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  20. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  1. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  2. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. PMID:24561289

  3. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and STN, obvious correlations exist among differences in elements associated with soil dust, which are dominated by particles with diameters > 1 mum. These correlations suggest the current model is missing significant sampling errors associated with the size discrimination operation. Measurement uncertainty generally increases as concentrations approach the detection limit. This dissertation introduces an empirical approach for estimating detection limits using collocated IMPROVE and STN data that accounts for the natural variations in the environment.

  4. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles. PMID:22393811

  5. Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2003-01-01

    The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to describe…

  6. [Inhalable particulate matter and fine particulate matter: their basic characteristics, monitoring methods, and forest regulation functions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lu, Shao-Wei; Li, Shao-Ning; Pan, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yu-ping

    2013-03-01

    Both inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are not only one of the main causes of air pollution, but also the primary pollutants in most cities. Based on the analysis of the impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 on the environment and human health, this paper summarized the components, sources, and mass concentration variations of PM10 and PM2.5 and related affecting factors, and introduced the network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring and its principles and features. The research methods on the removal of PM10 and PM2.5 by forests, the removal rates of PM10 and PM2.5 by different forests, and the related affecting mechanisms were summed up at regional and individual scales, and the existed problems in this research field were discussed. Due to the lack of the comparable observation studies on the atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 along different gradients and in background areas, the joint effects of multiple factors on the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are not revealed. It was suggested that to make a rational network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring, to correctly select proper monitoring methods, and to compare and calibrate the observed results from classical manual methods would be the bases to guarantee the validity of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring data. At present, there are few reports about the PM2.5 removal by forests, and it's not clear about the physiological processes and ecological mechanisms of PM10 and PM2.5 removal at cell, tissue, organ, and individual level. PMID:23755507

  7. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by correlation with 1h data from a Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) beta-attenuation data, prototype instruments performed as well as commercially available equipment costing considerably more, and as well as another reference instrument under similar conditions at the same timescale (R2 = 0.6). Correlations were stronger when 24 h integrating times were used instead (R2 = 0.72). Chapter 4 replicates and extends the results of Chapter 3, showing that similar calibrations may be reasonably exchangeable between near-roadway and background monitoring sites. Chapter 4 also employs triplicate sensors to obtain data consistent with near-field (< 50 m) observations of plumes from a major highway (I-880). At 1 minute timescales, maximum PM2.5 concentrations on the order of 100 mug m-3 to 200 mug m-3 were observed, commensurate with the magnitude of plumes from wildfires on longer timescales, as well as the magnitude of plumes that might be expected near other major highways on the same timescale. Finally, Chapter 4 quantifies variance among calibration parameters for a large sample of the sensors, as well as the error associated with the remote transfer of calibrations between two sufficiently large sets (+/- 10 % for n = 12). These findings suggest that datasets generated with similar sensors could also improve upstream scientific understandings of fluxes resulting from indoor and outdoor emissions, atmospheric transformations, and transport, and may also facilitate timely and empirical verification of interventions to reduce emissions and exposures, in many important contexts (e.g., the provision of improved cookstoves; congestion pricing; mitigation policies attached to infill development; etc.). They also demonstrate that calibrations against continuous reference monitoring equipment could be remotely transferred, within practical tolerances, to reasonably sized and adequately resourced participatory monitoring campaigns, with minimal risk of disruption to existing monitoring infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  8. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  9. Workshop on Health Risks of Particulate Matter (PM) Indoors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) is gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has been tasked by EPA to convene a workshop that will explore the latest re...

  10. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain...

  11. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62 Section 60.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland...

  12. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  13. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  14. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  15. Update - characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  16. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.102 Standard for...

  17. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60.682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants §...

  18. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section 60.672 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants §...

  19. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60.732 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries §...

  20. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  1. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  2. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

  4. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  5. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  6. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

  8. Cotton gin particulate matter emissions-No. 1 lint cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and the limited availability of PM2.5 emissions data, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gi...

  9. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

  10. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  11. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES...

  12. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 �m or less (PM-2.5) has been implicated in adverse health effects, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 has been promulgated (July 1997) by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. A national network of ambie...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  15. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  16. 40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided... fossil fuel or fossil fuel and wood residue. (2) Exhibit greater than 20 percent opacity except for one... owner or operator of an affected facility that combusts only gaseous or liquid fossil fuel...

  17. Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

  18. Concentrations of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality in communities surrounding cattle feedlots is a growing public concern. Our objective was to quantify emission patterns and weather effects on particulate matter (PM) transport upwind and downwind from two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas. The concentrations of PM2.5 (particles...

  19. Turkish Primary Students' Conceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter in daily-life events. Five questions were asked of students and interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were conducted with 12 students, four students from each grade, after they finished the formal…

  20. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to induce health effects, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. Dose of each specific compone...

  1. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  2. Particulate matter neurotoxicity in culture is size-dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution produces inflammatory damage to the cardiopulmonary system. This toxicity appears to be inversely related to the size of the PM particles, with the ultrafine particle being more inflammatory than larger sizes. Exposure to PM has m...

  3. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  4. Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

  5. Evaluation of a Direct Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    One aspect of the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment study (NCAAES) was to evaluate personal exposures to coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5) and their associated variability. As part of this, we examined the ability of a community-based monitor to act as...

  6. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column 3... rate specified in table CC-1 for furnaces fired with gaseous fuel (Column 2). Y=Decimal fraction of... furnaces as determined in § 60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a glass melting...

  7. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column 3... rate specified in table CC-1 for furnaces fired with gaseous fuel (Column 2). Y=Decimal fraction of... furnaces as determined in § 60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a glass melting...

  8. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column 3... rate specified in table CC-1 for furnaces fired with gaseous fuel (Column 2). Y=Decimal fraction of... furnaces as determined in § 60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a glass melting...

  9. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column 3... rate specified in table CC-1 for furnaces fired with gaseous fuel (Column 2). Y=Decimal fraction of... furnaces as determined in § 60.296(b). (joules/joules). Z=(1-Y). (b) Conversion of a glass melting...

  10. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - Second year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gin emission data. The primary issues surrounding PM re...

  11. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  12. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  13. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Phosphate Rock... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere: (1) From any phosphate rock dryer any gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  14. A preliminary particulate matter emission factor from cotton harvesting.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling of cotton harvesting operations at three locations in Texas was conducted during the summer of 2006. PM emissions generated by a two-row (John Deere Model 9910) and six-row (John Deere Model 9996) cotton picker were measured at each sampling location. The PM emission...

  15. SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92 Section 60.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix...

  17. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92 Section 60.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix...

  18. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92 Section 60.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix...

  19. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92 Section 60.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix...

  20. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92 Section 60.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix...

  1. LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

  2. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  3. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  4. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  5. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Ament, Frank

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  6. PROGRESS OF THE NRMRL'S PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Particulate Matter research program has a goal of producing the scientific research data needed to enhance the development of public policy that protects the public health and the environment from harmful effects due to airborne ...

  7. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard cubic foot) after correction to a stack gas concentration of 7% oxygen, using procedures prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or... particulate matter standard. (c) Oxygen correction. (1) Measured pollutant levels must be corrected for...

  8. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  9. DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

  11. PRELIMINARY PARTICULATE MATTER MASS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGITUDINAL PANEL STUDIES "ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES OF HIGH RISK SUBPOPULATIONS TO PARTICULATE MATTER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL Particulate Matter Longitudinal Panel Studies were used to characterize temporal variations of personal exposure to PM and related co-pollutants, including that of PM measured at ambient sites. These studies were fundamental in understanding the associations between p...

  12. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G and § 51.281 of this... the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz...

  13. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G and § 51.281 of this... the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz...

  14. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G and § 51.281 of this... the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, and Santa Cruz...

  15. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  16. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  18. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  19. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  20. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  1. Particulate matter in ambient air and mortality: toxicologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Green, Laura C; Armstrong, Sarah R

    2003-12-01

    U.S. regulations that set standards for acceptable concentrations of respirable particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air, particularly total fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), are based largely on the belief that current concentrations cause death and illness, and that reducing these concentrations will save lives. Because the mortality risk estimates from important observational epidemiologic studies are extremely weak, derived from studies unable to control for relevant confounding causes, and inconsistent by location, toxicologic and clinical information is necessary to judge the likelihood and degree to which such findings are causal. Toxicologic data on typical forms of pollution-derived PM strongly suggest that current ambient concentrations in the U.S. are too small to cause significant disease or death. We review here the results of inhalation studies using concentrated ambient particles, diesel engine exhaust particulate matter, and sulfate and nitrate salts, and find no evidence that moderate concentrations are lethal. The expectation that lives will be saved by reducing ambient PM(2.5) in the U.S. is not supported by the weight of scientific evidence, although other bases for regulating PM may be justifiable. PMID:14623483

  2. Spatial statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shenghui; Wang, Yangjun; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhiming; Shi, Xiang; Liu, Yulu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamic of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  3. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  4. An assemblage model for cation binding by natural particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofts, Stephen; Tipping, Edward

    1998-08-01

    SCAMP (Surface Chemistry Assemblage Model for Particles) describes the equilibrium adsorption of protons and metals by natural particulate matter using a combination of submodels for individual binding phases. Interactions with natural organic matter are described with Humic Ion-Binding Model V, and adsorption by oxides with a surface complexation model that allows for site heterogeneity. An idealized cation exchanger is also included. SCAMP uses published parameters for Model V, and parameters for the oxide model are derived from published laboratory data for proton and metal binding by oxides of Al, Si, Mn, and Fe(III). The model is applied to two samples of aquatic suspended particulate matter (SPM), one riverine, the other estuarine, taking into account the proportions of the different binding phases. Simulations suggest that organic matter is the major determinant of surface (proton) charge for the riverine SPM, while fixed-charge clays are dominant in the estuarine material. Predictions of the pH dependence of binding of nine metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Cs, Eu, Pb) by the two SPM samples are in reasonable agreement with observations. The different components of the assemblage provide binding sites with a wide range of apparent equilibrium constants, and log-log binding isotherms therefore have shallow slopes, in the range 0.3-0.5. On a weight-for-weight basis, the metal binding strengths of the different phases increase in the order cation exchanger < silica < aluminium oxide ˜ ferric oxide < humic substances < manganese dioxide.

  5. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and measured dust storm concentration variability at Beijing in the course of time. The results show the importance of intertwine investigations of measurements and modeling, the analysis of local air pollution levels as well as the impact and analysis of advective processes in the greater region of Beijing. Comprehensive investigations on particulate matter are a prerequisite for the knowledge of the source strengths and source attribution to the overall air pollution level. Only this knowledge can help to formulate and to introduce specific reduction measures to reduce coarser as well as finer particulates.

  6. Bromination of marine particulate organic matter through oxidative mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Thornton, Kathleen R.; Ravel, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Although bromine (Br) is considered conservative in seawater, it exhibits a well established correlation with organic carbon in marine sediments. This carbon-bromine association was recently attributed to covalent bonding, with organobromine in sinking particulates providing a putative link between sedimentary organobromine and organic matter cycling in surface waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton detritus, a major precursor of sedimentary organic matter, would be susceptible to bromination through oxidative attack. Through a series of model experiments, we demonstrate incorporation of Br into algal particulate detritus through peroxidative and photochemical mechanisms. Peroxidative bromination was enhanced by addition of exogenous bromoperoxidase, but the enzyme was not required for the reaction. Fenton-like reaction conditions also promoted bromination, especially under solar irradiation, implicating radical mechanisms in the euphotic zone as another abiotic source of brominated particulates. These reactions produced aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine, suggesting that lipid- and protein-rich components of algal membranes provide suitable substrates for bromination. Biogenic organobromines in certain genera of phytoplankton also appeared in both aliphatic and aromatic forms. Experimental evidence and samples from oceanic midwater sediment traps imply that the aromatic fraction is more stable than the aliphatic. These experiments establish Br as a versatile oxidant in the transformation of planktonic organic matter through both enzymatic and abiotic mechanisms. Organobromine may serve as a marker of oxidative breakdown of marine organic detritus, with the metastable component providing a short-lived indicator of early-stage oxidation. By altering the stability of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, bromination may affect the availability of organic matter to organisms, with consequences for the preservation and degradation of marine organic carbon.

  7. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources. The presence of known carcinogenic PAHs in the respirable particles has strong importance for human health. Recommendations for method improvements and further studies are included.

  8. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  9. Correlation study between suspended particulate matter and DOAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Xie, Pinghua; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing; Kuze, Hiroaki; Lagrosas, Nofel; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2006-05-01

    Continuous data of aerosol optical thickness monitored using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) are correlated with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). A high correlation is found between the DOAS and the ground SPM data, making it possible to calculate the mass extinction efficiency of the aerosols in the atmosphere. It is found that the value of mean mass extinction efficiency (MEE) varies over a range of 2.6 13.7 m2 g-1, with smaller and larger values occurring for size distributions dominated by coarse and fine particles, respectively.

  10. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Peyton L.; Morse, John C.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  11. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  12. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  13. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  14. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  15. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources...

  16. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air...

  17. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air...

  18. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air...

  19. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air...

  20. Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station.

    PubMed

    Talwar, B; Pipalatkar, P; Gajghate, D G; Nema, P

    2010-10-01

    Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S workplace diesel generator sets ranged from 2.4 to 436.5 mg Nm⁻³ and while at pumping station-C, it ranged from 23.2 to 186.5 mg Nm⁻³. The predicted and ambient respirable suspended particulate matter concentrations are below the national air quality standard for respirable suspended particulate matter in a mixed industrial area. Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable. PMID:20700577

  1. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  3. California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 μm to < 10 μm; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season. PMID:19590679

  4. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepari, S.; Farao, C.; Marconi, E.; Giovannelli, C.; Perrino, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50-120 °C, 120-180 °C, 180-250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter) and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10-15%). When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3-4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust. A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids) and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  7. Composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a disturbed watershed of southeast Brazil (Piracicaba River basin).

    PubMed

    Krusche, Alex V; Martinelli, Luiz A; Victoria, Reynaldo L; Bernardes, Marcelo; de Camargo, Plinio B; Ballester, Maria V; Trumbore, Susan E

    2002-06-01

    The elemental and isotopic composition of particulate and dissolved organic matter was investigated in the Piracicaba River basin, So Paulo State, Brazil. Comparison of riverine organic matter from the Piracicaba River basin, a region where rivers and streams receive urban sewage and industrial effluents, with data reported for the pristine Amazon system revealed significant differences associated with anthropogenic impacts. One important difference was N enrichment in the particulate organic material of the Piracicaba basin rivers, due to (a) urban and industrial effluents, and (b) enhanced phytoplankton growth, which results from the combination of nutrient enrichment and damming of sections of the rivers. Radiocarbon concentrations were overall more depleted (older 14C age) in the Piracicaba basin rivers than in the Amazon, which may reflect the importance of soil erosion in the former. Analyses of stable and radioactive carbon isotopes and lignin-derived compounds indicated that coarse particulate organic material is composed of a mixture of soil particles and degraded organic matter from C3 and C4 vascular plants. Fine particulate organic material was composed mainly of soil particles and phytoplankton cell remains, the latter especially during low water. Ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter was the most degraded fraction according to its lignin oxidation products, and showed the greatest influence of C4 plant sources. PMID:12146861

  8. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  9. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. Respirable particle concentrations ranged from 13 to 38 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. The most abundant fungi identified were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Yeasts. Gram +, gram {minus} and actinomyces were also quantified. A strong relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. Use of a one compartment mass balance model applied to each room is shown to be a useful method for evaluating and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy were the best estimate of occupancy based emissions.

  10. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  11. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  12. Characterisation of particulate matter in different types of archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mašková, Ludmila; Smolík, Jiří; Vodička, Petr

    2015-04-01

    To determine the composition of particulate matter (PM) in the indoor environments of four different types of archives (three naturally ventilated and one filtered), intensive size-resolved sampling was performed for four seasons of the year. For reconstituting indoor PM, nine aerosol components were considered. Organic matter was the dominant component of both fine and coarse fractions and represented approximately 50-80% of the PM. In the fine fraction, the next most abundant components were elemental carbon and sulphate, and in the coarse fraction the next most abundant were crustal matter, sulphate and nitrate. The resulting mass closure explained 95(±13)% and 115(±38)% of the gravimetric indoor PM in the fine and coarse size fractions, respectively. The results revealed that all the particles found indoors can be considered to be potentially threatening to the stored materials. The results also showed that the most important source of indoor PM in the naturally ventilated archives was penetration from the outdoor air, whereas in the filtered archive, the concentrations of particles were strongly reduced. In naturally ventilated archives the influence of domestic heating, road traffic and local sources (industrial pollution, camp fires) was observed. Furthermore, activities of the staff were identified as an indoor source of coarse particles in all archives.

  13. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  14. Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Vautard, R.; Ferreira, J.; Perez, A. T.

    Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, forced by the MM5 meteorological fields, was applied over Portugal for 2001 year, with 10 km horizontal resolution, using an emission inventory obtained from a spatial top-down disaggregation of the 2001 national inventory database. The evaluation model exercise shows a model trend to overestimate particulate pollution episodes (peaks) at urban sites, especially in winter season. This could be due to an underprediction of the winter model vertical mixing and also to an overestimation of PM emissions. Simulated inorganic components (ammonium and sulfate) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were compared to measurements taken at Aveiro (northwest coast of Portugal). An underestimation of the three components was verified. However, the model is able to predict their seasonal variation. Nevertheless, as a first approach, and despite the complex topography and coastal location of Portugal affected by sea salt natural aerosols emissions, the results obtained show that the model reproduces the PM levels, temporal evolution, and spatial patterns. The concentration maps reveal that the areas with high PM values are covered by the air quality monitoring network.

  15. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  16. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.578 Section 52.578 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.933 Section 52.933 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 27, 1987, the Kentucky...

  3. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 ?m) F...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of § 51.110(a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.42Da - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....42Da Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of § 51.110(a)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.2678 Section 52.2678 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2678 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of § 51.110(a)...

  9. The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

  10. 40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.43c - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.43c Section 60.43c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.43c Standard for particulate matter (PM)....

  13. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE.
    JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  14. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  15. SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE U.S. EPA'S PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Particulate Matter Panel Studies were a series of longitudinal human exposure studies used to characterize personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants to that of pollutants of ambient origin. Participants were monitored over time (28 d...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7, and... emission limits in the State's plan are based on dispersion techniques not permitted by EPA's stack...

  4. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated January 30, 1987, the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources certified that no emission limits in the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... particulate matter. 52.2231 Section 52.2231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  8. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7, and... emission limits in the State's plan are based on dispersion techniques not permitted by EPA's stack...

  10. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation certified that no emission limits in the State's plan are based...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated January 30, 1987, the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources certified that no emission limits in the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  20. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  1. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  4. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation certified that no emission limits in the State's plan are based...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52.2130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.2130 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7, and... emission limits in the State's plan are based on dispersion techniques not permitted by EPA's stack...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2276 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Particulate matter. 52.2276 Section 52.2276 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2276 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The Texas... approved until the State satisfactorily completes the following items: (1) Draft SIP revision...

  7. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by...

  8. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  12. 40 CFR 60.45c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter. 60.45c Section 60.45c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter. (a) The owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  14. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the State of Nevada submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan for Battle Mountain that...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  18. 40 CFR 60.45c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter. 60.45c Section 60.45c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for particulate matter. (a) The owner or operator...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bernalillo County particulate matter... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  1. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.146 Particulate matter... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January 30, 1987, the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources certified that no emission limits in the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.634 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group III... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.634 Particulate matter... State Implementation Plan (SIP) for implementing the required monitoring activities and other...

  4. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation certified that no emission limits in the State's plan are based...

  5. Ambient particulate matter accelerates coagulation via an IL-6-dependent pathway

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular events are not known. Recent human and animal data suggest that particulate matter may induce alterations in hemostatic factors. In this study we determined the mechanisms by which particu...

  6. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  7. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  8. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Ge; Gao, Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer. PMID:25011458

  9. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  10. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, M. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-06-01

    At ITN, analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999, stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed, leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA, in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of 115mIn in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of 115Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd, As, Ni, and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  11. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in particulate matter of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Xinghong; Cheng, Hangxin; Xu, Xiaobai; Zhuang, Guangmin; Zhao, Chuandong

    2008-06-30

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 20 sites in Beijing, China in 2005 and 2006 were analyzed to determine the composition, spatial distribution and sources. Total OCPs of PM2.5 and PM10 ranged from 32.59 pg m(-3) to 9232.31 pg m(-3) and 80.96 pg m(-3) to 9434.97 pg m(-3), respectively, categorized as heavier pollution compared to other cities of China. Among six kinds of functional zones involved, commercial areas and industrial centers were heavily polluted. Distinct concentrations variations were detected in PM with different particle diameters. Pollution distribution was spatially heterogeneous inside the city. The most heavily polluted sites located in the southeast part of the city, where laid many chemical factories. Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that past usage of OCPs was the main source, though there were new inputs in some sites. PMID:18280031

  13. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    SciTech Connect

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. - Highlights: {yields} We studied concentration, composition and morphology of coarse particles in gyms. {yields} Indoor concentration of coarse particles was high during days with pupils activity. {yields} Effect of outdoor coarse dust on indoor levels was weak and inconsistent. {yields} Six main groups of minerals contributing to indoor resuspended dust were determined. {yields} The most abundant coarse particles were human skin scales.

  14. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  15. Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dejmek, J; Selevan, S G; Benes, I; Solanský, I; Srám, R J

    1999-06-01

    Prior studies reported an association between ambient air concentrations of total suspended particles and SO2 during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined the possible impact of particulate matter up to 10 microm (PM10) and up to 2.5 microm (PM2. 5) in size on intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) risk in a highly polluted area of Northern Bohemia (Teplice District). The study group includes all singleton full-term births of European origin over a 2-year period in the Teplice District. Information on reproductive history, health, and lifestyle was obtained from maternal questionnaires. The mean concentrations of pollutants for each month of gestation were calculated using continuous monitoring data. Three intervals (low, medium, and high) were constructed for each pollutant (tertiles). Odds ratios (ORs) for IUGR for PM10 and PM2.5 levels were generated using logistic regression for each month of gestation after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Adjusted ORs for IUGR related to ambient PM10 levels in the first gestational month increased along the concentration intervals: medium 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.46], high 2.64 (CI, 1.48-4.71). ORs for PM2.5 were 1.26 (CI, 0.81-1.95) and 2.11 (CI, 1. 20-3.70), respectively. No other associations of IUGR risk with particulate matter were found. Influence of particles or other associated air pollutants on fetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations of these results. Timing of this effect is compatible with a current hypothesis of IUGR pathogenesis. Seasonal factors, one of the other possible explanations, is less probable. More investigation is required to examine these findings and alternative explanations. PMID:10339448

  16. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Qiu, Guowang

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has long been recognized as an air pollutant due to its adverse health and environmental impacts. As emission of PM from agricultural operations is an emerging air quality issue, the Agricultural Particulate Matter Emissions Indicator (APMEI) has been developed to estimate the primary PM contribution to the atmosphere from agricultural operations on Census years and to assess the impact of practices adopted to mitigate these emissions at the soil landscape polygon scale as part of the agri-environmental indicator report series produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. In the APMEI, PM emissions from animal feeding operations, wind erosion, land preparation, crop harvest, fertilizer and chemical application, grain handling, and pollen were calculated and compared for the Census years of 1981-2006. In this study, we present the results for PM10 and PM2.5, which exclude chemical application and pollen sources as they only contribute to total suspended particles. In 2006, PM emissions from agricultural operations were estimated to be 652.6 kt for PM10 and 158.1 kt for PM2.5. PM emissions from wind erosion and land preparation account for most of PM emissions from agricultural operations in Canada, contributing 82% of PM10 and 76% of PM2.5 in 2006. Results from the APMEI show a strong reduction in PM emissions from agricultural operations between 1981 and 2006, with a decrease of 40% (442.8 kt) for PM10 and 47% (137.7 kt) for PM2.5. This emission reduction is mainly attributed to the adoption of conservation tillage and no-till practices and the reduction in the area of summer fallow land. PMID:22866575

  17. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations during controlled indoor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glytsos, T.; Ondráček, J.; Džumbová, L.; Kopanakis, I.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-04-01

    Indoor sources have been identified as a major contributor to the increase of particle concentration in indoor environments. The work presented here is a study of the characteristics of particulate matter number size distribution and mass concentration under controlled indoor activities in a laboratory room. The objective is to characterize particulate matter concentrations indoors resulted under the influence of specific sources. Measurements were performed in an empty laboratory (period September-October 2006) using a GRIMM SMPS+C system (particle size range between 11.1 and 1083.3 nm), a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (TSI) and a P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter (TSI). The studied indoor activities included candle burning, hot plate heating, water boiling, onion frying, vacuuming, hair drying, hair spraying, smoking and burning of incense stick. The AMANpsd computer algorithm was used to evaluate the modal structure of measured particle number size distribution data. Furthermore, the change of the particle number size distribution shape under the influence of different emission sources was studied versus time. Finally the particle emission rates were computed. High particle number concentrations were observed during smoking, onion frying, candle burning and incense stick burning. The highest particle mass concentrations were measured during smoking and hair spraying. The shift of the particle size distribution to larger diameters suggests the presence of strong coagulation effect during candle burning, incense stick burning, smoking and onion frying. The size distribution was mainly bimodal during onion frying and candle burning, whereas the size distribution remained unimodal during incense stick burning and smoking experiments.

  18. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Methods Children (n=3273) aged 6–12 years were recruited from eight schools in four cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to three years (1993–1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth over the period of follow-up. Results Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the four cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m3 and 95 to 268 μg/m3, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 ml FEV1 (95% confidence interval= −3.5 to −2.0), 3.5 ml FVC (−4.3 to −2.7), 1.4 ml/year FEV1 growth (−1.8 to −0.9), and 1.5 ml/year FVC growth (−2.0 to −1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children. PMID:22407138

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  20. The movement of small particulate matter in the early solar system and the formation of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1974-01-01

    The motions of the abundant small particulate matter in the early solar system are discussed. The effects of gas drag and resonance effects of perturbing forces could have led to accretion and differentiation of the matter. The composition of the moon and the existence of the rings of Saturn can be explained on the basis of the assembly of small particulate matter in satellite orbits around the planets.

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission limit for particulate matter. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and operate a bag leak detection... Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection... Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63.7500, you must comply with...

  2. 77 FR 15656 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    .... Measuring and Reporting Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) Section 110 of the Act requires that state and... ``particulate matter emissions'' (required under 40 CFR 51.322 and 51.323) ended with the state reporting of... Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers (PM 2.5 )'' (73 FR 28321), the...

  3. Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the noise levels in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the level of noise at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured noise levels and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high noise level accompanied high particulate matter while low noise level accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that noise levels are not indicative of particulate matter levels and that noise levels around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.

  4. A review of receptor modelling of industrially emitted particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiwo, Adewale M.; Harrison, Roy M.; Shi, Zongbo

    2014-11-01

    This review summarizes the different receptor models that have been adopted at industrial and urban sites to apportion the sources of particulate matter (PM) from industries. Industrial processes and those associated with industry (such as transportation) are an important source of airborne PM which includes trace elements, organic and elemental carbon, and PAHs. Industry also emits gaseous pollutants which form secondary aerosol in the atmosphere. Most published studies have employed chemical mass balance (CMB), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and/or principal component analysis (PCA) models as source apportionment tools. These receptor models were mostly applied to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM10 compositional data, particularly the inorganic constituents. Some studies have combined two or more of these receptor models, which provides useful information on the uncertainties associated with different models. Industry has been reported to contribute from 0 to 70% of PM mass at industrial sites. It appears that some studies are unsuccessful in apportioning PM from industry, e.g., unable to distinguish industrial emissions from other sources. A critical evaluation of the literature data also showed that the choice of appropriate tracers for industry, both generically and for specific industries, varies between different PM source apportionment studies. This is not surprising considering the significant difference in source profiles of PM from different types of industry, which may compromise source apportionment of industrial emissions using CMB with non-local source profiles. It may also affect the attribution of industrial emissions in multivariate statistical models (e.g. PMF and PCA). It is concluded that a general classification of the source “industry” is rarely appropriate for PM source apportionment. Indeed, such studies may even need to consider the different processes within a particular industry, such as a steelworks, which emit PM with significantly different chemical signatures. It is suggested that future source apportionment studies should make every effort to measure source profiles of PM from different industrial processes, and where possible, use multiple models in order to more accurately apportion the source emissions from industry.

  5. In-stack condensible particulate matter measurements and issues.

    PubMed

    Corio, L A; Sherwell, J

    2000-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 202 (for in-stack condensible PM10) and EPA Method 201/201A (for in-stack filterable PM10) results were conducted. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises approximately three-fourths (76%) of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil- and natural gas-fired boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 50% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Methods 202 and 201/201A results for oil-, natural gas-, and kerosene-fired combustion turbines showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 69% of the total PM10 stack emissions. Based on these limited measurements, condensible PM can make a significant contribution to total PM10 emissions for fossil fuel-fired units. A positive bias (indicating more condensible PM than is actually emitted) may exist in the measured data due to the conversion of dissolved sulfur dioxide to sulfate compounds in the sampling procedure. In addition, these Method 202 results confirm that condensible PM, on average, is composed mostly of inorganic matter, regardless of the type of fuel burned. PMID:10680350

  6. Air pollution particulate matter alters antimycobacterial respiratory epithelium innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, César E; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Torres, Martha; Schwander, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  7. Occurrence of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in indoor particulate matter.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, U; Schweizer, E; Schweinsberg, F; Wodarz, R; Rettenmeier, A W

    1996-01-01

    In the course of a routine investigation concerned with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of dust collected in classrooms of a junior high school, a group of electron capture detector (ECD)-sensitive compounds with high boiling points were found in addition to PCBs. Using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques, these compounds were identified as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs). Additional measurements indicated that the PCTs were present only in particulate matter collected from the tops of fluorescent light frames but not in air samples obtained concomitantly in the classrooms. Attempts to identify the PCT emission source were unsuccessful. A survey of the literature revealed that PCTs are ubiquitously distributed environmental contaminants, although no data on their indoor occurrence have been reported to date. In view of the toxic effects of PCTs, which seem to be as important as those of PCBs, further attention should be given to the possible presence of PCTs in indoor environments. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8959406

  8. Decomposition of N2O over particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbert, R. E.; Ausloos, P.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is shown to undergo both a thermal and a photochemical decomposition at 296 K when it is adsorbed on various dry sands. The photochemical process occurs with light of wavelengths greater than 280 nm, where gaseous N2O does not absorb. At low pressures (less than 0.1 torr) the half-life for the thermal decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen when placed in contact with about 5 gm of heat-treated Tunisian sand in a one-liter vessel was 350 + or - 35 days. Under certain photolytic conditions this half-life was reduced. The efficiency of the photolytic process for a particular sand depends on the pressure and on the wavelength of light. For Tunisian sand at 1.1 torr and with the full mercury arc, the destruction efficiency is about 0.00002 molecule/incident photon. These results indicate that particulate matter in the troposphere may be responsible for the decomposition of nitrous oxide and hence act as an atmospheric sink for N2O. However, moisture causes a drastic reduction in the number of molecules dissociated per incident photon.

  9. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  10. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality. PMID:17537480

  11. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  12. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  13. Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Su, Shu; Jin, Wenjie; Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2014-08-01

    In vitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-α from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. PMID:24811947

  14. Toxic trace elements associated with airborne particulate matter: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, W.H.; Dobson, M.; Kane, D.M.; Johnson, N.D.

    1987-11-01

    This article provides a concise review of published literature pertaining to sampling and analytical methodologies, aerometric studies, source identification techniques and modeling activities for the elements arsenic, cadmium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, manganese, selenium and antimony, and their compounds, associated with airborne particulate matter. Sampling techniques discussed include filtration and inertial separation. Analytical methodologies such as atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are summarized. Data on atmospheric levels of 14 trace elements are presented in summary form from numerous studies in remote, rural and urban areas, and generally indicate that concentrations measured at rural locations are several orders of magnitude lower than those measured for urban areas. Source identification methodologies are discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages, and various applications are cited for the following categories: size differentiation, enrichment factors, chemical mass balance, and multivariate models. Wed and dry deposition processes are reviewed and environmental measurement data are provided for each element for remote, rural and urban locations. Global cycles and trace element budgets are introduced in the context of the types of models currently in use. Limitations include inadequate global scale surveys of heavy metal concentrations and the lack of knowledge of sources and/or sinks.

  15. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  16. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-07-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. PMID:25795175

  17. Magnetic quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, S.; Egli, R.; Heller, F.; Nourgaliev, D. K.; Hannam, J.

    2004-11-01

    A new method is presented for fast quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The remanent magnetization of PM samples collected in Switzerland at sites with different exposures to pollution sources is analysed. The coercivity distribution of each sample is calculated from detailed demagnetization curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and is modelled using a linear combination of appropriate functions which represent the contribution of different sources of magnetic minerals to the total magnetization. Two magnetic components, C1 and C2, are identified in all samples. The low-coercivity component C1 predominates in less polluted sites, whereas the concentration of the higher-coercivity component C2 is large in urban areas. The same sites were monitored independently by Hüglin using detailed chemical analysis and a quantitative source attribution of the PM. His results are compared with the magnetic component analysis. The absolute and relative magnetic contributions of component C2 correlate very well with absolute and relative mass contributions of exhaust emissions, respectively. Traffic is the most important PM pollution source in Switzerland: it includes exhaust emissions and abrasion products released by vehicle brakes. Component C2 and traffic-related PM sources correlate well, which is encouraging for the implementation of non-destructive magnetic methods as an economic alternative to chemical analysis when mapping urban dust pollution.

  18. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie; McGregor, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health, as well as studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and the impacts of these changes on morbidity/mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty are the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given the uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, increasing morbidity/mortality. There are few projections for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, because few studies have been conducted. More research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts. PMID:20069198

  19. Air Pollution Particulate Matter Alters Antimycobacterial Respiratory Epithelium Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, César E.; Sarkar, Srijata; Cantarella, Pasquale; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Meng, Qingyu; Kirn, Thomas J.; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Torres, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Whether exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) alters protective human host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been little studied. Here, we examined the effect of PM from Iztapalapa, a municipality of Mexico City, with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) on innate antimycobacterial immune responses in human alveolar type II epithelial cells of the A549 cell line. Exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 deregulated the ability of the A549 cells to express the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 upon infection with M. tuberculosis and increased intracellular M. tuberculosis growth (as measured by CFU count). The observed modulation of antibacterial responsiveness by PM exposure was associated with the induction of senescence in PM-exposed A549 cells and was unrelated to PM-mediated loss of cell viability. Thus, the induction of senescence and downregulation of HBD-2 and HBD-3 expression in respiratory PM-exposed epithelial cells leading to enhanced M. tuberculosis growth represent mechanisms by which exposure to air pollution PM may increase the risk of M. tuberculosis infection and the development of TB. PMID:25847963

  20. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cécile G.; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Wang, Xiaoying; Basnakian, Alexei; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mortality and morbidity has been associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Experimental evidence suggests involvement of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the development of PM-associated pathological states; however, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed short-term epigenetic response to PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) exposure in mouse ascitic RAW264.7 macrophages (BALB/C Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumor). Ambient PM10 was collected using a high volume sampler in Little Rock, AR. Analysis revealed that PM10 was composed mainly of Al and Fe, and the water soluble organic fraction was dominated by aliphatic and carbohydrate fragments and minor quantities of aromatic components. Exposure to PM10 compromised the cellular epigenome at concentrations 10–200 μg/ml. Specifically, epigenetic alterations were evident as changes in the methylation and expression of repetitive element-associated DNA and associated DNA methylation machinery. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations, in concert with cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, might contribute to the pathogenesis of PM-associated respiratory diseases. PMID:24535919

  1. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  2. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. PMID:26024349

  3. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nina A.; Allen, Ryan W.; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D.; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. PMID:20948956

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Hanna, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM(2.5) patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM(2.5) concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM(2.5) variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. PMID:21144634

  5. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O2 species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles. PMID:26507108

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  7. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demographic variability affect PM health response. We look forward to the continued growth of research in ERL contributing to air pollution emissions, distribution, and impacts. As the integrated study of air quality connects to economics, energy, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, and public health—among other subjects—its advancement is well-suited to an interdisciplinary, open-access journal like ERL. Thanks to our authors for contributing to ERL's growth in global air pollution research with such excellent work. Focus on Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions Qiang Zhang, David G Streets, Kebin He and Zbigniew Klimont Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya E D S van Vliet and P L Kinney Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality Junfeng Liu and Denise L Mauzerall Can warming particles enter global climate discussions? Tami C Bond

  8. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  9. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida... sulfur dioxide in the Everglades National Park. These plants must meet the 0.1#/MMBTU particulate...

  10. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PARTICULATE MATTER IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Particulate Matter in Air data set contains analytical results for measurements of particulates in 369 air samples over 175 households. Samples were taken by pumping standardized air volumes through filters using impactors with a 10-um cutpoint. Keywords: air; metals.

    The...

  12. TEST METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION RATES IN A RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses test methods to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions and deposition rates in a research house. In a room in the research house, specially configured for PM source testing, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered air supply system, used for...

  13. PEROXIDES AND MACROPHAGES IN THE TOXICITY OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators will test the hypothesis that oxidants in ambient air, such as hydrogen peroxide, may be transported by fine particulate matter into the lungs and thus contribute to lung tissue injury.

  14. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES FROM A HIGHWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased respiratory symptoms. This study was initiated to determine the contribution of ambient particulate matter (PM) to these observed effects. Ambient PM was collected for 2 weeks ...

  15. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  16. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseasesespecially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  17. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) for elderl...

  18. IN VIVO MECHANISMS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED LUNG AND VASCULAR INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insight into the mechanisms by which ambient particulate matter (PM) mediates its adverse cardiopulmonary effects can provide biological plausibility to epidemiological associations between PM exposure and health effects. Current information on mechanisms of pulmonary injury have...

  19. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  20. RECEPTOR MODELING OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DATA USING POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION REVIEW OF EXISTING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for apportioning sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm are reviewed. Numerous procedural decisions must be made and algorithmic parameters selected when analyzing PM data with PMF. However, few publications docu...

  1. IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

  2. EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Several hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem from PM transitio...

  3. MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (MAQSIP): INITIAL APPLICATIONS AND PERFORMANCE FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides an overview of the formulation, process considerations, and performance for simulating tropospheric ozone and particulate matter distributions of the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP). MAQSIP is a comprehensive atmospheric chemistry/tran...

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  5. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AMONG U.S. VETERANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) can result in increased mortality and morbidity. The susceptible population, the nature of morbidity and cause of death, however, have not been clearly identified. To accomplish these ...

  6. SYSTEMIC TRANSLOCATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS FOLLOWING A SINGLE INTRATRACHEAL INSTILLATION IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM associated metals from the lungs into systemic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured elemental content of lungs, pla...

  7. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  8. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

  10. 75 FR 24943 - Adequacy Status of the Indianapolis, Indiana Submitted Annual Fine Particulate Matter Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... adequacy of submitted SIP budgets in our July 1, 2004, preamble starting at 69 FR 40038, and we used the... motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and oxides of...

  11. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  12. Soluble Components of Ultraflne Particulate Matter Stimulate Endothelial H202 Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of evidence shows a strong association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular health effects such as atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. The mechanisms by which PM causes cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown, but there is increasi...

  13. Peculiarities of the formation of suspended particulate matter fields in the Eastern Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Sergienko, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of perennial studies, the features of formations of suspended particulate matter fields were revealed depending on the evolution of synoptic processes and the river runoff. The variability in the content and distribution structure of suspended particulate matter during the ice-free period depends on variable mobilization and the contribution of terrigenous material under conditions of the Eastern Arctic periglacial lithogenesis. The northern winds and storms activate erosion of the coastal thermoabrasion benches and resuspension of sediments of the submarine coastal slope, resulting in an anomalous amount of suspended particulate matter in the coastal-shelf waters. Insignificant waves and dominant weak southern winds lead to other sedimentation conditions caused by suspended particulate matter accumulation.

  14. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HEMATOLOGIC FACTORS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The elderly and those with cardiovascular disease are susceptible to particulate matter (PM) exposures. Asthmatics are thought to be primarily affected by PM via airway inflammation. We investigated whether factors in blood hemostasis change in response to fluctuat...

  15. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE FOLLOWING ANTIGEN AND PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IS VAGALLY MEDIATED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensory nerves within the airways can initiate a variety of protective reflexes. We hypothesized that insults such as exposure to antigen and particulate matter (PM) might dysregulate airway sensory nerve function, thereby contributing to enhanced airway inflammation and hyperre...

  16. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  17. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  18. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  19. THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES: COMPARISON OF COMMUNITY, OUTDOOR, AND RESIDENTIAL PM MASS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two collaborative studies have been conducted by the USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the National Health Effects and Ecological Research Laboratory (NHEERL) to determine personal exposures and physiological responses to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous...

  20. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  1. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE.
    PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.
    Environmental particles (PM...

  2. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  3. THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

  4. 75 FR 17894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... September 11, 2009. EPA revised its particulate matter standards in October 2006 by strengthening the 24... 11, 2010. Walter W. Kovalick Jr., Acting Regional Administrator, Region 5. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  5. Particulate matter induces prothrombotic microparticle shedding by human mononuclear and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Pergoli, Laura; Petrini, Silvia; Gravendonk, Lotte; Balia, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Amoruso, Angela; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bollati, Valentina; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Particulate airborne pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity. Microparticles are extracellular vesicles shed by cells upon activation or apoptosis involved in physiological processes such as coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation. We investigated the hypothesis that particulate matter causes the shedding of microparticles by human mononuclear and endothelial cells. Cells, isolated from the blood and the umbilical cords of normal donors, were cultured in the presence of particulate from a standard reference. Microparticles were assessed in the supernatant as phosphatidylserine concentration. Microparticle-associated tissue factor was assessed by an one-stage clotting assay. Nanosight technology was used to evaluate microparticle size distribution. Particulate matter induces a dose- and time- dependent, rapid (1h) increase in microparticle generation in both cells. These microparticles express functional tissue factor. Particulate matter increases intracellular calcium concentration and phospholipase C inhibition reduces microparticle generation. Nanosight analysis confirmed that upon exposure to particulate matter both cells express particles with a size range consistent with the definition of microparticles (50-1000nm). Exposure of mononuclear and endothelial cells to particulate matter upregulates the generation of microparticles at least partially mediated by calcium mobilization. This observation might provide a further link between airborne pollution and cardiopulmonary morbidity. PMID:26876346

  6. Laser shock cleaning of radioactive particulates from glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from glass surface was achieved by Nd-YAG laser induced airborne plasma shock waves. The velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures and the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The efficacy of the process was estimated monitoring the alpha activity of the samples before and after laser shock cleaning using a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector. Significant cleaning efficiency could be achieved when the substrate was exposed to multiple laser shocks that could be further improved by geometrically confining the plasma. No visual damage or loss in optical quality was observed when the shock cleaned surfaces were analysed by optical microscopy and spectrophotometry. The area cleaned by laser shock cleaning was found to be significantly larger than that possible by conventional laser cleaning. Theoretical estimate of the shock force generated has been found to exceed the van der Waal`s binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  7. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  8. Investigation of major mutagens in airborne particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lwo, J.

    1992-01-01

    The separation of complex environmental mixtures in order to identify bioactive substances usually involves a multi-level scheme culminating in detailed chemical analysis. The approach of this research program involves a fractionation scheme which includes acid/base/neutral partitioning, silica gel column chromatography and two-stage HPLC separation. This separation scheme has been applied in the bioassay-directed search for major airborne mutagenic compounds on inhalable particulate matter. In other words, the biologically [open quotes]hot[close quotes] fractions are separated and analyzed chemically or subfractionated to isolate [open quotes]hot[close quotes] subfractions which are then chemically analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NCIMS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fluorescence and Diode Array UV. The mutagenicity assay involves the inactivated TA98 Salmonella strain (TA98-S9) as well as enzyme-activated (TA98+S9) strain. Some other assays containing TA98NR (TA98-nitroreductase deficient), TA98/1,8DNP[sub 6] (TA98-dinitropyrene reductase deficient) and TA100+/-S9 strains have been also performed to detect the highly bioactive derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In essence, we are employing mutagenicity as our chromatographic detector to pinpoint the most bioactive fractions and compounds in the air which are assumed to be responsible for human health impact, and then identify them as well as assess their reactivity. The comparison of winter, summer and fall samples indicates that the profiles are similar in these three periods.

  9. Climate Change, Tropospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Kristie L.; McGregor, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Objective Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. Data sources We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Data synthesis Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Conclusions Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollutionrelated health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations. PMID:19057695

  10. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  11. Atmospheric particulate matter pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Primbs, Toby; Tao, Shu; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2009-07-15

    Size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples (including PM2.5 and PM10) were collected at Peking University in Northwestern Beijing, China for a 2 week period prior to the Olympics, during the 2 week period of the Olympics, and for a 4 week period following the 2008 Olympics, during both source control and nonsource control periods. PM10 concentrations in this study were high correlated with, but a factor of 1.3 times higher than, the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau's PM10 concentrations at near-by sites because of differences in the measurement methods used. The mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were statistically different, and lower by 31 and 35%, during the Olympic period compared to the non-Olympic period. However, the PM concentrations were not statistically different between the source control and nonsource control periods. While meteorological parameters (air masses from the south and precipitation) accounted for 40% of the total variation in PM10 concentration, source control accounted for 16%, suggesting that meteorology accounted for more of the variation in PM concentration than source control measures. The PM10 concentrations in Beijing during the Olympic period were 2.9, 3.5, and 1.9 times higher than those in Atlanta, Sydney, and Athens. In addition, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations during the Olympic period exceeded the WHO 24-h guideline 100% and 81% of the time, respectively. Finally, the PM10 concentrations in October, November, and December 2008 were reduced by 9-27% compared to the same months in 2007, suggesting that the Olympic source control efforts (and possibly a down turn in the economy) have resulted in lower PM10 concentrations in Beijing. PMID:19708359

  12. Projecting Fine Particulate Matter-Related Mortality in East China.

    PubMed

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Guo, Yuming; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2015-09-15

    China is suffering from severe air pollution from fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], especially East China. But its future trends and potential health impacts remain unclear. The study objectives were to project future trends of PM2.5 and its short-term effect on mortality in East China by 2030. First, daily changes in PM2.5 concentrations between 2005 and 2030 were projected under the "current legislation" scenario (CLE) and the "maximum technically feasible reduction" scenario (MFR). Then, they were linked to six population projections, two mortality rate projections, and PM2.5-mortality associations to estimate the changes in PM2.5-related mortality in East China between 2005 and 2030. Under the CLE scenario, the annual mean PM2.5 concentration was projected to decrease by 0.62 μg/m(3) in East China, which could cause up to 124,000 additional deaths, when considering the population growth. Under the MFR scenario, the annual mean PM2.5 concentration was projected to decrease by 20.41 μg/m(3) in East China. At least 230,000 deaths could be avoided by such a large reduction in PM2.5 concentration under MFR scenario, even after accounting for the population growth. Therefore, our results suggest that reducing PM2.5 concentration substantially in East China would benefit the public health. Otherwise, it may still remain as a great health risk in the future, especially when the population keeps growing. PMID:26226638

  13. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P.; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels. PMID:24473114

  14. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  15. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  16. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Erin O.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Allen, Ryan W.; Weiler, Emily C.; Ward, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (< 2.5 μm) and PNCs (particles/cm3) in six size fractions (0.30–0.49, 0.50–0.99, 1.00–2.49, 2.5–5.0, 5.0–10.0, 10.0+ μm). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5) μg/m3 during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1) μg/m3 during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd) = 0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey F.; Tate, M.; Walmsley, Richard; Elder, Rhod H.; Povey, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester have been tested for their ability to oxidise DNA in a cell-free assay, to increase intracellular ROS levels and to induce CYP1A1 gene expression in mammalian cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline comet assay, respectively. All PM samples catalysed the Fenton reaction in a cell-free assay, but only DEP resulted in the generation of ROS as measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation in mammalian cells. However, there was no evidence that increased ROS was a consequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism via CYP1A1 induction as urban dust, the Manchester dust samples but not DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression. Urban dust was more cytotoxic in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) than the other PM samples and also induced expression of GADD45a in the GreenScreen Human Cell assay without S9 activation suggesting the presence of a direct-acting genotoxicant. Urban dust and DEP produced comparable levels of DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, in MEFs at higher levels than those induced by Manchester PM. In conclusion, results from the cytotoxic and genotoxic assays are not consistent with ROS production being the sole determinant of PM-induced toxicity. This suggests that the organic component can contribute significantly to this toxicity and that further work is required to better characterise the extent to which ROS and organic components contribute to PM-induced toxicity. PMID:26113525

  18. An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

    The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions of ambient bioaerosols was undertaken for a six month period to evaluate the potential for long-term concentrations. These airborne bioaerosols can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-β- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

  19. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  20. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 1 - COMPARISON OF AMBIENT, RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR, INDOOR AND APARTMENT PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combined epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The objectives of the exposure analysis component of the 28-day study were to investigate the statistical relationships between particulate matter (PM) and related co...

  1. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  2. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 μm aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 μm aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as well as measures that can attenuate the harmful effects of PM. PMID:23098384

  3. Effects of Inhalable Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Bonzini, Matteo; Tripodi, Armando; Artoni, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. Objectives To identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well-characterized exposure. Methods We measured prothrombin time [PT], activated-partial-thromboplastin time [aPTT], Endogenous Thrombin Potentials [ETP] with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-plasminogen activator antigen [t-PA], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP] in 37 workers in a steel-production plant with well-characterized exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter <1μm (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10-PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (post-exposure) day of a four-day workweek. We analysed differences between baseline and post-exposure levels using paired Student’s t-test. We fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of inter-quartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. Results None of the parameters showed any significant changes in post-exposure samples, compared to baseline. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (β[PM1]=−0.33 sec, p=0.08; β[PMcoarse]=−0.33 sec, p=0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (β[PM1]=+99 nM*min, p=0.02; β[PMcoarse]=+66 nM*min, p=0.05), t-PA (β[PM1]=+0.72 ng/mL, p=0.01; β[PMcoarse]=+0.88 ng/mL, p=0.04), and CRP (β[PM1]=+0.59 mg/L, p=0.03; β[PMcoarse]=+0.48 mg/L, p=0.01). Conclusions PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP, CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation. PMID:19922434

  4. Traffic Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Heather E.; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Context Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in autism etiology, yet little research has examined local level air pollution associations using residence-specific exposure assignments. Objective To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRP), air quality, and autism. Design, Setting and Population This study includes data on 279 autism cases and 245 typically developing controls enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Study in California. The mother’s address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. TRP was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for autism cases and typically developing controls. Main Outcome Measures Crude and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for autism. Results Cases were more likely to live at residences in the highest quartile TRP exposure during pregnancy (OR=1.98, 95%CI 1.20–3.31) and the first year of life (OR=3.10, 1.76–5.57) compared to controls. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (NO2 OR=1.81/2SD, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.08/2SD, 95%CI 1.93–2.25; PM10 OR=2.17/2SD, 95%CI 1.49–3.16) and the first year of life (NO2 OR=2.06, 95%CI 1.37–3.09; PM2.5 OR=2.12, 95%CI 1.45–3.10; PM10 OR=2.14, 95%CI 1.46–3.12). Conclusions Exposure to TRP, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 during pregnancy and the first year of life was associated with autism. Further epidemiological and toxicological examination of likely biological pathways will help determine whether these associations are causal. PMID:23404082

  5. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be originated from the PRD and transported back resulting in significant increase of secondary PM concentration, and provides new insight into PM production and transport mechanism in the PRD.

  6. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  7. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol filters with TD-PTR-MS were oxygenated for LDV and HDV, suggesting that the oxygenation occurs during fuel combustion and that the oxygen content of the fuel itself contributes. The thermal desorption analysis showed that HDV emitted compounds with higher volatility, mainly oxygenated (with up to 2 oxygen atoms) and longer chain hydrocarbons than LDV.

  8. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind gusts are high, areas of high concentrations were observed to shift slightly in the westerly direction (i.e., prevailing wind direction). Overall, preliminary results of our study suggest that while the air quality in the area immediately surrounding Richmond BUILD and the elementary school is not the poorest in the general region, because they are located close to a major thoroughfare and a railway line these sites are likely to experience poor air quality at some point throughout the year due to shifting wind patterns. As a result, we recommend that signs be posted to warn visitors of the potential for extremely poor air quality.

  9. Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 μg/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 μg/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 μg/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 μg/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 μg/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

  10. Oxidative potential of particulate matter at a German motorway.

    PubMed

    Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Nickel, Carmen; Wick, Gabriele; Schins, Roel P F; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2015-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM10) was sampled alongside a motorway in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, during a one-year period. In sum, 120 PM10 samples on quartz fibre filters, 60 samples at each side of the motorway, were taken during clear cross-wind direction situations, i.e. upwind (local background situation) and downwind (traffic influenced). To quantify the traffic-related oxidative potential (OP), or more precisely the hydroxyl radical (OH˙) generation potency, these samples were analysed to study their hydrogen peroxide dependent oxidant generation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. In addition the PM10 mass, the chemical composition and the NOx concentrations were determined. For PM10 mass and traffic tracers like Sb, Ba, elemental and organic carbon as well as for NOx, an additional contribution to the background concentration caused by the traffic was observed (factor: 1.3-6.0). The downwind measurements showed in 72% of cases higher OH˙ generation potencies with an average factor of 1.4. Significant correlations to OH˙ were detected for Fe (r > 0.58) and Cu (r > 0.57) for the upwind and overall (upwind + downwind, r > 0.44) dataset. At the downwind side these correlations were absent and are assumed to be covered by the interferences with additional soot particles leading to a quenching of OH˙. Accordingly, no significant overall correlation of the OH˙ generation potency with the traffic intensity was detected. The suggested quenching effect was confirmed via standard diesel soot (SRM 2975) measurements using the EPR approach. In summary, the traffic related PM causes an intrinsic OH˙ generation via Fenton-like reaction but obviously also leads to interferences and scavenging by traffic related carbonaceous compounds. In consequence, for future studies that would link the intrinsic OP and adverse health effects we suggest to analyse the relationship to EC/OC and to use in parallel also a further OP detection method. PMID:25787944

  11. Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynda, Hamaoui-Laguel; Frédérik, Meleux; Matthias, Beekmann; Laurent, Létinois; Edouard, Debry; Bertrand, Bessagnet; Sophie, Génermont

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions provide a large amount of aerosol precursors in the lower troposphere, leading to the formation of ammonium nitrate in the atmosphere. This compound can be responsible for high concentrations of particulate matter (PM10and PM2.5) in the boundary layer. In March and April 2007, the forecasts delivered by the chemical transport model (CTM) Chimere, within the operational platform for air quality monitoring and forecasting Prev'Air, exhibited a large underestimation of PM10 levels in the boundary layer. To improve the ability of the model at forecasting PM10 and PM2.5 in spring, we started implementing an online NH3 emission computation within CHIMERE with the goal to substitute the basic time-constant parameterisation by a coupled approach between the CTM and the mechanistic model Volt'Air (INRA). The new method takes into account climatic environmental conditions to accurately assess the ammonia surface fluxes after manure and synthetic fertilizer spreading. Several spatially and temporally resolved input data are required to run the Volt'air model: meteorological variables such as temperature and moisture, crop practices such as fertilizer types, rates and dates of fertilizer applications, and soil properties such as pH and soil texture. Data about crop and grassland areas, fertilization rates and dates are available at cantonal and regional scale in France, and they are delivered through annual crop statistics and agricultural practices survey. These data are then intersected with the corresponding land cover types using the Corine Land Cover database (2006). The spatial and temporal distributions of meteorological data are provided by the meso-scale model WRF with high resolution in time (hour) and space (typically less than 25 km) using GFS data. We will present the set-up of this new modelling approach, with details about the input data and the modelling tools, and will present first results from a preliminary study carried out over France between September 2005 and June 2006. In particular, first results on ammonia concentrations simulated with the new scheme will be highlighted. Its potential role for inorganic aerosol formation will be shown.

  12. Fine particulate matter and the risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Arena, Vincent C; Rager, Judith R; Clougherty, Jane E; Michanowicz, Drew R; Sharma, Ravi K; Stacy, Shaina L

    2015-07-01

    The causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well known. Recent investigations have suggested that air pollution, including PM2.5, may play a role in the onset of this condition. The objective of the present work was to investigate the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk for childhood ASD. A population-based case-control study was conducted in children born between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 in six counties in Southwestern Pennsylvania. ASD cases were recruited from specialty autism clinics, local pediatric practices, and school-based special needs services. ASD cases were children who scored 15 or above on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and had written documentation of an ASD diagnosis. Controls were children without ASD recruited from a random sample of births from the Pennsylvania state birth registry and frequency matched to cases on birth year, gender, and race. A total of 217 cases and 226 controls were interviewed. A land use regression (LUR) model was used to create person- and time-specific PM2.5 estimates for individual (pre-pregnancy, trimesters one through three, pregnancy, years one and two of life) and cumulative (starting from pre-pregnancy) key developmental time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between estimated exposure to PM2.5 during key developmental time periods and risk of ASD, adjusting for mother's age, education, race, and smoking. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were elevated for specific pregnancy and postnatal intervals (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and year one), and postnatal year two was significant, (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.01-2.08). We also examined the effect of cumulative pregnancy periods; noting that starting with pre-pregnancy through pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios are in the 1.46-1.51 range and significant for pre-pregnancy through year 2 (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.01-2.26). Our data indicate that both prenatal and postnatal exposures to PM2.5 are associated with increased risk of ASD. Future research should include multiple pollutant models and the elucidation of the biological mechanism for PM2.5 and ASD. PMID:25957837

  13. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal Register... ozone NAAQS. Public hearing: The proposal for which EPA is holding the public hearings is...

  14. Determination of the Turkish Primary Students' Views about the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Haluk; Kenan, Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine 4th, 5th, and 6th grade Turkish primary students' conceptions about the particulate nature of matter via a test. The test consists of 36 items related to the changes of microscopic properties of solid, liquid and gas matters during phase changing, cooling, heating and pressing of them. The sample of the study…

  15. Diagnostic Assessment of Student Misconceptions about the Particulate Nature of Matter from Ontological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özalp, Dilek; Kahveci, Ajda

    2015-01-01

    Student conceptions related with matter and the particulate nature of matter (PNM), are vital for advanced understanding in chemistry, and have been a research area of significant attention. Lacking in the literature are studies addressing chemical misconceptions from an ontological point of view. The purpose of the current study was to develop a…

  16. Representations of Fundamental Chemistry Concepts in Relation to the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Beeth, Michael Edward

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated high school students' understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts - states of matter, melting, evaporation, condensation, boiling, and vapor pressure, in relation to their understanding of the particulate nature of matter. A sample of six students (four females and two males) enrolled in a second year chemistry course…

  17. 78 FR 19164 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to convert a conditional approval of specified provisions of the Ohio state implementation plan (SIP) to a full approval. Ohio submitted a request to approve a section of its particulate matter...

  18. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... has an annual capacity factor for residual oil having a nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent...

  19. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  20. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  1. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  2. Indoor/outdoor relationship of trace metals in the atmospheric particulate matter of an industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Rashida; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H.

    2011-08-01

    Present study is based on the measurement and monitoring of indoor and outdoor atmospheric particulate matter from an industrial area (Wah Cantt, Pakistan). The particulate samples are collected on glass fiber filter paper using high volume air sampler. Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn) in the particulate samples are estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the average TSP level is significantly higher in outdoor atmosphere than indoor, and both of them are higher than WHO and USEPA standards. The distribution of trace metals is considerably diverse in indoor and outdoor particulates. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Mn are significantly higher in outdoor particulates, whereas Cu and Pb levels are considerably higher in the indoor particulates. Source apportionment carried out by PCA and CA is diverse in indoor/outdoor particulates and the major pollution sources identified are industrial activities, automobile emissions and soil derived dust. Among the trace metals, Cd, Sb, Zn, Pb and Co are found to be highly enriched in the atmospheric particulate matter. The present atmospheric trace metals levels are also compared with those reported from other regions around the world, and are many-folds higher than previously reported results.

  3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER: ELEMENTAL CARBON, ORGANIC CARBON, AND MASS RECONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon matter (OM), particulate matter less than 2.5 um (PM2.5), and reconstructed soil, trace element oxides, and sulfate are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) complex for airborne particulate matter (...

  4. Seasonal Variability of Particulate Organic Matter in a Mountain Stream in Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, Salvador; Robles, Santiago; Casado, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the influence of environmental characteristics of the Mediterranean climate on seasonal variability of particulate organic matter abundance in a mountain stream. Coarse and fine fractions of both suspended and benthic particulate organic matter were determined on 14 occasions between February 1998 and November 1999 in a second-order Mediterranean stream in Central Spain (Arroyo Mediano). Temporal variability of suspended organic matter followed a seasonal pattern, attributed to litter-fall inputs, instream processing, and the hydrological regime. Suspended organic matter (SOM) and its seasonal variability fall well within the range reported for streams in temperate non-Mediterranean deciduous forest. However, we found no seasonal trend in benthic organic matter (BOM) storage, and it seems that the amount of BOM remained fairly constant throughout the year. Reach retention (evaluated as the ratio between BOM and SOM per m2) was higher in summer during reduced stream flow, mainly due to coarse particulate organic matter storage. These observations do not differ from those reported for other headwater streams in temperate forested biomes, from which we conclude that there was no evidence of a Mediterranean influence on particulate organic matter dynamics in the Mediano stream, nor probably in other headwater Mediterranean streams.

  5. Transformation of suspended particulate matter into sediment in the Kara Sea in September of 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lein, A. Yu.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Savvichev, A. S.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Dara, O. M.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Zakharova, E. E.; Rozanov, A. G.; Ivanov, M. V.; Flint, M. V.

    2013-09-01

    The biogeochemical processes participating in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment along the Yenisei River-St. Anna Trough (Kara Sea) meridional profile were studied using hydrochemical, geochemical, microbiological, radioisotope, and isotope methods. The water-sediment contact zone consists of three subzones: the suprabottom water, the fluffy layer, and the surface sediment. The total number, biomass, and integral activity of the microorganisms (dark 14CO2 assimilation) in the fluffy layer are usually higher than in the suprabottom water and sediment. The fluffy layer shows a decrease in the oxygen content and the growth of the dissolved biogenic elements. It was provided by the particulate organic matter supporting the vital activity of the heterotrophs from the overlying water column and by the flux of reduced compounds (NH4, H2S, CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, and others) from the underlying sediments. The Corg isotopic composition of the fluffy layer and the sediments is 2-4 ‰ heavier than that of the particulate matter and sediment due to the presence of the isotopically heavy biomass of microorganisms. A change in the isotopic composition of the Corg in the fluffy layer and surface sediment as compared to the Corg of the particulate matter is a widespread phenomenon in the Arctic shelf seas and proves the leading role of microorganisms in the transformation of the particulate matter into sediment.

  6. Multifractal nature of particulate matters (PMs) in Hong Kong urban air.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yu; Pan, Wei; Lu, Wei-Zhen; He, Hong-Di

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the persistent variation and the multifractal nature of particulate matter (PM) concentrations from vehicle emissions at a typical traffic intersection of street canyon in Hong Kong. Six size groups of PMs are measured and collected during rush hour sessions on different dates respectively. A recently developed model, namely multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), is employed to decompose and analyze the collected database. Through estimating the scaling exponent, it is found that the PM levels from vehicular emissions display long-term correlation characters. By employing MF-DFA method to calculate the generalized Hurst exponent and discuss the multifractal spectrums of all size groups, it is noticed that the fine particulate matters in grain diameter of 0.3-0.499 μm present strong multifractal nature, intensive oscillations of concentration variations, and long-term persistence. For fine particulate matters in the grain diameter ranges from 0.5 μm to 4.99 μm, their similar and weak multifractal natures reflect the self-similarity behaviors among these groups and the gradual decreases of the lasting effects. For large size particulate matters, i.e., grain diameter above 5 μm, certain mono-fractal nature and sharp decay of long-term persistence are obtained, even for intermittent effects. It can therefore be concluded that the fine particulate matter diffuses anomaly and persists for a long time. PMID:26124011

  7. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  8. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

  9. Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  15. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate... required to be conducted by § 60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject... of ammonium sulfate produced (0.30 pound of particulate per ton of ammonium sulfate produced)...

  16. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate... required to be conducted by § 60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject... of ammonium sulfate produced (0.30 pound of particulate per ton of ammonium sulfate produced)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  18. BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the US EPA's 1998 Baltimore Epidemiology-Exposure Panel Study, a group of 21 residents of a single building retirement community wore personal monitors recording personal fine particulate air pollution concentrations (PM2.5) for 27 days, while other monitors recorde...

  19. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  20. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  1. Measurement of Particulate Matter During Dairy Operations in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collaborative experiment with Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) was set up to measure particulate emissions from tillage processes and other operations at a dairy in California. The dairy was located in the San Joaquin Valley, a traditional agricultural area with increasing urbanization. The air was...

  2. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; All, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, Mara Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. PMID:25863591

  3. Estimating the global abundance of ground level presence of particulate matter (PM2.5).

    PubMed

    Lary, David J; Faruque, Fazlay S; Malakar, Nabin; Moore, Alex; Roscoe, Bryan; Adams, Zachary L; Eggelston, York

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing awareness of the health impacts of particulate matter, there is a growing need to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations of the global abundance of ground level airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5). Here we use a suite of remote sensing and meteorological data products together with ground-based observations of particulate matter from 8,329 measurement sites in 55 countries taken 1997-2014 to train a machine-learning algorithm to estimate the daily distributions of PM2.5 from 1997 to the present. In this first paper of a series, we present the methodology and global average results from this period and demonstrate that the new PM2.5 data product can reliably represent global observations of PM2.5 for epidemiological studies. PMID:25599634

  4. Particulate matter and hospital admission due to arterial hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Francisco, Juliana Batrov

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to assess the effects air pollution on hospitalization due to hypertension. An ecological study was conducted using data regarding hospitalizations due to hypertension in São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo, Brazil between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010. The pollutants analyzed by this study were particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A significant association between exposure to particulate matter and hospitalization due to hypertension was identified using Poisson regression with lags of up to four days. Relative risk of hospital admission ranged between 1,009 and 1,019. A 10μg/m³ increase in concentration of particulate matter was associated with a 13% increase in risk of hospitalization. PMID:24005922

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Particulate Matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze particulate matter from the municipality of Limeira (SP), Brazil. Particulate matter collections were carried out at the meteorological station of the Technology Department of Campinas State University using a sequential filtration sampling system. Coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter, corresponding to the respirable fractions affecting the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, were collected on polycarbonate filters arranged in series in the sampler. After removal in acid, samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation at the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory. In the results obtained, it was observed that the coarse fraction made the greatest contribution to PM10 formation. In regard to particulate matter composition, 16 elements were detected in both fractions: S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. By employing multivariate statistical analyses, namely principal components analysis and cluster analysis, it was possible to determine the probable emission sources contributing to the formation of the particulate material. For the coarse fraction, the primary emission source, soil dust, contributed 57%, followed by 30% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 13% from industrial emissions. For the fine fraction, the primary emission source was soil dust, contributing 79%, followed by 13% from vehicular emissions, and lastly, only 8% from industrial emissions.

  6. Toxic evaluation of organic extracts from airborne particulate matter in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, D R; Rosario, O; Rodriguez, J F; Jimenez, B D

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of carbon compounds, which originate mostly from anthropogenic sources. The toxicity of organic fractions from particulate matter have been mainly evaluated by considering their mutagenic activity. This research expands on the toxicologic profile of organic compounds adsorbed to particulate matter, specifically in Puerto Rico, by using the cytotoxic neutral red bioassay (NRB). The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air. We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649). We used the NRB to determine toxicologic differences of extracts between an urban industrialized site with anthropogenic activity versus a coastal region with less human activity. The cytotoxicity associated with organic compounds in particulate matter collected at the urban industrialized site was detected in both the particulate matter (3/4) 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and particulate matter (3/4) 100 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(100)). Greater toxic effects were observed in PM(10) extracts than in PM(100) extracts, but PM(10) toxic effects were not significantly different from those in PM(100). The extracts from the industrialized site were more cytotoxic than the extracts from coastal reference site, although in the summer, extracts from both sites were significantly cytotoxic to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the nonpolar extracts of both PM(10) and PM(100) exerted the greatest cytotoxicity, followed by the polar, and, finally, the moderately polar extract. This study demonstrates that extracts from the Guaynabo industrialized site were more toxic than similar extracts obtained from a reference coastal site in Fajardo, Puerto Rico. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10903617

  7. Microbial Biomass on Particulate Organic Matter in Seawater of the Euphotic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Humitake

    1970-01-01

    Microbial biomass on suspended organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone of Saanich Inlet was investigated. The viable microorganisms were measured by the glucose-uptake method. Microbial carbon on particulate organic matter in seawater was determined to be, on the average, 9.9 μg of C/liter, and there was a regression relationship as y = 0.0062 x − 1.79 with an unbiased variance Vyx1/2 = 0.38, where x = particulate organic carbon in seawater (micrograms of C/liter) and y = logarithm of microbial carbon (micrograms of C/liter). PMID:16349882

  8. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  9. Transport of Particulate Matter from a Shocked Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttler, W. T.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Oro, D.; Mariam, F.; Rousculp, C.

    2011-06-01

    We have performed a series of shock experiments to measure the evolution and transport of micron and sub-micron Tungsten particles from a 40 μm thick layer deposited on an Aluminum substrate. Densities and velocity distributions were measured using proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for vacuum conditions and with contained Argon and Xenon gas atmospheres at initial pressures of 9.5 bar and room temperature. A common shock drive resulted in free surface velocities of 1.25 km/s. An analysis of the time dependence of Lithium Niobate piezo-electric pin pressure profiles is given in terms of solutions to the particulate drag equations and the evolution equation for the particulate distribution function. The spatial and temporal fore-shortening in the shocked gas can be accounted for using reasonable values for the compressed gas shear viscosities and the vacuum distributions. The detailed form of the pin pressure data for Xenon indicates particulate breakup in the hot compressed gas. This work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  10. Transport of particulate matter from a shocked interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttler, W. T.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Oro, D.; Morris, C.; Mariam, F.; Rousculp, C.

    2011-03-01

    We have performed a series of shock experiments to measure the evolution and transport of micron and sub-micron Tungsten particles from a 40 micron thick layer deposited on an Aluminum substrate. Densities and velocity distributions were measured using proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for vacuum conditions and with contained Argon and Xenon gas atmospheres at initial pressures of 9.5 bar and room temperature. A common shock drive resulted in free surface velocities of 1.25 km/s. An analysis of the time dependence of Lithium Niobate piezo-electric pin pressure profiles is given in terms of solutions to the particulate drag equations and the evolution equation for the particulate distribution function. The spatial and temporal fore-shortening in the shocked gas can be accounted for using reasonable values for the compressed gas shear viscosities and the vacuum distributions. The detailed form of the pin pressure data for Xenon indicates particulate breakup in the hot compressed gas. This work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.

    2008-08-22

    Since the mid-1980s the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as a correction factor for the self absorption of activity of particulate radioactive air samples. More recently, an effort was made to evaluate the current particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000) used at PNNL for self absorption effects. There were two methods used in the study, 1) to compare the radioactivity concentration by direct gas-flow proportional counting of the filter to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection and 2) to evaluate sample filters by high resolution visual/infrared microscopy to determine the depth of material loading on or in the filter fiber material. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion in the first method and about 30 samples were selected for high resolution visual/infrared microscopy. Mass loading effects were also considered. From the sample filter analysis, large error is associated with the average self absorption factor, however, when the data is compared directly one-to-one, statistically, there appears to be good correlation between the two analytical methods. The mass loading of filters evaluated was <0.2 mg cm-2 and was also compared against other published results. The microscopy analysis shows the sample material remains on the top of the filter paper and does not imbed into the filter media. Results of the microscopy evaluation lead to the conclusion that there is not a mechanism for significant self absorption. The overall conclusion is that self-absorption is not a significant factor in the analysis of filters used at PNNL for radioactive air stack sampling of radionuclide particulates and that an applied correction factor is conservative in determining overall sample activity. A new self absorption factor of 1.0 is recommended.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variations of particulate nitrate and organic matter in the Central European atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, L.; Spindler, G.; Birmili, W.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-04-01

    Nitrate and several organic compounds such as dicarboxylic acids (e.g. succinic acid, glutaric acid), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) or n-alkanes form the group of the most volatile compounds in atmospheric aerosol particles. The transition of these compounds between gas and particulate phase may significantly change the aerosol particles radiative properties, the heterogeneous chemical properties, and, naturally, the total particulate mass concentration. To better assess these time-dependent effects, three intensive field experiments were conducted in 2008-2009 at the Central European EMEP research station Melpitz (Germany) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Data coverage from all seasons highlighted organic matter as being the most important particulate fraction during summertime, while the nitrate fraction was more prevalent in winter. The variation in particulate nitrate was inherently linked to the gas-to-particle-phase equilibrium of ammonium nitrate, which depends on ambient temperature and relative humidity. During short episodes immediately after dawn, the particulate nitrate seems to disobey this dependency so that additional local nitrate formation, such as from HONO photolysis is needed as an explanation. During the summer 2008's experiment, a remarkable diurnal evolution in the oxidation state of the organic matter became evident, which could be correlated to hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone concentrations indicating photochemical transformation process. In summer, the organic particulate matter seems to be heavily influenced by regional secondary formation and transformation processes, facilitated by photochemical production processes as well as a diurnal cycling of the substances between the gas and particulate phase. In winter, these processes were obviously much weaker, so that organic matter apparently originated mainly from aged particles and long range transport.

  13. The Particulate Theory of Matter for Preservice Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1992-01-01

    Compared the effects of participation in six extra credit activities for teaching the concept of matter on female preservice elementary school teachers (n=9) to a control group (n=8). Pre- and posttests to assess changes in the students' understanding of phenomena associated with matter indicated significant changes in experimental students'

  14. Field tests using radioactive matter 2.

    PubMed

    Rulik, P; Prouza, Z; Hovorka, J; Beckova, V; Cespirova, I; Fronka, A; Helebrant, J; Hulka, J; Kuca, P; Skrkal, J

    2013-04-01

    Results of field tests with explosive dispersal of a radioactive substance (RaS) are presented. The paper deals with tests exploiting artificial obstacles as a continuation and expansion of the tests used in this study performed in free area described previously. The essential goal of the tests was to estimate the distribution of the released RaS in the case of intentional abuse of radioactive sources and to get a set of data applicable to testing physical or mathematical models of propagation. Effects of different geometrical and meteorological conditions on the distribution of dispersed RaS were studied via the assessment of dose rate, surface and volume activities, aerosol mass and activity aerodynamic diameters. The principal results can be summarised as follows: the prevalent proportion of the activity of the radionuclide dispersed by an explosion (born by the blast wave and by air convection) is transferred to the detection system/collecting pads essentially within the first minute. Enhanced aerosol mass concentrations were also detected within the same period. The RaS carried by the blast wave passed through the polygon (50 m) within <1 s. An expected crucial impact of meteorological conditions at the moment of the explosion and shortly after was proved by the tests. PMID:22923250

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR 63.1181 - How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas? To comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the particulate matter standards for existing, new, and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1181 Section 63.1181 Protection...